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B. C. cir. 1735

32 - Ver. 18.- Ch 37. 33-g 1 Sam. 24. 17.-h Ver. 11..-- Job 31. 31, 32

k Or, Wherefore hast thou made this breach against thee 1-1 'That is, a brooch.

m Ch. 16. 12 Numb. 6. 20. I Chron. 24. Matt. 1. 3.

22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I can She hath been more righteous than I; because not find her; and also the men of the place said, that "I gave her not to Shelah my son. And that there was no harlot in this place.

he knew her again i no more. 23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, lest 27 | And it came to pass in the time A M. c. 778 we a be shamed: behold, I sent this kid, and thou of her travail, that, behold, twins were hast not found her.

in her womb. 24 And it came to pass about three months 28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy that the one put out his hand: and the midwife daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. saying, This came out first. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be 29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his burnt.

hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and 25 When she was brought forth, she sent to she said, How hast thou broken forth? this her father-in-law, saying, By the man, whose breach be upon thee: therefore his name was these are, am I with child: and she said, ' Dis- called Pharez." cern, I pray thee, whose are these, e the signet, 30 And afterward came out his brother, that and bracelets, and staff.

had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his 26 And Judah 'acknowledged them, and said, name was called Zarah. a Heb berome a contrmpi.- Julges 19.2-c Lev. 21. 9. Deut. 22. 2.--d Ch. 37.

* way side?! Our translators often render different Hebrew yet Pharez is usually reckoned in the genealogical tables words by the same term in English ; and thus many im- before Zarah; and from him, not Zarah, does the line of portant shades of meaning, which involve traits of cha our Lord proceed. See Matt. i. 3. Probably the two broracter, are lost. In ver. 15. Tamar is called a harlot, 7217 thers, as being twins, were conjoined in the privileges bezonah, which, as we have already seen, signifies a person longing to the birthright. who prostitutes herself for money. In this verse she is Verse 29. How hast thou broken forth) nand no mah called a hurlot in our version, but the original is not an pharutsta--This breach be upon ihee-Dyby sleyca zonah, but 1997 kcdeshah, a holy or consecrated person, pharels-thou shalt bear the name of the breach thou hast from wop kadash, to make holy, or to consecrate to reli- | inade, i. e. in coming first into the world. Therefore his gious purposes. And the word here must necessarily name was called pro Pharets, i. e. the person who made signify a person consecrated by prostitution, to the worship the breach, as the word literally signifies. The breach of some impure goddess.

here mentioned, refers to a certain circumstance in parturiThe public prostitutes in the temple of Venus are called tion, which it is unnecessary to explain. ospodovano gurzexts, holy or consecrated female serrants, by Verse 30. His name was called Zarah] 77: Zarach, Strabo: and it appears from the words zonah and kadesha risen or sprung up, applied to the sun, rising and diffusing above, that impure rites and public prostitution prevailed his light." "He had this name,” says Ainsworth, "because in the worship of the Canaanites, in the time of Judah. he should have risen, i. e. have been born first, but for the And among these people we have much reason to believe, breach which his brother made." that Astarlè and Asteroth occupied the same place in their There are several subjects in this chapter on which it theology, as Venus did among the Greeks and Romans; may not be unprofitable to spend a few additional moments. and were worshipped with the same impure rites.

1. The insertion of this chapter is a farther proof of the Verse 23. Lest we be shamed] Not of the act, for this impartiality of the sacred writer. The facts detailed, he does not appear to have thought criminal; but lest he considered in themselves, can reflect no credit on the patrishould fall under the raillery of his companions and neigh- archol history: but Judah, Tamar, Zarah, and Pharez bours, for having been tricked out of his signet, bracelets, were progenitors of the Messiah, and therefore their birth and staff by a prostitute.

must be recorded; and, as the birth, so also the circumVerse 24. Bring her forth, and let her be burnt] As stances of that birth, which, even bad they not a higher he had ordered Tamar to live as a widow in her own end in view, would be valuable as casting light upon some father's house till his son Shelah should be marriageable, very ancient customs, which it is interesting to understand. he considers her, therefore, as the wise of his son; and as These are not forgoiten in the preceding notes. Shelah was not yet given to her, and she is found with child, 2. On what is generally reputed to be the sin of Onan, she is reputed by him as an adulteress; and burning, it something very pointed should be spoken; but who dares seems, was anciently the punishment of this crime. Judah, and will do it, and in such language that it may neither being a patriarch or head of a family, had, according to the pollute the ear by describing the evil as it is, nor fail of its custom of those times, the supreme magisterial authority effect by a language so refined and so laboriously delicate over all the branches of his own family; therefore, he only as to cover the sin, which it professes to disclose? Elaacts here in his juridical capacity. How strange, that in borate treatises on the subjeci will never be read by those the very place where adultcry was punished by the most who need them most; and anonymous pamphlets are not violent death, prostitution for money and religious pur- likely to be regarded. poses, should be considered as no crimes !

The sin of self-pollution, which is generally considered Verse 25. The signet] nona chotemeth, properly a to be that of Onan, is one of the most destructive evils ever seal or instrument with which impressions were made to practised by fallen man. In many respects it is several ascertain property, &c.

degrees worse than common whoredom, and has in its train Bracelets)' obino pelilim, from no patal, to twist, more awful consequences, though practised by numbers wreath, twine, probably signifies a girdle, or a collar by who would shudder at the thought of criminal connexions which precedency, &c. might be indicated; not the muslin, with a prostitute. It excites the powers of nature to undue silk, or linen wreath of his turban, as Mr. Harmer and action, and produces riolent secretions, which necessarily others have conjectured.

and speedily exhaust the vital principle and energy; Stuf:) no matteh, either what we would call a com- hence the muscles become flaccid and feeble, the tone and mon walking-stick, or the staff which was ihe ensign of natural action of the nerves relaxed and impeded; the unhis tribe.

derstanding confused, the memory oblivious, the judgment Verse 26. She hath been moro righteous than 1] It is perverted, the will indeterminate and wholly without enerprobable that Tamar was influenced by no other motive sy to resist : the eyes appear languishing, and without than that which was common to all the Israelitish women, expression, and the countenance vacant. The appetite the desire to have children who might be heirs of the pro- ceases, for the stomach is incapable of performing its promise made to Abraham, &c. And as Judah had obliged per office, nutrition fails, tremors, fears, and terrors are her to continue in her widowhood, under the promise of generated, and thus the wretched victim drags out a inost giving her his son Shelah, when he should be of age; miserable existence, till superannuated even before he had consequently, his refusing or delaying to accomplish this time to arrive at man's estate, with a mind often debilitated promise, was a breach of truth, and an injury done io cven to a state of idiotism, his worthless body tumbles into Tamar.

the grave, and his guilty soul (guilty of self-murder) is Verse 28. The midwife--bound upon his hand a scarlet hurried into the awful presence of its Judge !-Reader, this thread] The binding of the scarlet ihread about the wrist is no caricature: nor are the colourings overcharged in this of the child, whose arm appeared first in the birth, serves shocking picture. Worse woes than my pen can relate, I to show us how solicitously the privileges of the birth- bave witnessed in those addicted to this fascinating, unnaright were preserved. Had not this caution been taken by tural, and most destructive of crimes. If thou hast entered the midwife, Pharez would have had the right of primoge- into this snare, flee from the destruction both of body and nilure to the prejudice of his elder brother Zarah. And soul that awaits thee! God alone can save thee. Advice,

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B. C. cir. 1719.

prisoners, 22, 23.



hands; and he knew not aught he had, save the Icoopn being brought to Potiphar's honge, prospers in all his undertakings, 1–3 Poti- bread which he did eat. And Joseph " was a plaar makes in his covereer en la prompere in the big concerns for complete sok goodly person, and well favoured. crudinal curreporudenca, 7. He retures, and makes a fine apology for his conduct, 8,9 She contímto her solicitations, the suis refusing to the hero things, that his master's wife cast her

? | And it came to pass after these A. M. cir. 9985. an! afterward to Pulpiar. 16-18 Poliphar is enraged, ani Joseph is cast into eyes upon Joseph; and she said, i Lie with me. prisen, 19, 2). "The Londproepers him, and gives hin great favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison, 21, who entrusts him with vie care of the house and all the 8 But he refused, and said unto his master's

wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is ND Joseph was brought down to Egypt; with me in the house, and he hath committed tain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of 9 There is none greater in this house than I; the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought neither hath he kept back any thing from me him down thither.

but thee, because thou art his wife: k how then 2 And the LORD was with Joseph, and he can I do this great wickedness, and I sin against was a prosperous man; and he was in the house God ? of his master the Egyptian.

10 And it came to pass, as she spake to Joseph 3 And his master saw that the LORD was with day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to him, and that the LORD I made all that he did lie by her, or to be with her. to prosper in his hand.

11 And it came to pass about this time, that 4 And Joseph e found grace in his sight, and Joseph went into the house to do his business; he served him: and he made him overseer and there was none of the men of the house over his house, and all that he had he put into there within. his hand.

12 And mshe caught him by his garment, 5 And it came to pass from the tiine that he saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in had made him overseer in his house, and over her hand, and fled, and got him out. all that he had, that the LORD blessed the 13 And it came to pass, when she saw that Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the he had left his garment in her hand, and was blessing of the Lord was upon all that he had fled forth, in the house, and in the field.

14 That she called unto the men of her house, 6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's and spake unto them, saying, See, he hath

a Ch. 37. 38. Pst. 106. 17.- Ch. 37.2-c Ver. 31. Ch. 21. 22. & 26, 21, 28. & 28 15. I Sam. 16. 18 & 18. 14, S. Acts 7.9.- Ps. 1. 3.-e Ch. 18 3. & 19. 19. Ver.

21.-f Gen 21. 2.-- Ch. 30. 27.-h 1 Sam 16. 12-i 2 Sam. 13 11 - Prov. 6. 29,

32-1 Ch. 20. 6. Lev. 6. 2. 2 Sam. 12. 13. P. 51. 4.-m Prov. 7. 13, &c.

مبارزان حسن روز اننين که يوسف دانشت کانسنتم که عشق از پرده مهمة برون آرد زلبخا و

warnings, threatening, increasing debility of body, mental expresses this, and apologizes for her conduct in the foldecay, checks of conscience, expostulations of judgment lowing elegant couplet: and medical assistance will all be lost on thee: God, and God alone can save thee from an evil which has in its issue the destruction of thy body, and the final perdition of thy soul! Whether this may have been the sin of Onan or

Men az an huan-i rooz ofzoon kch Yusef dasht danistem no, is a matter at present of small moment, it may be thy

Keh ayehk ar pardeh-i asmat beroon ard Zuleckhara. sin: therefore take heed, lest God slay thee for it. The "! anderstand, from the daily increasing beanty which Joseph porost, intelligent reader will see that prudence forbids me to enter How love tore away the veil of chastly from Zulekha.' any further into this business. See the remarks at the end The Persian poets and eastern historians, however, conof chap. xxxix.

trive to carry on a sort of guiltless passion between them NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIX.

till the death of Potiphar, when Zuleekha, grown old, is

restored to youth and beauty by the power of God, and Verse 1. An officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard] becomes the wife of Joseph. What traditions they had Mr. Ainsworth, not considering that the Egyptians never beside the Mosaic text, for what they say on this subject, adopted the Scotch political regime, calls Potiphar, in his are not now known :' but the whole story, with innuown country's phrase, prorost marshal!-See on ch. merable embellishments, is so generally current in the Xxxvii. 36.

East, that I thought it not amiss to take this notice of it. Verse 4. He made him overseer] mpen hipekid, from The 'twelfih chapter of the Korân, which celebrates the 7PD pakad, to visit, take care of, superintend, the same beauty, piety, and acts of this patriarch, is allowed to be as E 1520755, overseer, or bishop, among the Greeks. This one of the finest specimens of Arabic composition ever is the term by which the Septuagint often express the formed : and the history itself, as told by Moses, is one of meaning of the original.

the most simple, natural, affecting, and well-told narraVerse 6. Joseph was a goodly person, and well favoured.] tives, ever published. It is a masterpiece of composition, NO. w no yepeh toar, va-yipeh mareh, beautiful and never fails of producing its intended effeci on the in his person, and beautiful in his countenance. The mind of a careful reader. The Arab lawgiver saw and same expressions are used relative to Rachel: see them felt the beauties and excellencies of his model, and he explained, ch. xxix. 17. The beauty of Joseph is cele- certainly put forth all the strength of his own language, brated over all the East; and the Persian poets vie with and all the energy of his mind, in order to rival it. each other in descriptions of his comeliness. Mohammed Verse 8. My master wotteth not] Knoweth not, from spends the twelfth chapter of the Koran entirely on Jo- the old Anglo-Saxon pitan, witan, to know: hence pit., seph, and represents him as a perfect beauty, and ihe most wit, intellect, understanding, wisdom, prudence. accomplished of mortals. From his account, the passion Verse 9. How then?] 79 ve aik, and how? Joseph of Zulekha (for so the Asiatics call Potiphar's wife) being gives two most powerful reasons for his non-compliance known to the ladies of the court, they cast the severest with the wishes of his mistress. 1. Gratitude to his reflections upon her: in order to excuse herself, she in master, to whom he owed all that he had. 2. His fear vited forty of them to dine with her, put knives in their of God, in whose sight it would be a heinous offence, and hands, and gave them oranges to cut, and caused Joseph who would not fail to punish him for it. With the kindto attend; when they saw him, they were struck with ad ness of his master, and the displeasure of God before his miration, and so confounded, that, instead of cutting their eyes, how could he be capable of committing an act of oranges, they cut and hacked their own hands, crying out, transgression, which would at once have distinguished

$. lillahi ma hadha basharan în hadha illa malakon karee Verse 14. He hath brought in a Hebrew unto us] Potiman-"O God! this is not a human being, this is none phar's wife affects to throw great blame on her husband, other than a glorious angel!"-Surat. xii. ver. 34. whom we may reasonably suppose she did not greatly

Two of the finest poems in the Persian language were love. He hath brought in-he hath raised this person to written by the poets Jamy and Nizamy on the subject of all his dignity and eminence, to give him the greater Joseph and his mistress: they are both entitled Yusef we opportunity to mock us. pass le-tsachak, here translated Zulekha. These poems represent Joseph as the most lo mock, is the same word used in ch. xxvi. 8. relative to beautiful and pious of men; and Zuleekha the most chaste, Isaac and Rebekah, and is certainly used by Potiphar's virtuous, and excellent of women, previous to her having wife, in ver. 17. to signify matrimonial intercourse. From Been Joseph: but they state, that when she saw him, she this we may at once see, why it was that Abimelech knew was so deeply affected by his beauty, that she lost all self-(having seen them through a window) that Isaac and government, and became a slave to her passion. Hafiz | Robekah were man and wife.

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brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock us; he

CHAPTER XL. came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a a loud voice :

Pharaoh's chief butler and his chief baker, having offended their lor are put in prisoo,

1-3. The captain of the quani gives them into the care of Jom 4. Each of 15 And it came to pass, when he heard that I then has a dream, 5. Joseph sering them seil, questboua them on the subject, 6,7 lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his gar

Their answer, 8 The chini butler tells his drean, 9-11. Jow.ph interprete it, 12,

13 Gives a slight skelch of his history to the chief butler, a less him to think ment with me, and fled, and got him out.

upon him when restored to his office, 14, 15. The chiet baker teils bus dream, 16,

11. Joseph interprets this also, 18, 19. Both dreams are fulfilled according to the 16 And she laid up his garment by her, until interpretation, the chief butler being restore to his office, and the chief baker tianghis lord caine home.

ed, 20-22. The chiel buter makes no interest for Joseph, 2 17 And she bspake unto him according to ND it came to pass after these things, that these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt. me to mock me:

2 And Pharaoh was I wroth against two of 18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice his officers, against the chief of the butlers, and and cried, that he left his garment with me, and against the chief of the bakers. fled out.

3 m And he put them in ward in the house of 19 And it came to pass, when his master the captain of the guard, into the prison, the heard the words of his wife, which she spake place where Joseph was bound. unto him, saying, After this manner did thy 4. And the captain of the guard charged Joservant to me; that his wrath was kindled. seph with them, and he served them; and they

20 And Joseph's master took him, and put continued a season in ward. him into the prison, a place where the king's 5 | And they dreamed a dream both A Mer 24. prisoners were bound : and he was there in the of them, each man his dream in one prison.

night, each man according to the interpretation 21 | But the LORD was with Joseph, and of his dream, the butler and the baker of the showed him mercy, and & gave him favour in king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison. the sight of the keeper of the prison.

6 And Joseph came in unto them in the morn22 And the keeper of the prison committed ing, and looked upon them, and, behold, they to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in were sad. the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he 7 And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were was the doer of it.

with him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, 23 The keeper of the prison looked not to any Wherefore • look ye so sadly to-day? thing that was under his hand; because i the 9 And they said unto him, . We have dreamLord was with him, and that which he did, the ed a dream, and there is no interpreter of it. Lord made it to prosper.

And Joseph said unto them, p Do not interprea Heb greal.- Exol. 24. 1 Psu 12.3.- Prov. 6. 34,31-Psa 105, 18. 1 Pet. h Ch. 40. 3, 4. --- Ver. 2, 3 - Neh. I ll.-- Prov. 16. 14. ---m Ch. 39. 20. * 2. 19. - See Ch. 40.3, 15. & 11. 11. - Heb. extended kindness unto him.-- Ezou 3 n Heb. are your faces evil? Neh. 22- Ch. u. 15.--p See Cl. 41. 16. Dan 2 11 21. & 11. 3. & 12. 36. Psa 106. 16. Prov. 16. 7. Dan. 1. 9. Acts 7.9, 10.

, 47 Verse 20. Put him into the prison) 100 nya beith sohar, Very useful lessons may be drawn from every part of literally the round-house-in such a form the prison was the relation in this chapter : but detailing the facts, and probably builded.

reasoning upon them, would be more likely to produce Verse 21. The Lord was with Joseph] It is but of little than prevent the evil. An account of this kind cannot be consequence where the lot of a servant of God may be touched with too gentle a hand. Others have been profuse cast: like Joseph, he is ever employed for his master, and here-I chose to be parsimonious, for reasons which the God honours him, and prospers his work.

intelligent reader will feel as well as myself. Let this 1. He who acknowledges God in all his ways, has the remark be applied to what has been said on the sin of promise that God shall direct all his steps. Joseph's cap. Onan, ch. xxxvii. tivity shall promote God's glory; and to this end, Góu

NOTES ON CHAPTER XL. works in him, for him, and by him. Even the irreligious Verse 1. The butler] npw shekch, the same as csil can see when the Most High distinguishes his followers : saky among the Arabians and Persians, and signifies a Joseph's master saw that Jchorah was with him; and cup-bearer. from this we may learn, that the knowledge of the true Baker] non opheh, rather, cook, confectioner, or the God was in Egypt, even before the time of Joseph, though like. his worship was neither established, nor even tolerated Had offended) They had probably been accused of atthere. Both Abraham and Isaac had been in Egypt, and tempting to take away the king's life, one by poisoning they had left a savour of true godliness behind them. his drink, the other by poisoning his bread or confection

2. Joseph's virtue in resisting the solicitations of his aries. mistress, was truly exemplary. Had he reasoned after Verse 3. Where Joseph was bound) The place in which the manner of men, he might have soon found that the Joseph was now confinedThis is what is implied in proposed intrigue might be carried on with the utmost being bound; for, without doubt, he had his personal secrecy, and greatly to his secular advantage. But he liberty. As the butler and the baker were state criminals, chose to risk all, rather than injure a kind benefactor, de- they were put in the same prison with Joseph, which we file his conscience, and sin against God. Such conduct is learn from the preceding chapter, ver. 20. was the king's so exceedingly rare, that his example has stood on the re- prison. All the officers in the employment of the ancient cords of time, as almost unique, admired by all, applauded kings of Egypt were, according to Diodorus Siculus, hy most, and in similar circumstances, I am afraid, imi taken from the most illustrious families of the priesthood táted by few. The fable of the brave and virtuous Belle- in the country-no slave or common person being ever mophron and Sthenohæn, wife of Prætus, king of the permitted to serve in the presence of the king. As these Argives, was founded on this history,

persons, therefore, were of the most noble families, it is 3. Joseph fled, and got him out. To know when to natural to expect they would be put, when accused, into fight, and when to fly, are of great importance in the the state prison. Christian life. Some temptations milst be manfully met, Verse 4. They continuód a season) D'oy yamim, literresisted, and thus overcome : from others we must fly ally days ; how long, we cannot tell; but many suppose He who stands to contend or reason, especially in such a the word signifies a complete year; and as Pharaoh called case as that mentioned here, is infallibly ruined. Prin- them to an account on his birthday, ver. 20. Calmet supcipiis obsla—resist the first overtures of sin,” is a good poses they had offended on the preceding birthday, and maxim. After-remedies come too late.

ihus had been one whole year in prison. 4. A woman of the spirit of Potiphar's wife is capable Verse 5. Each man according to the interpretation) of any species of evil. When she could not get her wick- Not like dreams in general, the disordered workings of ed ends answered, she began to accuse. This is precisely the mind; the consequence of disease or repletion: these Satan's custom; he first tempts men to sin, and then ac were dreams that had an interpretation; that is, that were cuses them as haring committed it, even where the temp- prophetic. tation has been faithfully and perseveringly resisted! By Verse 6. Thry were sad] They concluded that their this means he can trouble a tender conscience, and weaken dreams portended something of great importance, but they faith, by bringing confusion into the mind. Thus the in- could not tell what. experienced especially, are often distracted and cast down- Verse 8. There is no interpreter] They either had achence Satan is properly called the accuser of the brethren, ces to none, or those in whom they applied could give Rev. xii. 10.

them no consistent satisfactory meaning.

tations belong to God? tell me them, I pray | birds did eat them out of the basket upon my you.

head. 9 And the chief butler told his dream to Jo 19 And Joseph answered and said, a This is seph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a the interpretation thereof: The three baskets vine was before me;

are three days: 10 And in the vine were three branches: and 19 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift it was as though it budded, and her blossoms up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from forth ripe grapes :

off thee. 11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand : and 20 | And it came to pass the third day, which I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pha- was Pharaoh's a birthday, that he made a feast raoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's unto all his servants: and her lifted & up the hand.

head of the chief butler and of the chief baker 12 And Joseph said unto him, ? This is the among his servants. interpretation of it: The three branches " are 21 And he h restored the chief butler unto his three days:

butlership again; and i he gave the cup into 13 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh . lift Pharaoh's hand : "up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place: 22 But he « hanged the chief baker: as Joseph and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his had interpreted to them. hand, after the former manner when thou wast 23 | Yet did not the chief butler remember his butler.

Joseph, but I forgat him. 14 But think on me when it shall be well with thee, and show kindness, I pray thee, Pharaoh's dream of the seven well-favoured and seven ill-favoured kine, 1-4. His

CHAPTER XLI. unto me, and make mention of me unto Pha dream of the seven full and seven thin ears of corn, 5-7. The magicians and wise raoh, and bring me out of this house:

meu applied to for the interpretation of them, but could give no solution, 8. The

chief butler recollectx, and recommends Jomph, 9-13. Pharaoh commands him to 15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the be bronght out of prison, 14. Joseph appears before Pharaoh, 15, 16, Pharaoh reland of the Hebrews: Yand here also have I

peals his dreams, 17.-24. Joseph interprets them, 25---32, and gives Pharuuh direc

Lious how to provide against the approaching scarcity, 33-36. Pharaoh, pleased done nothing that they should put me into the

with the counsel, appoints Joseph to be muperintendent of all his affairs, 37-41.

Joseph receives the budges of his new office, 42, 43, and has his powers defined, 14; dungeon.

receives a new name, and marries Asenath daughter of Poti-pherah pries of OX, 45.

Joseph's age when brought before Pharaoh, 46. Great feruility of Egypt in the seven 16 When the chief baker saw that the inter

plenteous years, 17. Joseph hoards up the grain, 48, 49. Ephraim and Manasseh pretation was good, he said unto Joseph I also

boro, 50---'The seven years of farmine commence with great rigonr, 53-55.

Joseph opens the storebouses to the Egyptians, 56. People from the neighbouring was in my dream, and, behold, I had three countries come to Egypt to buy corn, the launiue being in all those lands. 57. white baskets on my head: 17 And in the uppermost basket there was of AND it came to pass at the end of two A Mange

full years, that Pharaoh m dreamed: all manner of -bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the and, behold, he stood by " the river.

9 Ver 18 Ch. 41. 12, 3. Judges 7. 14. Dan 2. 36. & 4. 19. - Ch. 41. 2.--2 Kings b : from . 23. 07. Pra 3.3 Jer. 52. 31.-ih, reckon.--u Heb. temeinber me with thee.--v Luke 6.2.- Ver. 13. 19. Matt. 5. 19. --Or, reckoned. Ver. 13. ---i Neh 21 -- Ver. 19. 3 12--Inh 2 12 1 Sam 29. 11, 15. 2 Sam 9.1, 1 King27.-x Ch 39. 20.--y Or, I Job. 19. 14. Psa. 31. 12. Eccles. 9. 15 16. Amos 6.6.-- Ch37. 5-10. & 40. 5. Esth. 6. full of holes.- Hebr. maal of Pharaoh, the work of a baker, or cook. ---a Ver. 12. I Dan. 2 1-3. & 4. 5. Matl 27. 19.-- Ezek. 29. 3.9.

Do not interpretations belong to God] God alone, the and examples of this kind are frequent to the present time, Supreme Being, knows what is in futurity; and if he in most nations. have sent a significant dream, he alone can give the Lifted up the head of the chief butler, &c.] By lifting solution.

up the head, probably no more is meant than bringing them Verse 11. And I took the grapes, and pressed them to trial, tantamount to what was done by Jezebel and the into Pharaoh's cup] From this we find that wine an nobles of Israel to Naboth; Set Naboth on high among cienty was the mere expressed juice of the grape, with the people, and set two men, sons of Beliul, to bear out fermentation. The saky, or cup-bearer, took the witness against him, &c. 1 Kings xxi. 9, &c. The issue bunch, pressed the juice into the cup, and instantly deliv- of the trial was, the baker alone was found guilty and ered it into the hands of his master. This was anciently hanged; and the butler being acquitted was restored to the ?" yayin of the Hebrews, the oors; of the Greeks, and his office. the mustum of the ancient Latins.

Verse 23. Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph] Verse 12. The three branches are three days] That is, Had he mentioned the circumstance to Pharaoh, there is the three branches signify three days-so, this is my body; no doubt that Joseph's case would have been examined ; that is, this bread signifies or represents my body-this and he would in consequence, have been restored to his cup is my blood, REPRESENTS my blood-a form of speech liberty : but owing to the ingratitude of the chief butler, frequently used in the Sacred Writings; for the Hebrew he was left two years longer in prison. has no proper word by which our terms signifies, repre Many commentators have seen in every circumstance, sents, &c. are expressed; therefore it says, such a thing in the history of Joseph, a parallel between him and our is, for represents, points out, &c. And because several blessed Lord. So, "Joseph in prison, represents Christ of our ancestors would understand such words in their in the custody of the Jews; the chief butler and the chief true, genuine, critical, and sole meaning, queen Mary, baker represent the two thieves which were crucified with bishops Gardiner, Bonner, and the rest of thai demoniacal our Lord : and as one thief was pardoned and the other crew, reduced them to ashes in Smithfield, and else- left to perish, so the chief butler was restored to his office, where.

and the chief baker hanged." I believe God never deVerse 14. Mike mention of me unto Pharaoh] One signed such parallels; and I am astonished to find comwould have supposed that the very circumstance of his paratively grave and judicious men trifling in this way, restoration according to the prediction of Joseph, would and forcing the features of truth into the most distorted have almost necessarily prevented him from forgetting anamorphosis ; so that even her friends blush to acknowso extraordinary a person. But what have mere courtiers ledge her. This is not a light matter : we should beware to do either with gratitude or kindness ?

how we attribute designs to God that he never had, and Verse 15. For indeed I was stolen] ns» » genob employ the Holy Spirit in forming trifling and unimporgenabti, stolen, I have been stolen--most assurcdly I was tant similitudes. Of plain direct truth we shall find as stolen-and here also have I dove nothing. These were much in the Sacred Writings as we can receive and comsimple assertions, into the proof of which he was ready to prehend: let us not therefore hew out unto ourselves enter, is called on.

broken cisterns that can hold no water. Interpretations Verse 19. Lift up thy head from of thee) Thus we of this kind, only tend to render the Sacred Writings unfind that beheading, hanging, and gibbeting, were modes certain, to expose 10 ridicule all the solemn types and of punishment among the ancient Egyptians : but the figures which it reully contains, and to furnish pretexts to criminal was beheaded before he was hanged, and then infidels and irreligious people to scoff at all spirituality, either hanged on hooks or by the hands--See Lam. v. 12. and lead them to reject the word of God entirely, as inca

Verse 20. Pharaoh's birthday! The distinguishing a pable of being interpreted on any fixed or rational plan. birth lay by a feast, appears from this place to have been a The mischief done by this system is really incalculable. very ancient custom. “It probably hal its origin from a See the observations on chap. xxxvii. correct notion of the immortality of the soul, as the com

NOTES ON CHAPTER XLI. menceinent of life must appear of great consequence to Verse 1. Two full years] Opi Oinow shenatayim that person who believed he was to live for ever. St. | yamim, two years of days, two complete solar revolutions, Matth. xiv. 6. mentions Herod's keeping his birthday ; l after the events mentioned in the preceding chapter.

2 And, behold, there came up out of the river, 11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, I seven well favoured - kine and fatfleshed; and and he; we dreamed each man according to the they fed in a meadow.

interpretation of his dream. 3 And, behold, seven other kine came up after 12 And there was there with us a young man, them out of the river, ill favoured and lean a Hebrew,' servant to the captain of the guard; fleshed; and stood by the other kine upon the and we told him, and he w interpreted to us our brink of the river.

dreams; to each man, according to his dream, 4 And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine he did interpret. did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. 13 And it came to pass, * as he interpreted to So Pharaoh awoke.

us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, 5 And he slept and dreamed the second time: and him he hanged. and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon 14 Ty Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, one stalk, rank and good.

and they z brought a him hastily out of the 6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed with the east wind sprung up after them.

his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh. 7 And the seven thin ears devoured the seven 15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, dreamed a dream, and there is none that can behold, it was a dream.

interpret it: cand I have heard say of thee, 8 And it came to pass in the morning, P that that thou canst understand a dream to interhis spirit was troubled ; and he sent and called pret it. for all a the magicians of Egypt, and all the 16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying,

wise men thereof; and Pharaoh told them his It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an dream; but there was none that could interpret answer of peace. them unto Pharaoh.

17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, & In my 9. Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the saying, I do remember my faults this day: river.

10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, 19 And, behold, there came up out of the river and put me in ward in the captain of the guard's seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured ; and house, both me and the chief baker :

they fed in a meadow: n See Ver. 17-27.-Heb. Sat.-p Dan. 2. 1. & 4.5, 19.-9 Exod. 7. 11, 22 Isai. 29 a Heb. made him run.-- 1 Sarn. 2 8. Pan. 113. 7,8.- Ver. 12 Pen. 23. 14. Dan. 5. 14. Dan. 1. 20. & 22 & 4.7.-r Matt. 2 1.- Ch. 40. 2, 3.- Ch. 39. 20.-u Ch. 40. indor,

when thou hearest a dream thou canst interpret il-e Dan. 2 30 Acts 6.-vC. 37. 36,w Ch. 40. 12, &ci-xCh. 40. 2-yusa. 105. 30.–z Dan. 2 25. 3. 12. 2 Cor. 3.5.- Ch 40.8. Dan. 2. 22, 23, 17. & 1.2--g Ver. 1.

The river] The Nile, the great source of the fertility may be as good as any, "oon charet, a pen or instrument of Egypt.

to write or draw with, and on tam, to perfect or accomVerse 2. There came up out of the river seven well-plish, those who were perfect in drawing their sacred, favoured kine) This must certainly refer to the hippo- astrological, and hieroglyphical figures or characters, and potamus, or river horse, as the circumstances of coming by means of them pretended to extraordinary feats, among up out of the river, and feeding in the field, characterize which was the interpretation of dreams. They seem to that animal alone. The hippopotamus is the well-known have been such persons as Josephus, (Ant. lib. ii. c. 9. s. 2.) inhabitant of the Nile, and frequently, by night, comes out calls 'lipogem pe pitois, sacred scribes, or professors of sacred of the river to feed in fields, or in the sedge by the river learning." side.

Wise men] on chakameyah, the persons who, acVerse 6. Blasted with the east wind). It has been very cording to Porphyry, "addicted themselves to the worship properly observed, that all the mischiefs done to corn or of God and the study of wisdom, passing their whole life fruit by blasting, smutting, mildews, locusts, &c. are attri- in the contemplation of divine things. Contemplation of buted to the cast wind. See Exod. x. 13.'xiv. 21. Psal. the stars, self-purification, arithmetic, and geometry; and lxviii. 26. Ezek. xvii. 10. John iv. 8. In Egypt it is pecu- singing hymns in honour of their gods, was their conliarly destructive, because it comes through the parched tinual employment.”—See Dodd. It was probably among deserts of Arabia, often destroying vast numbers of men these that Pýthagoras conversed, and from whom he borand women. The destructive nature of the simoom, or rowed that modest name by which he wished his country, smoom, is mentioned by almost all travellers. Mr. Bruce men to distinguish him : viz. O'couças, a philosopher, thus speaks of it in his travels in Egypt. On their way to simply, a lorer of wisdom. Syene, Idris, their guide seeing one of these destroying Verse 9. I do remember my faulls) It is not possible blasts coming, cried out with a loud voice to the company, he could have forgotten the circumstance to which he "Fall upon your faces, for here is the simoom !" "I saw, here alludes : it was too intimately connected with all says Mr. B. "from the S. East a haze come, in colour that was dear to him, to permit him ever to forget it. But like the purple part of the rainbow, but not so compressed it was not conrenient for him 10 remeniber this before or thick. Ii did not occupy twenty yards in breadth, and and probably he would not have remembered it now, had was about twclre feet high from the ground. It was a he not seen, that giving this information in such a case, kind of blush upon the air, and it moved very rapidly, for was likely to serve his own interest. We are justified in I scarce could turn to fall upon the ground, with my head thinking evil of this man, because of his scandalous nenorthward, when I felt the heat of its current plainly upon glect of a person who foretold the rescue of his life from

We all lay flat upon the ground as if dead, till imminent destruction, and who being anjustly confined, Idris told us it was blown over. The meteor, or purple prayed to have his case fairly represented to the king, that haze which I saw, was indeed passed, but the lighi air justice might be done him; but this courtier, though then that still blew, was of a heat to threaten suffocation. For in the same circumstances himself, found it convenient to my part, I found distinctly in my breast that I had imbibed forget the poor friendless, Hebrew stare. a part of it; nor was I free from an asthmatic sensation Verse 14. They brought him hastily out of the duntill I had been some months in Italy, at the baths of geon) Pharaoh was in perplexity on account of his dreams; Poretta, near two years afterward.” Travels, vol. vi. p. and when he heard of Joseph, he sent immediatcly to get 462. On another occasion, the whole company were him brought before him. He shared himself,-having let made ill by the effects of one of these pestilential blasts, so his beard grow all the time he was in prison, he now that they had scarcely strength sufficient left to load their trimmed it: the change of raiment was, no douby, furcamels. Ib. p. 494. The action of this destructive wind nished out of the king's wardrobe; as Joseph, in his is particularly referred to by the prophet Hosea, chap. present circumstances, could not be supposed to have any xiii. 15. Though he be fruitful among his brethren, an changes of raiment. EAST WIND shall come, the wind of the Lord shall come Verse 16. It is not in me, &c.] wyba bilûdi, without, up FROM THE WILDERNESS, and his spring shall DECOME or independently of me; I am not essential to thy comDRY, and his fountain shall be DRIED up, he shall spoil fort, God himself has thee under his care, and he will send the treasure of all pleasant fields.

thee, or answer thee, peace; thou shalt have prosperity Verse 8. Called for the magicians) Oporn charctum- (095* shelom,) howsoever ominous thy dreams may ap. mim, the word here used may probably mean no more pear. By this answer he not only conciliated the mind of than interpreters of abstruse and difficult subjects ; and the king, but led him to expect his help from that God, especially of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, an art which is from whom alone all comfort, protection, and prosperity now entirely lost. It is most likely, that the term is must proceed. Egyptian, and consequently its etymology must remain Verse 18. Sevon kine, fat-fleshed] See on verse 2. And unknown to us. If Hebrew, Mr. Parkhurst's definition I observe farther, that the scven fai and the seven lean kine

my face.

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