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y Hos 5 4. Rex. 5. 6-2 Numb. 23. 24. & 24 9.-a Numb). 21. 17. Jer. 30. 21. Zech, 10. 11.-12. 3. 7. & 106 or Supt. 21. 18-c Deut. 23 57,- 11. 1. & 62
9 Judah is » a lion's whelp: from the prey, 10 - The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, my son, thou art gone up: " he stooped down, nor ba lawgiver · from between his feet, d until he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who Shiloh come;, ' and unto him shall the gathering shall rouse him up?
of the people be.
1, 1. & 19. 6, 7, 22, 23. & 55.4,5. 60.1, 3, 4, 5 Hlag 27. Luke 2. 30, 31, 32. ince, attached to Syria on the deposal and banishment of And our Lord's most significant miracle was wrought at Archclaus, the son of Herod the Great, for muladıninis- this fountain, when he gave sight to a man of forty years tration, and an assessment of property, or taxing, was old, blind from his birth, by sending him, after he had carried into effect by Cyrenius, then governor of Syria, anointed hiis eyes with moistened clay, to wash in the pool the same, who before, as the emperor's procurator, had of Siloam, which is the Greek pronunciation of the Hemade the enrolment, Luke ii. 2. Acts v. 37. and thence brew 75w Siloah, or Siloh, Isa. viii. 6. where the Septuaforth Judea was governed by a Roman deputy; and the sint version reads Eidwa: signifying, according to the judicial power of life and death taken away from the evangelist, 671512Nutros, sent forth, and consequently deJews, Jolin xvii. 31.
rived from a shalach, to send, Johın ix. 7. Our Lord 2. Their ecclesiastical polity ceased with the destruc- thus assuming to himself his two leading titles of MESSIAH, tion of their city and temple by the Romans, A. D. 70. signifying, anointed, and Shiloh, seni forth, or delegated At which time the Gospel had been preached through the from God; as he had done before at the opening of his known world by the apostles, “his witnesses in Jerusa mission. * The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he lem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the ut hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the poor; he termost parts of the earth," Matt. xxiv. 14. Acis ii. 8. hath sent me forth (2750T*2x2to heal the broken-hearted,” Rom. x. 18. And a vast congregation of Christians then &c. Luke iv. 18. formed, both among Jews and Gentiles.
And in the course of it he declared, I was not sent forth, Our Lord's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, before his (17157224N) but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel, crucifixion, "riding on an ass, even a colt, the foal of an Matt. xv. 24. by a twofold reference to his character in ass;" which, by his direction, his disciples brought to him Jacob's prophecy of Shiloh and SHEPHERD OF ISRAEL, for this purpose :-"Go into the village over against you, Gen. xlix. 10—24. "This is life eternal, to know thee the and presently ye shall find an ass lied, and a colt with her, only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou sentest forth," loose them and bring them to me.” Matt. xxi. 2–5. re- (270016022) to instruct and save mankind, John xvii. 3. markably fulfilling the prophecy of Zechariah, ix. 9. is no and he thus distinguishes his own superior mission, from less a fulfilment of this prophecy of Shiloh," binding or his commission to his apostles, “As The Father hath tying his foal to the vine, even his ass's colt to the choice sent ME, *#507***: us, so I send you," 7917 0425, John xx. tine." In ancient times, to ride upon white asses, or ass 21. Whence St. Paul expressly siiles "Jesus Christ the colts, was the privilege of persons of high rank, princes, Apostle (O ATOTT0205) and high priest of our profession," judges, and prophets, Judg. v. 10. x. 4. Numb. xxii. 22. Heb. 111. 1. and by an elaborate argument, shows the suAnd, as the children of Israel were symbolized by the periority of his mission above that of Moses; and of his vine, Psal. Ixxx. 8. Hos. x. l. and the men of Judah, by priesthood above that of Aaron, in the sequel of the epistle. "a (choice) vine of Sorek," in the original, both here His priesthood was foretold by David to be a royal priestand in the beautiful allegory of Isaiah, v. 1—7, adopted hood, after the order of Melchisedek, Psalm cx. 4. but where by Jeremiah i. 21. and by our Lord, Matt. xxi. 31. who shall we find his mission or apostleship foretold, except in styled himself the true cine, John xv. I. so, the union of Jacob's prophecy of Shiloh? which was evidently so unboth these images, signified our Lord's assumption, as the derstood by Moses when God offered to send him as his promised Shiloh, of the dignity of the king of the Jeros; ambassador to Pharaoh, and he declined at first the arduous not in a temporal, but in a spiritual sense, as he declared mission, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of Him to Pilate, John xviii. 36. as a prelude to his second coming whom thou wilt send, or by the promised Shiloh, Exod. iii. in glory, "to restore again the kingdom to Israel," Matt. 10. iv. 13. by whom in his last blessing to the Israelites, xviii. 64. Acts i. 6.
parallel to thiat of Jacob, he prayed that “God would bring The vengeance to be then inflicted on all the enemies back Judah to his people,” from captivity, Deut. xxxiii. 7. of his church, or congregation of faithful Christians, is Here then we find the true meaning and derivation of expressed by the symbolical imagery of “washing his the much-disputed term Shiloh in this prophecy of Jacob, garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes: which is fortunately preserved by the Vulgate, rendering which, to understand literally, would be incongruous, and qui millendus est; he that is to be sent; and also by a unusual any where; while it aptly represents his gar- rabbinical comment on Deut. xxii. 5.
you keep this ments crimsoned in the blood of his foes, and their im precept, you hasten the coming of the Messiah, who is mense slaughter; an imagery frequently adopted in the called Sent.” prophetic scriptures, see Isa. lxii. 11. Ixiu. 1-6. Rev. xxi. This important prophecy concerning Judah intimates: 12. and vi. 2. xix. 11-15. xiv. 20.
1. The warlike character and conquests of this tribe. The strength and wholesomeness of Shiloh's doctrine 2. The cessation of their civil and religious polity at the are next represented, by having," his eyes red with wine, first coming of Shiloh. 3. His meek and lowly inauguraand his teeth white with milk." And thus the evangeli- tion at that time, as spiritual king of the Jeus; riding on cal prophet, in similar strains, invites the world to em an ass like the ancient judges and prophets. 4. His sebrace the GOSPEL.
cond coming as a warrior to trample on all his foes : And
5. To save and instruct his faithful people.”—Hale's anaHo every one that thirsteth, come to the matere, And he that hath no money, come buy and eat:
lysis, vol. ii. p. 167, &c. Yea, come buy wine and milk,
Verse 10. From Judah the sceptre shall not depart] Without money and pithout price. Isai. ls. 1.
The Jews have a quibble on the word ww.shebet, which On the last day of the feast of tabernacles, it was cus we translate sceptre; they say it signifies a staff or rod, tomary among the Jews, for the people to bring water and that the meaning of it is, that "afflictions shall not from the fountain of Siloah, or Siloam, which they poured depart from the Jews till the Messiah comes;" that they on the altar, singing the words of Isaiah xii. 3. Wilh are still under afflictions, and therefore the Messiah is not joy shall ye draw water from the fountain of salvation, come. This is a miserable shift to save a lost cause. which the Targum interprets, With joy shall ye receive a Their chief Targumist, Onkelos, understood and translated new doctrine from the ELECT of the just ONE; and the the word nearly as we do, and the same meaning is adopted feast itself was also called Hosanna, Save, we beseech by the Jerusalem Targum, and by all the ancient versions, thee. And Isaiah has also described the apostasy of the the Arabic excepted, which has a kazeeb, a rod; but Jews from their tutelar God IMMANUEL, under the corres in a very ancient MS. of the Pentateuch in my own posponding imagery of their "rejecting the gently flowing session, the word bww sebet is used, which signifies a tribe. waters of Siloah,” Isa. vii. 6–8.
Judah shall continue a distinct tribe till the Messiah shall Hence our Lord, on the last day of the feast, signifi- come: and it did so ; and after his coming, it was concantly invited the Jews to come unto him, as the true and founded with the others, so that all distinction has been living fountain of waters, Jer. ii. 13. “If any thirst, let ever since lost. him come to me and drink," John vii. 37. He also com Nor a teacher from his offspring.--I am sufficiently pared his doctrine to new wine, which required to be put aware that the literal meaning of the original 105nm pap mi into new bottles, made of skins, strong enough to contain beyn ragelaio, is from between his feet; and I am as fully it, Matt, ix. 17. while the Gospel is repeatedly represented satisfied that it should never be so translated ;—from beas affording milk for babes, or the first principles of the treen the fect, and out of the thigh, simply mean progeny, oracles of God for novices in the faith ; as well as strong natural offspring; for reasons, which surely need not be meat and strong wine) for masters in Christ, or adepts, mentioned. The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel
, and Matt. xiü. 11. Heb. v. 12-14.
the Jerusalem Targum, apply the whole of this prophecy
11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his 15 And he saw that rest was good, and the ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulgarments in wine, and his clothes in the blood der to bear, and became a servant unto tribute. of grapes:
16 ? Dan shall judge his people, as one of 12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his the tribes of Israel. teeth white with milk.
17 1 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, man 13 Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and that his rider shall fall backward. his border shall be unto Zidon.
18 n I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD. 14 1 Issachar is a strong ass couching down 19 1.. Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but between two burdens:
he shall overcome at the last.
f2 Kings 19. 32-g Prov. 23. 2-h Deut. 33. 18, 19. Josh. 19. 10. 11.-il Sam. 10 9.
k Deut. 33. 22 Judg. 18. 1, 2
1 Judg. 18. 27.--m Heb, an arrou-snoke,-n Ps 2. 6. & 119. 166, 174. Isa 3,2
o Deut. 3. 20. I Chron. 5. 18.
And he shall
It lies under
in a variety of very minute particulars, to the Messiah ; here ascribed to the shephiphon. The word orach, and give no kind of countenance to the fictions of the mo which we translate path, signifies the track, or rut made dern Jews.
in the ground by the wheel of a cart, wagon, &c. And 13. Al the horen of the seas shall Zebulun dwell,
the description that Nicander gives of this serpent in his a haven for ships. Anithia border shall eriend unto Sidon.
Theriaca, perfectly agrees with what is here said of the Verse 13. Zebulun's lot or portion in the division of the
shephiphon: promised land, extended from the Mediterranean sea on
sy 'nux01tiv the west, to the lake of Gennesareth on the east; see his
H και αμετροχησι παρα στιβον ενδυκες ανει.-v. 292. division, Josh. xix. 10, &c. The Targum of J. ben Uz
sand; or in some cart-rut by the way. ziel paraphrases the passage thus: “Zebulun shall be on It is intimated that this tribe should gain the principal the coasts of the sea, and he shall rule over the harens; he part of its conquests more by cunning and stralagem, than shall subdue the provinces of the sea with his ships; and by valour; and this is seen particularly in their conquests his border shall extend unto Sidon."
of Laish, Judges xviii. and even in some of the transactions 14. Issachar is a strong as8
of Samson, such as burning the corn of the Philistines, Couching betareen (ibo burthens. 15. And he ear the resting place, that it was good,
and at last pulling down their temple, and destroying three And the land that it was pleasant;
thousand at one time; see Judg. xvi. 26–36.
18. For thy salvation have I waited, O Lord! Verse 14. Issachar is a strong ass] Onon chamor This is a remarkable ejaculation, and seems to stand per. geram is properly a strong-limbed ass, -couching between fectly unconnected with all that went before and all that tudo burthens; bearing patiently, as most understand it, follows. Though it is probable that certain prophetic the fatigues of agriculture, and submitting to exorbitant views, which Jacob now had, and which he does not extaxes, rather than exert themselves to drive out the old plain, gave rise to it: and by this he at once expressed both inhabitants.
his faith and hope in God. Both Jewish and Christian The two burthens literally mean the two sacks or pan- commentators have endeavoured to find out the connexion niers, one on each side of the animal's body, and couching in which these words existed in the mind of the patriarch. douon between these, refers to the well-known propensity The Targum of Jonathan expresses the whole thus: of the ass, whenever wearied or overloaded, to lie down"When Jacoh saw Gideon the son of Joash, and Samson even with its burthen on its back.
the son of Manoah, which were to he saviours to a future Verse 15. He said the rest] The inland portion that age; he said, I do not wait for the salvation of Gideon, was assigned to him between the other tribes; he inclined I do not expect the salvation of Samson, because their salhis shoulder to the load. The Chaldee paraphrast gives vation is a temporal salvation; but I wait for, and expect this a widely different turn to that given it by most com- thy salvation, O Lord, because thy salvation is eternal." mentators. "He saw his portion that it was good, and And the Jerusalem Targum much to the same purpose. the land that it was fruitful; and he shall subdue the pro “Our father Jacob said; Wait not, my soul, for the revinces of the people, and drive out their inhabitants, and demption of Gideon the son of Joash, which is temporal, those who are left shall be his servants and his tributaries." nor the redemption of Samson which is a created salvation, Grotius understands it nearly in the same way.
but for the salvation which thou hast said by THY WORD sillanimity which is generally attributed to this tribe, cer should come to thy people, the children of Israel, my soul tainly does not agree with the view in which they are waits for this thy salvation.". Indeed these Targums unexhibited in Scripture. In the song of Deborah, this tribe derstand almost the whole of these prophecies of the Mes, is praised for the powerful assistance which it then afford- siah, and especially what is said about Judah ; every word ed, Judg. v. 15. "And in 1 Chron. vii. 1-5. they are ex of which they refer to Him. Thus the ancient Jeus conpressly said to have been valiant men of might in all their vict the moderns of both false interpretations and rain families, and in all their generations; i. e. through every expectations. As the tribe of Dan was the first that apperiod of their history. It appears they were a laborious, pears to have been seduced from the true worship of God, hardy, valiant tribe, patient in labour and invincible in see Judg. xviii. 30. some have thought that Jacob refers war; bearing both these burdens with great constancy particularly to this; and sees the end of the general apos. whenever it was necessary. When Tola of this tribe tasy only in the redemption by Jesus Christ : considering judged Israel, the land had rest twenty-three years, the nachash above as the seducer; and the Messiah, the Judg. x. 1.
19. God, en army shall attack him,
This is one of the most obscure prophecies in the whole
chapter; and no two interpreters agree in the translation Verse 16. Dan shall judge] Dan, whose name signi- of the original words, which exhibit a most singular alli
teration : fies judgment, was the eldest of Jacob's sons by Bilhal, Rachel's maid; and he is here promised an equal rule with
1979197772 72 Gad gedad yegtudena; those tribes that sprung from either Leal or Rachel, the
yagad , legal wives of Jacob.
The prophecy seems to refer generally to the frequent Some Jewish and some Christian writers understand disturbances to which this tribe should be exposed, and this prophecy of Samson, who sprang from this tribe, and their hostile, warlike disposition, that would always lead judged, or as the word might be translated, avenged the them to repel every aggression. It is likely that the pro people of Israel, twenty years; see Judg. xiii
. 2. xv. 20. phecy had an especial fulfilment, when this tribe, in conVerse 17. Dan shali be a serpent] The original word is junction with that of Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh, una nachash, and we have seen on chap. iii. that this has got a great victory over the Hagarites, taking captive one a great variety of significations. It is probable that a ser- hundred thousand men, two thousand asses, fifty thousand pent is here intended; but of what kind we know not- camels, and two hundred and fifty thousand sheep: see yet as the principal reference in the text is to guile, cun 1 Chron. v. 18-22. Dr. Durel and others translate the ning, &c. the same creature may be intended as in chap. iii. last word apy âkab, rear-"He shall invade their rear;"
A cerastes in the track] The word pD'DV shephiphon, which contains almost no meaning, as it only seerns to which is nowhere else to be found in the Bible, is thus state, that though the army that invaded Gad should be translated by the Vulgate, and Bochart approves of the successful, yet the Gadites would harass their rear as they translation. The cerastes has its name from two little returned; but this could never be a subject of sufficient horns upon its head, and is remarkable for the property I consequence for a prophecy. The word Spy åkab is fre
As one of the tribes of larael.
And he shall attack in return.
20 Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and hands of 8 the mighty God of Jacob; (ta from he shall yield royal dainties.
thence is the shepherd, k the stone of Israel:), 21.1 Naphtali is a hind let loose : he giveth 25 · Even by the God of thy father, who shall goodly words.
help thee; mand by the Almighty, who shall 22 | Joseph is a fruitsul bough, even a fruitful bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessbough by a well; whose branches run over the ings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of wall:
the breasts, and of the womb: 23 The archers have sorely grieved him, 26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed and shot at him, and hated him:
above the blessings of thy progenitors, unto 24 But his 'bow abode in strength, and the the utmost bound of the everlasting hills : P they arms of his hands were made strong by the shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown b Deut. 23. 24. Jash. 19. 24.- Deut. 332- Heb. daughters -- Ch. 37. 4, 24, h Ch. 45. 11. & 47. 12. & 50. 2.-- Psa 50. 1.- Isai. S. 16. --- Ch.28. 13,21. & 35. 3. & &&. 20. & 12 2. Psa. 118. 13.- Job 29. 20. Psa 37. 15.-- Psa. 132.2,5.
43. 2. --mCh. 17. 1. & 35. 11.-- Deut. 33. 13 - Deut. 33. 15. Hab. 3. 6.-p Deut. 33. 16. quently used as a particle, signifying in consequence, be such weapons, while feeding their flocks in the deserts, cause of, un account of. After the Gadites had obtained
for the protection of themselves and cattle, or for the purthe victory above mentioned, they continued to possess the pose of hunting, and probably excelled in archery. It land of their enemies till they were carried away captive. may, however, refer to the bitter speeches and harsh The Chaldee paraphrasts apply this to the Gadites going words that they spoke to and of him for they hated him, armed over Jordan before their brethren, discomfiting their and could not speak peaccably to him, ch. xxxvii. 4. enemies, and returning back with much spoil. See Josh. Thus they sorely afflicted him, and were incessantly scoldiv. 12, 13. and xxii. 1, 2, 8.
ing or finding fault. 20. From Aeher his bread shall be fal,
Verse 24. But his bow remained in strength] The And he shall produce royal dainties.
more he was persecuted, either by his brethren, or in This refers to the great fertility of the lot that fell to Egypt, the more resplendent his uprightness and 'virtues Asher, and which appears to have corresponded with the shone; and the arms—his extended power and influencename, which signifies happy, or blessed, and whose rear of his prudence, judgmeni, discretion, &c. were all ren,
of his hands, plans, designs, and particular operations prosperity Moses describes in this figurative way—"Let Asher be blessed with children, let him be acceptable to his dered successful by the hand, the powerful succour and brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil,” Deut. xxxii. 24. protection, of the Mighty One of Jacob--that God who
blessed and prospered all the counsels and plans of Jacob; 2. Naphtali is a spreading oak, Producing beautiful branches.
and protected and increased him also, when he was in a
strange land, and often under the power of those who This is Bochart's translation; and perhaps no man, sought opportunities to oppress and defraud him. who understands the genius of the Hebrew language, will By the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel] Jeattempt to dispute its propriety ; it is as literal as it is cor hovah and El-Elohey Israel, see chap. xxxiii. 20. This rect. Our own translation scarcely gives any sense. The appears to me to refer to the subject of the xxxiid. chapter, fruitfulness of this tribe, in children, may be here intended; where Jacob wrestled with God, had God's name revealed from his four sons, Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem, to him, and his own name changed from Jacob to Israel; which he took down into Egypt, ch. xlvi. 24. in the course in consequence of which he builded an altar, which he of two hundred and fifteen years, there sprung of effective dedicated to God, who had appeared to him under the men 53,400; but, as great increase in this way was not an name of Elohey-Israel, the strong God of Israel ; which uncommon case in the descendants of Jacob, this may circumstance led him to use the term Rock, which, as an refer particularly to the fruitfulness of their soil, and the emblem of power and strength, is frequently given to God especial providential care and blessing of the Almighty; | in the Sacred Writings, and which may here refer to the to which, indeed, Moses seems particularly to refer, Deut. stone which Jacob set up, and which was called Beth-el, xxxu. 23.-0 Naphtali, satisfied with farour, and full see ch. xviii
. 18, 19. It is very probable that the word with the blessing of the Lord. So that he may be repre. Shepherd is intended to apply to our blessed Lord, who is sented under the notion of a tree planted in a rich soil
, the Shepherd of Israel, the good Shepherd, John 'x. 11growing 10 a prodigious size, extending its numerous 17. and who, beyond all controversy, was the person with branches in all directions, and becoming a shade for men whom Jacob wrestled.-See the notes on ch. xvi. 7. and and cattle, and a harbour for the fouls of heaven.
xxxii. 24. 22. The son of a fruitful (vine) is Joseph ;
Verse 25. The God of thy father] How frequently The son of a fruitful (rine) by the fountain:
God is called the God of Jacob, none needs be told, who The daughters (brunches) ehoot over the wall. 23. They corely applicled him, and contended with him;
reads the Bible. The chief archera haul himin hatred.
God All-sufficient) Instead of on Et Shaday, THE
Almighty, or All-sufficient, I read 172 x El Shaday,
God All-sufficient, which is the reading of the Samaritan, 25. By the God of thy father, for he helped thos,
Septuagint, Syriac, and Coptic, and of three reputable The blessing of The heavens from above,
MSS. in the collections of Kennicott and De Rossi. And the blessings tying in the deep beneath;
The copies used by those ancient versions had evidently SN The Wearinga of the breasts and of the roomb. 3. The blearings of thy father have prerailed
EL, God, in the text, and not nu et, The, a mistake proOoer the blessings of the eternal mountains,
duced in later times. On the word 1700 SN El Shaday, And the derirchle things of the everlasting hills. These shall be on the head of Joseph,
see the note on chap. xvii. 1. And on his crown who was separated from his brethren,
The blessings of the heavens from above) A generally Verse 22. The son of a fruitful vine) This appears pure, clear, screne sky, frequently dropping down fertilizing to me to refer to Jacob himselt, who was blessed with showers, and dews, so as io make a very fruitful soil and such a numerous posterity, that in two hundred and fifteen salubrious atmosphere. years after this his own descendants amounted to upward Blessings lying in the deep beneath] Whatever riches of 600,000 effective men; and the figures here are intended could be gained from the sea or rivers, from mines and to point out the continual growth and increase of his pos- minerals, in the bowels of the earth, and from abundant terity. Jacob was a fruitful tree, planted by a fountain, springs in different parts of his inheritance. Our translawhich, because it was good, would yield good fruit; and tion of this line is excessively obscure. because it was planted near a fountain, from
being con Blessing of the deep thai licth under] What is it that tinually watered, would be perpetually fruitful. The lies under the deep?-By connecting nana birecoth, blesssame is used and applied to Jacob, Deut. xxxiii
. 28. The ings, with nsan robetseth, lying, all ambiguity is avoided, FOUNTAIN of JacoB shall be upon a land of corn, and and the text speaks a plain and consistent sense. wine, and oil, &c.
The blessings of the breasts and of the womb] A nuThe daughters--a benoth, put here for branches merous offspring, and an abundance of cattle. The proshoot over, or run upon the wau] Alluding probably to geny of Joseph, by Ephraim and Manasseh, amounted at the case of the vine, which requires to be supported by a the first census, or enumeration, Numb. i. to 75,900 men, wall, trees, &c. Some commentators have understood which exceeded the sum of any one tribe; Judah, the this literally, and have applied it to the Egyptian women, greatest of the others, amounting to no more than 74,600. who were so struck with the beauty of Joseph, as to get Indeed, Ephraim and Manasseh had multiplied so greatly upon walls, the tops of houses, &c. to see him as he passed in the days of Joshua, that a common lot was not sufficient bý. This is agrecable to the view taken of the subject by for them. See their complaint, Josh. xvii. 14. the Korân. See the notes on ch. xxxix. 7.
Verse 26. The blessings of thy father, &c.] The Verse 23. The chief archers) oun byə baâley chatsim, blessings which thy father now prays for and pronounces, the inasters of arrows, Joseph's brethren, who either used are neither temporal nor transitory- they shall exceed in
24. But his boxe remained in strength,
And God. cient, he blessed thee.
of the head of him that was separate from his , lah, (which is before Mamre, in the land of Cabrethren.
naan), 'which Abraham bought with the field 27 | Benjamin shall a ravin as a wolf: in the of Ephron the Hittite, for å possession of a morning he shall devour the prey, ' and at night burying-place. he shall divide the spoil.
31 (" There they buried Abraham and Sarah 28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: his wife ; * there they buried Isaac and Rebekah and this is it that their father spake unto them, his wife; and there I buried Leah.) and blessed them; every one according to his 32 The purchase of the field and of the blessing he blessed them.
cave that is therein, was from the children of 29 1 And he charged them, and said unto Heth. them,"I'am to be gathered unto my people: 33 And when Jacob had made an end of comt bury me with my fathers " in the cave that is in manding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the field of Ephron the Hittite,
the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was ga30 In the cave that is in the field of Machpe-thered unto his people.
their duration the eternal mountains, and in their value burying-place for Hebreus of distinction; and, indeed, and spiritual nature all the conveniences, comforts, and the first public burying-place mentioned in history. From delicacies, which the everlasting hills can produce. They ver. 31. we find that Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, and shall last when the heavens and the earth are no more, Leah, had been already deposited there, and among them and shall extend throughout eternity. They are the bless- Jacob wished to have his bones laid; and he left his dying ings which shall be cominunicated io the world by means charge with his children to bury him in this place, and thus of the Messiah.
they conscientiously performed. -See ch. 1. 13. The Jerusalem Targum paraphrases the place thus : Verse 33. He gathered up his feet into the bed] It is "The blessings of this father shall be added unto the very probable, that while delivering these prophetic blessblessings wherewith thy fathers Abraham and Isaac, who ings, Jacob sat upon the side of his bed, leaning upon his are likened to mountains, have blessed thee; and they staff'; and having tinished, he lifted up his feet into the bed, shall exceed the blessings of the four mothers, Sarah, stretched himself upon it, and expired! Rebekah, Rachel, and Leah, who are likened to the hills : And was gathered unto his people] The testimony that all these blessings shall be a crown of magnificence on the this place bears to the immortality of the soul, and to its head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him who existence separate from the body, should not be lightly was a prince and governor in the land of Egypt."
regarded. In the same moment in which Jacob is said to 27. Benjamin is a ravenous toll:
have gathered up his feet into the bed, and to have expired, In the morning he shall derour the prey, And in the evening he shall divide the spoil.
it is added, and was gathered unto his people. It is This tribe is very fitly compared to a ravenous wolf, certain that his body was not then gathered to his people,
nor till seren weeks after; and it is not likely that a cirbecause of the rude courage and ferocity which they have invariably displayed, particularly in their war with the
cumstance, so distant in point both of time and place, other tribes, in which they killed more men than the
would have been thus anticipated, and associated with whole of their own numbers amounted to.
facts that took place in that moment. I cannot help, there"This last tribe," says Dr. Hales, "is compared to a
fore, considering this an additional evidence for the immawolf, for its ferocious and martial disposition, such as was
teriality of the soul; and that it was intended by the Holy evinced by their contests with the other tribes, in which, when a holy man ceases to live among his fellows, his soul
Spirit to convey this grand and consolatory sentiment, that after two victories, they were almost exterminated,” Judg. becomes an inhabitant of another world, and is joined to xix. 20. Its union with the tribe of Judah seems to be intimated in their joint conquest, expressed nearly in the
the spirits of just men made perfect. See the notes on same terms-" Judah went up from the prey" -"Benja
chap. xxv. 8. min devoured the prey.” Moses, in his parallel prophecy, that the eleven stars that bowed down to Joseph might
1. It has been conjectured, (see note, on ch. xxxvi. 9.) Deut. xxxiii. 12. confirms this, by signifying that the sanctuary should be fixed in his lot, and that he should probably refer to the Signs of the Zodiac, which were very continue as long as the existence of the temple itself.
anciently known in Egypt
, and are supposed to have had
their origin in Chaldea. On this supposition, Joseph's The beloved of the Lord shall duell with his in safety,
eleven brethren answered to eleven of these signs, and
himself to the twelfth. General Vallancy, well known In the morning, &c.] These expressions have been for his curious antiquarian researches, has endeavoured, in variously understood. The sense given above, is that in his Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis, vol. vi. part ii. P: which the principal interpreters agree; but Houbigant | 343. to trace out the analogy between the twelve sons of protests against the prophecy signifying the continuance Jacob and the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which Dr. Hales, of this tribe, as the words, "in the morning devouring the (Analysis, vol. ii. p. 165.) has altered a little, and placed it prey," and "in the evening dividing the spoil,” are sup in a form in which it becomes more generally applicable. posed to imply; because, he observes, " that after the return As this scheme is curious, many readers, who may not from the Babylonish captivity, this tribe is no more men have the opportunity of consulting the above works, will tioned.” But this may be accounted for from the circum- be pleased to find it here. That there is an allusion to the stance of its being associated with that of Judah, see 1 twelve signs of the Zodiac, and probably to their ancient Kings xii. 21—24. after which it is scarcely ever mentioned asterisms, or characters by which they were distinguished, but in that union. Being thus absorbed in the tribe of may be readily credited; but how far the peculiar characJudah, it continued from the morning till the evening of terístics of the sons of Jacob were expressed by the anithe Jewish dispensation, and consequently till the Lion of mals in the Zodiac, is a widely different question. the tribe of Judah was seen in the wilderness of Israel.
In the morning, according to Mr. Ainsworth, " signifies 1. Reuben_"Unstable (rather pouring out) as waterg'-the the first times : for Ehud of Benjamin was the second sign Aquarius, represented as a man pouring out #alets judge that saved the Israelites from the hands of the Mo from an urn. abites, Judges iii. 15, &c. Saul of Benjamin was the first
2. Simeon and Levi—"The united brethren"—the sign Ge
mini, or the Twins. king of Israel: he and his son were great warriors, making
3. Judah-"The strong lion' the sign Lco. a prey of many enemies, 1 Sam. xi. 6, 7, 11. xiv. 13, 15, 4. Asher-" His bread shall bo fat"-the sign Virge, or the 47, 43. And the erening, the latter times; for Mordecai Virgin, generally represented as holding a full ear of and Esther of Benjamin delivered the Jews from a great destruction, and slew their enemies, Esth. viii. 7, 9, 11. ix.
5. Issachar_" A strong ass," or or, both used in husbandry5, 6, 15, 16.”
the sign Taurus, or the Bull. Verse 23. Every one according to his blessing] That
6, 7. Dan—" A serpent biting the horse's heels" - Scorpio,
the Scorpion. On the celestial sphere, the Scorpion is is, guided by the unerring spirit of prophecy, Jacob now actually represented as biting the heel of the horse of the foretold to each of his sons all the important events which archer Sagittarius : and Chelæ, " bis claws," originally should take place during their successive generations, and occupied the space of Libra. the predominant characteristic of each tribe; and, at the 8. Joseph-" His borc remained in strength"--The sign Sagitsame time, made some comparatively obscure references to
tarius, the archer, or hoo man, commonly represented,
even on the Asiatic Zodiacs, with his bour bent, and the the advent of the Messiah, and the redemption of the world
arrow drawn up to the head--the bow in full strength. by him.
9. Naphtali-by a play on his name, bo talek, the Ren,Verse 29. Bury me with my fathers, &c.] From this the sign Aries, according to the rabbins. See Buxtorf's it appears, that the cave at Machpelah was a common Rab. Lex.
And shall cover him all the day long;
Deut. xxxiii. 18.
Pharaoh coments, 6.
AND doserben fellupon his father's face, and
Chron. 16. 14. Isu. 22. 16. Matt. 27. 20.
they cu draw out all the bowels, which having cleansed
2 And Joseph commanded his servants the Joxeph bewaile he death
of his father, and commands the physicians to embalm kim, physicians to embalm his father: and the phy1,2 The Egyptians mourn for hun seteniy duys, 3. Joseph tega perinission from sicians embalmed Israel. Phuroh 10 accompany his father's corpse to Canaan, 4.5. Pharaoh's domestics an elders, theeblers of Egypt, Jorph and his brethren, with 3 And forty days were fulfilled for him; (for so charts, horum, &c form the funeral process, 7-9. They come to the thresh are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmAxel Mizraia, 11. They trury Jaab in the case of Nach patah, 12, 13. Jumpi ed :) and the Egyptians d mourned e for him Te ustan to Egyp', 11. He tretiren, tearing his displeasure, cum sugerulaim threescore and ten days. to cureaths forgiveness of p24t wrig, 10-17. slrca belure hin, muffer to be his servalos, 13. Joseph receive them affectionately, 4 | And when the days of his mourning were an avures them and theirs of his care and protection, 19-21. Jouph and his brethren dwell in beypt, and be sees the third generation of his children, 22, 23. past, Joseph spake unto' the house of Pharaoh, anul cartes theru ty sufry that we will carry his comes to Canan, ang applies saying, If now I have found grace in your eyes, aged one hundred and in yvare, is embalmed and put in a cothn in Egyp, 26. speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying,
5 6 My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I wept upon him, and
die: in my grave - which I have digged for me & Ch 06. 1- 2 Kings 13 14- Ver. 20. 2 Chron. 16. 14. Matt. 28. 12. Mark 14. d Heb. wept-e Numb. 20. 29. Deut. 31. 8- Esther 4. 2.-Ch 47.29,-h 2
& 16. 1. Luke 24. 1. Johu 12. 7. & 19.39, 40. 10. Zebulun—"A haven for ships"--denoted by Cancer, the verse from the preceding chapter, yet we may rest assured
Crab. 11. Gad" A troop or army”-reversed, -Dag, a fish--the that it was the immediate consequence of Jacob's death.
Verse 2. The physicians] Dior rophim, the healers, sign Pisces, 12. Benjamin--"A ravening wolf"-Capricorn, which on the
those whose business it was to heal or restore the body Egyptian sphere was represented by a goat, led by Pan, from sickness by the administration of proper medicines; with a wolf's head.
and when death took place, to heal or preserve it from disWhat likelihood the reader may see in all this, I cannot solution, by embalming; and thus give it a sort of inpretend to say; but that the twelve signs of the Zodiac mortality or everlasting duration. The original word were even at that time known in Egypt and Chaldea; and un chanat, which we translate to embalm, has undoubtedly that the fuelre sons of Jacob were likened to them in the the game meaning with the Arabic bio hanata, which prophetic dream already referred to, there can be little also signifies to embalm, or to preserve from putrefaction, by room to doubt.
the application of spices, &c. and hence ülkia hantāt, 2. We have now seen the life of Jacob brought to a an embalmer. The word is used to express the reddening close: and have carefully traced it through all its various of leather; and probably the ideal meaning may be somefortunes, as the facts presented themselves in the preceding thing analogous to our tanning, which consists in removchapters. Isaac his father was what might be properly ing the moisture, and closing up the pores, so as to render called a good man; but in strength of mind, he appears them impervious to wet. This probably is the grand printo have fallen far short of his father Abraham, and his son ciple in embalming, and whatever effects this, will preJacob. Having left the management of his domestic con serve flesh as perfectly as skin. Who can doubt that a cerns to Rebekah his wife, who was an artful and compa human muscle undergoing the same process of tanning ratively irreligious woman, the education of his sons was as the hide of an ox, would not become equally incorrupteither neglected or perverted. The unhappy, influence ible. I have seen a part of the muscle of the human thigh, which the precepts and example of this mother had on the that having come into contact with some tanning matter, mind of her son, we have seen and deplored. Through either in the coffin or in the grave, was in a state of perfect the mercy of God, Jacob outlived ihe shady part of his soundness, when the rest of the body had been long reown character; and his last days were his brighest and his duced to earth; and it exhibited the appearance of a thick best. He had many troubles and difficulties in life, under piece of well-tanned leather. which an inferior mind must have necessarily sunk; but In the art of embalming, the Egyptians excelled all being a worker together with the providence of God, his nations in the world; with them it was a common procdifficulties only served in general to whet his invention, and tice. Instances of the perfection to which they carried draw out the immense resources of his own mind. He this art, may be seen by the numerous mumınies, as they had to do with an avaricious, procrastinating relative, as are called, which are found in different European cabinets, destitute of humanity as he was of justice. Let this plead and which have been all brought from Egypt. This something in his excuse. He certainly did outwil his father- people not only embalmed men and women, and thus kept in-law, and yet probably had no more than the just recom the bodies of their beloved relatives from the ire of pense of his long and faithful services, in the successful corruption, but they embalmned useful animals also. I issue of all his devices. From the time in which God have seen the body of the Ibis thus preserved; and though favoured him with that wonderful manifestation of his the work had been done for some thousands of years, the power and grace at Peniel, chap. xxxii. he became a new very feathers were in complete preservation, and the colour
He had frequent discoveries of God before, to com of the plumage discernible. The account of this curious fort and to encourage him in journeys, secular affairs, &c. process, the articles used, and the manner of applying but none in which the heart-changing power of divine them, I subjoin from Herodolus and Diodorus Siculus, as grace was so abundantly revealed. Happy he whose last also the manner of their mournings and funeral solemnidays are his best! We can scarcely conceive a scene more ties, which are highly illustrative of the subjects in this noble or dignified, than that exhibited at the death-bed of chapter. Jacob. This great man was now one hundred and forty When any man of quality dies, says Herodotus, all the seven years of
age: though his body, by the waste of time, women of that family besmear their heads and faces with was greatly enfeebled, yet, with a mind in perfect vigour, dirt; then, leaving the body at home, they go lamenting and a hope full of immortality, he calls his numerous fa- up and down the city with all their relations;
their apparel mily together, all of them in their utmost state of pros- being girt about them, and their breasts left. naked. On perity, and gives them his last counsels, and his dying the other hand, the men, having likewise their clothes blessing. His declarations show that the secret of the girt about them, beat themselves. These things being Lord was with him; and that his candle shone bright upon done, they carry the dead body to be embalmed; for which his tabernacle. Having finished his work, with perfect there are certain persons appointed who profess this art. possession of all his faculties, and being determined that These, when the body is brought to them, show to those while he was able to help himself, none should be called in that bring it certain models of dead persons in wood, acw assist; which was one of the grand characteristics of cording to any of which the deceased may be painted. his life, he, with that dignity which became a great man, One of these they say is accurately made like to one, and a man of God, stretched himself upon his bed, and whom, in such a matter, I do not think lawful to name : rather appears to have conquered death than to have suf του ουκ οσιον ποιουμαι το ουνομα επι τοιουτω πραγματι ονομάζειν, fered it. Who, sceing the end of this illustrious patri- (probably Osiris, one of the principal gods of Egypt
, is arch, can help exclaiming, There is none like the God of here intended,) then they show a second, inferior to it, and Jeshurun! Let Jacob's God be my God! Let me die the of an easier price: and next a third, cheaper than the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his! former, and of a very small value ;, which being seen, they Reader, God is still the same: and though he may not ask, them after which model the deceased shall be repremake thee as great as was Jacob, yet he is ready to make sented? when they have agreed upon the price, they dethee as good, and whatever thy past life may have been, part; and those with whom the dead corpse is left, pro to crown thee with loving kindness and tender mercies, ceed to embalm it after the following manner; first of all
, that the end also may be peace.
they with a crooked iron draw the brain out of the head
through the nostrils, next with a sharp Ethiopic stone, NOTES ON CHAPTER L.
that part of the abdomen called the ilia, and Verse 1. Joseph fell on his father's face.) Though this that way act appears to be suspended, by the unnatural division of this 1 and washed with palm-wine, they again rinse and wash VOL. I.--23