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CHAPTER XLIII.

and set him before thee, then let me bear the

blame for ever: The famine continuing, Jacob desires his song to go again to Egypt and buy some fox], 1, 2 Tolah shows the necessity of Benjamin's accompanying them, without

10 For except we had lingered, surely now whom it would be welen to return to Egypt, 3.-5. Jacob expoxtWates with him,

we had returned pthis second time. 6. Judah replies, and offers to become surety for Benjamin, 7--10. Jacob, at last, consents, and desires them to take a present with them for the governor of Egypt 11 And their father Israel said unto them, If aux double money, that which they has brought back in their sacks' month, and the price of the loaul they were now to bring and having prayed for them, sends

it must be so now, do this; take of the best them away, 11---15. They arrive in Egypi anu are brought to Joseph's house to fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry dine with him, at which they are greatly alarmnal, 16--18. They speak to the steward of Joer ph's house concerning the money returned in twir sick, 19-2 down the mana present, a little balm, and a little 100 osph, whente care hope to dime, 35,2. He speaks kindly to them, ang honey; spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds: attecul at seeing his brother Benjamin, 29--31. They dine with him, and are di

12 And take double money in your hand; and tinguished according to their wenioriy, but Benjamin receives marks of peculiar

* that was brought again in the fatour, 32-3L.

mouth of your sacks, carry it again in your ND the famine was b sore in the land. hand ; peradyenture it was an oversight :

2 And it came to pass, when they had 13 Take also your brother, and arise, go again eaten up the corn which they had brought out unto the man: of Egypt, their father said unto them, Go again, 14 And God Almighty give you mercy before buy us a little food.

the man, that he may send away your other 3 And Judah spake unto him, saying, The brother, and Benjamin. If "I be bereaved of man i did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye my children, I am bereaved. shall not see my face, except your brother be 15 | And the men took that present, and they

took double money in their hand, and Benjamin; 4 If thou wilt send our brother with us, we and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood will go down and buy thee food :

before Joseph. 5 But if thou wilt not send him, we will not 16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, go down: for the man said unto us, Ye shall not he said to the 'ruler of his house, Bring these see my face, except your brother be with you. men home, and w slay, and make ready; for these

6 And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye so ill men shall * dine with me at noon. with me, as to tell the man whether ye had yet 17 And the man did as Joseph bade; and the a brother ?

man brought the men into Joseph's house. 7 And they said, The man lasked us straitly 18 And the men were afraid, because they of our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your were brought into Joseph's house: and they father yet alive ? have ye another brother? said, Because of the money that was returned and we told him according to the m tenor of in our sacks, at the first time, are we brought these words: could we certainly know that he in; that he may I seek occasion against us, and would say, Bring your brother down?

fall upon us, and take us for bond-men, and our 8 And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send asses. the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that 19 T And they came near to the steward of we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, Joseph's house, and they communed with him at and also our little ones.

the door of the house,

20 thou require him: • if I bring him not unto thee, at the first time to buy food:

with you.

h Ch. 41. 51,57.-Hrb. protesting protested. Ch. 42 20 & 44. 23-1 Heb. neking a ked smllet mouth ---Hlebkowing could 10know - Ch. 44. 32. Philem. 18. 19.---por, troice by this. Ch. 32. 20. Prov. 18. 16. ---r Ch.37.25. Jer. 8. 5.

Ch. 42 25, 35.- Esther 4.16.-- Or, and as I have been, &c.- Ch. 44 22 394. & 41. 1. --w Heb. kill a killing. I Sam. 25.11.--x Heb eat. -- Heb poll himself upon us. Job 30.11-2 Ch. 42. 3, 10-a Heb, coming doon we came down.

NOTES ON CHAP. XLIII.

those produced in Syria being the finest in the world; by Verse 9. Send the lad with me! As the original is not others dates, others wainuls, others pine-apples, others 75, yeled, from which we have derived our word lad, but the nuts of the terebinth tree. nyo naâr, it would have been better, had our translators ALMONDS D'7pw shekedim, correctly enough translated, rendered it by some other term, such as the youth or the and perhaps the only article in the collection, of which we young man, and thus the distinction in the Hebrew would know any thing with certainty. It is generally allowed have been better kept up. Benjamin was at this lime at that the land of Canaan produces the best almonds in the least twenty-four years of age, some think thirty, and had East; and on this account, they might be deemed a very a family of his own. See ch. xlvi. 21.

acceptable present to the governor of Egypt. Those who That wc way live, and not die] An arguiment drawn wish to see this subject exhausted, must have recourse to from self-preservation, what some have termed the first the Physica Sacra of Scheuchzer. law of naiure. By your keeping Benjamin, we are pre Verse 12. Double money] What was returned in their vented from going to Egype-if we go not to Egypt, we sacks, and what was farther necessary to buy another shall get no corn-if we get no corn, we shall all perish load. by famine; and Benjamin himself, who otherwise might Verse 14. This verse may be literally translated thus: live, must, with thee, and the whole family, infallibly die. "And God, the All-sufficient, shall give you tender mer.

Verse 9. Let me bear the blume for ever) 52.75 NOMI cies before the man, and send to you your other brother, D'on rechalali loca col ha-yamim: then shall I sin, and Benjamin: and I, as I shall be childless, so I shall be against thee all my days; and consequently be liable to childless." That is, I will submit to this privalion, till punishment for violating my faith.

God shall restore my children to me. It appears to me, Verse 11. Carry down the man a present] From the that this verse is spoken prophetically, and that God al very earliest times, presents were used 38 means of intro- this time gave Jacob a supernatural evidence, that his duction to great men. This is particularly noticed by children should be restored. Solomon: A man's gift maketh room for him; and Verse 16. Slay and make ready] 620 nap leboch, lebringeth him before great men, Prov. xviii. 16. Butbach, slay a slaying, or make a great slaughter: let prewhai was the present brought to Joseph on this occasion ? parations be made for a great feast or entertainment.

See After all the labour of commentators, we are obliged to be a similar form of speech, Prov. ix. 2. 1 Sam. xxv. 11. and contented with probabilities and conjecture. According Gen. xxi. 54. to our translation the gifts were balm, honey, spices, Verse 18. And the men were afraid] A guilty conmyrrh, nuts, and almonds.

science needs no accuser. Every thing alarms them; BALM 173 (sori, is supposed to signify resin in general, they now feel that God is exacting retribution, and they or some kind of gun issuing from trees.

know not what the degree shall be; or where it shall stop. Honey wan debash, has been supposed to be the same Fall upon us] why Sana hithgold âlainu, roll himself as the rob of grapes, called in Egypt dibs ; others think upon us. A metaphor taken from wrestlers ; when a man that honey, in the common sense of the term, is to be has overthrown his antagonist, he rolls himself upon him, understood here.

in order to keep him down. Spices and necoth, is supposed to mean gum storar, And our usses) which they probably had in great which might be very valuable, on account of its qualities number with them; and which, if captured, would hare as a perfume.

been a great loss to the family of Jacob, as such cattle Myrrh os lot, supposed by some to mean stacte, by must have constituted a principal part of iis riches. others to signify an ointment made of myrrh.

Verse 20. O sir, we came indeed-to buy food.] There Nuts Dvos batanim, by some rendered pistachio nuts, I is a frankness now in the conduct of Joseph's brethren,

21 And a it came to pass, when we came to they bowed down their heads, and made obeithe inn, that we opened our sacks, and, behold, sance. every man's money was in the mouth of his 29 And he listed up his eyes, and saw his sack, our money in full weight: and we have brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said, brought it again in our hand.

Is this your younger brother, \ of whom ye spake 22 And other money have we brought down unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto in our hands to buy food: we cannot tell who thee, my son. put our money in our sacks.

30 And Joseph made haste; for i his bowels 23 And he said, Peace be to you, fear not: did yearn upon his brother: and he sought where your God, and the God of your father, hath given to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and you treasure in your sacks: "I had your money. mwept there. And he brought Simeon out unto them.

31 And he washed his face, and went out, and 24 And the man brought the men into Joseph's refrained himself, and said, Set on "bread. house, and gave them water, and they washed 32 And they set on for him by himself, and for their feet; and he gave their asees provender. them by themselves, and for the Egyptians,

25 And they made ready the present against which did eat with him, by themselves: because Joseph came at noon: for they heard that they the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Heshould eat bread there.

brews; for that is an abomination unto the 26 | And when Joseph came home, they Egyptians. brought him the present which was in their 33 And they set before him, the first born hand into the house, and d bowed themselves to according to his birthright, and the youngest achim to the earth.

cording to his youth: and the men marvelled one 27 And he asked them of their e welfare, and at another. said, ' Is your father well, the old man 8 of whom 34 And he took and sent messes unto them ye spake? Is he yet alive?

from before him: but Benjamin's mess was 28 And they answered, Thy servant our r five times so much as any of theirs. And they father is in good health, he is yet alive. And drank, and I were merry with him.

a Ch 12 37, 35.- Heb. your money came to me. --- Ch. 18. 4. & 21. 32-d Ch. 37. 7. 10.- Heb. peace. Ch 37. 14.-- Het la these peace to your father.-g Ch. 42. 11, 13

h Ch. 37. 7, 10. - Ch. 35. 17. 18 - Ch. 42. 13.-1 1 Kings 3. 2.-- Ch. 42 34. n Ver 25.-0 Ch. 46. 34. Exod. 8. 26.-p Ch. 15. 22.- Heb. drunk largely: -See Hag. 1. 6. John 2. 10.

that did not exist before: they simply and honestly relate expelled from the land by Amasis, after they had held it the whole circumstance of the money being found in their in subjection for 259 years, according to Manetho, commitsacks on their return from their last journey. Afictions ting the most wanton cruelties. 2. The Hebrews sacrificed from the hand of God, and under his direction, have a won those animals which the Egyptians held sacred, and fed on derful tendency to humble the soul. Did men know how their flesh, The Egyptians were in general very superstigracious his designs are in sending such, no murmur would tious, and would have no social intercourse with people of ever be heard against the dispensations of Divine Provi- any other nation : hence we are informed, that they would dence.

not even use the knife of a Greek, because they might Verse 23. And he said] The address of the steward in have reason to suspect it had cut the flesh of some of those this verse, plainly proves that the knowledge of the true animals which they held sacred. Some are of opinion God was in Egypt. It is probable that the steward him that the Egyptian idolatry, especially their worship of self was a Hebrew, and that Joseph had given hiın intima- Apis under the figure of an or, was posterior to the time tion of the whole affair; and though he was not at liberty of Joseph: ancient monuments are rather against this to reveal it, yet he gives them assurances that the whole opinion; but it is impossible to decide either way. The business would issue happily.

clause in the Alexandrian Septuagint stands thus, Bfoluyum I had your money) SN na DDDDD caspecem ba elai; po ortov tons August 05. [725 0644x poêxtw.). "For your money comes to me. As I am the steward, the cash (every shepherd) is an abomination to the Egyptians ;' for the corn belongs to me. Ye have no reason to be ap- but this clause is probably borrowed from chap. xlvi. 34. prehensive of any evil; the whole transaction is between where it stands in the Hebrew, as well as in the Greek. myself and you; receive therefore the money as a present Verse 33. The first-born according to his birthright) from the God of your father, no matter whose hands he This must greatly astonish these brethren to find themmakes use of to convey it. The conduct of the steward, selves treated with so much ceremony, and at the same as well as his words, had a great tendency to relieve and time with so much discernment of their respective ages. comfort their burdened minds.

Verse 34. Benjamin's mess was fire times so much as Verse 27. And he asked them of their welfare) This any of theirs) Sir John Chardin observes, that "in Perverse may be thus translated :-"And he asked them con sia, Arabia, and the Indies, there are several houses where cerning their prosperity: and he said, Is your father pros- they place several plates in large salvers, and set one of perous, the old man whom ye told me was alive! And these before each person, or before two or three, according They said, Thy servant our father prospers; he is yet alive.” to the magnificence of each house. The great men of the

Verse 29. He lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother state are always served by themselves, in the feasts that are Benjamin) They were probably introduced to him suc male for them; and with greater profusion, their part cessirely, and as Benjamin was the youngest, he would of of each kind of provision being aliays DOUBLE, TREBLE, course be introduced last.

or a LARGER proportion of each kind of meat.” The cirGod be gracious unto thee, my son.) A usual salutation cumstance of Benjamin's having a mess Five times as in the east from the aged and superiors, to the younger large as any of his brethren, shows the peculiar honour and to inferiors; which, though very emphatic and ex which Joseph designed to confer upon him. See several pressive in ancient times, in the present day means no more useful observations on this subject in Harmer's Obsero. than “I am your humble servant;" or, “ I am exceedingly vol. ii. p. 101, &c. edit. 1808. glad to see you;" words, which among us mean-just 1. The scarcity in Canaan was not absolute; though nothing. Even in David's time, they seem to have been, they had no corn, they had honey, nuts, almonds, &c. In not only devoid of meaning, but to be used as a cloak for the midst of judgment, God remembers mercy. If there the basest and most treacherous designs. They bless with was scarcity in Canaan, there was plenty in Egypt; and their mouths, but they curse inwardly. Hence Joab sa though his Providence had denied one country corn, and lutes Amasa, kisses him with apparent affection, and stabs accumulated it in the other, his bounty had placed in the him in the sarne moment! The case of Judas, betraying former money enough to procure it from the latter. How the Son of Man with a kiss, will not be forgotten. true is the saying, "It is never ill with any, but it might

Verse 32. They set on for him by himself, &c.] From be worse." Let us be deeply thankful to God that we the text it appears evident, that there were three tables, have any thing, seeing we deserve no good at his hands. one for Joseph, one for the Egyptians, and one for the 2. If we examine our circumstances closely, and call to eleven brethren.

remembrance the dealings of God's Providence towards The Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebreus) us, we shall find that we can sing much, both of mercy There might have been some political reason for this, with and of judgment. For one day of absolute unavoidablo which we are unacquainted; but, independently of this, want, we shall find that we had three hundred and sixtytwo may be assigned. 1. The Hebrews were shepherds, four, if not of fulness, yet of a competency. Famines, and Egypt had been almost ruined by hordes of lawless though rarely happening, are every where recorded ; inwandering banditti, under the name of hycsos, or king numcrable years of abundance are scarcely ever regisshepherds, who had but a short time before this been tered! such is the perverseness and ingratitude of man!

CHAPTER XLIV.

and left at the youngest: and the cup was sound Joseph commands his steward to put his cup secretly in Benjamin's sack, 1, 2 The in Benjamin's sack.

sons of Jacob depart with the corn they had purchasi, 3 Joseph commands his steward to pursue them, and charge them with having stolen his cup, 4-6. The

13 Then they • rent their clothes, and laded brethren ereuse themselves, protest their inuocence, and offer to supruit 10. be slapes every man his ass, and returned to the city. found in Ben, unio's sack, 10-12 They are brought back, and submit themselves 14' | And Judah and his brethren came to found, shall remain in captivity. 17. JuJan, in a mostatecting speech, pleals or Joseph's house ; for he was yet there: and they Benjamin's enlargement, and offers himself to be a bondioan in his stead, 18–34. I fell before him on the ground. AN

ND he commanded a the eteward of his 15 And Joseph said unto them, What deed is

house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with this that ye have done ? wot ye not that such a food, as much as they can carry, and put every man as I can certainly & divine ? man's money in his sack's mouth.

16 And Judah said, What shall we say unto 2 And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's my lord? what shall we speak? or how shall mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. we clear ourselves? God hath found out the And he did according to the word that Joseph iniquity of thy servants : behold, we are my had spoken.

lord's servants, both we and he also with whom 3 As soon as the morning was light, the men the cup is found. were sent away, they and their asses.

17 And he said, i God forbid that I should do 4. And when they were gone out of the city, so: but the man in whose hand the cup is found, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, he shall be my servant; and as for you, get you Up, follow after the men: and when thou dost up in peace unto your father. overtake them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good ?

said, Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, 5 Is not this it, in which my lord drinketh, speak a word in my lord's ears,' and let not and whereby indeed he bdivineth ? ye have thine anger burn against thy servant: for thou done evil in so doing.

art even as Pharaoh. 6 | And he overtook them, and he spake unto 19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Have them these same words.

ye a father, or a brother ? 7 And they said unto him, Wherefore saith 20 And we said unto my lord, We have a my lord these words? God forbid that thy serv- father, an old man, and 1 a child of his old age, ants should do according to this thing:

a little one; and his brother is dead, and he 8 Behold, the money, which we found in our alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out him. of the land of Canaan: how then should we 21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Bring steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold ? him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes

9 With whomsoever of thy servants it be upon him, found, both let him die, and we also will be my 22 And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot lord's bondmen.

leave his father: for if he should leave his 10 And he said, Now also let it be according father, his father would die. unto your words: he, with whom it is found, 23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Exshall be my servant: and ye shall be blameless. cept your youngest brother come down with

11 Then they speedily took down every man you, ye shall see my face no more. his sack to the ground, and opened every man 24 And it came to pass when we came up his sack.

unto thy servant my father, we told him the 12 And he searched, and began at the eldest, words of my lord.

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a Heb. him that was orer his house-b Or, makcth trial. Ch. 43.21. Ch. 31.

32. Ch. 37.29.31. Numb. 14. 6. 2 Sam. 1. 11.- Ch. 37. 7.

& Or, make trial. Ver 6.-h Ver. 9. --- Prov. 17. 15.-- Cb 18. 30, 32 Exod 2

22. - Ch. 37. 3.-m Ch. 42 15, 20.-- Ch. 43. 3,5.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XLIV.

one of their people whom they sent to him, that " He Verse 2. Put my cup in the sack's mouth of the knew what sort of people they were, for he had consulted youngest.) This stratagem seems to have been designed his cup, and found by it, that they were those of whom to bring Joseph's brethren into the highest state of per one of their prophets had said, that Franks (Europeans) - plexity and distress, that their deliverance by the dis- would come in disguise, and passing every where, examine covery that Joseph was their brother, might have its the state of the country, and afterward bring over a great highest effect.

number of other Franks, conquer the country, and exterVerse 5. Whereby he dirineth] Divination by cups, has minate all.” By this we see that the tradition of the heen from time immemorial prevalent among the Asiatics; divining cup still exists, and in the very same country and for want of knowing this, commentators have spent too, in which Joseph formerly ruled. Now though it is a profusion of learned labour upon these words, in order not at all likely that Joseph practised any kind of divinato reduce them to that kind of meaning, which would at tion, yet probably, according to the superstition of those once be consistent with the scope and design of the his- times, (for I suppose the tradition to be even older than the tory, and save Joseph from the impeachment of sorcery time of Joseph) supernatural influence might be attributed and divination. I take the word uns nachash here, in to his cup; and as the whole transaction related here, was its general acceptation, to view attentively, to inquire. merely intended to deceive his brethren for a short time, Now there has been in the east a tradition, the commence- he might as well affect divination by his cup, as he affectment of which is lost in immemorial time, that there was ed to believe they had stolen it. The steward therefore a cup, which had passed successively into the hands of dif uses the word uns nachash, in its proper meaning. Is not ferent potentates, which possessed the strange property of this it out of which my lord drinketh, and in which he representing in it the whole world, and all the things which inspecteth accurately? ver. 5. And hence Joseph says, were then doing in it. The cup is called during pls ver. 15. Wot ye not, did ye not know, that such a person Jami Jemsheed, the cup of Jemsheed, a very ancient as ! (having such a cup) would accurately and attentively king of Persia, whom late historians and poets have con- look into it? As I consider this to be the true meaning, I founded with Bacchus, Solomon, Alerander the Great, shall not trouble the reader with other modes of interpre&c. This cup, filled with the elixir of immortality, they tation. say was discovered when digging to lay the foundations Verse 16. What shall we say, &c.) No words can more of Persepolis. The Persian poets are full of allusions strongly mark confusion and perturbation of mindto this cup, which, from its property of representing They, no doubt, all thought that Benjamin had actually the whole world and its transactions, is styled by them stolen the cup; and the probability of this guilt might be le ole plo. Jam jehan nima ; "the cup showing the heightened by the circumstance of his having that very cup universe," and to the intelligence received by means of it, to drink out of at dinner : for as he had the most honourthey attribute the great prosperity of their ancient mon-able mess, so it is likely, he had the most honourable cup archs, as by it they understood all events, past, present, to drink out of at the entertainment. and to come. Many of the Mohammedan princes and Verse 18. Thou art even as Pharaoh.) As wise, as governors affect still to have information of futurity by powerful, and as much to be dreaded as he. In the Asiatic means of a cup: When Mr. Norden was at Derri in the countries, the reigning monarch is always considered to be farthest part of Egypt, in a very dangerous situation, an the pattern of al perfection, and the highest honour thal ill-natured and powerful Arab, in a threatening way told I can be conferred on any person, is to resemble him to the

Orders them to hasten to

25 And our father said, Go again, and buy 34 For how shall I go up to my father, and us a little food.

the lad be not with me? lest peradventure I see 26 And we said, We cannot go down: if our the evil that shall come on my father. youngest brother be with us, then will we go

CHAPTER XLV. down: for we may not see the'man's face, except Joseph, deeply affected with the speech of Judah, could no longer conceal himself, bne

discovers himself to his brethren, 1-4. Excuse their con luct towards him, and our youngest brother be with us.

attributes the whole to the provilence of God, 5-8. 27 And thy servant my father said unto us, Canaan, and bring up their father and their own families, cattle, &c. because there

were five years of the farine yet to come, 9.-13. He embraces and converses with Ye know that p my wife bare me two sons : all his brethren, 14, 15. Pharoh hearing that Joseph's breuuren were come to 28 And the one went out from me, and I said, Egypt, and that Joseph lad desire them to return to l'apaan and bring back their

families, not only confirms the order, but promises them the best part of the land 9 Surely he is torn in pieces; and I saw him not of Exypt to dwell in; and provides them cairinges to transport themselves and their since:

households, 16-20. Josph provides them with wagnus according to the command

ment of Pharaoh, and having given thenu various presents, sends them away with 29 And if ye 'take this also from me, and suitable advice, 21-24. They depart, arrive in Canaan, and announce the glad

tidings to their father, who for a tune believes not, but being askund of the truth of mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my their

relation, is greatly comforled, and resolves to visit Egypt, 2-B. gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.

THEN Joseph could not refrain himself before 30 Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad be not with us; (seeing Cause every man to go out from me. And there that his life is bound up in the lad's life ;) stood no man with him, while Joseph made him

31 It shall come to pass, when he seeth that self known unto his brethren. the lad is not with us, that he will die: and thy 2 And he w wept aloud: and the Egyptians servants shall bring down the gray hairs of thy and the house of Pharaoh heard. servant our father with sorrow to the grave. 3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am

32 For thy servant became surety for the lad Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethunto my father, saying, ' If I bring him not unto ren could not answer him; for they were y trouthee, then I shall bear the blame to my father bled at his presence. for ever.

4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come 33 Now therefore, I pray thee, u let thy ser near to me, I pray you. And they came near. vant abide, instead of the lad, a bondman to my And he said, I am Joseph your brother, ' whom lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren. ye sold into Egypt.

• Ch 3 2-2 Ch. 18 1989 Ch 37. 8 - Ch. 12 8, 8.1 Sam. 18 1.- Ch. 139.- Exod.32 32- Heb. find my father. Exod. 18. 8. Job 31. 2. Psa. 116.

3. & 119. 143. --w Heb. gave forth his voice in weeping. Numb. 14. 1.-. Acta 7. 13.---y Or, lerrified Job 4. 5. & 2. 15. Matt. 14. 28. Mark 6. 50.-- Ch. 37. 28.

monarch; as the monarch himself is likened, in the same one's self-to do something against natureto do violence complimentary way, to an angel of GodSee 2 Sam. to one's self. Joseph could no longer constrain himself xiv. 17, 18. Judah is the chief speaker here, because it to act a feigned part-all the brother and the son rose up was in consequence of his becoming surety for Benjamin, in him at once, and overpowered all his resolution; he that Jacob permitted him to accompany them to Egypt. —- felt for his father-he realized his disappointment and See chap. xliii. 9.

agony, and he felt for his brethren, "now at his feet sub"Every man who reads," says Dr. Dodd, "to the close missive in distress,"—and, that he might give free and full of this chapter, must confess that Judah acts here the part scope to his feelings, and the most ample play to the workboth of the affectionate brother, and of the dutiful son, ings of his affectionate heart, he ordered all his attendants who, rather than behold his father's misery in case of to go out, while he made himself known to his brethren. Benjamin's being left behind, submits to become a bond- “The beauties of this chapter," says Dr. Dodd, "are so man in his stead : and indeed there is such an air of can- striking, that it would be an indignity to the reader's dour and generosity runs through the whole strain of this judgment to point them out; all who can read and feel, speech; the sentiments are so tender and affecting, the must be sensible of them, as there is, perhaps, nothing in expressions so passionate, and flow so much from artless sacred or profane history more highly wrought up, more nature, that it is no wonder if they came home to Joseph's interesting, or affecting." heart, and forced him to throw off the mask." " When Verse 2. The Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh one sees," says Dr. Jackson, “such passages related by heard.] It seems strange that Joseph should have wept men who affect no art, and who lived long after the parties so loud, that his cries should be heard at some considerable who first uttered them, we cannot conceive how all par- distance, as we may suppose his dwelling was not very ticulars could be so naturally and fully recorded, unless nigh to the palace ! “But this,” says Sir John Chardin, they had been suggested by his Spirit, who gives mouths "is exactly the genius of the people of Asia-their sentiand speech unto men; who, being alike present do all suc ments of joy or grief are properly transports, and their cessions, is able to communicate the secret thoughts of transports are ungoverned, excessive, and truly outrageous. forefathers to their children, and put the very words of the When any one returns from a long journey, or dies

, his deceased, never registered before, into the mouths or pens family bursts into cries that may be heard twenty doors of their successors for many ages after ; and that as ex- of'; and this is renewed at different times, and continues actly, and distinctly, as if they had been caught in char- many days, according to the vigour of the passion. Someacters of sted or brass as they issued out of their mouths. times they cease all at once, and then begin as suddenly, For it is plain, that every circumstance is here related with a greater shrillness and loudness than one could with such natural specifications, as if Moses had heard easily imagine.” This circumstance, Sir John brings to them talk; and therefore could not have been thus repre- illustrate the verse in question. See Harmer, vol. iii. p. sented to us, unless they had been written by his direction, 17. But the house of Pharaoh may certainly signify who knows all things, as well fore-past, present, or to Pharaoh's servants, or any of the members of his housecome.

hold, such as those whom Joseph had desired to withdraw, To two such able and accurate testimonies I may be and who might still be within hearing of his voice. After permitted to add my own. No paraphrase can heighten all, the words may only mean, that the report was brought ihe effect of Judah's address to Joseph. To add, would to Pharaoh's house.- See ver. 16. be to diminish its excellence--to attempt to c.rplain, Verse 3. I am Joseph] Mr. Pope supposes, that the would be to obscure its beauties—to clothe the ideas in discovery of Ulysses to his son Telemachus, bears some other language than that of Judah, and his translators in resemblance to Joseph's discovery of himself to his brethren. our Bible, would ruin its energy, and destroy its influence. The passage may be seen in Homer, Odyss. 1. xvi. ver. It is perhaps one of the most tender, affecting pieces of 186-218. natural oratory ever spoken or penned : and we need A few lines from Couper's translation, will show much not wonder to find that when Joseph heard it, he could of the spirit of the original, and also a considerable analnot refrain himself, but wept aloud. His soul must have ogy between the two scenes. been insensible beyond what is common to human nature, had he not immediately yielded to a speech so delicately tender, and so powerfully impressive; and we cannot but deplore the unnatural and 'unscientific division of the

His arms around his father's nerk, and wept. narrative in our common Bibles, which obliges us to have

Pange of soft sorrow, not to be suppress'd,
recourse to another chapter, in order to witness the effects
which this speech produced on the heart of Joseph.

Bedewing atood." See the note on ver. 1.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XLV.

I forbear to quote Pope's translation, because it bears little
Verse 1. Joseph could not refrain himself) The word or no resemblance to the original---it seems rather to be
PDNON hithaphek is very emphatic; it signifies to forceforged for the parallel he had in view.
VOL. I.--21

161

"I am thy father, for whose sake thon lead'st
A life of wo, by violence oppressid.
So saying, he kes' his son, while from his cheeks
Tears trickled, tears till then perforre reetrain'd.

- Then threw Telemachus

Sviz'd both
So they their checks with big round drops of wo

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28.
3, 16.

5 Now therefore a be not grieved, nor angry in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen ; and ye with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: "Tor shall haste and bring down my father hither. God did send me before you to preserve life, 14 | And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's

6 For these two years hath the famine been neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his in the land: and yet there are five years, in neck. the which, there shall neither be earing nor 15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and harvest.

wept upon them: and after that, his brethren 7 And God sent me before you to preserve talked with him. you a posterity in the earth, and to save your 16 | And the fame thereof was heard in Phalives by a great deliverance.

raoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren are 8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, come: and it i pleased Pharaoh well, and his but God: and he hath made me e a father to servants. Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto throughout all the land of Egypt.

thy brethren, This do ye ; lade your beasts and 9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say go, get you into the land of Canaan; unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath is And take your father, and your households, made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, and come unto me: and I will give you the good tarry not:

of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat 10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Go- of the land, shen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and 19 Now thou art commanded, this do ye; take thy children, and thy children's children, and your wagons out of the land of Egypt for your hy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: little ones, and for your wives, and bring your 11 And there will I nourish thee; (for yet father, and come. there are five years of famine ;) Jest thou, and 20 Also I regard not your stuff; for the good thy household, and all that thou hast, come to of all the land of Egypt is yours. poverty.

21 | And the children of Israel did so: and 12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of Josephi gave them wagons, according to the my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them speaketh unto you.

provision for the way. 13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory 22 To all of them, he gave each man, changes

Isi. 40.2 ? Cor. 2. 7. --b Heb. neither let there be anger in your eyrs.-c Ch. h Acts 7. 14.-i leb. 1eas good in the eyes of Pharaoh. 50.2). Psa. 105, 16, 17. See 2 Sam. 16. 10, 11. Acis 1: 2 --- Mebta pie for you Nunb. 18. 12, 2. - Heb. iel nol your eye spare, &c.-m Heb mouth. Narab a remnank- Ch 11. 43. Juig, 17. 10. Job :29, 16.--- Ch. 47. I.--- Ch. 12 %

Verse 5. Be not griered, nor angry with yourselves into Egypt, from which it is about fourscore miles distant, This discovers a truly noble mind-he not only forgires though Hebron was distant from the Egyptian capital and forgets, but he wishes even those who had wronged about three hundred miles. At Goshen Jacob staid till -him to forget the injury they had done, that they might not Joseph visited him, chap. xlvi. 28. It is also called the suffer distress on the account, and with deep piety he attri- Land of Rameses, chap. xlvii. 11. from a city of that butes the whole to the Providence of God; for, says he, name which was the meiropolis of the country. Josephus, God did send me before you to preserve life. On every Antiq. I. ii. c. 4. makes Heliopolis, the city of Joseph's word here a strong emphasis may be laid. It is not you, father-in-law, the place of the Israelites' residence.. As but God--it is not you that sold me, but God who sent me ou geshem, signifies rain in Hebrew, St. Jerom, and Egypt and Canaan must both have perished, had not a some others, have supposed that iwi Goshen, comes from mercisul provision been made-you were to come down the same root, and that the land in question was called hither, and God sent me before you-death must have thus, because it had rain, which was not the case with been the consequence of this famine, had not God sent me Egypt in general: and as it was on the confines of the Arahere to preserve life.

bian gulf, it is very probable that it was watered from Verse 6. There shall neither be earing nor harvest.] heaven ; and it migh: be owing to this circumstance, that EARING has been supposed to mean collecting the ears of it was peculiarly fertile, for it is stated to be the best of the corn; which would confound it with harvest : the word, land of Egypt.See chap. xlvii. 6, 11. See also Calmet however, means ploughing, or seed-time, from the Anglo- and Dodd. Saxon erian, erian probably from aro, to plough-and Verse 12. That it is my mouth that speaketh unto plainly means, that there should be no seed-time, and con- you] The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, renders the sequently no harvest ; and why? Because there should be place thus--"Your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother a total want of ruin, in other countries, and the Nile | Benjamin, that it is my own mouth that speaketh with should not rise above lwelve cubits in Egypt; see on chap. you, in the language of the house of the sanctuary.” Unxli. 31. But the expression here must be qualified a little, doubtedly Joseph laid considerable stress on his speaking as we find from chap. xlvii. 19. thai the Egyptians came with them in the Hebrew tongue, without the assistance to Joseph to buy seed ; and it is probable, that even during of an interpreter, as in the case mentioned chap. xli. 23. this famine they sowed some of the ground, particularly Verse 14. He fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck) on the borders of the river, from which a crop, though not Among the Asiatics, kissing the beard, the neck, and the an abundant one, might be produced. The passage, how. shoulders, is in use to the present day; and probably fullever, in the above chapter, may refer to the last year of ing on the neck, signifies no more than kissing the neck the famine, when they came to procure seed for the ensu or shoulder.

Verse 20. Regard not your stuff'] Literally, let nol Verse 8. He hath made me a father to Pharaoh] It your eyes spare your instruments or vessels 037 keleyhas already been conjectured, that father was a name of cem, a general term, in which may be included household office in Egypt, and that father of Pharaoh might, among furniture, agricultural utensils, or implements of any dethem, signify the same as prime minister, or the king's scription. They were not to 'delay, nor encumber themminister does among us. Calmet has remarked, that selves with articles which could be readily found in Egypt; among the Phænicians, Persians, Arabians, and Romans, and were not worth so long a carriage. the title of father was given to certain officers of state. Verse 21. Joseph gave them wagons] nibay âgaloth, The Roman emperors gave the name of father to the from Say âgal, which though not used as a verb in the prefects of the prætoriuin, as appears by the letters of Hebrew Bible, evidently means to turn round, roll round, Constantine to Ablavius. The calitt's gave the same name be circular, &c. and hence very properly applied to whed to their prime ministers. In Judges xvii. 10. Micah carriages. It appears from this, that such vehicles were says to the young Levite, Durell with me, and be unto me very early in use, and that the roal from Egypt to Canaan that the teachers and counsellors of the kings of Egypt such carriages could not have passed by it.

FATHER anul a pricst. And, Diodorus Siculus remarks, must have been very open, and much frequented, else were chosen out of the pricsthood.

Verse 22. Changes of raiment] It is a common cusVerse 10. Thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen) | tom with all the Asiatic sovereigns to give both garments Probably this district had been allotied to Joseph by the and money to ambassadors and persons of distinction, king of Egypt, else we can scarcely think he could have whom they particularly wish to honour. Hence they promised it so positively, without first obtaining Pharaoh's keep in their wardrobes several hundred changes of rai consent. Goshen was the most easterly province of ment, ready made up, for presents of this kind. That such Lower Egypt, not far from the Arabian gulf, lying next were given by way of reward and honour, see Judges xiv. to Canaan; for Jacob went directly thither when he came I 12, 19. Rev. vi. 11. and vii. 9, 14.

ing year.

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