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and spoiled the city, because they had defiled

CHAPTER XXXV. their sister.

Jacob is commanded of God to go to Beth-el, and to build an altar there, 1

His et 28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, and bortation to his family to pat away all strange gols, &c. 2, 3. They deliver iben

all up, and Jacob hides them in the earth, 4. They commence their jernes, 5, their asses, and that which was in the city, and come to Luz, 6, build there the altar El-bethel, 7. Burial place of Debora Re that which was in the field.

bekah'a narae, & Gul appeare again unto Jacob, 9. Bless him, and reness the

promises, 10.-13. To conmemorate this manifestation of God, Jacob sets up a 29 And all their wealth, and all their little pillar, and calls the place Beth-el, 14, 15. They joumey to Ephruth, where Rorld,

after hard labour, is delivered of Benjamin, and dies, 16-19. Jacob' sets up a pillar ones, and their wives took they captive: and

on her grave, 2. They journey to Eilar, 21. While at this place, Reuben defiles

his father's beul, 22 Account of the children of Jacob, according to their mothers, spoiled even all that was in the house.

B-26. Jacob comes to Memre, to his father Isaac, who was then in the one hun 30 | And Jacob said to Sime and Levi, dred and fifty-eighth year of his age, 27. lsaac dies, and is burial by his sons Enea

and Jacob, 29. . Ye have b troubled me c to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the

ND God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I being Beth-el, and dwell there: and make there few in number, they shall gather themselves to an altar unto God, that appeared unto thee gether against me, and slay me; and I shall be when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy destroyed, I and my house.

brother. 31 And they said, Should he deal with our 2 Then Jacob said unto his + household, and sister as with a harlot?

to all that were with him, Put awayi the strange a Ch. 49. 6.- Josh. 7. 25.-- Exod. 5. 21. 1 Sam. 13. 4. Deut. 1. 27. + Ch 8 19.– Ch. 8. 13 - Ch 7. 43 h Ch. 18, 19, Joach. 24. 15.– Ch. 31. 19,

34. Josh. 2.2, 23. 1 Sam. 7. 3.

A

e

Psa. 105. 12

we have the fullest proof in his depriving these two sons moments, to proscribe them from the blessings of the coveof the birthrigh“, which otherwise they had doubtless en nant, so that they barely retained a name among the tribes joyed.-See ch. xlix. 5, 7. where some additional circum- of Israel, being in general small, and ever disreputable, stances are related.

except merely in the service of the sanctuary, in which Verse 31. Should he deal with our sister as with a Levi was employed. How often since, notwithstanding harlot?] On this outrage alone they vindicated their this solemn warning, has the pure and benevolent religion flagitious conduct. The word harlot first occurs here: the of God, been made, by wicked and designing men, a politioriginal is not wiso pilgash, which we render concubine, cal stalking-horse to serve the basest purposes, and a covert see its explanation ch. xxii. 24.—but 11 zonah, which to the worst of crimes! But shall we find fault with the ordinarily signifies, one who prostitutes herself to any holy religion of the blessed God, because wicked men have person for hire. Our word harlot is derived from a very abused it? God forbid ! Were it not so good as it really is, odd circumstance ;-Robert, duke of Normandy, seeing it would be incapable of such abuse. An evil cannot be fine looking country girl dancing with her companions on abused a good may; and the greater and the more acthe green, look her to his bed. She was the daughter of a knowledged the good, the more liable to abuse. As every skinner, and her name was Arlotta ; and of her William, good is so capable of being abused, does he act wisely who surnamed the Conqueror, was born. Hence, all such argues against the use of the thing on this account ? Shall women were from her called harlots, as Williarn himself we say, that various kinds of grain, fruits, and aliments, was usually termed the Bastard. The character of the are a curse, because wicked men abuse them to the purperson who originally bore this name, sufficiently justifies poses of drunkenness and gluttony? This would argue its present application.

an utter perversion of all reason; and is it not on such a SOLOMON has very properly said— My son, enter not pretext as this, that many persons have ventured to call in into the path of the wicked, and go not in the way of evil question even the truths of Christianity! men: аroid it, pass not by it, turn from it, and pass Whatever such men may be determined to think on the away, Prov. iv. 14, 15. Had not Dinah gone out to see subject of this chapter, with the unprejudiced reader, the the daughters of the land, and very possibly at one of their ample and detailed relation which we have here of this idolatrous festivals, she had not suffered the foul disgrace barbarous transaction, will appear an additional proof of mentioned in this chapter. Not only prudence dictates the veracity and impartiality of the sacred bistorian. that young women should keep at home, but God expressly commands it, Tit. ii. 5. Dinah got among idolaters, and

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXV. thus partook of their iniquities, and this led to the most Verse 1. Arise, go up to Beth-cl] The transaction that base and cruel transaction upon record. How true is the had lately taken place, rendered it unsafe for Jacob to dwell saying — Those who wander out of the way of under any longer at the city of Shechem; and it seems that, standing shall abide in the congregation of the dead! while he was reflecting on the horrible act of Simeon and In the case before us, blame seems to attach to all parties. Levi, and not knowing what to do, God graciously ap

1. It was wrong in Jacob to suffer his daughter, alone peared to him, and commanded him to go up 10 Bethel, and unprotected, to visit the daughters of the land. build an altar there, and thus perform the vow he had

2. It was excessively wicked in Shechem to take this made, ch. xxviii. 20, 22. advantage of the daughter of a respectable stranger, who Verse 2. Put quay the strange gods] 939 van Elohey had sought his friendship, and came to sojourn among his hanecar, the gods of the foreigners, which were among people; and whose righteous dealing they must have wit-them. Jacob's servants were all Syrians, and no doubt nessed for at least seven years past. In his behalf we may were addicted less or more to idolatry and superstition. say, and it would be unjust noi to say it, that having done These gods might belong to them, or, as some have conthe mischief, and sinned deeply against the laws of hospi-jectured, they were the teraphim which Rachel stole: bus tality, he wished to make all the reparation in his power ; | ihese have already been supposed to be astrological tables, and therefore, in the most frank and liberal manner, not or something of this kind, called by Laban his gods, beonly offered, but most pressingly entreated permission, to causc by them he supposed he could predict future events, take Dinah io wife. This was the utmost he could do in and that they referred to certain astral and planetary insuch a case.

And in this he is a saint of the first order, telligenccs, by whose influences sublunary things were rewhen compared with the noble and ignoble profligates, gulated. But it is more natural to suppose that these gods, who, while blaspheming the Christian name by continu- found now in Jacob's family, were images of silver, gold, ing to assume it, commit all kinds of breaches on the virtue or curious workmanship, which were found among the of simple females, and the peace of respectable families, spoils of the city of Shechem. Lest these should become and not only make no reparation, but glory in their shame. incitements to idolatry, Jacob orders them to be put away.

3. It was diabolic in Jacob's sons to slay a whole tribe Be clean and change your garments] Personal or for the offence of one man; and especially, as that one outward purification, as emblematical of the sanctification had offered to make all the restitution in his power. They of the soul, has been in use among all the true worshippers required that Hamor, Shechem, and all their subjects, of God from the beginning of the world. In many cases, should be circumcised, before they could conscientiously the law of Moses more solemnly enjoined rites and cereconsent to give their sister to Shechem in marriage. This monies which had been in use from the earliest ages. required conformity, was made the cloak of the most base Verse 3. Ansvered me in the day of my distress) Not and infamous designs. The simple unsuspecting She only when he fled from the face of his brother, but more chemites agreed to the proposal; and when rendered by particularly, when in his greatest strait at the brook of this religious rite incapable of defending themselves, they | Jabbok. were basely murdered by Simeon and Levi, and their city Verse 4. And car-rings which were in their ears) destroyed.' Jacob, to his great honour, remonstrated Whether these rings were in the ears of the gods, or in against this barbarous and bloody act, committed appa those of Jacob's family, we may rest assured that they rently under the sanction of religion: and God showed his were not mere ornaments, but served for superstitious abhorrence of it, by directing the patriarch, in his dying purposes. Ear-rings were certainly worn as amulets

133

gods that are among you, and « be clean, and Jacob, P but Israel shall be thy name:' and he change your garments:

called his name Israel. 3 Ånd let us arise, and go up to Beth-el; and 11 And God said unto him, , 'I am God I will make there an altar unto God, who an- | Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; ' a nation swered me in the day of my distress, and was and a company of nations shall be of thee, and with me in the way which I went.

kings shall come out of thy loins ; 4 And they gave unto Jacob all the strange 12 And the land which I gave Abraham and gods which were in their hand, and all their Isaac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after ear-rings which were in their ears; and Jacob | thee will I give the land. hid them

under the oak which was by Shechem. 13 And God went up from him in the place 5 And they journeyed; and the terror of where he talked with him. God was upon the cities that were round about 14 | And Jacob " set up a pillar in the place them, and they did not pursue after the sons of where he talked with him, even a pillar of Jacob.

stone: and he poured a drink-offering thereon, 6 T So Jacob came to & Luz, (that is, Beth-el,) and he poured oil thereon. which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the 15 And Jacob called the name of the place people that were with him.

where God spake with him, Beth-el. 7. And he built there an altar, and called the 16 || And they journeyed from Beth-el; and place. El-beth-el: because k there God appeared there was but wa little way to come to Ephrath; unto him, when he fled from the face of his and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour: brother.

17 And it came to pass, when she was in hard 8 | But Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear she was buried beneath Beth-el under an oak: not; - thou shalt have this son also. and the name of it was called m Allon-bachuth. 18 And it came to pass, as her soul was in

9 | And "God appeared unto Jacob again, departing, (for she died) that she called his when he came out of Padan-aram, and blessed name » Ben-oni: but his father called him · Benhim.

jamin. 10 And God said unto him, Thy name is 19 And a Rachel died, and was buried in the Jacob: • thy name shall not be called any more way to b Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.

a Exod. 19. 10.-- Ch.32. 7, 24. Psa. 107.6.-c Ch. 2. 20.& 31. 3, 42-d Hos. 2. 13. e Jos. 2. 3. Julges 9.6.- Exod. 15. 16. & 23. 21. & 34. 21. Deut. 11. 35. Josh. 2 9. & 5.1. 1 Sam. 1 15.2 Chron. 14. 11.- Ch 2. 19, 22.-h Eccles. 5. 4.-i That is, The God v Bahel. - Ch. 2. 13-1 Ch. 24. 59.-m That

is, the oak of weeping HA 12 4–0 Ch. 11.5-2 Ch 2 -q Ch. 17. I. * 48. 3, 4 Exol. 6. 3

r Ch. 17. 5, 6, 16. & 2. 3. & 48.4 - Ch. 12. 7. & 13. 15. & 26.3, 4. & 28. 13. 1 Ch 17. 22--u Ch. 28. 18 - Ch. 2. 19.--Heb. a little piece of ground. 2 Kings 5. 19.- Ch. 30. 24. 1 Sam. 4. 20.-y That is, the son of my sorror. 2 Thai is, the son of the right hand.-a Ch. 48. 7.- Ruth 1.2 & 4. 11. Micah 5. 2 Matt. 2. 6.

Expiring here, (an ever honour'd name!)

and charms, first consecrated to some god, or formed under

"Thou too, Cajeta, whose indulgent cares

Nursd the great chief, and form'd his tender years, some constellation, on which magical characters and images were drawn. A very ancient and beautiful one of

Adorn Hesperia with immortal fame:

Thy name surrirea, to please thy pensive ghost; this kind, brought from Egypt, cut out of a solid piece

Thymicrel relics grace the Latian coast. of cornelian, now lies before me. It was evidently intended

Soon as her fun'ral rites the prince had paid,

And raisda tomb in honour of the dead; for the ear, as the opening is too small for any human

The sea subsaling, and the tempests o'er, finger; and it is engraved all over with strange characters

He spreads the flying sails, and leaves the shore."-Pitt. and images, which prove that it was intended for a Verse 9. God appeared unto Jacob again] He aptalisman or amulet. It seems to be such an one as St. peared unto him first at Shechem, when he commanded Augustin describes, Epist. 73. which was suspended from him to go to Beth-el; and now that he is arrived at the the tip of the ears both of men and women, not for the place, God appears to him the second time, and reconfirms purpose of ornament, but through an execrable supersti- to him the Abrahamic blessing. To Isaac and Jacob tion, for the service of demons. Execranda superstitio these frequent appearances of God were necessary; but ligaturarum, in quibus etiam inaures virorum in they were not so to Abraham: for him, one word was summis ex una parte auriculi suspensæ deputantur, sufficient, Abraham believed God. non ad placendum hominibus sed ad servicndum damo Verse 13. And God went up from him] This was not nibus. See the notes on ch. xxiv, 22. Verse 5. The terror of God] A supernatural awe, festation of God.

a vision, nor a strong mental impression, but a real mani

Jacob saw and heard him speak : and sent by the Almighty--was upon the cities that were before his eyes he went up-ascended to heaven. This round about-So that they were not molested in their was no doubt the future Saviour, the Angel of the covedeparture. This could be owing to nothing less than the nant.-See chap. xvi. 7. especial providence of God.

Verse 14. A drink-offering] 702 nesec, a libation. Verse 7. El-belh-el} x na 'n the strong God-the These were afterward very common in all countries. At house of the strong, God. But the first Sap el, is wanting first they consisted, probably, of water only; afterward in one of De Rossi's MSS. as it is also in the Septua- wine was used. See on Lev. vii. 1, &c. The pillar gint, Vulgate, Syriac, and some copies of the Arabic. which Jacob set up was to commemorate the appearance The sentence reads much better

without it, and much more of God to him : "the drink-offering and the oil were consistent with the parallel passages.

intended to express his gratitude and devotion to his Verse 3. But Déborah, Rebekah's nurse, died] She Preserver. It was probably the same pillar which he had was sent with Rebekah, when taken by Abraham's ser set up before, which had since been thrown down, and vant to be wife to Isaac, 'ch. xxiv. 59. How she came to which he consecrated afresh to God. be in Jacob's family, expositors are greatly puzzled to find Verse 16. There was but a little way to come to out: but the text does not state that she was in Jacob's Ephrath.] The word nas, kibrath, translated here a. family. Her death is mentioned merely because Jacob little way, has greatly aperplexed commentators. It occurs and his family had now arrived at the place where she only here and in chop. xlviii. 7. 2 Kings v. 19. and it was buried, and the name of that place was called Allon seems to have been some sort of measure applied to land, bachuth, the oak of weeping, as it is likely her death had

as we say a mile, an acre, a rood, a perch; but what the been greatly regretted, and a general and extraordinary exact quantity of the kibrath was, cannot be ascertained. mourning had taken place on the occasion. Of Rebekah's Ephrath, called also Bethlehem, and Bethlehem Ephrata, death we know nothing. After her counsel to her son, was the birth-place of our blessed Redeemer. See its ch. xxvii. she is heard of no more in the sacred writings, meaning, Matt. ii. 6. Her name is written in the dust. And is not this designed Verse 18. As her soul was in departing] Is not this a as a mark of the disapprobation of God? It seems proof that there is an immortal spirit in man, which can strange, that such an inconsiderable person as a nurse exist separate from, and independent of, the body? Of should be mentioned, when even the person she brought Rachel's death it is said, TD3 sa be-tseath naphshahup is passed by unnoticed! It has been observed, that the

in the going away of her soul-her body did not go nurse of Æneas is mentioned nearly in the same way by away, therefore her soul and body must have been distinct. the poet Virgil; and in the circumstances, in both cases, If her brcath only had been intended, oui neshem, or there is a striking resemblance.

non ruach, would have rather been used, as the first means Tu quoque littoribus nostris, Æneia nutrir, Blernama moriens fanam, Caieta, dedisti:

breath, the latter breath or spirit indifferently. El nunc serpat honos sedea luus; 089nque nomen

She called his name Ben-oni) 1 1? the son of my Hesperia in magna, (rique et ea gloria) signal.

sor rou, or affliction--because of the hard labour she had Asgore composito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt

in bringing him into the world: But his father called squora, lendit iter relie, portumque relinquit. En lib. vii. v. 1, &c. him Benjamin. pove the son of my right hand ; i. e.

Al pius ereuiie Anens rite solutis,

20 And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: 25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handthat is the pillar of Rachel's grave » unto this maid ; Dan and Naphtali. day.

26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid ; 21 And Israel journeyed, and spread his tent God and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob, beyond the tower of Edar.

which were born to him in Padan-aram. 22 | And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt 27 | And Jacob came unto Isaac his father in that land, that Reuben went and lay with unto Mamre, unto the city of Arbah, (which is Bilhah his father's concubine: and Israelheard Hebron,) where Abraham and Isaac sojourned. it.-Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:

28 | And the days of Isaac were a hundred 23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's first- and fourscore years. born, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and 29 And leaac gave up the ghost, and AM Issachar, and Zebulun.

died, and & was gathered unto his people, 24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph and Benja-being old and full of days: and his sons Esau min.

and Jacob buried him.

B. C. 1716

a 1 Sam. 10.2 2 Sam. 18. 18.-b Mie. 4.8.- Ch. 494. I Chron 5. 1. See 2 Sam.

16. 22. & 2. 3. 1 Cor. 5. 1. - Ch. 46.8. Exod. 1. 2

e Ch. 13. 18.& 23. 2, 19.- Joah. 14. 15.& 15. 13.--Ch. 15. 15. & 5. &-h 8o Ch.

25. 9 & 49. 31.

the son peculiarly dear to me. So man of the right Verse 26. Born to him in Padan-aram] i. e. all but hand, Psal. lxxx. 18. signifies one much loved and Benjamin, who was born in Canaan, ver. 16, 17. regarded of God. The Samaritan has Benyamim, the son It is well known that Padan-aram is the same as Mesoof days; i. e. the son of his old age, as Jacob calls him, potamia, and hence the Septuagint translate More FOT2p13 chap. xliv. 20. and Houbigant contends, that this is the Tes Lupozs, Mesopotamia of Syria. The word signifies true rending, and that the Chaldee termination in for im, between the two rirers, from uites, the midst, and 772895, is a corruption. If it be a corruption, it is as old as the a river. It is situated between the Euphrates and Tigris, days of St. Jerom, who translates the place Benjamin, having Assyria on the east, Arabia Deserta, with Babyid est, filius dextræ, Benjamin, that is, the son of the lonia, on the south, Syria on the west, and Armenia on right hand.

the north. It is now the province of Diarbek, in Asiatic Verse 20. Jacob set a pillar upon her grare] Was Turkey, and is sometimes called Marerannahar, the not this the origin of funeral monuments? In ancient country beyond the river; and Aram Naharaim, Aram times, and among rude nations, a heap of stones desig or Syria of the two rivers. It is a place sufficiently celenated the burial-place of the chief: many of these still brated both in the Old and New Testaments. remain in diferent countries. Afterward, a rude stone, Verse 27. The city of Arbah, ichich is Hebron] See with a simple inscription was used, containing only the chap. xxiii. 2. It has been conjectured that Jacob must name of the deceased, and that of his father. But where have paid a visit to his father before this time, as, previous arts and sciences flourished, superb monuments were to this, he had been some years in Canaan; but now, as erected, highly decorated, and pompously inscribed. It is he was approaching to his end, Jacob is supposed to have very likely, from the circumstances of Jacob, that a single gone to live with and comfort him in his declining days. stone constituted the pillar in this case, on which, if Verse 29. Isaac gare up the ghost, -and was gathered writing did then exist, the name, or rather some hierogly. unto his people) See on chap. xxv. 8. phical device, was probably inscribed. That which is Esau and Jacob buried him] See chap. xxv. 9. Esau, now called Rachel's pillar, is allowed by those who have as we have seen, ch. xxxiij. was thoroughly reconciled to examined it, to be a comparatively modern structure. his brother Jacoh, and now they both join in fraternal and

Verse 21. Tower of Edar) Literally, the tower of the filial affection to do the last kind office to their amiable flock, and so translated Mic. iv. 8. It is supposed, that father. It is generally allowed, that the death of Isaac is this tower was about a mile from Bethlehem, and to have mentioned here out of its chronological order, as several been the place where the angels appeared to the shep- of the transactions mentioned in the succeeding chapters, herds. The Targum of Jonathan expressly says—"It is especially chaps. xxxvii. and xxxviii. must have happened the place in which the King Messiah shall be manifested during his life. But that the history of Joseph might not in the end of days." By the tower of the flock, we may be disturbed, his death is anticipated in this place. It is understand a place built by the shepherds, near to some supposed that he lived at least twelve years after Joseph well for the convenience of watering their flocks, and was sold into Egypt. keeping watch over them by night.

Thus chapter contains several subjects which are well Verse 22. Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his worthy of the reader's most serious attention. father's concubine] Jonathan, in his Targum, savs, that 1. That such a family as that of Jacob should have had Reuben only overthrew the bed of Bilhah, which was false gods in it, is a matter not less astonishing than real : set up opposite to the bed of his mother Leah, and that

and suppose that we allow, as is very probable, that their this was reputed to him as if he had lain with her. The images and rings were got from strangers, the Syrians colour given to the passage by the Targimist is, that and the Shechemites, yet their being tolerated in the family Reuben was inrensed, because he found Bilhah preferred, cannot be easily accounted for. It is true, the law was after the death of Rachel, to his own mother Leah; and not then given, and the unity of God not so particularly therefore, in his anger, he overthrew her couch. The tanght as it was afterward.' Besides, we have already same sentiment is repeated by Jonathan, and glanced at seen that certain superstitions were compatible in those by the Jerusalem Targum, ch. xlix. 4. Could this view

early times with general sincerity and atiachment to the of the subject be proved to be correct, both piety and can truth : those times and acis of ignorance were winked at, dour would rejoice.

till superior light shone upon the world. Between many And Israel 'heard it] Not one word is added farther in of the practices of Laban's family and those of the sur. the Hebrew text; but a break is left in the verse, opposite rounding heathenish tribes, there might have been but little to which there is a Masoretic note, which simply states, difference; and this was probably the reason why Dinah there is a hiatus in the verse. This hiatus the Septuagint could so rendily mix with the daughters of the land, chap. has thus supplied---> movie DN ne urn overtrou aute, and it xxxiv. I. which led to the fatal consequences alrearly reappeared eril in his sight.

viewed. Sin is like the letting out of water--when once Now the sons of Jacob were turelre] Called afterward a brcarh is made in the dyke, the stream becomes deterthe twelve patriarchs, because they became heads or chiefs mined to a wrong course, and its progress is soon irresist. of numerous families or tribes. Acts vü. 8. and the ible. The advice of one of the ancients is goodpeople that descended from them are called the tuelre iribes, Acts xxvi. 7. James i. 1, Twelre princes came

Tu ne cede malis; sed contra audentior ito. from Ishmael, ch. xxv. 16. who were heads of families

Virg. n. vi. v. 96. and tribes. And in reference to the tuelre patriarchs, our

"Boldly resist the first motions of sin." Lord chose tirelve apostles. Strictly speaking, there were After-strogles are too often fruitless. thirteen tribes among the Hebrews, as Ephraim and 2. The doctrine of a particular and especial ProriManasses were counted for tribes, chi xlvii. 5, 6. but the dence, has another proof in this chapter. After the sanScripture, in naming them, says Mr. Ainsworth, usually guinary conduct of Jacob's fons, is it not surprising that sets down but twelve, omitting the name now of one, the neighbouring tribes did not join together and extirpate then of another, as may in sundry places be observed, the whole family? And so they certainly would, had not Deut. xxxiii. Ezek. xlviii. Rev. vii., &c.

the terror of God fallen upon them, ver. 5. Jacob, and Verse 23. The sons of Leah] The children are arranged the major part of his family, were innocent of this great here under their respective mothers, and not in order of transgression; and on the preservation of their lives the their birth.

accomplishment of great events depended : therefore God

Now

A M. cir. 26. B. C. cir. 1716.

AM cir. 2200

A M. cir. 22.
B. C. cir. 1712

A. M. cir 228.
B. C. cir. 1738

First aristocra

cy of dukes.

From

A. M. cir. 2471.

From

8,11. Numb. 21.30. 1 San. 15. 2,3, &c.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

8 Thus dwelt Esau in 1 mount Seir: * Esau The gopalogy of Fsau, i e his sone, by his Canaanitish wives Adnh, Aholibatman,

is Edom. and Barth, le-- The children of Adak and Basherath, 1. Or Ahotiba piah, 5. Esan departs from Canaan anl goes to mount Srir 6- This genvra.

9 | And these are the generations of Esau con of Fsay, i. e os grandrhildren, while in Seir, s. 19. The generations of seir the father of the Edomites in mount Seir. the Horie, 2-3. Anuh fios mules (Yeni) in the wilderness, 21. The kings which reigned in Edom, 31-9. The dukes that succeeded then, 10---13

10 These are the names of Esau's A. M. cir

. 220.

B. C. cir. 1774.

sons; m Eliphaz the son of Adah the Fow these are the generations of Esau, wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bashemath the who is Edom.

wife of Esau. 2 • Esau took his wives of the daugh 11 And the sons of Eliphaz were 8. C: cir. 1731.

A. M. . . ters of Canaan; Adah the daughter Teman, Omar, " Zepho, and Gatan, of Elon the Hittite, and € Aholibamah the and Kenaz. daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the 12 And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, Hivite.

Esau's son: and she bare to Eliphaz • Amalek: A Mei 2025.

3 And Bashemath, Ishmael's daugh- these were the sons of Adah, Esau's wife. B. C. cir. 1779. ter, sister of Nebajoth.

13 And these are the sons of Reuel; Nahath, B. C.eir 1771.

4 And • Adah bare to Esau Eliphaz; and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: these were and Bashemath bare Reuel ;

the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. 5 And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and 14 And these were the sons of Aho- A. M. cir. 2292.

B. C. cir. 1712. Jaalam, and Korah: these are the libamah, the daughter of Anah the sons of Esau, which were born unto him in the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife: and she bare land of Canaan.

to Esau Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah. 6 | And Esau took his wives, and 15 1 These were dukes of the sons

his sons, and his daughters, and all the of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstpersons of his house, and his cattle, and all his born son of Esau; duke Teman, duke A. M c. 2120, beasts, and all his substance, which he had got Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz. in the land of Canaan; and went into the coun 16 Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and B. C. cir. 1575, try from the face of his brother Jacob.

duke Amalek: these are the dukes that B.C. cir. 1533. 7 For their riches were more than that they came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom: might dwell together; and the land wherein these were the sons of Adah. they were strangers could not bear them, be 17 And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's cause of their cattle.

son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, Ch. 3.30.-- Ch. 3.31- Ver. 3-d Ch. 39-et Chron 1. 35.- Heb souls, I Heb. Edom--m 1 Chron. 1. 35, &e. Or, Zephi, 1 Chron. 1. 36.-- Exod. 17. g Ch 13.6.11.-h Ch. 17. 8. à 23. 1.--- Ch. 323. Deut. 2.5. Josh 24. 4.--k Ver. I. watches over them, and shields them from the hands of Verge 2. His wires] It appears that Esau's wives went their enemies.

by very different names. Aholibamah is named Judith, 3. The impatience and fate of the amiable Rachel, who ch. xxvi. 34. Adah is called Bashemath in the same can read of without deploring !- Gire me children, said place; and she who is here called Bushemath, is called she, or else I die, chap. xxx. 1. Her desire was granted, Mahalath, ch. xxviii. 9. These are variations which and her death was the consequence! God's way is ever cannot be easily accounted for; and they are not of suffibest. We know not what we ask, nor what we ought to cient importance to engross much time. It is well known, ask, and therefore often ask amiss, when we petition for that the same persons in Scripture are often called by difsuch secular things as belong to the dispensations of God's ferent names. See the table of variations, ch. xxv. where providence. For things of this kind we have no revealed there are some slight examples. directory; and when we ask for them, it should be with Anah the daughter of Žibeon] But this same Anah is the deepest submission to the divine will, as God alone said to be the son of Zibeon, ver. 24. though in the second knows what is best for us. With respect to the soul, every and fourteenth verses he is said to be the daughter of thing is clearly revealed, so we may ask and receive, and Zibeon. But the Samaritan, the Soptuagint, (and the have a fulness of joy; but as to our bodies, there is much Syriac, in verse 2.) read son instead of daughter, which reason to fear, that the answer of our petitions would be, Houbigant and Kennicott contend to be the true reading. in numerous cases, our inevitable destruction. How many Others say, that daughter should be referred to Aholibaprayers does God in mercy shut out!

mah, who was the daughter of Anah, and grand-daughter 4. The transgression of Reuben, of whatsoever kind, of Zibeon. I should rather prefer the reading of the was marked not only by the displeasure of his father, but Samaritan, Septuagint, and Syriac, and read, both here by that of God also, see ch. xlix. 4. It brought a curse and in ver. 14. " Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the son upon him, and he forfeited thereby the right of primogeni- of Zibeon," and then the whole will agree with verse ture and the priesthood : the first was given to Judah, the 24. second to Levi. Is it not in reference to this that our Lord Verse 6. Esau took his wires, &c.] So it appears that addressea these solemn words to the angel of the church | Esau and Jacob dwelt together in Canaan, whither the of Philadelphia-Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast former removed from Seir, probably soon after the return which thou hast, that no MAN TAKE THY CROWN ? A man, of Jacob. That they were on the most friendly footing by sowing a grain of forbidden sweets, may reap an abun- this sufficiently proves; and Esau shows the same dignidant harvest of eternal wretchedness. ' Reader, let not sin fied conduct as on other occasions, in leaving Canaan to rob thee of the kingdom of God.

Jacob, and returning again to mount Seir, certainly a 5. Here we have the death of Isaac recorded : most much less fruitful region than that which he now, in bethat can be said of his character has been already antici- half of his brother, voluntarily abandoned. pated, see ch. xxii., &c. He appears to have been gene Verse 12. Timna was concubine to Eliphaz] As Timrally pious, deeply submissive and obedient.

na was sister to Lotan the Horite, ver. 22. we see how rather an amiable and good, than a great and useful man. the family of Esau and the Horites got intermixed. This If compared with his son Jacob, in the early part of their might give the sons of Esau a pretext to seize the land, lives, he appears to great advantage, as possessing more and expel the ancient inhabitants, as we find they did, sincerity and more personal piety. But if compared with Deut. ií. 12. his father Abraham, oh! what a falling off is here! Abra Amalek] The father of the Amalekites, afterward bitter ham is unique under the Old Testament--and even under enemies to the Jews, and whom God commanded to be the Neu, he has no parallel but St. Paul. Isaac, though entirely exterminated, Deut. xxv. 17, 19. falling far short of his father's excellencies, will ever Verse 15. Dukes of the sons of Esau] The word duke remain a pattern of piety and filial obedience.

comes from the Latin dur, a captain, or leader. The NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXVI.

Hebrew 952 aluph, has the same signification ; and as it Verse l. These are the generations of Esau) We have is also the term for a thousand, which is a grand capital here the genealogy of Eveu in his sons and grandsons, and or leading number, probably the 'Dy5N aluphey, or dukes, also the genealogy of Seir the Horite. The genealogy had this name from being leaders of, or captains over, a of the sons of Esau, born in Canaan, is related 1–8; those company of one thousand men, just as those among the of his grandchildren, horn in Seir, 9–19; those of Seir Greeks, called chiliarchs, which signifies the same; and the Horite, 20—30. The generations of Esau are par as the Romans called those centurions who were captains ticularly marked, to show how exactly God fulfilled the over one hundred men, from the Latin word centum, promises he made to him, ch. xxv. and xxvii. and those which signifies a hundred. The ducal government was of Scir the Horite are added, because his family became that which prevailed first among the ldumcans, or dein some measure blended with that of Esau.

scendants of 'Esau. Here fourteen dukes are reckoned to

He was

duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that came | Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah that found of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the u the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses sons of Bashemath Esau's wife.

of Zibeon his father. 18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah, 25 And the children of Anah were these; DiEsau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke shon and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. Korah: these were the dukes that came of Aho 26 And these are the children of Dishon; libamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Che

19 These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, ran. and these are their dukes.

27 The children of Ezer, are these; Bilhan, 20 TP These are the sons of Seir and Zaavan, and w Akan.

a the Horite, who inhabited the land; 28 The children of Dishan are these; Uz, Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anan. and Aran.

21 And Dishon, and Ezer, and Di 29 These are the dukes that came of the Ho

shan: these are the dukes of the Ho- rites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, rites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom. duke Anah,

22 And the children of Lotan were 30 Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan:

Hori, and "Heman; and Lotan's eister these are the dukes that came of Hori, among was Timna.

their dukes in the land of Seir. 23 And the children of Shobal were these; 31 | And * these are the kings that • Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho, reigned in the land of Edom, before 8. C ca. 1911. and Onam.

there reigned any king over the chil- A.M. 112 24 And these are the children of Zibeon; both dren of Israel.

A. M. cir. 2198.
B. C. cir. 1806.

A. M. cir. 2204.
B. C. cir. 1800.

A. M. cir. 2219
B. C. cir. 1756.

From
A. M. cir. .

B. C. cir. 1575.

p 1 Chron. 1. 38. Ch. 14. 6. Deul 2. 12, 22.-r Or, Homan. 1 Chron. 1. 39.- Or,

Alian, I Chron. 1. 40.

t Or, Shephi. I Chron. 1. 40.--u See Lev. 19. 19.- Or, Amram. I Chron. 1 41.

w Or, Jakan I Chron. 1. 42-Chrou. 1. 13.

Esau, seven that came of his wife Adah, four of Bashe thing which already exists. 2. That mules are never math, and three of Aholibamah.

called 'p'yemim in the Scriptures, but binho pheredim. Verse 16. Duke Korah] This Dr. Kennicott pronounces 3. That Anah fed Asses only, not horses. 4. And that to be an interpolation. "It is certain, from verse 4. that there is no mention of mules in Palestine till the days of Eliphaz was Esau's son by Adah;

and from verse 11, 12. David. From the whole, he concludes that Emim are that Eliphaz had but six sons, Teman, Omar, Zepho, meant, with whom Anah fought ; and he brings many Gatam, Kenaz, and Amalek. It is also certain, from places of Scripture, where the same form of expression, verse 5. and 14. that Korah was the son of Esau, (not of he or they found, signifies the onset to battle, Judg. i. 5. Eliphaz) by Aholibamah ; and as such, he is properly 1 Sam. xxxi. 3. 1 Kings xiii

. 24. 2 Chron. xxii. 8. mentioned in ver. 19. These are the sons of Aholibamah, Num. xxxv. 27. Gen. iv. 14. with many others.-See Esau's wife-duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, DUKE KORAH. It the Hierozoicon, vol. I. cap. 21. p. 238. edit. 1692. is clear, therefore, that some transcriber has improperly Gusset, in Comment. Heb. Ling. examines what Boinserted duke Korah in the 16th verse; from which inter chart has asserted, and supposes that mules, not the Emim, polation both the Samaritan text and the Samaritan were found by Anah. version are free." KENNICOTT's Remarks.-Every thing Wagenseil would credit what Bochart has asserted, did considered, I incline to the opinion that these words were not stronger reasons lead him to believe that the word not originally in the text.

means a sort of plant! Verse 20. These are the sons of Seir the Horite] These From the above opinions and versions the reader may Horites were the original inhabitants of the country of choose which he likes best, or invent one for himself. My Seir, called the land of the Horites, and afterward the own opinion is, that mules were not known before the land of the Idumeans, when the descendants of Esau had time of Anah, and that he was probably the first who driven them out. These people are first mentioned ch.coupled the horse and ass together, to produce this monxiii. 6.

grel; or was the first who met with creatures of this race Verse 21. These are the dukes of the Horites) It ap in some very secluded part in the wilderness. Is it not pears pretty evident that the Horites and the descendants probable that from this Anah, ny or enah, the Enetæ deof Esau were mixed together in the same land, as before rived at least their fabulous origin, whom Homer mentions observed ; and Calmet has very properly remarked, that as famous for their race of wild mules if we compare this verse with ver. 30. there were princes Παφλαγονων δ' ηγείτο Πυλαιμενος λατιον κηρ, , of Seir, in the country of Seir, and in that of Edom; and

Eļ Erstwy oddy a je to www yovos xy8758***. in comparing the generations of Seir and Esau, we are

Il. lib. Ü. y. 852. obliged to consider these princes as contemporary.

The Paphlagonians Pyla menes piles, Verse 24. This was that Anah that found the mules in

Where rich Hepetia breeds her marage mules. Pope. the wilderness) The words Donn cth ha-yemim, here The Enetæ or Henetæ, who were a people contiguous translated mules, has given rise to a great variety of con to Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, and Galatia, might have dejectures and discordant opinions. Sl. Jerom, who renders rived their origin from this Anah, or Henah, out of which it aquas calidas, warm springs, or hot baths, says, there the Everor of the ancient Greek writers might have been are as many opinions concerning it as there are commen formed; and according to Theophrastus, Strabo, and Plutators.

tarch, the first mules were seen among these people.-See The Septuagint have toy izuze, which seems to be the Ludov. De Dicu and Scheuchzer. name of a man; but this is expressed in a great variety Verse 31. Before there reigned any king orer— Israel.) of ways in different MSS. of that Version.

I suppose all the verses, from this io the 39th inclusive, The Syriac renders it wo mayè, waters ; the author have been transferred to this place from I Chron. i. 43–50. of this version having read in the Hebrew copy from which as it is not likely they could have been written by Moses; he translated, pip mayim, watera, for Opeyemim, the and it is quite possible they might have been, at a very two first letters being transposed.

early period, written in the margin of an authentic copy, Onkelos translates the word na gibaraya, giants, or to make out the regal succession in Edom, prior to the strong or powerful men.

consecration of Saul; which words being afterward found The Samaritan has y muy Me A * in the text ha in the margin of a valuable copy, from which others were aimim, and the Samaritan version ni Xiu A ny v âm transcribed, were supposed by the copyist to be a part of aimai, the Emim, a warlike people, bordering upon the the text, which having been omitted by the mistake of the Horites.

original writer, had been since added to make up the defiThe Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel paraphrases the ciency; on this conviction, he would not hesitate to tranplace thus—" This is the Anah who united the onager scribe them consecutively in his copy. In most MSS. with the tame ass, and in process of time he found mules sentences and paragraphs have been left out by the copyists, produced by them." D. Kimchi says, that " Zibeon which, when perceived, have been added in the margin, was both the father and brother of Anah; and this Anah, either by the original writer, or by some later hand. Now, intent on heterogeneous mixtures, caused asses and horses as the margin was the ordinary place where glosses or to copulate, and so produced mules." R. S. Jarchi is of explanatory notes were written, it is easy to conceive how the same opinion. See his comment on this place. the notes, as well as the parts of the original text found in

Bochart believes the Emim are meant; and argues the margin, might be all incorporated with the text by a forcibly, 1. That no matsa, he found, never signifies to future transcriber; and his MS. being often copied, would invent, but rather the meeting with, or happening on, a l of course multiply the copies with such additions, as we

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