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Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the LORD | said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and

which saidst unto me, Return unto thy coun- put a space betwixt drove and drove. try, and to thy kindred, and I will deal well with 17 And he commanded the foremost, saying, thee:

When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and ask10 "I am not worthy of the least of all the eth thee, saying, Whose art thou ? and whither mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast goest thou ? and whose are these before thee? showed unto thy servant; for with a my staff' I 18 Then thou shalt say, They be thy servant passed over this Jordan; and now I am become Jacob's; it is a present sent unto my lord Esau: two bands.

and, behold, also he is behind us. 11 • Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand 19 And so commanded he the second, and the of my brother, from the hand of Esau: for I third, and all that followed the droves, saying, fear him, lest he will come and smite me, and on this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when 'the mother 5 with the children.

ye find him. 12 And thou saidst, I will surely do thee 20. And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will appease which cannot be numbered for multitude. him with the present that goeth before me, and

13 1 And he lodged there that same night ; afterward I will see his face; peradventure he and took of that which came to his hand iá will accept 1 of me. present for Esau his brother;

21 So went the present over before him; and 14 Two hundred she-goats, and twenty he-himself lodged that night in the company. goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams, 22 And he rose up that night, and took his

15 Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty two wives, and his two women-servants, and kine, and ten bulls, twenty she-asses, and ten his elevensons, "and passed over the ford Jabbok. foals.

23 And he took them, and sent them over 16 And he delivered them into the hand of the brook, and sent over that he had. his servants, every drove by themselves; and 24 | And Jacob was left alone; and there Ach al 3, 13. - + Heb. Ian less than all, ke - Ch. 24. 2.- Job 8.7.- Pea. 59. k Prov. 21. 11.- Heb. my face. Job 42. 8, 9,---m Deut. 3. 16. --- Heb. caused to 1,2 -- Hoa 10.11.--g Heb upon.---- Ch. 13, 14, 15.--- Ch. 43. 11. Prov. 18. 16. cunning were now turned into a right channel, for he took the most pleasant and wholesome beverage.” Cameli lac the most effectual method to appease his brother, (had he habent, donec iterum gravescant, suavissimumque hoc exbeen irritated) and save, at least, a part of his family. istimatur, ad unam mensuram tribus aquæ additis. This dividing and arranging of his flocks, family, and do Hist. Nat. lib. xi. cap. 41. mestics, has something in it highly characteristic. To Verse 15. Ten bulls.) The Syriac and Vulgate have such a man as Jacob such expedients would naturally pre- twenty; but ten is a sufficient proportion to the forty kine. sent themselves.

By all this we see that Jacob was led to make restitution Verse 9. O God of my father Abraham, &c.] This for the injury he had done to his brother. Restitution for prayer is remarkable for its simplicity and energy: and injuries done to man, is essentially requisite if in our it is a model loo for prayer, of which it contains the essen power. He who can and will not make restitution for the tial constituents. 1. Deep self-abasement. 2. Magnifica | wrongs he has done, can have no claim even on the mercy tion of God's mercy. 3. Deprecation of the evil to which of God. he was exposed. 4. Pleading the promises that God had Verse 22. Passed over the ford Jabbok] This brook or made to him, and 5. Taking encouragement from what rivulet rises in the mountains of Galaad, and falls into the God had already wrought.

Jordan at the south extremity of the lake of Genesaret. Verse 10. I am not worthy of the least of all the mer. Verse 24. And there wrestled a man with him] This cies. The marginal reading is more consistent with the was doubtless the Lord Jesus Christ, who, among the original: NoNT 5301 Dronn 500 noop katoneti mikol patriarchs, assumed that human form, which in the fulness ha-chasadim u-micol ha-emeth. I am less than all the of time he really took of a woman; and in which he compassions, and than all the faithfulness, which thou dwelt thirty-three years among men. He is here styled hasi shoroed unto thy serrant. Probably St. Paul had an angel, because he was μεγαλης βουλης Αγγελος, (see the his eye on this passage, when he wrote Eph. iii. 8.-unto Septuagint, Isa. ix. 7.) the Messenger of the great counme icho am less than the least of all saints. A man sel, or design, to redeem fallen man from death, and bring who sees himself in the light of God, will ever feel that him to eternal glory; see chap. xvi. 7. he has no good but what he has received, and that he But it may be asked, Had he here a real human body, deserves nothing of all that he has. The archangels of or only its form ?The latter, doubtless. How then God cannot use a different language ; and even the spirits could he wrestle with Jacob? It need not be supposed that of just men consummated in their plenitude of bliss at this angel must have assumed a human body, or something God's right hand, cannot make a higher boast.

analogous to it, in order to render himself tangible by For with my staf') i. e. myself alone, without any at- Jacob; for as the soul, which is pure spirit, operates on tendants, as the Chaldee has properly rendered it. the body by the order of God, so could an angel operate

Verse 11. And the mother with the children] He must on the body of Jacob, during a whole night, and produce have had an awful opinion of his brother, when he used in his imagination, by, the effect of his power, every this expression, which implies the utmost cruelty, pro- requisite idea of corporeity; and in his nerres, every senceeding in the work of slaughter, to total extermination ; sation of substance, and yet no substantiality be in the case. see Hos. x. 14.

If angels, in appearing to men, borrow human bodies, Verse 12. Make thy seed as the sand] Having come to as is thought, how can it be supposed that with such gross the promise by which the covenant was ratified both to substances, they can disappear in a moment? Certainly Abraham and Isagc, he ceased; his faith having gained they do not take these bodies into the invisible world with strong confirmation in a promise which he knew could not them; and the established laws of matter and motion fail, and which he found was made over to him, as it had require a gradual disappearing, howsoever swiftly it may been to his father and grandfather.

be effected. But this is not allowed to be the case ; and Verse 13. And look of that which came to his hand] yet they are reported to vanish instantaneously. Then 77'3 man ha-ba be-yado, which came under his hand, i. e. they must render themselves invisible by a cloud, and this whay, in the course of God's providence, came under his must be of a very dense nature

, in order to hide a luman poroer.

body. But this very expedient would make their deparVerse 14. Two hundred she-goals, &c.] This was a ture still more erident, as the cloud must be more dense princely present, and such as was sufficient to have com and apparent than the body, in order to hide it. This pensated Esau, for any kind of temporal loss he might therefore does not remove the difficulty. But if they ashave sustained in being deprived of his birthright and sume a quantity of air or vapour so condensed as lo blessing. The thirty milch camels were particularly valu- become visible, and modified into the appearance of a able; for milch camels among the Arabs, constitute a human body, they can, in a moment, dilate and rurefy it, principal part of their riches, the creature being every way and so disappear; for when the vehicle is rarefied beyond Bo serviceable, that the providence of Gol appears pecu- the power of natural vision, as their own substance is liarly kind and wise in providing such a beast for those invisible, they can instantly vanish. countries, where no other animal could be of equal service. From Hos. xii. 4. we may learn, that the wrestling of "The she-camel gives milk continually, not feasing even Jacob mentioned in this place, was not merely a corporeal when with young; the milk of which," as Pliny has re exercise, but also a spiritual one; He wept and made supmarked, " when mixed with three parts of water, affords plicution unto him ; see the notes there.

sun

h Hox. 12. 3, 4..-; Ch. 25. 31. & 37. 33. --- k Judges 13. 18.--) That is, the face of God. mCh. 16. 13. 'Exod. 24. 11. & 33. 20. Deut. 5. 24. Judg. 6. 22 & 13 22. lsai. 6. 5. n Mal 4.2 -01 Sam. 5. 5.

* wrestled a man with him until the b breaking 29 And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I of the day,

pray thee, thy name. And he said, "Wherefore 25 And when he saw that he prevailed not is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; blessed him there. and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of 30 And Jacob called the name of the place joint, as he wrestled with him.

i Peniel: for m I have seen God face to face, and 26 And he said, Let me go, for the day my life is preserved. breaketh: And he said, 'I will not let thee go, 31 T And as he passed over Penuel the except thou bless me.

a rose upon him, and he halted upon his 27 And he said unto him, What is thy name? thigh. And he said Jacob.

32 Therefore the children of Israel eat not of 28 And he said, i Thy name shall be called no the sinew which shrank, which is upon the holmore Jacob, but & Israel: for as a prince hast low of the thigh, unto this day: because he thou power with God and i with men, and hast touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh in the sinew prevailed.

that shrank. a Hoc 12. 3, 4. Eph. 6. 12.-- Heb ascending of the morning. - See Matt. 28. 44 2 Cor. 1.2 7. See Luke 24. 2. -- Hos. 12. 4-fCh. 35. 10. 2 Kings 17. 34.--- That is, a prince of God.

Verse 25. The hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of wrought in him, sufficiently showed who he was. After joint] What this implies is difficult to find out: it is not this clause, the Aldine edition of the Septuagint, and likely that it was a complete luxation of the thigh-bone. several MSS. add o GTI GQwertov, or x«TYTO OTTI Szuurstev, It may mean no more than that he received a stroke on which is wonderful; but this addition seems to have been the groin, not a touch, for the Hebrew word ya nagâ often taken from Judges xiii. 18. signifies to smite with violence, which stroke, even if com Verse 31. The sun rose upon him) Did the prophet paratively slight, on such a part, would effectually disable Malachi refer to this, chap. iv. 2.- Unto you that fear my him for a time, and cause him io halt for many hours, if name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing not for several days. I might add that in this place, the in his wings ? Possibly, with the rising of the sun, which groin, a blow might be of fatal consequence: but as the may here be understood as emblematical of the Sun of angel gave it, only as a proof of his power, and to show righteousness, the Lord Jesus, the pain and weakness of that he could not prevail

, because he would not, hence the his thigh passed away; and he felt both in soul and body blow was only disabling, without being dangerous ; and that he was healed of his plagues. he was probably cured by the time the sun rose; see Verse 32. Therefore the children of Israel eat not of Verse 31.

the siner) What this sinew was, neither Jew nor ChrisVerse 26. Let me go, for the day breaketh] Probably tian can tell; and it can add nothing either to science, or meaning, that as it was now morning, Jacob must rejoin to a true understanding of the text, to multiply conjectures, his wives and children, and proceed on their journey. I have already supposed that the part which the angel Though phantoms are supposed to disappear when the touched or struck, was the groin; and if this be right, the sun riscs, that could be no reason in this case. Most of sineu, nerve, or muscle that shrank, must be sought for the angelic appearances mentioned in the Old and New in that place. Testaments, took place in open day.

The serious reader must meet with much instruction in Verse 28. Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but this chapter. Israel) 500 Yisrael, from sar, a prince, or 779 1. After his reconciliation with Lahan, Jacob proceeds sarah, he ruled as a prince, and sx el, God; or rather, on his way to Canaan, and as God, who was continually from ww ish, a man, (the Naleph being dropped) and has watching for his welfare, saw the trials to which he would raah, he saw, Swel, God: and this corresponds with the shortly be exposed, therefore he provided for him the name which Jacob imposed on the place, calling it SD instructive vision of angels, that he might see that those peniel, the faces of God, or of Elohim, which faces or who were for him, were more than those who could be appearances being manifested to him, caused him to say, against him. A proper consideration of God's omniscience

is of the utmost advantage to every genuine Christian. panim, i. e. " I have seen the Elohim faces to faces, (i. e. He knows whereof we are made; he remembers that we fully and completely, without any medium,) oda Ssani va are but dust, he sees our trials and difficulties, and his eye Linnatsel naphshi, and my soul is redeemed.”.

affects his heart. Hence he is ever devising means that We may learn from this, that the redemption of the soul his banished be not expelled from him. will be the blessed consequence of wrestling by prayer and

2. Jacob's recollection of his unkindness and injustice supplication with God: "The kingdom of heaven suffereth to his brother, when he hears that he is coming to meet violence, and the violent take it by force.” From this him, fills his soul with fear, and obliges him to be take time, Jacob became a new man: but it was not till after a himself to God by prayer and supplication. How imporsevere struggle, that he got his name, his heart, and his tant is the office of conscience! And how necessary are character changed. After this, he was no more Jacob the times of trial and difficulty, when its voice is loudest and supplanter ; but Israel, the man who prevails with God, the heart is best prepared to receive its reproofs. In how and sees him face to face.

many cases has conscience slumbered, till it pleased God And hast prerailed) More literally, thou hast had to send some trial, by which it has been powerfully awak. power with God, and with man thou shalt also prevail, ened, and the salvation of the sinner was the result. ons by îm elohim, with the strong God: d'un oy im Before I was afflicted I went astray. anashim, with weak feeble man. There is a beautiful 3. Though salvation be the free gift of God, yet be gives opposition here between the two words : seeing thou hast it not to any who do not earnestly seek it. The deeper been powerful with the Almighty, surely thou shalt pre- the conviction of guilt and helplessness is, the more earnvail over perishing mortals. As thou hast prevailed with est the application to God for mercy is likely to be. They God, thou shall also prevail with men, God calling the whose salvation costs them strong crythg and tears, are things that were not, as though they had already taken not likely, humanly speaking, to part with it lightly: they place: because the prevalency of this people, the Israelites, remember the vinegar and the gall, and they watch and by means of the Messiah, who should proceed from them, pray that they enter not into temptation. was already determined in the Divine counsel. He has 4. In the strife and agony requisite to enter in at the never said to the seed of Jacob, seek ye my face in vain. strait gate, it is highly necessary that we should know, He who wrestles, must prevail,

that the grace and salvation of God are not purchased by Verse 29. Tell me, I pray thee, thy name] It is very our tears, &c. for those things, which are only proofs and likely, that Jacob wished to know the name of this angel, arguments that we have sinned, can never remove the that he might invoke him in his necessities; but this might iniquity of our transgressions. A sensible and pious man, have led him into idolatry, for the doctrine of the incarna- observes on this subject

, "That prayer and wrestling with tion could be but little understood at this time; hence, he God should be made, as though no other means were to be refuses to give himself any name, yet he shows himself to practised ; and then, the best means be adopted, as though be the true God, and so Jacob understood him, see ver. 28.

no prayer or wrestling had been used." God marks eren but he wished to have heard from his own lips, that name this strife, though highly pleasing in his sight, with such by which he desired to be invoked and worshipped. proofs of its own utter insufficiency, that we carry about

Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name] with us the memorial of our own weakness, worthlessness, Canst thou be ignorant who I am? And he blessed him and slowness of heart to believe. God smote the thigh of there: gave him the new heart, and the new nature, which Jacob, 1. That he might know he had not prevailed by his God alone can give to fallen man: and by the change he own strength, but by the power and mercy of his God.

Esau oliy to leave him some of

A , - enough.

h Ch. 32. 16. ---Ch 32 5. Heb be that to thee that is thine.--I Ch. 43. 3. 2 Sam.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

9 And Esau said, I have enough, my brother; I keep that thou hast unto thyselt

. Ema, with four buutred men meets Jacob, l. He places his children under their te spective boats, pastes over before them, and bows himself to his brother, 2, 3. 10 And Jacob said, Nay, I pray thee, if now I Stocestea nun with great section, 4, Received the home of the buildings have found grace in thy sight, then receive my which he at first refies, wit atter much entreaty, accipto, 11. "Invites Sacols to present at my hand; for therefore I have seen Boonpany hun to mouni Sar, 12 Jacob excuses hins because of his flocks and his chil tren, tut promia to follow him, 13, 14,

thy face, as though I had seen the face of God, his autents, which Jacob delines, 15 Esu returns to Set, 16, and Jacob jour and thou wast pleased with me. nies to Succoth, 17, and Stalem in the land of Canaan, 18. Buy a parcel of grund from the chibiren of Hlaingr, 19, and erecta an allar which be calls El-elone 11 Take, I pray thee, mmy blessing that is laracl, 20.

brought to thee; because God hath dealt grabehold, « Esau came, and with him four • And he urged him; and he took it. hundred men. And he divided the children unto 12 And he said, Let us take our journey, and Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two hand- let us go, and I will go before thee. maids.

13 And he said unto him, My lord knoweth 2 And he put the handmaids and their children that the children are tender, and the flocks and foremost, and Leah and her children aster, and herds with young are with me: and if men Rachel and Joseph hindermost.

should over-drive them one day, all the flock 3 And he passed over before them, and bow will die. ed himself to the ground seven times, until he 14 Let my lord, I pray thee, pass over before came near to his brother.

his servant, and I will lead on softly, according 4. And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced Pas the cattle that goeth before me and the chilhim, d and fell on his neck, and kissed him: and dren be able to endure, until I come unto my lord they wept.

4 unto Seir. 5 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the wo 15 And Esau said, Let me now " leave with men and the children; and said, Who are those thee some of the folk that are with me: And he * with thee? And he said, the children'which said, 'What needeth it? 1 let me find grace in God hath graciously given thy servant.

the sight of my lord. 6 Then the handmaidens came near, they 16 So Esau returned that day on his way to and their children, and they bowed them- Seir. selves.

17 [ And Jacob journeyed to " Succoth, and 7 And Leah also with her children came built him a house, and made booths for his near, and bowed themselves: and after came cattle: therefore the name of the place is called Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed them-Succoth. selves.

18 | And Jacob came to Shalem a city of 8 And he said, : What meanest thou by h all Shechem, y which is in the land of Canaan, this drove which I met? And he said.

These when he came from Padan-aram; and pitched are i to find grace in the sight of my lord. his tent before the city.

ah. 3 6 - 0 C. 18 2 4 2 6 643 5-c Ch 32 23 24 Ch 45. 14, 15. – Đeb. o 2 Kings 5. 2.-- Heb. according to the foot of the work, &c. and according to thee - Ch. 19.9. Pa 107.3 Isii. & 18. Heb. What is all this band to thec? to the foot of the children. --- Ch. 32. 3.- Heb. eel, or place.-- lleb. Wherefore

is this 2-1 Ch 34. 11. & 17.25. Ruth 2 13 --- Josh 13.21. Julges 2. 5. Pa 60. 6. 3 13 & 14. 24, 2, 32 Matt. 18 10.-- Judges L. 15. 1 Sam. 25. 27. & 30. 3. 2 Kings That is, booths.-w John 3. B.-1 Callod, Acts 7. 16. Sychen--y Josh. 24. 1. 5. 15.-. Heb. all things. Pluil. 4. 18.

Judges 9. 1 2. That he might have the most sensible evidence of the And kissed him) inpun raiyishakehu. In the Masoretic reality of the divine interposition in his behalf. 3. That Bible, each letter of this word is noted with a point over he right see God's displeasure against his unbelief. And, it, to make it emphatic. And by this kind of nolation, the 4. That men in general might be taugh, that those who rabbins wished to draw the attention of the reader to the will be the disciples of Christ must deny themselves, take change that had taken place in Esau, and the sincerity up their cross daily, and mortify their members which are with which he received his brother Jacob. upon the earth. Those who have not cut off a right hand Verse 10. Receive my present at my hand] Jacob could or foot, or plucked out a right eye, for the kingdom of not be certain that he had found favour with Esau, unless heaven's sake, are never likely to see God. The religion the present had been received : for, in accepting it, Esau that costs us nothing, is, to us, worth nothing.

necessarily became his friend, according to the custom of NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIII.

those times, and that country. In the eastern countries, Verse 1. Behold, Esau came, and with him four if your present be received by your superior, you may rely hundred men] It has been generally supposed, that Esau on his friendship : if it be not received, you have every came with an intention to destroy his brother; and for that thing to fear. It is on this ground thai Jacob was so

brought with him four hundred armed men. But, urgent with Esau to receive his present, because he knew 1. 2. There is no proof that the four hundred men that Esau Verse 14. Until I come unto my lord unto Seir) It brought with him were at all armed. 3. But there is is very likely that Jacob was perfectly sincere in his every proof that he acted towards his brother Jacob with expressed purpose of visiting Esau at Seir ; but it is as all openness and candour; and with such a forgetfulness likely, that circumstances afterward occurred, that renof past injuries, as none but a great mind could have been dered it either improper or impracticable ; and we find that capable of. Why then should the character of this man be Esau afterward removed to Canaan, and he and Jacob perpetually vilified ? Here is the secret. With some people, dwelt there together for several years. See ch. xxxvi. 6. on the most ungrounded assumption, Esau is a reprobate, Verse 17. Journeyed to Succoth] So called from nod and the type and figure of all reprobates; and therefore he succoth, the booths or tents, which Jacob erected there for must be every thing that is bad. This serves a system ; the resting and convenience of his family, who, in all but, whether true or false in itself, it has neither counte- probability, continued there for some considerable time. nance nor support from he character or conduct of Esau. Verse 18. And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of

Verse 2. He put the handmaids and their children Shechem] The word obe Shalem, in the Samaritan 150 foremost] There is something so artificial in this ar Shalom, should be translated here in peace, or in safely. rangement of Jacob's family, that it must have had some After resting some time at Succoth, which was necessary peculiar design. Was Jacob still apprehensive of danger, for the safety of his flocks and the comfort of his family, and put those foremost whom he least esteemed, that, if he got safely to a city of Shechem, in health of body, the foremost met with any evil

, those who were behind without any loss of his cattle or servants; his wives and might escape on their swift beasts ? ch. xxxii. 7, 8. Or children being also in safety. Coverdale and Mattheus did he intend to keep his choicest treasure to the last, and translate this word as above, and with them agree the exhibit his beautiful Rachel and favourite Joseph, after Chaldee and the Arabic: it is not likely to have been the Esau had seen all the rest, in order to make the deeper name of a city, as it is no where else to be found. Shechem impression on his mind ?

is called in Acts vii. 16. Sychem, and in John iv. 5. Verse 4. Esau ran to meet him] How sincere and Sychar-in the Arabic it is called Nablous, and to the genuine is this conduct of Esau, and at the same time how present day Neapolis. It was near to Samaria, and the magnanimous! He had buried, all his resentment, and place where the wretched remains of the sect of the forgotten all his injuries ; and receives his brother with the Samaritans were lately found, and from whom Dr. Hunstrongest demonstrations, not only of forgiveness, but of tington received a perfect copy of the Samaritan Pentafraternal affection.

teuch.

19 And he bought a parcel of a field, where | Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he he had spread his tent, at the hand of the chil d took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. dren of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hun 3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter dred pieces of money.

of Jacob; and he loved the damsel, and spake 20 And he erected there an altar; and called kindly unto the damsel. it ? El-elohe-Israel.

4 | And Shechem & spake unto his father HaCHAPTER XXXIV.

mor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife.

5 And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah Dinah, the daughter of Jacob and Leah, going out to see the daughters of the land, is ravislied by Shechem the son of Hamor, 1,2 He entreats his lather to get ber for his daughter: now his sons were with his cattle him w wile, 3 Jacob and his sons hi ar of the inlignity offered to Dinah, 5–7 in the field, and Jacob h held his peace until they Hamor proposes the suit of Shechem to Jacob and his sons, and offers them a variety of advantages, 5-10 Shechem hinselt comes forward, beg to have Dinah to wife, were come. and offers dowry to any extent, 11, 12 The sons of Jacob pretend scruples of con

6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went science to give their sister to one who was uncircuncised; and require, as a couciuon of this marriage, aul of intermarriages in general, that all the Shechemites should out unto Jacob to commune with him. be circuncie. I, 13_17. Hanor and Shechem consent, 18, 19. They lay the business before the elders of their city, dwell on the advantages of a connexion with 7 And the sons of Jacob came out of the Jacot sau hia fanily, and propose to them the condition repared by the cons of Jacoli field when they heard it: and the men were cision, Simeon and Leci,

te broders un Delhinh came upon the color and cow all the he k had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with cheruitca are incapable of defending themselves, ou the Juru day after their circuo grieved, and they were very wroth, because caule telonging to the sirecheiten 23-2. Jacobo is eventi dimplea med anal modern Jacob's daughter; / which thing ought not to

this and cruelty of his sons, and lays before them the probable conrequences, 30. They endeavour to viplicate their conduct, 31.

be done. A. M. cir 2266

8 And Hamor communed with them, saying, B. C. er. 1733

which she bare unto Jacob, went The soul of my son Shechem longeth for your out to see the daughters of the land.

daughter: I pray you give her him to wife. 2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the 9 And make ye marriages with us, and give

A hic Dishah the daughter of Leah;

Josh. 24. 32. John 4.5.-* Called, Acts 7. 16, Emmor..- x Or, lambs.--y Ch. 3 7.-- That is, God the God of Israel. Ch. 30. 21. --b Tic. 2.5.- Ch. 6. 2. Judges 14.1.-d Ch. 20.2.- eHe huinbled her. Dent. 22. 29.

f Heb. to the heart of the damse : See Isai. 40. 2 Hos. 2 14.-Judg. 14.2 h 1 Sam. 10. 27. 2 Sam. 13. 22.- Ch. 49. 7. 2 Sam. 13. 21.- Josh. 1. 15. Judga 20. 6.- Deut. 22. 17. 2 Sam. 13. 12.

Verse 19. For a hundred pieces of money.) The GRACIOUSLY with me, and because I hate enough. Hence original 70 Wp anda be meah kesitah, has been a matter of he viewed God as the God of all grace, and to him he long and learned discussion among critics. As kesitah erects an altar, dedicating it to God, the God of Israel, signifies a lamb, it may imply that Jacob gave the Hamo- referring particularly to the change of his own name, and rites one hundred lambs for the field; but if it be the the mercies which he then received : and hence, perhaps, same transaction that St. Stephen refers to in Acts vii. 16. it would be best to translate the words, The strong God it was money, towns apguprou, a sum or price of silver, | (is) the God of Israel ; as by the power of his grace and which was given on the occasion. It has been conjectured goodness he had rescued, defended, blessed, and supported that the money had the figure of a lamb stamped on it, him from his youth up, until now. The erecting altars because it was, on an average, the value of a lamb; and with particular names appears in other places. So Exod. hence it might be called a kesitah or lamb from the im- xvii. 15. Moses calls his altar Jehovah-nissi, “the Lord pression it bore. It is certain that in many countries, the

is my banner." coin has had its name from the image it bore : so among 1. When a man's ways please God, he maketh even his our ancestors a coin was called an angel, because it bore enemies to be at peace with him. When Jacob had got the image of an angel; hence also a Jacobus, a Carolus, reconciled to God, God reconciled his brother to him. The a Lewis (Louis d'or), a Joc, because certain coins in hearts of all men are in the hands of God, and he turns England, Spain, France, and Portugal bore on one side them howsoever he will. the image of the kings of those countries James, Charles, 2. Since the wrestling with the angel of the covenant, Lewis, Joseph. The Athenians had a coin called Bous, an we see in Jacob much dependence on God, accompanied or, because it was stamped with the figure of an ox: with a spirit of deep humility and gratitude. God's grace hence the saying in Æschylus,

alone can change the heart of man; and it is hy that grace Τα δ' αλλα σιγά, βους επι γλωττης μεγας

only, that we get a sense of our obligations; this lays us Bionxiv.

AGAM. v. 36. in the dust, and the more we receive, the lower we shall “I must be silent concerning other maliers ; a great ox

lie. walks, upon my tongue;" to signify a person who had 3. “The first thing," says good Bishop Wilson, " that received a bribe for secrecy; i. e. a sum of money, on pious men do, is to provide for the honour aud worship of each piece of which an ox was stamped ; and hence called God.” Jacob buys a piece of ground, and erects an altar Cous, an ox. The word opes, riches, is a corruption of the on it in the land of a heathen, that he might acknowledge word oves, sheep, because these animals, in ancient times, God among his enemies, and turn them to the true faith : constituted the principal riches of their owners : but when and there is every reason to believe that this expedient other cattle were added, the word pecunia, (from pecus, would have been successful, had it not been for the base cattle) which we translate money, and from which we

conduct of his sons. How true is the saying, one sinner still have our English term pecuniary, appears to have spoileth much good. Reader, beware lest thy conduct been substituted for oves; because pecus, pecoris and should become a stumbling-block to any. pecudis, were used to signify all kinds of cattle, large

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIV. and small. Among our British and Saxon ancestors, we Verse 1. And Dinah-went out to see the daughters of find coins stamped with the figure of an ox, horse, hog, the land] It is supposed that Jacob had been now about goat, &c. and this custom arose, in all probability, both seven or eight years in the land, and that Dinah, who was among them and other nations, from this circumstance, but about seven years of age when Jacob came to Canann, that in primitive times, the coin was the ordinary value was now about fourteen or fifteen. Why, or on what ocof the animal whose image it bore. It is, all circumstances casion, she went out, we know not; but the reason given weighed, most likely that a piece of money is here by Josephus is very probable, viz. that it was one of their intended; and possibly marked with the image of a lamb; festirals. but as the original word op kesitah, occurs only here, Verse 2. Prince of the country] i. e. Hamor was and in Josh. xxiv. 32. and Job xlii. 15. this is not suffi- prince; Shechem was the son of the prince, or chief. Our ciently evident, the word itself being of very doubtful version appears to represent Shechem as prince; but his signification. Mr. Parkhurst is of opinion that the kesitah father was the chief of the country. --See ver. 6, 8, &c. bore the image of a lamb; and that these lamb-coins of Verse 3. Spake kindly unto the damsel. ) Literally, he the ancient Hebrews typified the Lamb of God, who in spake to the heart of the damsel- endeavoured to gain the divine purpose, was considered as slain from the her affections, and to reconcile her to her disgrace. It foundation of the world; and who purchased us unto God appears sufficiently evident from this and the preceding with his own blood. The conjecture is, at least, pious, verse, that there had been no consent on the part of Dinah, and should lead to useful reflections. Those who wish to that the whole was an act of violence, and that she was see more on this subject, may consult the writers in the now detained by force in the house of Shechem. Here Critici Sacri, and Calmet,

she was found, when Simeon and Levi sacked the city, Verse 20. And he erected there an altar] It appears that

ver. 26. Jacob had a very correct notion of the proridence and Verse 7. He had wrought folly in Israel] The land, mercy of God; hence he says, ver. 5. The children which afterward generally called Israd, was not as yet so namerd; God hath GRACIOUSLY given thy servant-and in ver. 11. and the song of Jacob were neither called Israel, Israelites, he attributes all his substance to the bounty of his Maker nor Jews, till long after this: how, then, can it be said Take, I pray thee, my blessing-because God hath dealt that Shechem had wrought folly in Israel? The words

your daughters unto us, and take our daughters thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughunto you,

ter: and he was · more honourable than all the 10 And ye shall dwell with us: and m the land house of his father. shall be before you; dwell and trade ye there 20 | And Hamor and Shechem his son came in, and get you possessions therein.

unto the gate of their city, and communed with '11 And Shechem said unto her father and the men of their city, saying, unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your 21 These men are peaceable with us; thereeyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give. fore let them dwell in the land, and trade there

12 Ask me never so much p dowry and gift, in: for the land, behold, it is large enough for and I will give according as ye shall say unto them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, me: but give me the damsel to wife.

and let us give them our daughters. 13 | And the sons of Jacob answered She 22 Only herein will the men consent unto us chem and Hamor his father ! deceitfully, (and for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every said, because he had defiled Dinah their sister :) male among us be circumcised, as they are cir

14 And they said unto them, We cannot do cumcised. this thing, to give our sister to one that is ûn 23 Shall not their cattle and their substance circumcised; Tor that were a reproach unto and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us us:

consent unto them, and they will dwell with us. 15 But in this will we consent unto you: If 24 And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his ye will be as we be, that every male of you be son hearkened all that u went out of the gate circumcised;

of his city: and every male was circumcised, 16 Then will we give our daughters unto you, all that went out of the gate of his city. and we will take your daughters to us; and we 25 1 And it came to pass on the third day, will dwell with you, and we will become one when they were sore, that two of the sons of people.

Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, 17 But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be took each man his sword, and came upon the circumcised then will we take our daughter, city boldly, and slew all the males. and we will be gone.

26 And they slew Hamor and Shechem his 18 And their words pleased Hamor, and She- son with the wedge of the sword, and took Dinah chem Hamor's son.

out of Shechem's house, and went out. 19 And the young man deferred not to do the 27 The sons of Jacob came upon the slain,

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in CL. 13. 9. & X. 15.-n Ch. 12.34.- Ch. 47. 77.-p Exod. 22. 16, 17. Deut. 22. 29

1 Sam 18. 35.- See 2 San. 13. 14, &c.- Josh. 5. 9.

1 Num. 22. 15. 2 Chron 4.9. Isai. 3 3-5.-- Ch. 23. 10. Matt. 7.6. Rom. 2. 28, 29.

Ch. 49. 5,6,7.--Heb. mouth. Deut. 32. 42. 2Sain. 226. Isai. 31.8.

are capable of a more literal translation-wena be-yisrael, people. With

only 500 horse he went to lay siege to Baghmay be translated, against Israel. The angel had said, | dad—the califf's general, at the head of 30,000 men, marchThy name shall be called no more Jacobnot only Jacob-ed out to seize him; but before he attacked him, he sent an but Israel. It was this that aggravated the offence of officer to summon him to surrender. "How many men Shechem: he wrought folly against Israel, the prince of has the califf's general ?' said Abu Thaher.-- Thirty God, in lying with the daughter of Jacob. Here both the thousand,' replied the officer.— Among them all,' says names are given-Jacob, whose daughter was defiled, and the Carmathian chief, 'has he got three like mine? Israel, the prince of God, against whom the offence was Then ordering his followers to approach, he commanded committed.

one to stab himself, another to throw himself from a preVerse 12. Ask me never so much dowry] See on chap. cipice, and a third to plunge into the Tigris-all three inxxix. 20, &c.-See the law relative to this, Exod. xxii. stantly obeyed, and perished. Then, turning to the officer, 16, 17.

he said He who has such troops, needs not value the Verse 13. Answereddeceitfully) Which nothing could number of his enemies!'” excuse : yet to show that they had much provocation, it

" Hassan Sabat, one of those petty princes formerly is immediately subjoined, 17271 va-yedaberu, they spoke known in Asia and Europe by the title Sheekh-ul-jibel, or thus, because he had defiled Dinah their sister; for so old man of the mountain, being required by an ambassathis parenthesis should be read.

dor to do homage to his master, the Sultan Malekshah JeVerse 14. That were a reproach unto us] Because the laleddin, without giving any answer, ordered one of his uncircumcised were not in the covenant of God; and to attendants to poniard himself, and another to leap from the have given an heiress of the promise to one who had no battements of the tower; and he was instantly obeyed! kind of right to its spiritual blessings, from whom might Then, turning to the ambassador, he said — Seventy thouspring children who would naturally walk in the way of sand are thus attentive to my commands. Let this be my their father, would have been absurd, reproachful, and answer.'” On a principle of this kind, we may account wicked. Thus far they were perfectly right: but to make for the prompt obedience of the people of Hamor. this holy principle a cloak for their deceitful and murder Verse 25.' On the third day, when they were sore] ous purposes, was the full sum of wickedness.

When the inflammation was at the height, and a fever enVerse 17. Will we take our daughter, and we will be sued which rendered the person utterly helpless, and his gone.] It is natural to suppose, that the tribe of Hamor state critical-Simeon and Levi-the uterine brothers of was very inconsiderable, else they would not have sought Dinah-look each man his sword-probably assisted by an alliance with the family of Jacob, and have come so that portion of the servants which helped them to take care readily into a painful, disgraceful measure, without having of the flock-came on the city boldly-hoa betach, securely, either the sanction of divine authority or reason ; for it without being suspected, and being in no danger of meeting does not appear that the sons of Jacob urged either. And with resistance-and slew all the males. Great as the they are threatened here, that if they do not agree to be provocation was, and it certainly was very great, this was circumcised, Dinah shall be taken from them, and restored an act of unparalleled treachery and cruelty. to her family, and this is probably what the Shechemites Verse 27. The song of Jacob] The rest of Jacob's sons, saw they had not power at present to prevent.

the remaining brothers of Simeon and Levi-spoiled the Verse 23. Shall not their cattle and their substance- city. Though the others could slay the defence less males, be ours ?) This was a bait held out for the poor unsuspect- it was not possible that they could have carried away all ing people of Hamor, by their prince and his son, who the booty, with the women, children, and cattle: it is therewere not much less deceived than the people themselves. fore most natural to suppose, that the rest of the sons of

Verse 24. Eoery male wus circumcised] These simple Jacob assisted at last in this business, people must have had very great affection for their chief Verse 30. Ye huve troubled me] Brought my mind and his son, or have been under the influence of the most into great distress, and endangered my personal safety--to passive obedience, to have come so readily into this mea- make me to stink. To render me odious to the surroundsure, and to have submitted to this rite. But the pettying tribes, so that there is every reason to suspect, that princes in Asiatic countries have ever been absolute and when this deed is come abroad, they will join in a confededespotic, their subjects paying them the most p:oinpt and racy against me, and extirpate my whole family. And blind obedience. I shall give a few examples.

had he not been under the peculiar protection of God, thy " Abu Thaher, chief of the Carinathians, about the in all human probability, would have been the camera year nine hundred and thirty, ravaged the territory of he had prevailed with God, and he was also to Mecca, defiled the temple, and destroyed nearly 40,000 I with men. That Jacob's resentment was not disnemo VOL. I.-13

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