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thick bed of rich earth. Now, says he, the eruption has been, in the view of every candid person, highly crewhich formed the lowest of these lavas, if we may be ditable to the sacred historian. Every appearance in na. allowed to reason from analogy, must have flowed from ture, in the structure and composition of the surface and the mountain at least fourteen thousand years ago! Re- different strata of the earth, has horne an unequivocal cupero tells me, he is exceedingly embarrassed by these and decided testimony to the irnth of the book of Genesis : discoveries, in writing the history of the mountain. That so that at present, there is, on this subject, scarcely any Moses hangs like a dead weight upon him, and blunts all material difference of opinion among the most profound his zeal for inquiry; for that he really has not the con- philosophers, and most accurate geologists. science to make his mountain so young as that prophet On the geology and astronomy of the book of Genesis, makes the world.

much has been written both by the enemies and friends “ The bishop, who is strenuously orthodox-for it is an of revelation : but as Moses has said but very little on excellent see-has already warned him to be upon his these subjects, and nothing in a systematic way, it is unguard; and not to pretend to be a better natural historian fair to invent a system, pretendedly collected out of his than Moses; nor to presume to urge any thing that may words, and thus make him accountable for what he never in the smallest degree be deemed contradictory to his sa wrote. There are systems of this kind, the preconceived ered authority."

fictions of their authors, for which they have sought supThough Mr. Brydone produces this as a sneer against port and credit by tortured meanings extracted from a revelation, bishops and orthodoxy, yet the sequel will few Hebrew roots; and then dignified them with the prove that it was good advice, and that the bishop was title of The Mosaic system of the Universe. This has much better instructed than either Recupero or Brydone ; afforded infidelity a handle which it has been careful to and that it would have been much to their credit, had turn to its own advantage. On the first chapter of Genethey taken his advice.

sis I have given a general view of the solar system, withI have given, however, this argument at length, and out pretending that I had found it there: 'I have also even in the insidious dress of Mr. Brydone, whose faith ventured to apply the comparatively recent doctrine of in Divine Revelation appears to have been upon a par caloric to the Mosaic account of the creation of light, with that of Signior Recupero, both being builded nearly previous to the formation of the sun, and have supported on the same foundation, to show from the answer, how it with such arguments as appeared to me to render it at slight the strongest arguments are, produced from insu- least probable; but I have not pledged Moses to any of my lated facts by prejudice and partiality, when brought to explanations, being fully convinced, that it was necessarily the test of sober, candid, philosophical investigation, aided foreign from his design to enter into philosophic details by an increased knowledge of the phenomena of nature. of any kind, as it was his grand object, as has been already "In answer to this argument,” says bishop Watson, (Let- remarked, to give a history of Creation and PROVIDENCE. ters to Gibbon) "it might be urged that the time neces in the most abridged form of which it was capable. And sary for converting ladas into fertile fields, must be very who, in so few words ever spoke so much ? "By creation different, according to the different consistencies of the I mean the production of every being, animate and inanilavas, and their different situations with respect to eleva- mate, material and intellectual. And by Providence, not tion and depression, or their being exposed to winds, rains, only the preservation and government of all beings, but and other circumstances; as for instance, the quantity of also the various and extraordinary provisions made by ashes deposited over them after they had cooled, &c. &c. divine justice and mercy for the comfort and final salvajust as the time in which heaps of iron slag, which re- tion of man. These subjects I have endeavoured to trace sembles lava, are covered with verdure, is different at dif out through every chapter of this most important book, ferent furnaces, according to the nature of the slag and and to exhibit them in such a manner as appeared to me situațion of the furnace: and something of this kind is the best calculated to promote glory to God in the highest ; deducible from the account of the canon (Recupero) him and upon earth PEACE, AND GOOD WILL AMONG MEN. self, since the crevices in the strata are often full of rich good soil, and have pretty large trees growing upon them. Observations on the Jewish manner of dividing and But should not all this be thought sufficient to remove the

reading the law and the prophets. objection, I will produce the canon an analogy in opposi The ancient Jews divided the whole law of Moses into tion to his analogy, and which is grounded on more cer-fifty-four sections, which they read in their synagogues, tain facts.

in the course of the fifty-two sabbaths in the year, joining “Etna and Vesuvius resemble each other in the causes two of the shortest twice together, that the whole might which produce their eruptions, in the nature of their lavas, be finished in one year's space; but in their intercalated and in the time necessary to mellow them into soil fit for years, in which they added a month, they had fifty-four vegetation: or if there be any slight difference in this sabbaths, and then they had a section for each sabbath; respect, it is probably not greater than what subsists be- and it was to meet the exigency of the intercalated years, tween different lavas of the same mountain. This being that they divided the law into fifty-four sections at first. admitted, which no philosopher will deny, the canon's When Antiochus Epiphanes forbade the Jews on pain of (Recupero's) analogy will prove just nothing at all, if we death to read their law, they divided the prophets into the can produce an instance of seven different lavas, with in- same number of sections, and read them in their synaterjacent strata of vegetable carth, which have flowed gogues in place of the law; and when, under the Asmofrom mount Vesuvius within the space, not of fourteen neans, they recovered their liberty, and with it the free thousand, but of somewhat less than one thousand seden exercise of their religion, though the reading of the law hundred years; for then, according to our analogy, a was resumed, they continued the use of the prophetic secstratum of lada may be covered with vegetable soil in tions, reading them conjointly with those in the law. To about two hundred and fifty years, instead of requiring this first division and mode of reading the law, there is a two thousand for that purpose.

reference, Acts xv. 21. For Moses of old time, hath, in The eruption of Vesuvius, which destroyed Hercula- every city, them that preach him, being. READ IN THE neum and Pompei, is rendered still more famous by the SYNAGOGUES EVERY SABBATH DAY. To the second divideath of Pliny, recorded by his nephew, in his letter to sion and conjoint reading of the law and the prophets, Tacitus: this event happened A. D. 79. but we are in we also find a reference, Acts xiii. 15. And after the read formed by unquestionable authority (Remarks on the na- ing of the LAW, AND THE PROPHETS, the rulers of the ture of the soil of Naples and its vicinity, by Sir Wil- synagogue sent unto them, saying, &c. And that the liam Hamilton, Philos. Transact. vol. Ixi. p. 7.) that the prophets were read in this way, in our Lord's time, we matter which covers the ancient town of Herculaneum, have a proof, Luke iv. 16. &c. where, going into the synais not the produce of one eruption only, for there are evi-gogue to read on the sabbath day, as was his custom, dent marks that the matter of six eruptions has taken its there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet course over that which lies immediately over the town, Isaiah-and it appears that the prophetical section, for and was the cause of its destruction. These strata are that sabbath, was taken from the sixty-first chapter of his either of lada, or burnt matter with deins of good soil be- prophecies. tween them." "You perceive," says the bishop, “with Of these sections the book of Genesis contains twelve: what euse a little attention and increase of knowledge, The First, called nung bereshith, begins chap. i. ver. may remove a great difficulty ; but had we been able to 1. and ends chap. vi. ver. 8. say nothing in explanation of this phenomenon, we should The SECOND, called my Noah, begins chap. vi. ver. 9. not have acted a very rational pari, in making our igno- and ends with chap. xi. rance the foundation of our infidelity, or suffering a The THIRD, called 75 75 lac leca, begins chap. xii. and minute philosopher to rob us of our religion.” In this, ends with chap. xviii. as well as in all other cases, the foundation stands sure, The FOURTH, called NT1 vaiyira, begins chap. xviii. and being deeply and legibly impressed with God's seal. ends with chap. xxii.

The Mosaic account of the universality of the deluge, The FIFTH, called me on chayey Sarah, begins chap. has been tried by the most rigid tests also, and the result | xxiii. and ends chap. xxv. ver. 18.

The sixth, called nabyn loledoth, begins chap. xxv. ver. | have been exerted in so many tedious and vexatious re19. and ends chap. xxviii. ver. 9.

searches, in order to preserve the integrity and honour of The SEVENTH, called Nju vayetse, begins chap. xxviii. the Law of God. ver. 10. and ends ch. xxxii. ver. 3.

The sum of all the VERSES in Bereshith (Genesis) is The Eighth, called non vaiyishlach, begins chap. 1534. And the memorial sign of this sum is 75 78 aleph xxxii. ver. 4. and ends with chap. xxxvi.

N signifying 1000; final caph 7 500; lamed 5 30, and daThe NINTH, called a raiyisheb, begins chap. xxxvii. leth 14 = 1534. and ends with chap. xl.

The middle verse of Genesis is the fortieth of chap. The TENTH, called ypo mikkels, begins chap. xli. and | xxvii. By thy sword shalt thou live. ends with chap. xliv. ver. 17.

The PARASHIOTH, or greater sections, are twelve. The The ELEVENTH, called v vaiyiggash, begins chap. symbol of which is the word ni zeh, This, Exod. ii. 15. xliv. ver. 18. and ends chap. xlvii. ver. 27.

And this is my memorial to all generations. Where The TWELFTH, called on vayechi, begins chap. xlvii. zain : stands for 7, and n for 5 = 12. ver. 28. and ends with chap. I.

The SIDERIM, or orders, (see above) are forty-three. These sections have their technical names, from the The symbol of which is the word on gam. Gen. xxvii

. 33. words with which they commence; and are marked in the YEA (o gam) and he shall be blessed. Where gimea Hebrew Bibles with three DDD pe's, which are an abbre- stands for 3, and o mem 40 = 43. viation for 70D parashah, a section or division; and The PERAKIM, or modern division of chapters, are fifty; sometimes with three bdo samech's, which are an abbre- the symbol of which is 75 leca, Isa. xxxiii. 2. We harc viation for the word 770 seder, or 9770 sidrah, an order, a waited FOR THEE. Where lamcd stands for 30, and full and absolute division. The former are generally caph 7 for 20 = 50. called nrvno parashioth, distinctions, divisions, sec The open sections are 43.–The close sections 48. total tions—the latter o siderim, orders, arrangements ; 91. The numerical sign of which is ng tse, GET THEE OTT, as it is supposed, that the sense is more full and complete Exod. xi. 8. where tsuddi s stands for 90, and aleph n for in these, than in the parashioth.

1=91. MASORETIC Notes on the Book of GENESIS.

The number of letters is about 52740; but this last is At the end of all the books in the Hebrew Bible, the more a matter of conjecture and computation than of cerMasoretes have affixed certain notes, ascertaining the tainty; and on it no dependence can safely be placed, it number of greater and smaller sections, chaplers, verses, being a mere multiplication by twelve, the number of secand letters. These they deemed of the greatest import- tions, of 4395, the known number of letters in the last or ance, in order to preserve the integrity of their law, and twelfth section of the book : on this subject see Buxtorf's the purity of their prophets. And to this end, they not Tiberias, p. 181. only numbered every verse, word, and letter, but even All these notes, with some others of minor importance, went so far as to ascertain how often cach letter of the al

the reader may find in most editions of the Masoretic Hephabet occurred in the whole Bible! Thus sacredly did brew Bibles, especially in those of Bomberg and Buxtorf, they watch over their records in order to prevent every as also in the editions which have flowed from them, species of corruption. To some, this has appeared trifling: particularly in those of Van der Hooght, Simons, &c. others have seen it in a different point of view, and have Some of the unpointed Hebrew Bibles have these notes given due applause to that pious zeal and industry, which I also inserted.










The reader will observe from the chronological notes in the margin of the preceding work, that in a few instances I have departed from the Usherian computation, for which he will find my reasons in the notes.

This table I have considerably enlarged, by inserting the Edomitish kings and dukes, and a few other transactions of profane history, contemporary with the facts mentioned by Moses, by which the reader will have a synopsis, or general view, of all the transactions of the first 2400 years of the world, which stand upon any authentic records.

The first year of the world, answering to the 710th year of the Julian Period, and supposed to be 4004 before the vulgar era of the birth of Christ. A.M.) B. C. ||A. M.

B. C. 1 First day's work: Creation of the heavens and 4004 1656 Noah sends out a raven, viii. 7.

2348 earth; of light, with the distinction of day and

Seven days after, he sends out a dove which renight, Gen. 1. 1–5.

turns the same day-after seven days be sends Second day: Creation of the firmament, and sepa

out the dove a second time, which returns no ration of the superior and inferior waters, i.

more, viii. 8-12. 6-8.

1657 Noah, his family, &c. leave the ark. He offers 2347 Third day: The earth is drained, the seas, lakes,

sacrifices to God, viii. and ix. &c. formed; trees, plants, and vegetables in 1658 Birth of Arphaxad, son of Shem, xi. 10, 11. 2346 general, produced, i. 9-13. 1693 - of Salah, son of Arphaxad, xi. 12.

2311 Fourth day: The sun, moon, planets, and stars 1723 of Eber, son of Salah, xi. 14.

2281 produced, i. 14–19. 1757 of Peleg, son of Eber, xi. 16.

2247 Fifth day: All kinds of fowls and fishes created,

Building of the tower of Babel, xi. 1-9. i. 20—23.

1771 About this time, Babylon was built by the com- 2233 Sixth day: Beasts, wild and tame, reptiles, insects,

mand of Nimrod.
and man, i. 24-28.
1787 Birth of Reu, son of Peleg, xi. 18.

2217 Seventh day: Set apart and hallowed to be a Sab. 1816 Commencement of the regal government of Egypt, 2188 bath, or day of rest for ever, ii. 2, 3.

from Mizraim, son of Ham. Egypt continued Tenth day: The first woman sins, leads her hug.

an independent kingdom from this time to the band into the transgression, is called Eve, iii.

reign of Cambyses, king of Persia, which was 1-20. They are both expelled from Paradise,

a period of 1663 years, according to Constanti. iii. 22-24.

nus Manasses. N. B. This opinion, though rendered respectable by 1819 Birth of Serug, son of Reu, xi. 20.

2185 great names, is very doubtful, and should be re1849 - of Nahor, son of Serug, xi. 22.

2155 ceived with dery great caution. I think it wholly

of Terah, son of Nahor, xi. 25.

2126 inadmissible; and though I insert it as the gene 1915 About this time, Agialeus founds the kingdom of 2089 rally received opinion, yet judge it best to form no

Sicyon, according to Eusebius. guesses, and indulge no conjectures on such an 1948 Birth of Nahor and Haran, sons of Terah, xi. 26. 2056 obscure point. 1996 Peleg dies, aged 239 years, xi. 19.

2008 2 Cain and Abel born, iv. 1, 2. 4002 1997 Nahor dies, aged 148 years, xi. 25.

2007 129 Abel killed by his brother Cain, iv. 8.

3875 2006 Noah dies, aged 950 years, 390 years after the flood, 1998 130 Birth of Seth, iv. 13.


xi. 29. 235 Enos, son of Seth, born, iv. 96. Hence followed 3769 2008 Birth of Abram, son of Terah, xi. 26.

1996 the distinction between the descendants of Cain 2018 - of Sarai, wife of Abram.

1986 and those of Seth; the former being called 2026 Reu dies, xi. 21.

1978 sons of men, the latter sons of God, vi. 1-4. 2049 Serug dies, xi. 23.

1955 325 Birth of Cainan, son of Enos, v. 9.

3679 2079 Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, subdues the kings of 1925 395 of Mabalalcel, son of Cainan, v. 12.


the Pentapolis, Sodom, Goinorrah, &c. to whom 460 -- of Jared, son of Mahalaleel, v. 15.


they continued in subjection for 12 years, xiv. 4. 622 - of Enoch, son of Jared, v. 18.

3382 2083 The calling of Abram out of UR of the Chaldees, 1921 687 -- of Methuselah, son of Enoch, v. 21.


where the family had been addicted to idolatry, 874 of Lamech, son of Methuselah, v. 25. 3130

Josh. xxiv. 2. He comes to Haran in Mesopo. 930 Death of Adain, aged 930 years, v. 5.


tamia, with Lot his nephew, Sarai his wife, and 987 Enoch is translated in the 365th year of his age, 3017

his father Terah, who dies at Haran, aged 205

years, xi. 31, 32. 1042 Seth dies, aged 912 years, v. 8.


Abram comes to Canaan, when 75 years of age, 1056 Birth of Noah, son of Lamech, v. 29.


Gen. xi. 4. From this period, the 430 years of 1140 Enos dies, aged 905 years, v. 11.


the sojourning of the Israelites, mentioned Exod. 1235 Cainan dies, aged 910 years, v. 14.


xii. 40, 41. is generally dated. 1200 Mahalaleel dies, aged 895 years, v. 17.

2714 2084 Abram goes into Egypt because of the famine. 1920 142 Jared dies, aged 962 years, v. 20.


xii. 10. causes Sarai to pass for his sister. Pha1536 God commissions Noah to preach repentance to

raoh (Apophis) takes her to his house, but soon the guilty world, and to announce the deluge.

restores her, finding her to be Abram's wife, v. He commands him also to build an ark for the

14-20. safety of himself and his family. This com

2086 Abram and Lot, having returned to the land of Ca. 1918 mission was given 120 years before the flood

naan, separate : Lot goes to Sodom, and Abram came, 1 Pet. iij. 10. 2 Pet. ji. 5. Gen. vi. 17. 2468

to the valley of Mamre, near to Hebron, xiii. 1556 Birth of Japheth, son of Noah, v. 31. compared 2090 The kings of the Pentapolis revolt from Chedor. 1914 with x. 21.


laomer, xiv, 4. 1558 -- or Shem.

2146 2001 Chedorlaomer and his allies make war with the 1913 1560 of Ham.


kings of the Pentapolis : Lot is taken captive: 1651 Death of Lamech, aged 777 years, v. 31.


Abram and his allies pursue Chedorlaomer, de. 165C of Methuselah, aged 969 years, v. 27. 2348

leat him and the confederate kings, deliver Lot The general DELUGE, vii.

and the other captives, and is blessed by Mel. Noah, his family, and the animals to be preserved,

chisedek, king of Salem, xiv. enter the ark, the 17th day of the second month 2093 God promises Abram a numerous posterity, xv. 1. 1911 of this year, vii. 11. The rain commences and

About this time, Bela, the first king of the Edomcontinues 40 days and nights, and the waters

ites, began to reign, xxxvi. 32. continue without decreasing, 150 days: they ar. 2094 Sarai gives her maid Hagar to Abram, xvi. 2. 1910 terward begin to abate, and the ark rests on

Of ber, Ishmael is born, xvi. 15.

Abram being| mount Ararat, vili. 4.

then 86 years old. VOL. 1.-24


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(B. C. ||A. M.

B. C. 2096 Arpha rad dies 403 years after the birth of Salah, 1908

pursues him; after seven days he comes up with XI. 13.

him at the mountains of Galeed ; they make a 2107 God makes a covenant with Abram-gives him 1897

covenant, and gather a heap of stones, and set the promise of a $011-changes bis naine into

up a pillar as a memorial of the irausaction, Abraham, and Sarai's into Surah-and enjoins

Xxxi. circumcision, xvi. 1, 5, 6, &c. Abraham enter.

2265 Jacob wrestles with an angel, and has his name 1739 tajos three angels, on their way to destroy Sod.

changed to that of Israel, xxxii. 24–29. om, &c. xviii. He intercedes for the inhabitants,

Esau meets Jacob, xxxiii. 6. but as ten righteous persons could not be found

Jacob arrives in Canaan, and settles among the in those cities, they are destroyed, six. 23. Lot

Shechemites, xxxi. 18. is delivered, and for his sake, Zoar is preserved, 2266 Benjamin born, and Rachel dies immediately after 1733 v. 19, &c.

his birth, xxxv. 18. Abraham retires to Beersheba-afterward so

Dinah defiled by Shechem, and the subsequent journs at Gerar. Abimelech, king of Gerar,

murder of the Shechenites by Simeon and Levi, takes Sarah in order to make her his wife, but

XXXIV. is obliged to restore her, xx.

2276 Joseph, aged seventeen years, falling under the 1728 2108 Isaac is born, xxi. 2, 3.


displeasnre of his brothers, they conspire to take Moab, and Ben-ammi, sons of Lot, born, xix. 36.

away his life, but afterward change their minds, 2110 Abraham sends a way Ishmael, xxi. 13, 14.


and sell hin for a slave to some Ishmaelite 2118 Abimelech and Phichol his chief captain make an 1886

merchants: who bring him to Egypt, and sell agreement with Abraham, and surrender the

him to Potiphar, xxxvii. well of Beer-slieba for seven ewe lambs, XX. 22, 2278 Pharez and Zarah, the twin song of Judah, born 1723 &c.

about this time, xxxvii, 27-30. 2126 Salah dies 403 years after the birth or Eber, xi. 15. 1878 2285 Joseph, through the false accusation of his mis- 1719 2135 About this time, Jobab, the second king of the 1869

trers, is cast into prison, where about two years Edomites, began to reign, xxxvi. 33.

after, he interprets the dreams of the chief but2141 Abraham is called tu sacrifice his son Isaac, xxii. 1863

ler and the chief baker, xxxix. al. 2145 sarab dies, aged 127 years, xxiii. I. 1859 2288 Isaac dies, aged 188 years, xxxv. 28.

1716 2148 Abraham sends Eliezer to Mesopotamia to get a 1856 2289 Joseph interprets the two prophetic dreams of 1715 wife for his son Isaac, xxxiv.

Pharaoh, xli. 2154 About this time Abrabain marries Keturah, xxv. 1. 1850 Commencement of the seven years of plenty. 2158 Shein, son of Noah, dies 500 years after the birth 18-16 2290 About this time was born Manasseh, Joseph's 1714 of Arphaxad, xi. II.

first-born. 2168 Birth of Jacob and Esau, Isaac their father being 1836 2292 About this time was born Ephraim, Joseph's 1712 60 years of age, xv. 22, &c.

second son. 2177 About this time, Husham the third king of the 1827

2296 Commencement of the seven years of famine. 1783 Edomites began to reign, xxxvi. 34.

2297 Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn, xlii. 1., 1707 2253 Abraham dies, aged 175 years, xxv. 7, 8.


&c. 2187 Eber dies 430 years after the birth of Peleg, xi. 17. 1817 2298 He sends them a second time, and with them his 1706 2200 God appears to Isaac, and gives him glorious pro 1804

son Benjamin, xlii. 11. mises, xxvi. 4. He stays at Gerar during the

Joseph makes himself known to his brethren: famine, xxvi. 6.

sends for his father, and allots him and his 2208 Esau marries iwo Canaanitish women, xxvi. 34. 1796

household the land of Goshen to dwell in ; Ja. 2219 About this line, Hadad, the fourth king of the 1785

cob being then 130 years old, xlv. xlvi. Edomites, began to reign, xxxvi. 35.

2300 Joseph sells corn to the Egyptians, and brings all 1704 Deluge of Ogyges, in Greece, 1020 years before the

the money in Egypt into the king's treasury. first Olympiad.

xlvii. 14. 2225 Jacob, by subtlety, obtains Esau's blessing, xxvii. 1779 2301 He buys all the cattle, xlvii. 16.

1703 He goes to Haran, and engages to serve Laban 2302 All the Egyptians give themselves up to be Pha 1702 seven years for Rachel, xxvii. 1, 2.

raoh's servants, in order to get corn to preserve Esau marries Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael,

their lives, and sow their ground, xlvii. 18, &c. xxviii. 9. 2303 The seron years of famine ended.

1701 2231 Ishmael dies, aged 137 years, xxv. 17.


About this time Saul, the sixth king of the Edom2232 Jacob espouses Rachel seven years after his en- 1772

ites, began to reign, xxxvi. 37. gagement with Laban : Leah is put in the place 2315 Jacobhaving blessed his sons, and the sons of 1689 of her sister; but, seven days after, he receives

Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh, dies, aged 147 Rachel, xxix.

years. He is embalmed, carried into Canaan, 2233 Reuben is born, xxix. 32.


and buried in the cave of Machpelah, xlix. 1. 2234 Simeon is born, xxix. 33.

1770 2345 About this time Baal-hanan, the seventh king of 1659 2235 Levi is born, xxix, 34.


the Edomites, began to reign, xxxvi. 38. 2236 Judah is born, xxix. 35.

1768 2369 Joseph dies, aged 110, 1. having governed Egypt 1635 2237 Dan is born, xxx. 5, 6.


fonrscore years. 2239 Naphtali is born, xxx, 7, 8.

1765 2387 About this time, Hadar or Hadad, the eighth and 1617 2240 Gad is born, xxx. 10, 11.


last king of the Edomites, began to reign, xxvi. 2242 Asher is born, XXX. 12, 13.


39. Evechous begins to reign over the Chaldeans 224 2429 About this time, the regal government of the 1575 years before the Arabs reigned in that country.

Edomites is abolished, and the first aristocracy (Julius Africanus.) Usher supposes him to have

of dukes begins, xxxvi. 15, 16. been the same with Belus, who was afterward woor. 2471 About this time, the second aristocracy of Edom 1533 shipped by the Chaldeans.

itish dukes begins, xxxvi. 40—43. 2247 Issachar is born, xxx. 17, 18.


2474 Caleb, the son of Jephunneb, born forty years 1530 2249 Zebulon is born, xxx. 19, 20.


before he was sent by Moses to spy out ibe land 2250 Dinah is born, xxx. 21.


of Canaan. 2259 Joseph is born, XXX. 23, 24.

1745 2494 Ramesses Miamun died in the 67th year of his 1510 2261 About this time, Samlah, the fifth king of the 1743

reign, under whom, and his son Amenophis, who Edomites, began to reign, xxxvi. 36.

succeeded him, the children of Israel endured 2265 Jacob and his family, unknown Laban, set out 39

the cruel bondage and oppression mentioned in for Canaan; Laban hearing of his departure,

Exod. ch. i. 186

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THE "HE name by which this book is generally distinguished, is borrowed from the Septuagint, in which it is called

Ezofos, Exodus, the going out or departure; and by the Codex Alexandrinus, EE0805 Arguntou, the departure from Egypt, because the departure of the Israelites from Egypt is the most remarkable fact mentioned in the whole book. In the Hebrew Bibles it is called now a5NY VE-ELLEH SHEMOTH, these are the names, which are the words with which it commences. It contains a history of the transactions of 145 years, beginning at the death of Joseph, where the book of Genegis ends, and coming down to the erection of the tabernacle in the wilderness, at the foot of Mount Sinai.

In this book Moses details the causes and motives of the persecution raised up against the Israelites in Egype-the orders given hy Pharaoh to destroy all the Hebrew male children, and the prevention of the execution of those orders, through the humanily and piety of the midwives appointed to deliver the Hebrew women. The marriage of Amram and Jochebed is next related the birth of Moses--the manner in which he was exposed on the river Nile, and in which he was discovered by the daughter of Pharaoh-his being providentially put under the care of his own mother to be nursed, and educated as the son of the Egyptian princess-how, when forty years of age, he left the court, visited and defended his brethren-the danger to which he was in consequence exposed-his tlight to Arabia-his contract with Jethro, priest of Midian, whose daughter Zipporah he afterward espoused. While employed in keeping the flocks of his father-in-law, God appeared to him in a burning bush, and commissioned him to go and deliver his countrymen from the oppression under which they groaned. Having given him the most positive assurances of protection, and power to work miracles, and having associated with him his brother Aaron, he sent them first to the Israelites, to declare the purpose of Jehovah, and afterward to Pharaoh, to require him in the name of the Most High, to set the Israelites at liberty: Pharaoh, far from submitting, made their yoke more grievous; and Moses, on a second interview, to convince him by whose authority he made the demand, wrought a miracle before him and his courtiers. This being in a certain way imitated by Pharaoh's magicians, he hardened his heart, and refused to let the people go, till God, by ten extraordinary plagues, convinced him of his omnipotence, and obliged him to consent to dismiss a people, over whose persons and properties he had claimed and exercised a right founded only on the most tyrannical principles. The plagues by which God afflicted the whole land of Egypt, Goshen excepted, where the Israelites dwelt

, were the following: 1. He turned all the waters of Egypt into blood. 2. He caused innumerable frogs to come over the whole land. 3. He afilicted both man and heast with immense swarms of vermin. 4. Afterward with a multitude of different kinds of insects. 5. He sent a grievous pestilence among their cattle. 6. Smote both man and beast with biles. 7. Destroyed their crops with grievous storms of hail, accompanied with the most terrible thunder and lightning. 8. Desolated the whole land by innumerable swarms of locusts. 9. He spread a palpable darkness all over Egypt : And, 10. In one night, slew all the firsl-born, hoth of man and beast, through the whole of the Egyptian territories. What proved the miraculous nature of all these plagues most particularly, was, 1st. Their coming exactly according to the prediction, and at the command of Moses and Aaron. 2dly. Their extending only to the Egyptians, and leaving the land of Goshen, the Israelites, their cattle and substance, entirely untouched.

After relating all these things in detail, with their attendant circumstances, Moses describes the institution, reason, and celebration of the passorer—the preparation of the Israelites for their departure-their leaving Goshen, and begin. ning their journey to the promised land, by the way of Rameses, Succoth, and Etham. How Pharaoh, repenting of the permission he had given them to depart, began to pursue them with an immense army of horse and fooi, overtook them at their encampment at Baal-zephon, on the borders of the Red sea.—'Their destruction appearing then to be inevitable, Moses further relates, that having called earnestly upon God, and stretched his rod over the waters--they became divided, and the Israelites entered into the bed of the sea, and passed over to the opposite shore! Pharaoh and hia host madly pursuing in the same track, the rear of their army being fairly entered by the time the last of the Israelites had made good their landing on the opposite coast, Moses stretching his rod again over the waters, they returned to their former channel, and overwhelmed the Egyptian army, so that every soul perished !

Moses next gives a circumstantial account of the different encampments of the Israelites in the wilderness, during the space of nearly forty years—the miracles wrought in their behalf-the chief of which were the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire hy night, to direct and protect them in the wilderness—the bringing water out of a rock for them and their cattle-feeding them with manna from heaven, bringing innumerable flocks of quails to their camp, giving them a complete victory over the Amalekites, at the intercession of Moses, and particularly God's astonishing manifestation of himself on mount Sinai, when he delivered to Moses an epitome of his whole' law, in what was called the Ten Words, or Tex COMMANDMENTS.

Moges proceeds to give a circumstantial detail of the different laws, statutes, and ordinances which he received frorn God, and particularly the giving of the Ten Commandments on mount Sinai, and the awful display of the Divine Majesty on that solemn occasion: the formation of the Ark, holy table and candlestick ; the TABERNACLE, with its furniture, covering, courts, &c. the brazen altar, golden altar, brazen laver, anointing oil

, perfume, sacerdotal garments, for Aaron and his sons, and the artificers employed on the work of the tabernacle, &c. He then gives an account of Israel's idolatry in the matter of the golden calf, made under the direction of Aaron; God's displeasure

, and the death of the principal idolaters; the erection and consecration of the tabernacle, and its being filled and encompassed with the Divine glory, with the order and manner of their marches by direction of the miraculous pillar, with which the book concludes.


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