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A. M. cir 2135.
A. M. cir. 2177
A. M. cir. 2219.
. From A. M. cir. 2471.
32 And Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom: 39 And Baal-hanan the son of Achbor died, and the name of his city was Dinħabah.
and a Hadar reigned in his stead: and the name 33 And Bela died, and Jobab the son of his city was Pau; and his wife's name was of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead. Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daugh
34 And Jobab died, and Husham of ter of Mezahab. the land of Temani reigned in his stead. 40 T And these are the names of Second aristo
35 And Husham died, and Hadad the dukes that came of Esau, accord
the son of Bedad, who smote Midian ing to their families, after their places, B. C. cir. 1533. in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead: and by their names; duke Timnah, duke A. M. Cir
. 2513. the name of his city was Avith.
• Alvah, duke Jetheth. 36 And Hadad died, and Samlah 41 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Piof Masrekah reigned in his stead.
37 And Samlah died, and Saul of 42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar.
Rehoboth, by the river, reigned in 43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: a these be the his stead.
dukes of Edom, according to their habitations, 38 And Saul died, and Baal-hanan in the land of their possession: he is Esau the B. C. cir. 1659. the son of Achbor reigned in his stead. f father of the Edomites.
B. C. cir. 1491.
A. M. cir. 2261.
A. M. cir. 23023
A M. cir. 245.
al Chron. 1. 50. Hadad Pai. After his death was an aristocracy. Exod. 15. 15.-51
Chron. l. 51.- Or, Alian.
d Ver. 31. Exod. 15. 15. Numb. 20. 14.-e Ver. 7,8. Deut. 2. 5. Gen. 25. 12- Ch.
25. 30. & 45. 8. & 36. 43. 1 Chron. 4. 14. Heb. Edom.
have much reason to believe has been the case. This all his behaviour towards his brother. When they first appears very frequently in the Vulgate and Septuagint; | met, he was all humanity and affection; and he had no and an English Bible now before me, written some time in uneasiness when he found that Jacob followed him not to the fourteenth century, exhibits several proofs of this prin- Seir, but went to live near his father. And at Isaac's ciple. See the Preface to this work, p. 1.
death, we do not find that he made any difficulty of quitting I know there is another way of accounting for those Canaan, which was the very point which, if he had harwords on the ground of their being written originally by boured any latent (evil) intentions, would have revived all Moses, but to me it is not satisfactory. It is simply this: his resentments. He is indeed called in Scripture the the word king should be considered as implying any kind profane Esau; and it is written, Jacob have I loved, and of regular government, whether by chiefs, dukes, judges, Esau have I hated ; but there is, I think, no reason 10 &c. and therefore, when Moses says, these are the kings inser, from any of those expressions, that Esau was a very which reigned in Edom, before there was any king in wicked man, or that God hated or punished him for an Israel, he may be only understood as saying, that these immoral life. For, 1. The sentence here against him, is kings reigned among the Edomites before the family of said expressly to be founded not upon his actions, for it Jacob had acquired any considerable power, or before the was determined before the children had done good or evil. time in which his twelve sons had become the fathers of | 2. God's hatred of Esau was not a hatred which induced those numerous tribes, at the head of which, as king him- him to punish him with any evil; for he was as happy in self in Jeshurun, he now stood.
all the blessings of this life, as either Abraham, Isaac, or Esau, after his dukes, had eight kings, who reigned Jacob: and his posterity had a land designed by God to be successively over their people, while Israel were in affic- their possession, as well as the children of Jacob, and they tion in Egypt.
were put in possession of it much sooner than the IsraelVerse 33. Jobab the son of Zerah] Many have sup ites; and God was pleased to protect them in the enjoyposed that Jobab is the same as Job, so remarkable for ment of it, and to caution the Israelites against invading his afflictions and patience; and that Eliphaz, mentioned them, with a remarkable strictness, Deut. 11. 4,5. And as ver. 10, &c. was the same who in the book of Job is called God was pleased thus to bless Esau and his children in the one of his friends : but there is no proper proof of this, and blessings of this life, even as much as he blessed Abraham, there are many reasons against it.
Isaac, or Jacob, if not more, why may we not hope to find Verse 35. Śmote Midian in the field of Moab] Bishop him with them at the last day, as well as Lot or Job, or Cumberland supposes that this was Midian, the son of any other good and virtuous man, who was not designed Abraham, by Keturah, and that he was killed by Hadad, to be a partaker of the blessing given to Abraham? 3. some time before he was one hundred and nine years of All the punishment inflicted on Esau was an exclusion age; and that Moses recorded this, probably, because it from being heir to the blessing promised to Abraham and was a calamity to the ancestor of Jethro, his father-in- to his seed, which was a favour not granted to Lot, to Job, law.-Orig. of Nat. p. 14.
to several other very virtuous and good men. 4. St. Paul, Verse 40. These are the names of the dukes that came in the passage before cited, only intends to show the Jews, of Esau) These dukes did not govern the whole nation that God had all along given the favours that led to the of the Idumeans, but they were chiefs in their respective Messiah where he pleased : to Abraham, not to Lot—10 families--in their places, the districts they governed, and Jacob, not to Esau, as at the time St. Paul wrote, the to which they gave their names. Calmet thinks, that Gentiles were made the people of God, not the Jews. 5. those mentioned above were dukes in Edom, or Idumea, Esau is indeed called profane (6:6720s :) but I think that at the time of the Exodus of Israel from Egypt.
word does not mean wicked or immoral (2006ms or se je zpr«20$ :) Verse 43. He is Esau the father of the Edomites] That he was called so, for not having that due value for the is, the preceding list contains an account of the posterity of priest's office which he should have had; and, therefore, Esau, who was the father of Edom. Thus ends Esau's though I think it does not appear that he was cut off from history; for after this there is no farther account of his being the heir of the promises by any particular action in life, actions, or death, in the Pentateuch.
his life, yet his turn of mind and thoughts do appear to 1. As to Esau, so considerable a person among divines, have been such, as to evidence, that God's purpose towards it may be necessary, in this place especially, to say some- Jacob was founded on the truest wisdom."-SHUCKFORD's thing farther of his conduct and character. I have already, Connexions, vol. II. p. 174, &c. in several places, endeavoured, and I hope successfully, to The truth is, the Messiah must spring from some ONE wipe off the odium that has been thrown upon this man-family; and God chose Abraham's, through Isaac, Jacob, (see the notes on ch. xxvii. and ch. xxxin.)- without at- &c. rather than the same through Ishmael
, Esau, and tempting to lessen his faults; and the unprejudiced reader the others in that line: but
from this choice it does not must see, that previous to this last account we have of follow, that the first were all necessarily sared, and the him, his character stands without a blot, except in the others necessarily lost. case of selling his birthright, and his purpose to destroy 2. To some the genealogical lists in this chapter will his brother. To the first he was led by his famishing doubtless appear uninteresting, especially those which consituation, and the unkindness of his brother, who refused cern Esau and his descendants : but it was as necessary to save his life but on this condition; and the latter, made to register the generations of Esau, as to register those of in the heat of vexation and passion, he never attempted to Jacob, in or to show that the Messiah did not spring execute, even when he had the most ample means and the from the former, but that he did spring from the latter. fairest opportunity to do it.
The genealogical tables, so frequently met with in the Dr. Shuckford has drawn an impartial character of Sacred Writings, and so little regarded by Christians in Esau, from which I extract the following particulars :- general, are extremely useful. 1. As they are standing “Esau was a plain, generous, and honest man; for we proofs of the truth of the prophecies, which stated that the have no reason, from any thing that appears in his life or Messiah should come from a particular family; which actions to think him wicked beyond other men of his age prophecies were clearly fulfilled in the birth of Christ
. 2. or times; and his generous and good temper appears from | As they testify, to the conviction of the Jews, that the
it his brethren: and they hated him yet the CHAPTER XXXVII.
more. Jacob continues to sojourn in Canaan, 1. Joseph, being seventeen years of age, is 6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you,
employel in feing the flock of his father, 2 Is lovel by his father more than the rest of his brethren, 3. His brethren ewy bim, 4. His dream of the sheners, 5-7. this dream which I have dreamed: His brethren inca pret it, and hate liini on the account, & His dream of the sun, Inoon, and eccentar., 9, 10, 11. Jacob culturn to visit his brethren, who were 7 For, 8 behold, we were binding sheaves in with the flock at Shechem, 13, 14. lewanders in the fiell, and is direcieu go to Dothan, whither luis breihren had removed the fucks, 15.-17. Seeing him coming,
the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood they companie telescoy bunkerlen, de tradizionali delives bio upright; and, behold your sheaves stood round of this count of any colours, and put sau into a pt, 2, Tey wherwurd draw about, and made obeisance to my sheat.
8 And his brethren said to him, shalt thou silver, who carry him into Ery, 25-28. Reuben returns to the pit, and not finding Jouph, is greatly utlectal, 9, 10 Joseph's brtthren dipl.in codi in gott's blond to indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have greatly disintased, 31, 36. Joseph is soll in Egypt to Poliphar captain of Pharaoh's dominion over us? and they hated him yet the 36
more for his dreams, and for his words. ND Jacob dwelt in the land a wherein his 9 And he yet another , and
dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun 2 These are the generations of Jacob. and the moon and the eleven stars made obei
Joseph being seventeen years old, was sance to me. feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad 10 And he told it to his father, and to his was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons brethren: and his father rebuked hiin, and said of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought unto him, What is this dream that thou hast unto his father their evil report.
dreamed ? Shall I, and thy mother, and thy 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his brethren, indeed come to bow down ourselves children, because he was the son of his old to thee to the earth? age: and he made him a coat of many e colours. 11 And "his brethren envied him; but his
4 And when his brethren saw that their father father observed the saying. loved him more than all his brethren, they 'hated 12 | And his brethren went to feed their him, and could not speak peaceably unto him. father's flock in Shechem.
5 | And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told 13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy a Heb. of his father's enjournings.-b Ch.17.8.& 23. 4. & 34. & 36. 7. Heb. II. ( Ch. 27. 41. & 19.23. -- Ch. 12 6,9. & 13.2. & 44. 14.-- Ch. 16. 2.-i CL.2.2. 9.-c l'skua. 2. 22, 23, 24-JCh. 44. 20.--. Or, pieces. Julges 5.30. 2 Sam. 13. 13.
k Acts 7.9.-1 Dan. 7. 28. Luke 2. 19,51: Messiah, thus promised, is found in the person of Jesus of father had thus made him such a distinguished object of his Nazareth, who incontestably sprang from the last, the only partial love. We have already seen some of the evils producremaining branch of the family of David. These registersed by this unwarrantable conduct of parents in preierring one were religiously preserved among the Jews till the de- child to all the rest. The old fable of the ape and her farourstruction of Jerusalem, after which they were all destroyed ; | ite cub, which she hugged to death through kindness, was insomuch, that there is not a Jew in the universe who can directed against such foolish parental fondnesses as these. trace himself to the family of David : consequently all Verse 4. And could not speak peuccably unto him) expectation of a Messiah to come, is, even on their own Does not this imply, in our use of the term, that they were principles, nugatory and absurd; as nothing remains to continually quarrelling with him? but this is no meaning legitimate his birth. When Christ came, all these regis original; o' yakelu ters were in existence. When St. Matthew and St. Luke leshalom, they could not speak peace to him, i. e. they wrote, all these registers were still in existence; and hard would not accost him in a friendly manner. They would they pretended, what could not have been supported, an not even wish him will. The eastern method of salutaappeal to the registers would have convicted them of tion is, Peace be to thee! 75 0950 shalom loca, among the a falsehood. But no Jew attempted to do this, notwith Hebrews; and p uw salām, uçle plus or purus Sestanding the excess of their malice against Christ and his làm âleck or âlerkum, peace to thee-Be in prosperity, or followers; and because they did not do it, we may safely plw salām nebi, peace, or peace to thee, my friend, assert, no Jew could do it. Thus the foundation standeth among the Arabs. Now as peace among those nations
comprehends all kinds of blessings spiritual and temporal; NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXVII.
so they are careful not to say it to those whom they do not Verse 1. Wherein his father was a stranger] 4990 cordially wish well. It is not an unusual úning for an "IN megurey abair, Jacob dwelt in the land of his Arab or a Tuk to hesitate to return the salūm, if given father's sojournings, as the margin very properly reads by a Christian, or by one of whom he has not a favourable it. This place was probably the vale of Hebron, see opinion: and this, in their own country, inay be ever conver. 14.
sidered as a mark of hostility, not only as a proof that they Verse 2. These are the generations] nibn toledoth, do not wish you well, but that if they have an opportunity, the history of the lives and actions of Jacob and his sons: they will do you an injury. This was precisely the case for in this general sense the original must be taken: as in with respect to Joseph's brethren; they would not give the whole of the ensuing history there is no particular ac him the sulām, and therefore felt themselves at liberty to count of any genealogical succession. Yet the words take the first opportunity to injure lim. may be understood as referring to the tables or genealogi Verse 7. We were binding sheures in the field] Though cal" lists in the preceding chapier; and if so, the original in these early times we real little of tillage, yet it is evimust be understood in its common acceptation.
dent from this circumstance, that it was practiced by Jacob The lad was with the sons of Bilhah] It is supposed and his sons. The whole of this dream is so very plain that our word lad comes from the Hebrew 750 yeled, a as to require no comment, unless we could suppose that child, a son, and that lass is a contraction of ladess, ihe the shares of grain might have some reference to the female of lad, a girl, a young woman. Some have sup- plenty in Egypt under Joseph's superintendunce; and the posed that King James desired the translators to insert scarcity in Canaan, which obliged the bretiren i go down this word: but this must be a mistake, as the word occurs to Egypt for corn, where the dream was most literally in this place in Tindals translation, printed in 1549. fulfilled; his brethren there, bowing in the most abject
Brought unto his father their evil report) Conjecture manner before him. has been busily employed to find out what this evil report Verse 9. He dreamed yet another dream] This is as might be. It is needless to inquire what it was, as on this clear as the preceding. But how could Jarob say, shall I head the sacred text is perfectly silent. All the use we and thy mother, &c. when Rachel his mother was dead, can make of this information is, that it was one cause of time before this? Perhaps Jacob might bini, increasing his brothers' hatred to him, which was first ex- by this explanation, the impossibility of such a dream cited by his father's partiality, and secondly by his own being fulfilled; because one of the persons who should dreams.
be a chicf actor in il, was already dead. But any one Verse 3. A coat of many colours) Do nona kolonet wife or concubine of Jacob was quite suflicient to fulfil passim, a coat made up of stripes of differently coloured this part of the dream. It is possille, some think, that cloth. Similar to this was the logu præte.rta of the Roman | Joseph may have had ihese dreams before his mother Rayouth, which was white, striped or fringed with purple; chel died; but were even this the case, she certainly did this they wore till they were seventeen years of age, when not live to fulfil the part which appears to refer to herself. they changed it for the loga virilis, or toga pura, which was The sun, and the moon, and the eleren stars] Why all white. Such vestures, as clothing of distinction, are cleven stars? Was it merely to signify that his brothers worn all over Persia, India, and China to the present day. Itis might be represented by stars ? Or does he not rather there no wonder that his brethren should envy him, when his | allude to the Zodiac, his cloven brethren answering to
brethren feed the flock in Shechem ? come, and out of his cont, his coat of many i colours, that I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, was on him; Here am I.
24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit : 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, a see and the pit urus empty, there was no water in it. whether it be well with thy brethren, and well 25 * And they sat down to eat bread: and they with the flocks; and bring ine word again. So listed up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead, came to Shechem,
with their camels bearing epicery, and mbalm 15 And a certain man found him, and behold and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. he was wandering in the field: and the man 26 And Judah said unto his brethren, What asked him, saying, What seekest thou?
profit is it if we slay our brother, and " conceal 16 And he said, I seek my brethren: ° tell me, his blood ? I pray thee, where they feed their flocks.
27 Come, and let us eell him to the Ishrncel'17 And the man said, They are departed ites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Do pis our brother and a our flesh. And his brethren than. And Joseph went after his brethren, and r were content. found them in Dothan.
28 Then there passed by Midianites, mer18 | And when they saw him afar off, even chant-men; and they drew and lifted up Joseph Tefore he came near unto
them, they conspired out of the pit, ' and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelagainst him to slay him.
ites for twenty pieces of silver: and they 19 And they said one to another, Behold, this brought Joseph into Egypt. I dreamer cometh.
29 | And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, 20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent and cast him into some pit, and we will say, his clothes. Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we 30 And he returned unto his brethren, and shall see what will become of his dreams. said, The "child is not; and I, whither shall I go?
21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered 31 1 And they took * Joseph's coat, and killed him out of their hands; and said, Let us not a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the kill him.
blood; 22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no 32 And they sent the coat of many colours, blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the and they brought it to their father; and said, wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he This have we found: know now whether it be might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him thy son's coat or no. to his father again.
33 And he knew it, and said, It is my son's 23 | And it came to pass, when Joseph was coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces !
a leh, see the peure of thy brethren, &c. Ch. 23. 6. Ch. 35. 27.-e Cant. I. 7. d 2 Kings 6. 13 - 1 Sam. 19. 1. Pra 31 13 & 37. 12, 32 & 91. 21. Matt. 27. 1. Mark 11. 1. John 11. 56 dets 23 12 -- llet master of dreams.---. Prov. I. 11, 16 & 6 17. & 27. 4.- ( 12 2-1 Or, peces.- Prov. 30. 20. Ainos G. 6,- See Ver. B. 36.
m Jer. 8. 2.-a Ch. 4. 10. Ver. 20. Job 16. 18.-0 I Sam. 18. 17. - Ch. 42. 21- Ch. 2. 14.-r lleb. henrkond. -- Judges 63. Ch. 45. 4, 5.-! Psa. 105. 17. Wirl. 10. 13. Acts 7. 9. -- ! See Matt. 29.9.-- Job 1. 20.--Ch 12. 13, 3. Jer. 31. 15.-X Ver. 2 --y Ver. 30. Ch. 4. 2
eleven of the celestial signs, and himself to the twelfth ? | probably was done, that if ever found, he might not be This is certainly not an unnatural thought, as it is very discerned to be a person of distinction, and consequently likely that the heavens were thus measured in the days of no inquiry made concerning him. Joseph; for the zodiacal constellations have been distin Verse 25. They sat down to eat bread] Every act is guished among the eastern nations from time immemo- perfectly in character, and describes forcibly the brulish rial.-See the notes at the end of chap. xlix.
and diabolic nature of their ruthless souls. Verse 14. Go-sce whcther it be well with thy brethren] A company of Ishmeeliles) We may naturally suppose Literally, Go, I beseech thee, and see the peace of thy that this was a cararan, composed of different tribes, that brethren, and the peace of the flock. Go and see whether for their greater safety were travelling together, and of they are all in prosperity.-See on ver. 4. As Jacob's which Ishmcelites and Midianites made the chief. In sons were now gone to feed the flock on the parcel of the Chaldee they are called Arabians, which from any ground they had bought from the Shechemites, see chap. àrab, to mingle, was in all probability used by the Tarxxxii. 19. and where they had committed such a horrible gumist, as the word Arabians is used among us, which slaughter, their father might feel more solicitous about comprehends a vast number of clans, or tribes of people. their welfare, lest the neighbouring tribes should rise The Jerusalem Targum calls them ipo Serakin, what against them, and revenge the murder of the Shechemites. we term Sarozens. In the Persian, the clause stands A3 Jacob appears to have been at this time in the rule thus (OCW
luis Gilg,s kararanèe ishmâaof Hebron, it is supposed that Shechem was about sixty leem äraban úya.""A caravan of Ishmaelites and Arabs English miles distant from it, and that Dothan was about
This seems to give the true sense. eight miles farther. But I must again advertise my read Verse 28. For twenty pieces of silver] This, I think, ers, that all these calculations are very dubious; for we is the first instance on record of selling a man for a slave; do not even know that the same place is intended, as there but the practice certainly did not commence now; it had are many proofs, that diferent places went by the same doubtless been in use long before. Instead of pieces, which
our translators supply, the Persian hus Jlico miskal, Verse 19. Behold, this dreamer cometh] nasan ka which was probally intended to signify a shekel, and if baal hachalamoth, this master of dreams, this master shikils be intended, taking thein at three shillings each, dreamer. A form of speech which conveys great con Joseph was sold for about threc pounds sterling. I have tempt.
known a whole cargo of slaves, amounting to cight hunVerse 20. Come nou—and let us slay him] What un dred and thirteen, bought by a slave captain in Bonny principled savages these must have been, io talk thus river, in Africa, on an average, for six pounds each; and coolly about imbruing their hands in an innocent brother's this payment was made in guns, gunpoioder, and trinkets ! blood! How necessary is a divine revelation, to show inan As there were only lin of the brethren present, and they what God hates and what he loves. Ferocious cruelty is sold Joseph for licenty shekels, each had two shekels as the principal characteristic of the nations and tribes who his share in this most insamo is transaction. receive not the law at his mouth.
Verse 29. Reuben returned unto the pit] It appears he Verre 21. Reuben heard it] Though Reuben appears to was absent when the caravan passed by, to whom the have been a transgressor of no ordinary magnitude, if we other brethren had sold Joseph; probably some of them take chap. xxxv. 22. according to the letter, yet his bosom fed their focks separately; though this does not appear was not the habitation of cruclty. He determined, if to have been a general case. possible, to save his brother from death, and deliver him Verse 30. The child is not ; and I, whither shall I go?) safely to his father, with whose fondness for him he was These words in the original are very plaintive, 137 1377590 sufficiently acquainted. Josephus, in luis usual way, puts NB NTN hu-yeled einennoo, weanee anah, ance bā ! a long flourishing speech in the mouth of Reuben on the Verse 32. Sent the coal of many colours-to their occasion, spoken in order to dissuade his brethren from father] What deliberate crucily io torture the feelings of their barbarous purpose; but as it is totally false, it is their aged father, and thus harrow up his soul! worthy of no regard.
Verse 33. Joseph is without doubt rent in picces:'It is Verse 23. They strip! Joseph out of his coat] This I likely he inferred this from the laccrated staic of the coat; Vol. I.-19
34 And Jacob « rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son
CHAPTER XXXVIII. many days.
Judah marries the daughter of a Canaanite, 1, 2, and begets of her Er, 3, Onan, 4 35 And all his sons and all his daughters brose anl Shelah, 5. Er matic Trnar, 5, is slain for his wicketuese, 7. Ozan repared
to raise up sed to his brother, resuscs, $, 9. He also is elxin, 10. Jolah pa up to comfort him; but he refused to be com bis son Sketch 'Tainar, wlan he shonlll be of age; but performs pol his promise,
II. Judah's wife clies, 12 Tamar derived her father-in-law, he kases han signet, forted; and he said, For I will go down into
bracelets, and staff in her hand, an she conceives by him, 13-23. Juzlahin the grave unto my son mourning. Thus his el that his daughter-in-law is with child, and not knowing that mathe
father, condemus her to tu bumi, 21. Ste princes the signet, bracelets, and staff, father wept for him.
and convicts Juulah, 25, 3. She is delivered of twins, who are called Pharez and 36 1 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt,
ND it came to "captain of the guard.s
a Ver. 29. 2 Sam. 3.31.- 2 Sam. 13. 17. --- Ch. 42.38. & 41. 29, 31 - Ch. 32. I. e Heb. eunuch. But the word doth signify not only curuchs, but also chamberlains,
courtiers, and officera. Esth. 1. 10. --- Heb. chief of the slaughtermen oz erect tioners. - Or, chief marshal.
which, in order the better to cover their wickedness, they into paradise. Joseph requests the person that should be had not only besmeared with the blood of the goat, but it delivered, to be mindful of him in his glory: the person is probable reduced to tatters. And what must a father's saved by Jesus Christ, entreats his deliverer to remember heart have felt in such a case! As this coat is rent, so is him when he came into his kingdom.”- Parallels and the body of my beloved son rent in pieces! and Jacob coincidences of this kind should always be received caurent his clothes.
tiously; for where the Spirit of God has not marked a Verse 35. All his sons and all his daughters] He had direct resemblance, and obviously referred to it as such, in only one daughter, Dinah, but his sons' wives may be some other part of his word, it is bold, if not dangerous, here included; but what hypocrisy in his sons to attempt to say "such and such things and persons are types of to comfort him concerning the death of a son whom they Christ." We have instances sufficiently numerous, legitiknew was alive; and what cruelty to put :vir aged father mately attested, without having recourse to those which to such torture, when, properly speaking, there was no are of dubious import, and precarious application.-See ground for it!
the observations on chap. xl. Verse 36. Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's] The word 2. Envy has been defined, "Pain felt, and malignity Od saris, which we translate otsicer, signifies properly a conceived, at the sight of excellence or happiness in eunuch, and lest any person should imagine, that because another." Under this detestable passion, did the brethren this Potiphar had a wife, therefore it is absurd to suppose of Joseph labour ; and had not God particularly interposed, him to have been a eunuch, let such persons know, that it would have destroyed both its subjects and its object. it is not uncommon in the east, for eunuclis to have wives, Perhaps there is no vice which so directly filiates itself on nay, some of them have even a harem or seraglio, where Satan as this does. In opposition to the assertion that we they keep many women, though it does not appear that cannot envy that by which we profit; it may be safely rethey have any progeny: and probably discontent on this plied, that we may envy, our neighbour's wisdom, though ground, might have contributed as much to the unfaith he gives us good counsel; his riches, though he supplies fulness of Potiphar's wife, as that less principled motive, our wants; and his greatness, though he employs it for through which, it is commonly believed, she acted. our protection.
Captain of the guard.] onun 10 sar hatabachim, 3. How ruinous are family distractions! A house di“chief of the butchers," a most appropriate name for the vided against itself cannot stand. Parents should take guards of an eastern despot. If a person offend one of good heed that their own conduct be not the first and most the despotic eastern princes, the order to one of the life- powerful cause of such dissensions, by exciting endy in guarda is, Go and bring me his head, and this command some of their children, through undue partiality to others: is instantly obeyed, without judge, jury, or any form of but it is in vain to speak to most parents on the subject; law. Potiphar, we may therefore suppose, was captain they will give way to foolish predilections, till, in the preof those guards, whose business it was to take care of vaising distractions of their families, they meet with the the royal person, and execute his sovereign will on all the punishment of their imprudence. objects of his displeasure. Reader, if thou hast the hap
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXVIII. piness to live under the British constitution, be thankful Verse 1. And it came to pass at that time] The facts to God.
Here the will, the power, and utmost influence mentioned here, could not have happened at the times of the king, were he even so disposed, cannot deprive the mentioned in the preceding chapter, as those times are all meanest subject of his property, his liberty, or his life. unquestionably too recent, for the very earliest of the transAll the solemn, legal forms of justice, must be consulted; actions here recorded, must have occurred long before the culprit, however accused, be heard by himself and his the selling of Joseph. Mr. Ainsworth remarks, " that counsel; and in the end, twelve honest impartial men, Julah and his sons must have married when very young, chosen from among his fellows, shall decide on the validity else the chronology will not agree. For Joseph was born of the evidence produced by the accuser. For the trial si.r years before Jacob left Laban, and came into Canaan, by jury, as well as for innumerable political blessings, xxx. 25. xxxi. 41. Joseph was setenteen years old when may God make the inhabitants of Great Britain thankful! he was sold into Egypt, xxxvii
. 2, 25. he was thirty years 1. With this chapter the history of Josephi commences, old when he interpreted Pharaoh's dream, chap. xli. 46. and sets before our eyes such a scene of wonders, wrought | And nine years after, when there had been seren years of by divine providence, in such a variety of surprising in- plenty and two years of famine, did Jacob with his family stances, as cannot fail to confirm our faith in God, show go down into Egypt, chop: xli. 53, 54. and xlv. 6, 11. the propriety of resignation to his will, and confidence in And at their going down thither, Pharez, the son of Judah, his dispensations, and prove that all things work together whose birth is set down in the end of this chapter, had for good to them that love him. Joseph has often been two sons, Hezron and Hamul, chap. xlvi. &, 12. Seeing considered as a type of Christ; and this subject, in the then from the selling of Joseph, unto Israel's going down hands of different persons, has assumed a great variety of into Egypt, there cannot be above trenty-three years; how colouring. The following parallels appear the most is it possible that Judah should take a wife, and have by probable, but I shall not pledge myself for the propriety her three sons successively, and Shelah the youngest of of any of them. “Jesus Christ, préfigured by Joseph, the the three be marriagcable when Judah begat Pharez of beloved of his father, and hy him sent to visit his brethren, | Tamar, chap. xxxviii. 14, 24. and Pharez be grown up. is the innocent person whom his brethren sold for a few married, and have two sons, all within so short a space ! pieces of silver, ihe bargain proposed by his brother Judah, The time therefore here spoken of, seems to have been (Greek, Judas) the very namesake of that disciple and soon alter Jacob's coming to Shechem, chap. xxxn. 16. brother, for so Christ vouchsafes to call hiin, who soll his before the history of Dinuh, chap. xxxiv. thongh Moses, Lord and Master; and who, by this means, became their for special cause, relates it in this place." I should rather Lord and Saviour; nay, the Saviour of strangers, and suppose that this chapter originally stood after chap. xxxii. of the whole world; which had not happened, but for this and that it got by accident into this place. Dr. Hales, obplot of destroying him, this act of rejecting, and exposing serving that some of Jacob's sons must have married rehim to sale. In both examples we find the same fortune markably young, says, that “ Judah was about forty-seren and the same innocence: Joseph in the prison between years old when Jacob's family settled in Egypt. He could two criminals; Jesus on the cross between two thieves : not therefore have been above fifteen at the birth of his Joseph fortells deliverance to one of his companions, and eldest son Er; nor Er more than fifteen at his marriage death to the other, from the same omens: of the two with Tamar: nor could it have been more than tuo years thieves, one reviles Christ, and perishes in his crimes; after Er's death, till the birth of Judah's twin sons by his the other believes, and is assured of a speedy entrance I daughter-in-law Tamar ; nor could Pharez, one of them,
A. M. cir. 2132
A. M. air. 2373
A M. cir. 2236 B C cu 1783.
A. M. cir. 2273
• turned in to a certain • Adullamite, whose name and Judah • was comforted, and went up unto was Hirah.
his sheep-shearers to Timnah, he and his friend 2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a cer- Hirah the Adullamite. tain Canaanite whose name was Shuah;
and 13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold he took her, and went in unto her.
thy father-in-law goeth up · to Timnath to shear 3 And she conceived, and bare a his sheep. son; and he called his name e Er. 14 And she put her widow's garments off
4 And she conceived again, and from her, and covered her with a veil, and
bare a son; and she called his name wrapped hersell, and sat in wan open place, Onan.
which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw 5 And she yet again conceived, and x that Shelah was grown, and she was not given
bare a son; and called his name & She- unto him to wife. lah: and he was at Chezib, when she bare 15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to him.
be a harlot; because she had covered her face. 6 T And Judah b took a wise for Er 16 And he turned unto her by the way, and his first-born, whose name was Ta- said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto
thee; (for he knew not that she was his daughter 7 And i Er, Judah's first-born, was wicked in in law.) And she said, What wilt thou give me, the sight of the LORD; kand the Lord slew him that thou mayest come in unto me?
8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto I thy 17 And he said, y I will send thee : a kid from brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a seed unto thy brother.
pledge, till thou send it ?' 9 And Onan knew that the seed should not be 18 And he said, What pledge shall I give his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. ground, lest that he should give seed to his And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and brother.
she conceived by him. 10 And the thing which he did " displeased the 19 And she arose, and went away, and laid LORD: wherefore he slew • him also.
by her veil from her, and put on the garments B. C. eir. 1730
11 Then said Judah to Tamar his of her widowhood.
daughter-in-law, Remain a widow at 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown: friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from (for he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as the woman's hand: but he found her not. his brethren did.) “And Tamar went and dwelt 21 Then he asked the men of that place, saya in her father's house.
ing, Where is the harlot, that was d openly by 12 [ And in process of time the the way side? And they said, There was no B C. em. 17A, daughter of Shuah, Judah’s wile, died; harlot in this place,
A. Meir. 2274
A M. cir. 277.
Ch 192, 3. Jn Iges 1. 19. 2 Kings 4. 9. Prov. 13 2.--- Josii. 15. 35. 1 Sam. 2. 1. 2 Sara 2313 Micah l. 15.-c Ch 31. 21 Chron. 23.-Ch. 46. 12 Numb. 3. 19. Ch. 46. 12 Namb. i 19.-
Ch 16. 12. Numh. 26. 20.-- Ch. 21.2.-i Ch. 46. 12 Namb. 26. 19.--I Chron. 23 Deut. 25. 5. Mau. 22. 24.-m Deut. 25. 6.-n Heb. as eril in the eyes of the LORD.- Ch. 46. 12 Numb. 3. 19.-p Rutb 1. 13.
Lev. 22. 13. --- Heb. the days are multiplied. 2 Sam 13. 39.- Jost. 15. 10. 57. Judges 14. 1.--u Judith 10. 3. ---v Prov. 7. 12.-.-.w Heh. the door of eyes, or, of Enojim x Ver. 11, 35.---y Exek. 16. 33. Heb a kid of the goats. -a Ver. 20.-- Ver 25 e Ver. 14. Or, in Enofin.
be inore than fifteen at the birth of his two sons Hezron general use in the Bible, needs explanation; the original and Hamul, supposing they were twins, just born before is d'171279 vaiyirbu ha-yamim, and the days were multhe departure from Canaan. For the aggregate of these tiplied: though it implies an indefinite time, yet it genernumbers, 15+15+2+15 = 47 years, gives the age of Jually embraces a pretty long period, and in this place may dah, compare chap. xxxviii. with chap. xlvi. 2."*
Inean sereral years. Adullamite] An inhabitant of Adullum, a city of Ca Verse 15. l'hought her to be a harlot) See the original naan, afterward given for a possession to the sons of Judah, of this term, chap. xxxiv. 31. The Hebrew is 719 zonah, Josh, xv. 1, 35. It appears as if this Adullamite had kepi and signifies generally a person who prostitutes herself to a kind of house of entertainment, for Hirah the Canann- the public for hire; or one who lives by the public; and ite and his family lodged with him; and there Judah hence very likely applied to a publican, a tavern-keeper, lodged also. As the woman was a Canaanitess, Judah or hostess, Josh. ii. 1. translated by the Sepmagint, and in had the example of his fathers, to prove at least the im the New Tesiament, as prx, from siqvxo, to sell, which cerpropriety of such a connexion.
tainly may as well apply to her goods as to her person. Verse 5. And he (Judah) was at Chezib when she bare It appears that, in very ancient times, there were public him) This town is supposed to be the game with Achzib, persons of this description : that they generally veiled which fell to the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 44. The name, themselves; sut in pablic places by the highway side; and says Ainsworth, has ini Hebrew the signification of lying; received a certain hire. Though adultery was reputed a and to it the prophet alludes, saying the houses of Achzib very flagrant crime, yet this public prostitution was not: shall be (Achzah) a lie to the kings of Israel. Mic. i. 14. for persons whose characters were, on the whole, morally
Verge 7. Er-uas wicked in the sight of the Lord] good, hud connexions with them. But what could be exWhat this wickedness consisted in, we are not told; but pected from an age, in which there was no urritlen divine the phrase, sigil of the Lord, being adilar, proves that it revelation; and consequently the bonnds of right and was some very greai evil. Ti is worthy of remark, that wrong no: sufficiently ascertained. This defect was supthe Hebrew word used to express Er's wickedness, is his plied in a considerable measure by the law and the proown name, the letters rerersed. Er ny, wicked, yn râ. phets; anı now, completely, by the Gospel of Christ. As if the inspired writer had said, “Er was altogether Verse 17. Will thou gire ine a pledgefill thou send it ?] wicked, a completely abandoned character."
The word 1999 arabon signifies an earnest of something Verse 9. Onun knew that the seed should not be his] promised--a part of the price agreed for, between a buyer That is, that the child begotten of his brother's widow, and seller, hy giving and recriring of which, the bargain should be reckoned as the child of his deceased brother; was ratified; or a deposit, which wils to he restored, when and his nune, though the real father of it, should not ap the thing promised 'should be given. St. Paul uses the pe u in the genealogical tables.
some word in Greek letters, spoxhur, 2 Cor. i. 22. Ephes. Verse 10. IPherefore he slcio him also.] The sin of | i. 14. From the use of the term in this history, we may at Onan hus generally been supposed to be self-ro'lution. once see what the apostle incans by the Holy Spirit being But this is certainly a mistnke: his crime was his refusal the EARNEST, poxtov, of the promised inheritance; viz. to raise up scel to his brother; and rather than do it, he, a sccurity given in hind for the fulfilment of all God's by th: act mentioned above, renlered himself incapable of promises relative to grare and eternal life. We may learn i. We find from the history, that long before the Mosaic from this, that eternal life will he given, in the great day, law, it was an established custom, probably foundled on a to all who can produce this arabon or pledge: he who has divine precept, that is a man died childless, his brother the earnest of the Spirit then in his heart, shall not only was to take his wife; and the children produced by this be saved from death, hut have that cternal life of which it
300:inurriage, were considered as the children of the is the pledge, and the evidence. What the pledge given first husband, and in consomance inheriter his possessions. by Judah wus, see on ver. 25. Verse 12. In process of lime] This phrase, which is in Verse 21. Where is the harlot that was openly by the