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ther: and he said to him that did the wrong, 19 And they said, An Egyptian delivered us Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?
out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew 14 And he said, "Who made thee i a prince water enough for us, and watered the flock. and a judge over us; intendest thou to kill me, 20 And he said unto his daughters, And as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses where is he? why is it that ye have left the feared, and said, Surely this thing is known. man? call him, that he may 'eat bread.
15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he 21 And Moses was content to dwell with sought to slay Moses. But \ Moses fled from the man: and he gave Moses
• Zipporah his the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of daughter. Midian: and he sat down by ' a well.
22 And she bare him a son, and he called his 16 T - Now the priest of Midian had seven name "Gershom: u for he said, I have been a daughters: "and they came and drew water, stranger in a strange land. and filled the troughs to water their father's 23 | And it came to pass " in process 8. C. cir. 1500 flock.
of time, that the king of Egypt died : 17 And the shepherds came and drove them and the children of Israel sighed by reason of away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and the bondage, and they cried, and » their cry came Pwatered their flock.
up unto God by reason of the bondage. 19 And when they came to a Reuel, their fa 24 And God ? heard their groaning, and God ther, he said, How is it that ye are come so a remembered his covenant with Abraham, soon to-day?
with Isaac, and with Jacob.
h 1.cta 7. 27,2-1 Heb. a man, a prince. Gen. 13 - Acts 7. 29. lib. 11.27 1 Gen 1 112-m Ch. 31- Or, prince, as Gen 11. 15.- Gen, 21. 11. & 23 10. I Sam 9.11-p Gen 10-4 Nunb. 10 29 Called as Jethro or Jether, Ch 3. 1. & 4. IX &I,&- Gen. 31. 51. & 13. 5- Ch. 4. 35. & 18. 2
1 That is, a etranger lere.-u Ch. 18.3. --- Acta 7.29. Hebr. 11. 13, 14.-w Ch. 7.7. Acta 7.30 -x Numb. *2. 16. Deui 6.7 Pea. 12 5.-y Gien 18. 20. Ch. 3. 9. & 29, 27. Deut. 21. 15. James 5. 4.-: Ch. 6. 5.-a Ch. 6. 5. Psa. 106. 8, 42 & 105. 15.- Geo. 15. 14. & 16. +
other, by disputes concerning comparatively unessential sound made by a calf in seeking its dam. Ragucl is the points of doctrine and discipline; in consequence of which, worst method of pronouncing it; Re-u-el, the first syllable boch they and the truth have become an easy prey to those strongly accented, is nearer to the true sound. A proper whose desire was to waste the heritage of the Lord. The uniformity in pronouncing the same word wherever it may Targum of Jonathan says that the two persons who strove occur, either in the Old or New Testament, is greatly to were Dathan and Abiram.
be desired. The person in question appears to have seveVerse 14. And Moses feared] He saw that the Israel ral names. Here he is called Reuel; in Numb, x. 29. ites were not as yet prepared to leave their bondage; and Raguel ; in Exod. ii. 1. Jethro ; in Judg. iv. 11. Hobab, that though God had called him to be their leader, yet his pro- and in Judg. i. 16. he is called v Keyni, which in the vidence had not yet sufficiently opened the way; and had 4th chap. we translate Kenite. Some suppose that Re-u-el he staid in Egypi he must have endangered his life. Pru was father to Hobab, who was also called Jethro. This is dence therefore dictated an escape for the present to the the most likely; see the note on chap. iii. 1. land of Midian.
Verse 20. That he may eat broad] That he may be Verse 15. Pharaoh--sought to slay Moses-but Moses entertained, and receive refreshment to proceed on his Ned from the face of Pharaoh) How can this be recon- journey. Bread, among the Hebrews, was used to signify ciled with Heb. xi. 27. By faith he (Moses) forsook Egypt, all kinds of food, commonly used for the support of not fearing the wrath of the king ?-Very easily : the man's life. apostle speaks not of this forsaking of Egypt, but of his Verse 21. Zipporah his daughter] Abul Farajius calls and the Israelites final departure from it; and of the bold her “ Saphura the black, daughter of Revel the Midianite, and courageous manner in which Moses treated Pharaoh the son of Dedan, the son of Abraham by his wife Ketuand the Egyptians, disregarding his threatenings, and the rah." The Targum calls her the granddaughter of Reuel. multitudes of them that pursued after the people, whom, It appears that Noses obtained Zipporah, something in the in the name and strength of God, he led, in the face of same way that Jacob obtained Rachel; namely, for the pertheir enemies out of Egypt.
formance of certain services; probably keeping of sheep, Dwell in the land of Midian] A country generally see chap. iii. 1. supposed to have been in Arabia Petrea, on the eastern coast Verse 22. Called his name Gershom] Literally a of the Red sea, not far from mount Sinai. This place is stranger-the reason of which Moses immediately addsstill called by the Arabs, the Land of Midian, or the Land for I have been an alien in a strange land. of Jethro. Abul Farojius calls ii the land of the Arabs. The Vulgale, the Septuagint, as it stands in the ComIt is supposed that the Midianites derived their origin from plutensian Polyglott
, and in several MSS. the Syriac, Madian, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah, thus; the Coptic, and the Arabic, add the following words to this Abraham, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan and Midian, Raguel, verse, and the name of the second he called Eliezer ; for Jethro; see Gen. xxv. 1. But Calmet contends, that if the God of my father has been my help, and delivered me Jethro had been of the family of Abraham, either by Jok- from the hand of Pharaoh. These words are found in shan or Midian, Aaron and Miriam could not have re- chap. xviii. but they are certainly necessary here, for it is proached Moses with marrying a Cushite, Zipporah, the very likely that these two sons were born within a short daughter of Reuel. He thinks therefore that the Midian- space of each other; for in chap. iv, 20. it is said, Mosos ites were of the progeny of Cush, the son of Ham; see took his wife and his sons, by which it is plain, that he had Gen. x. 6.
both Gershom and Eliezer at that time. Houbigant inVerse 16. The priest of Midian] Or prince, or both: troduces this addition in his Latin version, and contends for the original, ins cohen has both meanings. See it ex that this is its most proper place. Notwithstanding the plained at large, Gen. xv. 13. The transaction here very authority of the above versions, the clause is found in no nearly resembles that mentioned in Gen. xxix. concerning copy printed, or MS. of the Hebrew text. Jacob and Rachel; see the notes there.
Verse 23. In process of time the king of Egypt died] Verse 17. The shepherds-drove them] The verb According to St. Stephen (Acts vii. 30. compared with Dwr yegareshum, being in the masculine gender, seems Exod. vii. 7.) the death of the Egyptian king happened to imply that the shepherds drove away the flocks of Reuel's about forly years after the escape of Moses to Midian. daughters, and not the daughters themselves. The fact | The Hebrew words and ovnban" va-ychi ba-yamim seems to be, that as the daughters of Reuel filled the troughs, ha-rabbim ha-hem, which we translate, And it came to and brought their flocks to drink, the shepherds drove those pass in process of time, signify, And it was in many away, and profiting by the young women's labour, watered days from these, that the king, &c. It has already been their own cattle. Moses resisted this insolence, and assisted remarked, that Archbishop Usher supposes this king to them to water their flocks; in consequence of which, they have been Rameses Miamun, who was succeeded by his son were enabled to return much sooner than they were wont | Amenophis, who was drowned in the Red sea, when purto do, ver. 18.
suing the Israelites : but Abul Farajius says it was AmunVerse 18. Reuel their father) In Numb. x. 29. this per- fathis, (Amenophis) he who made the cruel edict against son is called Raguel; but the Hebrew is the same in both the Hebrew children. places. The reason of this difference is, that the y âin in Some suppose that Moses wrote the book of Job during Smoon is sometimes used merely as a vowel, sometimes as a the time he sojourned in Midian, and also the book of &, ng, and gn, and this is occasioned by the difficulty of Genesis. the sound, which scarcely any European organs can enun Sighed by reason of the bondage] For the nature of ciate. As pronounced by the Arabs, it strongly resembles their bondage, see on chap. i. 14. the first effort made by the throat in gargling, or as Me Verse 24. God remembered his covenant)
God's ninski says, est vor rituli matrem vocantis, it is like the covenant is God's engagement-he had promised to AbraVol. 1.-25
25 And God looked upon the children of dian: and he led the flock to the backside of the Israel, and God d had respect unto them. desert, and came to the mountain of God, CHAPTER III.
even to Horeb. Moses, keeping the flock of Jethro, at Monnt Horeb, 1, the angel of the Lord
2 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto appears to him in a burning bush, 2 Astonished at the sight, he turns aside to ex unine it
, 1, when tal speaks to him out of the fire, and declares himself to be the him in a flame of fire, out of the midst of a bush: Gol of Abrahan, Isaac, ins Jacob, +6; announces his purpose of delivering the Isrivelites from their oppression, and of bringing them into the promised land,
and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned 2–9; commissions him to go to Pharaoh, and to be leader of the children of late with fire, and the bush was not consumed. from Egyp!, 10. Moses cxcuses hindi, ll; and God, to encourage him, promises him his protection, 12. Moses doubts whether the Israelites will credit him, 3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, people, 117, an 1 insuructs him and the elders of Israel, to apply unto Punon and see this great sight, why the bush is not for perinision to so tiree days Journey into the wilderness to sacrifice anto the burnt. Lori, 18; foretells the obstinacy of the Egyptian king, and the rimeles which he himself should work in the sight of the Egyptians, 19, 20; and promises, that on
4 And when the LORD saw that he turned the departure of the Israelites, the Egypuinus should be induced to furrush them with all necessaries for their journey, 21, 22.
aside to see, God called kunto him out of the A. M. 2513.
OW Moses kept the flock of Jethro midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And B. C. 1491.
his father-in-law,' the priest of Mi- he said, Here am I. c Ch. 4. 31. 1 Sam. 1. 11. 2 Sam. 16. 12 Luke 1.25. Heb. knet.-e Ch. 3. 7. & Ch. 18. 5. 1 Kings 19. 8.-h Deut. 33. 36. Isai 63. 9. Acta 7. 30.-iPa 111.2 f Ch. 2. 16.
Acts 7. 31.- Deut. 33. 16.
ham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give their posterity a land healthy exercise, is generally cramped, their natural pow. flowing with milk and honey, &c. They are now under ers are prematurely developed, and their whole course is the most oppressive bondage, and this was the most pro- rather an apology for living, than a state of effective life. per time for God to show them his mercy and power in Many of these live not out half their days, and their offfulfilling his promise. This is all that is meant hy God's spring, when they have any, is more feeble than themremembering his covenant, for it was now that he began selves; so that the race of man, where such preposterous to give it its effect.
conduct is followed, and where is it not followed? is in a Verse 25. And God had respect unto them] oubt you state of gradual deterioration. Parents, who wish to fulfil vaiyedà Elohim-God knew them, i. e. he approved the intention of God and nature, will doubtless see it their of them, and therefore it is said that their cry came up duty to bring up their children on a different plan. A before God, and he heard their groaning. The word worse than the present can scarcely be found out. piyada, to know, in the Hebrew Bible, as well as Afflictions, under the direction of God's providence, gouworn in the Greek Testament, are frequently used in the and the influences of his grace, are often the means of leadsense of approving; and because God knew, had respecting men to pray to, and acknowledge God, who in the for, and approved of them, therefore he was determined time of their prosperity, hardened their necks from his to deliver them. For on Elohim, GOD, in the last fear. When the Israelites were sorely oppressed, they clause of this verse, Houbigant reads'ombe alihem, UPON began to pray. If the cry of oppression had not been THEM : which is countenanced by the Vulgate, Septua- among them, probably the cry for mercy had not been gint, Chaldec, Coptic, and Arabic, and appears to have heard. Though afflictions, considered in themselves, can been the original reading. The difference in the original, neither atone for sin, nor improve the moral state of the consists of the interchange of two letters, the yod and soul, yet God often uses them as means to bring sinners hè. Our translators insert unto them, in order to make to himself, and to quicken those, who, having already up that sense, which this various reading gives without escaped the pollutions of the world, were falling again trouble.
under the influence of an earthly mind. Of many millions The farther we proceed in the Sacred Writings, the besides David, it may truly be said, before they were more the history both of the grace and providence of God afflicted, they went astray. opens to our view. He ever cares for his creatures, and
NOTES ON CHAPTER III. is mindful of his promise. The very means made use of Verse 1. Jethro his father-in-lar] Concerning Jethro, to destroy his work, are, in his hands, the instruments of see the note on chap. ii. 18. Learned men are not ngreed its accomplishment. Pharaoh orders the male children on the signification of the word ina choten, which we of the Hebrews to be thrown into the river-Moses, who translate father-in-law, and which in Genesis xix. 14. was thus exposed, is found by his own daughter, brought we translate son-in-law. It seems to be a general term up as her own son; and from his Egyptian education, be- for a relativc by marriage, and the connexion only in comes much better qualified for the great work to which which it stands, can determine its precise meaning. It is God had called him; and his being obliged to leave very possible that Reuel was now dead, it being forty Egypt, was undoubtedly a powerful means to wean his years since Moses came to Midian; that Jethro was his heart from a land in which he had at his command all the son, and had succeeded him in his office of prince and advantages and luxuries of life. His sojourning also in priest of Midian; that Zipporah was the sister of Jethro, a strange land, where he was obliged to earn his bread by and that consequently the word inn choten, should be a very painful employment, fitted him for the perilous translated brother-in-law in this place, as we learn from journey he was obliged to take in the wilderness, and en Gen. xxxiv. 9. Deut. vii. 3. Josh. xxiii. 12, and other abled him to bear the better the privations to which he places, that it simply signifies to contract affinity by was in consequence exposed.
marriage. If this conjecture be right, we may well suppose The bondage of the Israelites was also wisely permitted, that Reuel being dead, Moses was continued by his brothat they might with less reluctance leave a country where ther-in-law Jethro in the same employment he had under they had suffered the greatest oppression and indignities. his father. Had they not suffered severely, previous to their departure, Mountain of God] Sometimes named Horeb, at other there is much reason to believe, that no inducements could times Sinai. The mountain itself had two peaks, one have been sufficient to have prevailed on them to leave was called Horeb, the other Sinai. Horeb was proit. And yet their leaving it was of infinite consequence, bably the primitive name of the mountain, which was in the order both of grace and providence, as it was in- afterward called the mountain of God, because God apdispensably necessary that they should be a people sepa- peared upon it to Moses; and mount Sinai, "d from rub rated from all the rest of the world, that they might see sench, a bush, because it was in a bush, or bramble, in a the promises of God fulfilled under their own eyes, and flame of fire, that this appearance was made. thus have the fullest persuasion that their law was divine, Verse 2. The angel of the Lord] Not a created antheir prophets inspired by the Most High, and that the gel certainly; for he is called u Jehovah, ver. 4. &c. Messiah came according to the prophecies before delivered and has the most expressive attributes of the Godhead concerning him.
applied to him, ver. 14, &c. Yet he is an angeh 7850 From the example of Pharaoh's daughter, (see note ver. malac, a messenger, in whom was the name of God, chap. 4.) and the seven daughters of Jethro, (ver. 16.) we learn xxiii. 21. and in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godthat in the days of primitive simplicity, and in this respect head bodily, Col. ii. 9. and who, in all these primitive the best days, the children, particularly the daughters of times, was the messenger of the covenant
, Mal. ii. 1. persons in the highest ranks in life, were employed in the And who was this but Jesus, the Leader, Redeemer, and most laborious offices. Kings' daughters performed the Saviour of mankind ?-Sec the note on Gen. xvi. 7. office of the laundress to their own families : and the A flame of fire out of the midst of the bush) Fire daughters of princes tended and watered the flocks. We was not only among the Hebrews, but also among many have seen similar instances in the case of Rebekah and other ancient nations, a very significant emblem of the Rachel; and we cannot be too pointed in calling the at- Deity. God accompanied the Israelites in all their jour tention of modern delicate females, who are not only neyings through the wilderness as a pillar of fire by above serving their own parents and family, but even their night; and probably a fire or flame in the Holy of Holies
, own selves: the consequence of which is, they have between the Cherubim, was the general symbol of his neither vigour nor health; their growth, for want of presence : and traditions of these things, which must have
q Gen. 11. 5, 7 & 18. 21. & 50. 21.-r Ch. 6. 6, 8. & 12. 51.- Deut. 1. 25. & 8.7, 8, 9. Ver. 17, Ch. 13, 6. & 33. 3. Numb. 13. 37. Deut. 26. 9, 15. Jer. 11. 5. & 32 2.
Ch. 2. 25
Observant ubi festa mero pede sabbata regee.
whereon thou standest is holy ground.
5 And he said, Draw, not nigh hither: 4 put 8 And I am come down to deliver them out
up out of that land *unto a good land and a 6° Moreover he said,raha am the God of thy large, unto a land i Howing with milk and honey: father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hit and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face tites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and
the Hivites, and the Jebusites. E T And the Lord said, I have surely seen the 9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the chilamiction of my people which are in Egypt, and dren of lerael is come unto me: and I have also
have heard their cry... by reason of their task- seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians masters; for p I know their sorrows;
oppress them. k Ch 19 12 Josh. 5 15 Acts 7, 33. Gen. 2. 13. Ver. 15. Ch. 4. 5. Matt. 22. 32 Mark 12 %. Luke 21 37. Acam so i King 19.13 l«i 6 1,5. Neh, 9.9 Psa 106. 41. Acus 7. 34 - Ch. 2 B 2-0 Ch. 1. 11. - Gen. 18. 2.
Ezek. 32. 6.-u Gen. 15. 18.- Ch.22 -w Ch. I. 11, 13, 14, 22. been current in the East, have probably given birth, not hence he speaks of their performing their sacred rites bareonly to the pretty general opinion that God appears in the footed : Sat. vi. v. 158. likeness of fire, but to the whole of the Zoroastrian system of fire worship. It has been reported of Zoroaster, or Zeradusht, that having retired to a mountain for the The ancient Greeks did the same : Jamblicus, in the life of study of wisdom, and the benefit of solitude, the whole Pythagoras, tells us, that this was one of his maximsmountain was one day enveloped with flame, out of the xvUrodytos bus **t TPETXuvos-offer sacrifice, and worship, midst of which he came without receiving any injury; on with your shoes off And Solinus asserts, that no person which he offered sacrifices to God, who, he was per was permitted to enter into the temple of Diana, in Crete, suaded, had then appeared to him. M. Anquetil du Per- till he had taken off his shoes. "Ædem Numinis ron gives much curious information on this subject in his (Diana) præterquam nudus vestigio nullus licitò ingreZend Aresta. The moderu Parsees call fire the offspring of ditur." . Tertullian observes, de jejunio, that in a time of Ormusd, and worship it with a vast variety of ceremonies. drought, the worshippers of Jupiter deprecated his wrath, Among the fragments attributed to Æschylus, and col- and prayed for rain, walking barefooted.
“Cum stupet lected by Stanley, in his invaluable edition of this poet, cælum, et aret annus, nudipedalia denunciantur.” Ii is p. 647. col. 1. we find the following beautiful verses : probable that cobya neâlim, in the text, signifies sandals,
iranslated by the Chaldee 5730 sandal, and N570 sandala, Xxeoçt burtay TON 8.00, **• u 80%:.
see Gen. xiv. 23. which was the same as the Roman solea, Ομοιον αυτω σαρκίνον καθεστ αναι, Our evróx 8' KUTOY TIL! V 15 Up OXIVIT*5
a sole alone, strapped about the foot. As this sole must Απλ.αστον ορμη" ποτε δ' υδρ, ποτέ δε γνoφo5.
let in dust, gravel, and sand about the foot in travelling, "Distinguish God from mortal men; and do not sup- washing the feet in those countries, where these sandals
and render it very uneasy, hence the custom of frequently pose that any thing fleshly is like unto him. Thou knowest him not: sometimes indeed he appears as a formless were worn. Pulling off the shoes was, therefore, an em
blem of laying aside the pollutions contracted by walking and impetuous FIBE-sometimes as water--sometimes as
in the way of sin. Let those who name the Lord Jesus thick darkness.”—The poet proceeds :
Christ depart from iniquity. In our western countries, Тения, opy, *** 7 *i, **milagres
reverence is expressed by pulling off the hat ; but how Buje; iskattu5, ***8*8 vưssure, Οταν επιβλεψη γοργον ομμα δεσποτου,
much more significant is the eastern custom !
The place whereon thou standest is holy ground] It “ The mountains, the earth, the deep and extensive sea, was now particularly sanctified by the Divine Presence: and the summits of the highest mountains, tremble, when but if we may credit Josephus, a general opinion had preever the terrible eye of the Supreme Lord looks down vailed that God dwelt on that mountain ; and hence the upon them."
shepherds, considering it as sacred ground, did not dare to These are very remarkable fragments, and seem all to be feed their flocks there. Moses, however, finding the soil collected from traditions relative to the different manifesta- to be rich, and the pasturage good, boldly drove his flock tions of God to the Israelites in Egypt, and in the wilder- thither to feed on it.-Antiq. b. II. c. xii. s. 1. ness. Moses wished to see God, but he could behold nothing Verse 6. I am the God of thy the Though the but an indescribable glory ; nothing like mortals, nothing word 'In abi, father, is here used in the singular, St. like a human body, appeared at any time to his eye, or 10 Stephen, quoting this place, Acts vii. 32. uses the plural, those of the Israelites." Ye saw no manner of similitude," Q10S TWv=XTspor cou, the God of thy FATHERS; and that said Moses, " on the day that the Lord spake unto you in this is the meaning the following words prove--The God Horeb, out of the midst of the FIRE,” Deut. iv. 15. But of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. sometimes the divine power and justice were manifested These were the fathers of Moses in a direct line. This by the indescribable, formless, impetuous, consuming reading is confirmed by the Samaritan and by the Coptic. flame-at other times he appeared by the water which he | ABRAHAM was the father of the Ishmaelites, and with him brought out of the flinty rock-and in the thick darkness was the covenant first made. Isaac was the father of on Horeb, when the fiery law proceeded from his right the Edomites, as well as the Israelites, and with him was hand, then the earth quaked and the mountain trembled: the covenant renewed, Jacob was the father of the twelve and when his terrible eye looked out upon the Egyptians, patriarchs, who were founders of the Jewish nation; and through the pillar of cloud and fire, their chariot-wheels io him were the promises particularly confirmed. Hence were struck off, and confusion and dismay were spread we see, that the Arabs and Turks in general, who are through all the hosts of Pharaoh, Exod. xiv. 24, 25. descendants of Ishmael; the Edomites, now absorbed
And the bush was not consumed] 1. An emblem of the among the Jews, see the note on Gen. xxv. 23. who are state of Israel in its various distresses and persecutions ; it the descendants of Esau ; and the Jewish people
, where was in the fire of adversity, but was not consumed. 2. An soever scattered, who are the descendants of Jacob, are all erablem also of the state of the church of God in the wilder- heirs of the promises included in this primitive covenant; neas, in persecutions often--in the midst of its enemies-in and their gathering in, with the fulness of the Gentiles, the region of the shadow of death-yet not consumed. 3. may be confidently expected. An emblem also of the state of every follower of Christ, Ånd Moses hid his face) For similar acis, see the pascast down, but not forsaken-grievously tempted, but not sages referred to in the margin. He was afraid to lookdestroyed-walking through the fire, but still unconsumed! he was overawed by God's presence, and dazzled with the Why are all these preserved in the midst of those things splendour of the appearance. which have a natural tendency to destroy them? Because Verse 7. I have surely seen] No reoh reiti, secGOD 18 IN THE MIDST OF THEM-it was this that preserved ing, I have seen—I have not only seen the afflictions of this the bush from destruction—and it was this that preserved people, because I am omniscient; but I have considered the Israelites--and it is this, and this alone, that preserves their sorrows, and mine eye affects my heart. the church, and holds the soul of every genuine believer in Verse 8. And I am come down to deliver them) This the spiritual life. He in whose heart Christ dwells not by is the very purpose for which I am now come down upon faith, will soon be consumed by the world, the flesh, and this mountains and for which I manifest myself to thee. the devil.
Large land] Canaan, when compared with the small Verse 5. Put off thy shocs] It is likely, that from this tract of Goshen, in which they were now situated, and circumstance, all the eastern 'nations have agreed to per- where, we learn, from chap. i. 7. they were straitened for form all the acts of their religious worship barefooled. room, might be well called a large land; see a fine deAll the Mohammedans, Brahmins, and Parsees, do so still. scription of this land, Deut. viii. 7. The Jews were remarked for this in the time of Juvenal : À land flowing with milk and honey) Excellent for
10 - Come now therefore, and I will send thee, unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my me into you; and they shall say to me, What people the children of Israel, out of Egypt. is his name? what shall I say unto them?
11 | And Moses said unto God, y Who am 14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I LAM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto should bring forth the children of Israel out of the children of Israel, - I AM hath sent me unto Egypt?
you. 12 And he said, ? Certainly I will be with thee; 15 | And God said moreover unto Moses, and this shall be a token unto thee, that I have Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, sent thee: When thou hast bronght forth the The LORD God of your fathers, the God of people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of this mountain.
Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is o 13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, When name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say generations.
Psa. 106. 20. Micah 6. 4.-y See Ch. 6. 12 I Sam. 18. 18. Isai. 6. 5, 8. Jer. 1.6.
z Gen. 31. 3. Deut. 31. 23. Juah. 1.5. Rom. 8. 31.
a Ch. 6. 3. John 8. 58. 2 Cor. 1. 20. Hebr. 13. 8. Rev. 8. 4.- Psa. 136. 13. Hos
n. lib. iii ver. 96.
pasturage, because abounding in the most wholesome of Genesis, if even written, (for some suppose it had been herbage and tiowers; and from the latter an abundance of composed by Moses during his residence in Midian) had wild honey was collected by the bees. Though cultivation not yet been cominunicated to the people ; and being so is now almost entirely neglected in this land, because of long without any revelation, and perhaps without even the badness of the government, and the scantiness of the the form of divine worship, their minds being degraded by inhabitants, yet it is still good for pasturage, and yields an the state of bondage in which they had been so long held, abundance of honey. The terms used in the text to express and seeing and hearing little in religion, but the superstithe fertility of this land, are commonly used by ancient tions of those among whom they sojourned, they could authors on similar subjects. It is a metaphor taken from have no distinct notion of the Divine Bcing. Moses hima breast, producing copious streams of milk. Homer self might have been in doubt at first on this subject; and calls Argos, ou xp ce poupas, the breast of the country, as he seems to have been greatly on his guard against illuaffording streams of milk and honey. Il. ix. ver. 141. sion : hence he asks a variety of questions, and endeavours So Virgil,
by all prudent means, to assure himself of the truth and Prima tnlit tellus, eadem ros uharelato
certainty of the present appearance and commission. He
well knew the power of ile Egyptian magicians, and he 'The land that first produced you, shall receive you again could not tell from these first views, whether there might into its joyous bosom."
not have been some delusion in this case. God, therefore, The poets feign that Bacchus, the fable of whom they gives him the fullest proof, not only for the satisfaction of have taken from the history of Moses, produced rivers of the people to whom he was to be sent, but for his own full milk and honey, of water and wine;
conviction, that it was the Supreme God who now spoke Ρε δε γαλακτι πε δαν,
to him. Pen s'ouww, can oo Mucr2v
Verse 14. I am that I Am] One N 79778 EHEYEH Νεκταρι. Eurip. Basch. Epif. ver. 8. asher EHEYEH. These words have been variously under“The land flows with milk; it flows also with wine; it stood. The Vulgate translates—EGO SUM QUI SUM, I am flows also with the nectar of bees (honey."'). This seems
The Septuagint-Eyw sous olv, I am, he icho to be a mere poetical copy from the Pentateuch, where erists. The Syriac, the Persic, and the Chaldee, preserve the sameness of the metaphor, and the correspondence of the original words, without any gloss. The Arabic parathe descriptions are obvious.
phrases them- The Eternal, who passes not avay; Place of the Canaanites, &c.] See Gen. xv. 19, &c. which is the same interpretation given by Abul Farajius,
Verse 11. Who am I, that I should bring] He was so who also preserves the original words, and gives the satisfied that this was beyond his power, and all the means above as their interpretation. The Targum of Jonathar, that he possessed, that he is astonished that even God and the Jerusalem Targum, paraphrase ihe words thushimself should appoint him to this work! Such indeed “He who spake, and the world was-who spake, and was the bondage of the children of Israel, and the power all things existed.” As the original words literally sig. of the people by whom they were enslaved, that had not nify, I will be what I will be, some have supposed that their deliverance come through supernatural means, their God simply designed to inform Moses, that what he escape had been utterly impossible.
had been to his fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacoh, he Verse 12. Certainly will be with thee) This great would be to him and the Israelites, and that he would event shall not be left to thy wisdom and to thy power-perform the promises he had made to his fathers, by my counsel shall direct thee; and my power shall bring giving their descendants the promised land. It is diftiall these mighty things to pass.
cult to put a meaning on the words; they seem intended And this shall be a token] Literally, And this to thee to point out the eternity and self-existence of God.-See for a sign, i. e. this miraculous manifestation of the the conclusion of this chapter, and on the word Jehorah, burning bush ; shall be a proof that I have sent thee; chap. xxxiv. 6. and 7. or, my being with thee to encourage thy heart, strengthen Verse 15. This is my name for erer] The name here thy hands, and enable thee to work miracles, shall be to referred to is that which immediately precedes, ons IT thyself and to others, the evidence of thy divine mission. Yehorah Elohim, which we translate the LORD God, the
Ve shall serve God on this mountain] This was not name by which God had been known from the creation the sign, but God shows him that on their return from of the world, (see Gen. ii. 4.) and the name by which he Egypt, they should take this mountain in their way, and is known among the same people to the present day: should worship him in this place. There may be a pro- Even the heathens knew this name of the true God; and phetic allusion here to the giving of the law on mount hence out of our , Yehorah, they formed their Jao, Sinai. As Moses received his commands here, so likewise Jeve, and Jove; so that the word has been literally tul. should the Israelites, receive theirs in the same place. filled- This is my memorial unto all generations. See After all, the Divine Being seems to testify a partial pre the note on the word Elohim, Gen. i. 1. As to be selfdilection for this mountain. See the note on ver. 5.
existent and eternal must be attributes of God for ever, Verse 13. They shall say-What is his name?] Does does it not follow that the asys le-ôlam, for ever, in the not this suppose that the Israelites had an idolatrous notion text, signifies eternity. "This is my name to eternityeven of the Supreme Being? They had probably drunk and my memorial," 17.775 ledor dor, "10 all succeeding deep into the Egyptian superstitions, and had gods many, generations." While human generations continued, he and lords many; and Mozes conjectured, that hearing of should be called the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, a supernatural deliverance, they would inquire who that and the God of Jacob; but when time should be no more, God was, by whom it was to be effected. The reasons he should be Jehovah Elohim. Hence the first expresgiven here by the rabbins are too refined for the Israelites sion refers to bis eternal existence, the latter to the at this time. When God, say they, judgeth his creatures, discovery he should make of himself as long as time he is called Ombu Elohim. When he warrcth against should last. See Gen. xxi. 33. Diodorus Siculus says, that the wicked, he is called may tsebaoth; but when he “among the Jews, Moses is reported to have received his showeth mercy unto the world, he is called 917 Yehovah. laws from the God named Jao, " 12w, i. e. Jeue, Jore, or It is not likely that the Israelites had much knowledge of Jeve ; for in all these ways the word " Yehorar, may God or of his waya, at the time to which the sacred text be pronounced : and in this way I have seen it on Egyprefers ; it is certain they had no written word--the book I tian monuments.-See Diod. lib. 1. c. xciv.
16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel to three days' journey into the wilderness, that we gether, and say unto them, The Lord God of may sacrifice to the Lord our God. your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, 19 | And I am sure that the king of Egypt and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, "I have I will not let you go, k no, not by a mighty hand. surely visited you, and seen that which is done 20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite to you in Egypt:
Egypt with mall my wonders which I will do in 17 And I have said, • I will bring you up out the midst thereof: and after that he will let of the affliction of Egypt, unto the land of the you go. Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, 21 And I will give this people favour in the and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: honey:
22 p But every woman shall borrow of her 18 And they shall hearken to thy voice: and neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her & thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto raiment: and ye shall put them upon your song, him, The Lord God of the Hebrews hath met and upon your daughters, and ye shall spoil with us :-and now let us go, we beseech thee, r the Egyptians.
e Ch. 4. - Gen 50. 21. Ch.2 35.& 1 31. Luke 1.68.-Gen. 15. 14, 16. Ver. B. fCh 1.31.- Ch 5.1,3-h Numb 23.3, 4, 15, 16.-i Ch 52&7. 4.- Or, but by strong han. - Ch. 6. 6. & 7. 5. & 9. 15.-m Ch. 7. 3. & 11. 9. Deut. 6. 22. Neh. 9. 10.
Pea 105. 27. & 135. 9. Jer 32 20. Acts 7. 36. See Ch. 7. to Ch. 13. Ch. 12. 31. o Ch. 11. 3. & 12. 36 Psa. 105. 16. Prov. 16.7.-- Gen. 15. 14. Ch. 11. 2 & 12. 35, 36. q Job 21. 17. Prov. 13. 22. Ezek. 39. 10.-r Or, Egypt.
Verse 16. Elders of Israel] Though it is not likely their past services, and he inclined the hearts of the Egypthe Hebrews were permitted to have any regular govern tians to gire liberally; and this, far from being a matter ment at this time, yet there can be no doubt of their of oppression, wrong, or even charity, was no more than having such a government in the time of Joseph, and for a very partial recompense for the long and painful sersome considerable time after; the elders of each tribe vices, which we may say six hundred thousand Israelites forming a kind of court of magistrates, by which all had rendered to Egypt, during a considerable number of actions were tried, and legal decisions made, in the Israel- years. And there can be no doubt, that while their heaitish community.
viest oppression lasted, they were permitted to accumulate I have surely visited you! An exact fulfilment of the no kind of property, as all their gains went to their opprediction of Joseph, Gen. 1. 24.-God will surely visit pressors. you-and in the same words too.
Our exceptionable translation of the original, has given Verse 19. They shall hearken to thy voice) This assu some countenance to the desperate cause of infidelity : its rance was necessary to encourage him in an enterprise so abettors have exultingly said —"Moses represents the just dangerous and important.
God as ordering the Israelites to borrow the goods of the Three days' journey into the wilderness) Evidently Egyptians under the pretence of returning them, whereas intending mount Sinai, which is reputed to be about three he intended that they should march off with the booty." days' journey, the shortest way, from the land of Goshen. Let these men know, that there was no borrowing in the In ancient times, distances were computed, by the time case; and that if accounts were fairly balanced, Egypt required to pass over them. Thus, instead of miles, fur- would be found still in considerable arrears to Israel. Let longs, &c. it was said the distance from one place to it also be considered, that the Egyptians had never any another was so many days, so many hours journey ; and right to the services of the Hebrews. Egypt owed its it continues the same in all countries where there are no policy, its opulence, and even its political existence, to the regular roads or highways.
İsraelites. What had Joseph for his important services ? Verse 19. I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let Nothing! He had neither district, nor city, nor lordship, you go, no, not by a mighty hand.) When the facts de in Egypt; nor did he reserve any to his children. All tailed in this history have been considered in connexion his services were gratuitous ; and being animated with a with the assertion as it stands in our Bibles, the most pal- better hope than any earthly possession could inspire, he pable contradiction has appeared. That the king of desired that even his bones should be carried up out of Egypt did let them go, and that by a mighty hand, the Egypt. Jacob and his family, it is true, were permitted book itself amply declares. We should therefore seek for to sojourn in Goshen, but they were not provided for in another meaning of the original word : N57 o’lo, which that place ; for they brought their cattle, their goods, and all generally means and not, has sometimes the meaning of that they had, into Egypt, Gen. xlv. 1, 6. so that they had if not, unless, ercept, &c. and in Beck's Bible, 1549, it is nothing but the bare land to feed on; and had built thus translated-I am sure that the kyng of Egypt uyl treasure-cities or fortresses, we know not how many ; not let you go, EXCEPT wyth a myghty hand. This im and two whole cities, Pithom and Raamses, besides : port of the negative particle, which is noticed by Noldius, and for all these services they had no compensation Heb. Part. p. 323. was perfectly understood by the whatever, but were, besides, cruelly abused, and obliged to Vulgate, where it is translated nisi, unless ; and the witness, as the sum of their calamities, the daily murder Septuagint in their sav pem, which is of the same import, of their male infants. These particulars considered, will and so also the Coptic. The meaning, therefore, is very infidelity ever dare to produce this case again, in support plain-The king of Egypt, who now profits much by of its worthless pretensions? your servitude, will not let you go till he sees my hand Jewels of silver, &c.] The word "5 keley, we have stretched out, and he and his nation be smitten with ten already seen, signifies vessels, instruments, weapons, &c. plagues. Hence God immediately adds, ver. 20. I will and may be very well translated by our English term stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my won articles or goods. The Israelites got both gold and silver, ders ; and after that he will let you go.
probably both in coin and in plate of different kinds : and Verse 22. Every woman shall BORROW] This is cer such raiment as was necessary, for the journey which they tainly not a very correct translation : the original word were about to undertake. suv shaal, signifies simply to ask, request, demand, re Ye shall spoil the Egyptians] The verb 493 natsal, quire, inquire, &c. but it does not signify to borrow, signifies not only to spoil, snatch away, but also to get in the proper sense of that word, though in a very few away, to escape, to deliver, to regain, or recover. SPOIL places of Scripture it is thus used. In this and the parallel signifies what is taken by rapine or violence-but this place, ch. xii. 35. the word signifies to ask or demund, cannot be the meaning of the original word here, as the and not to borrow, which is a gross mistake, into which Israelites only asked, and the Egyptians, without fear, scarcely any of the rersions, ancient or modern, have terror, or constraint, freely gave. li is worthy of remark, fallen, except our own. The SEPTUAGINT have moret, that the original word is used 1 Sam. xxx. 22. to signify she shall ask ; the VULGATE postulabit, she shall demand; the recorery of property that had been taken away by vio. the Syriac, CHALDEE, SAMAritan, SAMARITAN Version, lence. "Then answered all the wicked men, and men of Coptic, and PERSIAN, are the game as the Hebrero. The Belial, of those that went with David-Because they went European versions are generally correct on this point; not with us, we will not give them aught of the SPOIL, and our common English version is almost the sole trans-Sono me-ha-SHALAL; that we have RECOVERED, 135377 WUN gressor: I
the common version, which, copying the asher HITSALENU. In this sense we should understand the Bible published by Beck in 1549, gives us the exceptionable word here. The Israelites recovered a part of their proterm borrow, for the original Swv shaal, which in the perty, their wages, of which they had been most unjustly Geneda Bible, and Barker's Bible of 1615, and some deprived by the Egyptians. others, is rightly translated aske. God commanded the In this chapter we have much curious and important Israelites to ask or demand a certain recompense for information; but what is most interesting is the name by