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cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and CHAPTER IX.

there shall nothing die of all that is the childThe Lord sends Moses to Pharaoh, to inform him that if he did not let the Israelites ren's of Israel. depart, a destrucuve pestilence should be sent among bis cattle, 1-3; while the

5 And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, cattle of the Israelites should be preserved, 4. The next day, this pestilence which vu te ih plagis, is sent, and all the cause of the Egypuans dië,5,6. Though To-morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the ness of beart, he refuses to let the people go, 7. Moses and Aaron are commander land. to sprinkle handfuls of ashes from the furnace, that the sixth plague, that of biles 6 And the LORD did that thing on the morand blaine, might come on man and beast, 8, 9; which having done, the plague neilleet imimte nor remore, Il Pharaoh's

heart is grein


, which are con row, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of message to Pharaoh, with the threat of more severe plagues than before, 13.-17. the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. The seventh plague of rain, hau, and fire threatened, 18 The Egyptians commandel to house their catue, that they might not be destroyel, 19. There who

7 And Pharaoh sent, and behold, there was feared the word of the Lord btunghi hoine their servants and cattle, and those who not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And did not regard that word left their cattle and servants in the fields, 20, 21 Kom of hail, thunder, and lightning takes place, 22-24. It nearly desolates the " the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he whole land of Egype, 35, while the land of Goshen escapek, 26. Pharaohconfesses did not let the people go. promises to intercede for him, and while he promises that the storm shall cease, he 8 | And the LORD said unto Moses and unto barley being in a state of maturity, are destroyed by

the tempest, 31; while the wheat Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the ryenot furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the the storm 32 Pharaoh and his servanis seeing this, harden their hearts, and refuse to let the people go, 34, 35.

heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. WHEN the LORD said unto Moses, o Go in 9 And it shall become small dust in all the unto Pharaoh,

and tell him, Thus saith the land of Egypt, and shall be 'a boil breaking LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, that they may serve me.

throughout all the land of Egypt. 2 For if thou Prefuse to let them go, and wilt 10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and hold them still,

stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it 3 Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thy up toward heaven; and it became wa boil breakcattle which is in the field, upon the horses, ing forth with blains upon man, and upon beast. upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, 11 And the * magicians could not stand before and upon the sheep: there shall be a very griev- Moses, because of the boils; for the boil was ous murrain.

upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyp4 And the LORD shall sever between the tians.

o Ch 8. Top Ch. 8. 2- Ch. 1. 4.– Ch 8. 2- Pa. 78. 50,

u Ch. 7. 14. & 8. 32.- Rev. 16. 2-W Deut. 2. 27.-Ch. 8. 18, 19. 2 Tim. 3. 9. streams; no frog, lice, nor flies, in all their borders! cattle that did die, belonged to the Egyptians, but not one They trusted in the true God, and could not be confound died that belonged to the Israelites, ver. 4. and 6. That ed. -Reader, how secure mayest thou rest, if thou have the whole stock of cattle belonging to the Egyptians, did this God for thy friend! He was the Protector and Friend not die, we have the fullest proof; because there were of the Israelites, through the blood of that covenant which cattle, both to be killed and saved alive, in the ensuing is the very charter of thy salvation : trust in and pray to plague, ver. 19—25. By this judgment, the Egyptians him, as Moses did, and then Satan and his angels shall be must see the vanity of the whole of their national worship, bruised under thy feet, and thou shalt not only be preserved when they found the animals, which they not only held from every plague, but be crowned with his lovingkind- sacred, but deified, slain without distinction, among the ness and tender mercy. He is the same to-day that he common herd, by a pestilence sent from the hand of Jehowas yesterday, and shall continue the same for ever.-Hal- vah. One might naturally suppose, that after this, the lelujah, the Lord God omnipotent


animal worship of the Egyptians could never more mainNOTES ON CHAPTER IX.

tain its ground. Verse 1. The LORD God of the Hebrews.] It very

Verse 7. And Pharaoh sent, &c.] Finding so many likely that the term Lord, mit Yehovah, is used here to of his own cattle and those of his subjects slain, he sent point out particularly his eternal power and Godhead ; and to see whether the mortality had reached to the cattle that the term God, abn Elohay, is intended to be understood of the Israelites, that he might know whether this were a in the sense of Supporter, Defender, Protector, &c. Thus judgment inflicted by their God; and probably designing saith the self-existent, omnipotent, and eternal Being, the to replace the lost cattle of the Egyptians with those of Supporter and Defender of the Hebrews, “Let my people the Israelites. go, that they may worship me."

The sixth plague-The Biles and BLAINS.
The FIFTH plague–The MURRAIN.

Verse 8. Handfuls of ashes from the furnace] As one Verse 3. The hand of the Lord] The power of God part of the oppression of the Israelites consisted in their manifested in judgment.

labour in the brick-kilns, some have observed a congruity Upon the horses] prono susim. This is the first place between the crime and the punishment. The furnaces, the horse is mentioned; a creature for which Egypt and in the labour of which they oppressed the Hebrews, now Arabia were always famous. Do sus, is supposed to have yielded the instruments of their punishment; for every the same meaning with uw sas, which signifies to be particle of those ashes, formed by unjust and oppressive active, brisk, or lively; all which are proper appellatives labour, seemed to be a bile or a bláin on the tyrannic king, of the horse, especially in Arabia and Egypt. Because of and his cruel and hard-hearted people. their activity and swiftness, they were sacrificed and dedi Verse 9. Shall be a boil] puno shechin. This word is cated to the sun; and perhaps, it was principally on this generally expounded, an inflammatory swelling, a burnaccount that God prohibited the use of them among the ing bile-one of the most poignant afflictions, not immeIsraelites.

diately mortal, that can well affect the surface of the huA very grierous murrain.) The murrain is a very con man body. If a single bile on any part of the body, throws tagious disease among cattle, the symptoms of which are, the whole system into a fever, what anguish must a mul& hanging down and swelling of the head, abundance

of titude of them on the body at the same time, occasion ? gum in the eyes, rattling in the throat difficulty of breath Breaking forth with blains) nyayan ababaoth, suping, palpitation of the heart, staggering, a hot breath, and posed to come from nya baâh to swell

, bulge out, any a shining tongue; which symptoms prove, that a general inflammatory swelling, node, or pustule, in any part of inflammation has taken place. The original word 737 the body, but more especially in the more glandular parts, deber, is variously translated. The Septuagint have the neck, arm-pits, groin, &c. The Septuagint translate **v*tes, death; the Vulgate has pestis, a plague or pesti- it thus, xxo sgoreto 17.xn aux todos avotocvrni, and it shall be lence; the old Saxon version, cpealme, from cpealan, to an ulcer with burning pustules. It seems to have been a dic, any fatal disease. Our English word murrain, comes disorder of an uncommon kind, and hence it is called, by either from the French mourir, to die, or from the Greek way of distinction, the botch of Egypt, Deut. xxviii. 27. wspauvw: maraino, to grow lean, waste away. The term perhaps never known before in that or any other country: mortality would be the nearest in sense to the original, as Orosius says, that in the sixth plague, "all the people no particular disorder is specified by the Hebrew word. were blistered, that the blisters burst with tormenting pain,

Verse 4. The Lord shall sever] See on chap. viii. 22. and that worms issued out of them." Dæt eali folc pær

Verse 5. To-morrow the Lord shall do this) By thus on blædran, Tða pæron spide hpeoplice berstende, ja foretelling the evil, he showed his prescience and power ; porins utsionde. — Alfred's Oros. lib. i. c. vii. and from this both the Egyptians and Hebrews must see, Verse 11. The boil was upon the magicians) They that the mortality that ensued was no casualty, but the could not produce a similar malady by throwing ashes in effect of a predetermined purpose in the Divine Fustice. the air ; and they could neither remove the plague from Verse 6. All the cattle of Egypt died] That is, all the l the people, nor from their own tormented flesh. Whether

y Ch. 4. 21.- Ch. & 20.-a Ch. 8. 10-b Ch. 3. 20.-€ Rom. 9. 17. See Ch. 14.

17. Prov. 16. 1 Pet. 2.9.-d Heb. made thee stand.

God to show his power in his destructiony sense, for

12 And the Lord hardened the heart of Pha- | cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as raoh, and he hearkened not unto them ; ' as the hath not been in Egypt, since the foundation LORD had spoken unto Moses.

thereof, even until now. 13 | And the Lord said unto Moses, 2 Rise 19 Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, up early in the morning, and stand before Pha- and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every raoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord man and beast which shall be found in the field, God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that and shall not be brought home, the hail shall they may serve me.

come down upon them, and they shall die. 14 For I will at this time send all my plagues 20 He that feared the word of the LORD among upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and upon thy people; a that thou mayest know that his cattle flee into the houses: there is none like me in all the earth.

21 And he that ' regarded not the word of the 15 For now I will b stretch out my hand, that LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field. I may smite thee and thy people with pesti 22 | And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch lence: and thou shalt be cut off from the earth. forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may

16 And in very deed for this cause have I be 8 hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and d raised thee up, for to show in thee my power; upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, and that my name may be declared throughout throughout the land of Egypt. all the earth.

23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward 17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my heaven: and b the LORD sent thunder and hail, people, that thou wilt not let them go??

and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the 18 Behold, to-morrow about this time I will Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt.

f Heb. act not his heart unto. Ch. 7.2.-- Rev. 16. 21. --h Josh. 10. 11. Po 18

13. & 78. 47. & 105. 32 & 148. 8. Isai. 30. 30. Erek. 38. 22 Rev. 9.7. they perished in this plague, we know not; but they are ple?) So it appears, that at this time he might have subno more mentioned. "If they were not destroyed by this mitted, and thus prevented his own destruction. awful judgment, they at least left the field, and no longer

The SEVENTH plague--The Hail. contended with these messengers of God. The triumph Verse 18. To-morrow about this time] The time of of God's power was now complete; and both the Hebrews this plague is marked thus circumstantially, to show Phaand Egyptians must see that ihere was neither might, nor raoh that Jehovah was Lord of heaven and earth; and that wisdom, nor counsel, against the Lord; and that as uni the water, the fire, the earth, and the air, which were all versal nature acknowledged his power, devils and men objects of Egyptian idolatry were the creatures of his pow. must fail before him.

er, and subservient to his will: and that, far from being Verse 15. For now I will stretch out my hand] In able to help them, they were now, in the hands of God, the Hebrew, the verbs are in the past tense, and not in the instruments of their destruction. future, as our translation improperly expresses them, by To rain a very gricrous hail] To rain hail, may apwhich means a contradiction appears in the text; for nei pear, to some superficial observers, as an unphilosophical ther Pharaoh nor his people were smilten by a pestilence, mode of expression; but nothing can be more correct. nor was he by any kind of mortality cut off from the earth. “Drops of rain falling through a cold region of the armoIt is true, the first-born were slain by a destroying angel, sphere, are frozen and converted into hail;" and thus the and Pharaoh himself was drowned in the Red sea; but hail is produced by rain. When it begins to fall, it is these judgments do not appear to be referred to in this rain ; when it is falling, it is converted into hail; thus it place.' If the words be translated as they ought, in the is literally true, that it rains hail. The farther a hailstone subjunctive mood, or in the past instead of ihe future, this falls, the larger it generally is; because, in its descent, seeming contradiction to facts, as well as all ambiguity, will meeting with innumerable particles of water, they become be avoided. For if now I'HAD STRETCHED OUT (nabis attached to it, are also frozen, and thus its bulk is continushalachti, had sent forth my hand) and had smitten ally increasing till it reaches the earth. In the case in thee (979 789 va-ac oleca) and thy people, with the pesti- question, if natural means were at all used, we may suplence, thou shOULDEST HAVE BEEN cut off (non tikkached) pose a highly electrified state of an atmosphere loaded with from the carth. 16. But truly, on this rery account, hare vapours, which becoming condensed and frozen, and having I caused thee to SUBSIST, (opyn he-êmadlica) that I a considerable space to fall through, were of an unusually MIGHT cause thee to see my power, (no ne 70177 harcoteca large size. Though this was a supernatural storm, there et cochi) and that my name might be declared throughout have been many of a natural kind, that have been exceedall the carth; or, No 5o2 becol, ha-arets, in all this ingly dreadful. A storm of hail fell near Liverpool, in See Ainsworth and Houbigant.

Lancashire, in the year 1795, which greatly damaged the Thus God gave this impious king to know, that it was vegetation, broke windows, &c. &c. Many of the stones in consequence of his especial providence that both he and measured five inches in circumference. Dr. Halley menhis people had not been already destroyed by means of the tions a similar storm of hail in Lancashire, Cheshire, &e. pasi plagues; but God had preserved him for this very in the year 1797, April 29, that for sixty miles in length, purpose, that he might have a farther opportunity of mani and two miles in breadth, did immense damage, by splitting festing that he, Jehovah, was the only true God, for the trees, killing fowls and all small animals, knocking down full conviction both of the Hebrews and Egyptians : that men and horses, &c. &c. Mezeray, in his History of the former might follow, and the latter fear before him. France, says, that in Italy, in 1510, there was for some Judicious critics of almost all creeds, have agreed to trans time a horrible darkness, thicker than that of night; after late the original as above; a translation which it not only which the clouds broke into thunder and lightning, and can hear, but requires; and which is in strict conformity there fell a shower of hailstones, which destroyed all the to both the Septuagint and Targum. Neither the Hebrew beasts, birds, and even fish, of the country. It was attended qoyn he-ê madlica, I have caused thee to stand, nor the with a strong smell of sulphur, and the stones were of a apostle's translation of it, Rom. ix. 17. singoipa o, I have blueish colour, some of them weighing one lıundred pounds raised thec-nor that of the Septuagint, vexev weight. The Almighty says to Job—"Hast thou seen the dootmenimi, on this account art thou preserved, viz. in the treasures of the hail, which I have reserved against the past plagues-can countenance that most exceptionable time of trouble, against the day of batile and war ?" Job, meaning, put on the words by certain commentators, viz. chap. xxxviii. 22, 23. While God has such artillery at “That God ordained or appointed Pharaoh, from all eter his command, how soon may he desolate a country, or a nity, by certain means, to this end ; that he made him to world! exist in time; that he raised him to the throne; promoted Verse 19. Send now and gather thy cattle) So in the him to that high honour and dignity; that he preserved midst of judgment God remembered mercy. The miracle him, and did not cut him off as yet ; that he strengthened should be wrought, that they might know he was the Lord; and urdened his heart; irritated, provoked, and stirred but all the lives, both of men and beasts, might have been him up against his people Israel; and suffered him to go saved, had Pharaoh and his servants taken the warning so all the lengths he did go in his obstinacy and rebellion; all mercifully given them. While some regarded not the word which was done for to show in him his power, in destroying of the Lord, others feared it, and their cattle and their serhim and his host in the Red Sea. The sum of which is, vants were saved.

See ver. 20, 21. that this man was raised up by God, in

Verse 23. The Lord sent thunder-m'p holoth, roices; So man

but loud repeated peals of thunder are meant--and hail, speaks: thus, God hath not spoken.

and the fire ran along upon the ground] mY WN 750 Verse 17. As yet exaltest thou thyself against my peo- I va-tihalac esh aretsah, and the fire walked upon the earth.



24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with 28 - Entreat the LORD (for it is enough) that the hail

, very grievous, such as there was none there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; Like it in all the land of Egypt, since it became a and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer. nation.

29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am 25 And the hail smote throughout all the land gone out of the city, I will p spread abroad my of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall beast; and the hail i smote every herb of the cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that field, and brake every tree of the field.

thou mayest know how that the rearth is the 26' Only in the land of Goshen, where the LORD's. children of Israel were, was there no hail.

30 But as thee and thy servants, I know 27 | And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses that ye will not yet fear the LORD God. and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned 31 And the fax and the barley was smitten: this time: m the LORD is righteous, and I and my for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was people are wicked.


i Psa. 105. 33.-k Ch. 8. 22. & 9. 4, 6. & 10. 23. & 11. 7. & 12 13. Isai. 32 18, 19.

I Ch 10. 16.-In 2 Chron. 12 6. Psa. 12. 4. & 145. 17. Lam 1. 18. Dan. 9. 14.

n Ch. 8. 8, 29. & 10. 17. Acts 8. 21,- Heb. voices of God. Puas. 29. 3, 4. P 1 Kings 8. 22, 38. Psa. 143. 6. Isai. I. 15.-- Pe 24. 1. I Cor. 10. 26, B.- Isas 26. 10.- Ruth 1.2 & 2 23.


Æneid. 15 ver. 170.

Ibid. ver. GOZ

Ibid. L ver. 667.


It was not a sudden flash of lightning, but a devouring fire, To which the following answer is made :
walking through every part, destroying both animals and Και τοτ' επειτα τοι ειμι Διoς πoτι χαλκοόατος δω,
vegetables, and its progress was irresistible.

Και μιν γονυασομαι, και μιν πιισισθαι διω.
Verse 24. Hail, and fire mingled with the hail] It is

Ilind A. ver. 26.

" Then will I to Jose'e brazen floored abode, generally allowed, that the electric fluid is essential to the

That I may clasp his knees; and much misdeem formation of hail.' On this occasion it was supplied in a

Of may endeavour, or my prayer strall speed." supernatural abundance; for streams of fire seem to have See the issue of thus addressing Jove, Ibid. ver. 500— accompanied the descending hail, so that herbs and trees, 502. and ver. 511, &c. beasts and men, were all destroyed by them.

In the same manner we find our Lord accosted, Matth. Verse 26. Only in the land of Goshen-was there no xvii. 14. There came to him a certain man, kneeling hail] What a signal proof of a most particular Providence! down to him, yovutitev avtov, falling down at his knees. Surely both the Hebrews and Egyptians profited by this As to the lifting up, or stretching out of the hands display of the goodness and severity of God.

(often joined to kneeling) of which we have seen elready Verse 27. The Lord is righteous, and I and my pcople several instances, and of which we have a very remarkaare wicked.) The original is very emphatic- The Lord ble one in this book, chap. xvii. 11. where the lifting up, is THE RIGHTEOUS ONE, 71780 ha-tsadik, and I and my or stretching out of the hands of Moses was the means people are THE SINNERS, Swan ha-rashậim ; i.e. He is of Israel's prevailing over Amelek; we find many examalone righteous, and we alone are transgressors. Who ples of both in ancient authors. Thus VIRGIL, could have imagined that, after such an acknowledgment

Corripio e stratis corpus, tendoque supinas and confession, Pharaoh should have again hardened his

Ad ccelum cum voce manus, et munera libo. heart?

I started from my bed, and raised on high

My hands and voice in rupture to the sky; Verse 28. It is enough] There is no need of any farther

And pour libations.


Durerat : et genua amplexus, genibusque volutans plague; I submit to the authority of Jehovah, and will

Harebat. rebel no more.

Then knecled the wretcb, and suppliant clung around Mighty thunderings) Dimba nap koloth elohim, voices

My knees, with tears, and grovelled on the ground.

media inter numina dirum, of God; that is, superlatively loud thunder. So moun

Multa Jovem manibus supplex orasee supinis

Ibid. iv. ver. 204 tains of God, Psal. xxxvi. 7. mean, exceeding high moun

Amidst the statues of the gods he stands, tains. So a prince of God, Gen. xxiii. 6. means, a mighty

And spreading forth to Jove, his lifted hands

Id. prince. See a description of thunder, Psal. xxix. 3–8.

El duplices cum roce manas od sidera tendir. " The voice OF THE LORD is upon the waters; the God of

And lifted both his hands and voice to heaven. glory thundereth: the Lord is upon many waters. The

In some cases, the person petitioning came forward, voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full and either sat in the dust or kneeled on the ground, of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars; placing his left hand on the knee of him from whom he the voice of the Lord divideth the flames of fire. The voice expected the favour, while he touched the person's chin of the Lord shaketh the wilderness,” &c. The production with his right. We have an instance of this also in Hoof rain by the electric spark, is alluded to in a very beautiful manner, Jerem. x. 13. When he uttereth his voice, Και ρα παροι, αυτοιο καθιζετο, και λαβε γυνων there is a multitude of waters in the heavens. See the

Σκαιη δεξ ετερη δ' αρ' υπ' ανθερεωνος ιλουσα. note on Gen. vii. 11. and vüi. 1.

Suppliant the goddess stood ; one hand she plac'd Verse 29. I will spread abroad my hands] That is, I

Beneath his chin, and one his knee embrac d.

Pope. will make supplication to God, that he may remove this When the supplicant could not approach the person to plague. This may not be an improper place to make some whom he prayed, as where a deity was the object of the observations on the ancient manner of approaching the prayer, he washed his hands, made an offering, and kneelDivine Being in prayer. Kneeling down, stretching out ing down, either stretched out both his hands to heaven, of the hands, and listing them up to heaven, were in fre or laid them upon the offering or sacrifice or upon the quent use among the Hebrews in their religious worship. altar. Thus Homer represents the priest of Apollo praySolomon kneeled down on his knees, and spread forth his ing: hands to headen, 2 Chron. vi. 13. So David, Psal. cxliii. Χερνιψαντο δ' επειτα, και ουλοχντας ανελέντο. 6. I stretch forth my hands unto thee. So Ezra, I fell Τοισιν δε Χρυσης μεγαλ’ ευχετο, με ορας ανασκαν, upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the Lord my God: chap. ix. 5.' See also Job xi. 13. If thou pre

With water purify their hands, and take

The sacred of ring of the salted cake, pare thine heart, and stretch out thy hands toioards him.

While thus with arins devoutly raised in air, Most nations who pretended to any kind of worship, made

And solemn voice, the priest directs his prayer. use of the same means in approaching the objects of their How necessary ablutions of the whole body and of the adoration, viz. kneeling doon, and stretching out their hands particularly, accompanied with offerings and sacrihands; which customs, it is very likely, they borrowed fices, were under the law, every reader of the Bible from the people of God. Kneeling was ever considered to knows: see especially Exod. xxix. 1–4. where Aaron be the proper posture of supplication, as it expressed hu- and his sons were commanded to be washed, previously mility, contrition, and subjection. If the person to whom to their performing the priest's office ; and chap. xxx. 19 the supplication was addressed, was within reach, the --21. where it is said, " Aaron and his sons shall wash

See also Leviticus xvii. supplicant caught him by the knees : for, as among the their hands-that they die not.” ancients, the forehead was consecrated to genius, the ear 19. When the high priest among the Jews blessed the to memory, and the right hand to faith, so the knees were people, he lifted up his hands, Lev. ix. 23. And the consecrated to mercy. Hence those who entreated favour, Israelites, when they presented a sacrifice to God, lifted fell at and caught hold of the knees of the person whose up their hands, and placed them

on the head of the victim. kindness they supplicated. This mode of supplication is 'If any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord-of particularly referred to in the following passages in Homer. he cattle, of the herd, and of the flock-he shall put his Των νυν μιν μνησασα παριζιο, και λαβε γονυων.

hand upon the head of the turnt offering, and it shall be

accepted for him ; to make atonement for him.” Lev. i. Now, therefore, of these things reminding Jove,

2-4. To these circumstances the apostle alludes, 1 Tim. Embrace his knees

Couper. I ii. 8. "I will therefore that men pray every where, life


Niad A. rer. 500.

Hind A. ver. 449.


Ilind A. ver. 407.

32 But the wheat and the rie were not smit 34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and ten: for they were not grown up.

the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sin33 And Moses went out of the city from ned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto his servants. the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceas 35 And w the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, ed, and the rain was not poured upon the neither would he let the children of Israel go; earth.

as the LORD had spoken : by Moses.

u Heb. hidden or dark.- Ver. 2. Ch. 8. 12

v Ch. 4. 21.-x Heb. by the hand of Moses. Ch. 4. 13.

ing up holy hands without wrath and doubting.” In the rod of God in them. See what has been said on the apostle's word, s7*iportas, lifting up, there is a manifest spreading out of the hands in prayer, ver. 29. reference to stretching out the hands to place them either Verse 34. He sinned yet more, and hardened his heart) on the altar, or on the head of the victim. Four things These were merely acts of his own : "For who can were signified by this lifting up of the hands. 1. It was deny,” says Mr. Psalmanezer, that what God did on the posture of supplication, and expressed a strong invi- Pharaoh was much more proper to soften

than to harden tation-Come to my help. 2. It expressed the earnest his heart; especially when it is observable, that it was not desire of the person to lay hold on the help he required, till after seeing each miracle, and after the ceasing of each by bringing him who was the object of his prayer to his plague, that his heart is said to have been hardened? The assistance. 3. It showed the ardour of the person to re verbs here used are in the conjugations pihel and hiphil, ceive the blessings he expected. And 4. By this act he and often signify a bare permission, from which it is designated and consecrated his offering or sacrifice to his plain, that the words should have been read, God suffered God.

the heart of Pharaoh to be hardened."-Universal Hist. From a great number of evidences and coincidences it vol. i. p. 494. Note D. is not unreasonable to conclude, that the heathens bor Verse 35. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened] rowed all that was pure and rational, even in their mode in consequence of his sinning yet more, and hardening of worship, from the ancient people of God; and that the his own heart, against both the judgments and mercies of preceding quotations are proofs of this.

God; we need not be surprised, that after God had given Verse 31: The flax and the barley was smitten] The him the means of softening and repentance, and he had in word novo pishetah, flat, Mr. Parkhurst thinks is de- every instance resisted and abused them, he should, at last rived from the root OVD, pashat, to strip, because the sub- have been left to the hardness and darkness of his own stance which we term flax, is properly the bark or rind obstinate heart, so as to fill up the measure of his iniquity, of the vegetable, pilled or stripped off the stalks. From and rush headlong to his own destruction. time immemorial, Egypt was celebrated for the production In the fifth, sixth, and seventh plagues, described in and the manufacture of flax: hence the linen, and fine this chapter, we have additional proofs of the justice and linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in ancient authors. mercy of God, as well as of the stupidity, rebellion, and

Barley nayo, sheôrah, from nyu shậur, to stand on wickedness of Pharaoh and his courtiers. As these conend, to be rough, bristly, &c. hence nyv, scâr, the hair tinued to contradict and resist, it was just that God should of the head, and yov, sêir, a he-goat, because of its continue to inflict those punishments which their iniquities shaggy hair; and hence also, barley, because of the deserved. Yet, in the midst of judgment, he remembers tough and prickly beard with which the ears are covered mercy; and therefore Moses and Aaron are sent to inform and defended.

the Egyptians that such plagues would come, if they conDr. Pocock has observed that there is a double seed-tinued obstinate. Here is mercy; the cattle only are detime and harvest in Egypt; rice, Indian wheat, and a stroyed, and the people saved ! Is it not evident, from all grain called the corn of Damascus, and in Italian, surgo these messages, and the repeated expostulations of Moses rosso, are sown and reaped at a very different time from and Aaron, in the name and on the authority of God, that wheat, barley, and flax. The first are sown in March, Pharaoh was bound by no fatal necessity to continue his before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped about Oc-obstinacy: that he might have humbled himself before tober ; whereas the wheat and barley, are sown in No-God, and thus prevented the disasters that fell on the land, vember, and December, as soon as the Nile is gone off, and saved himself and his people from destruction? But and are reaped before May.

he would sin, and therefore he must be punished. Pliny observes, Hist. Nat. lib. xviii. chap. 10. that in In the sixth plague Pharaoh had advantages which he Egypt the barley is ready for reaping in six months after had not

before. The magicians, by their successful imitait is sown, and wheat, in seven. In Egypto, HORDEUM tions of the miracles wrought by Moses, made it doubtful sexto a satu mense, FRUMENTA septimo metuntur. to the Egyptians, whether Moses himself was not a magie

The flat was bolled) Meaning, I suppose, was grown cian, acting without any divine authority; but the plague up into a stalk : the original is byə gibôl, podded, or was of the biles, which they could not imitate, by which they in the pod. The word well expresses that globous pod on were themselves afflicted, and which they confessed to be the top of the stalk of flax, which succeeds the flower, the finger of God, decided the business. Pharaoh had no and contains the seed ; very properly expressed by the longer any excuse, and must know that he had now to Septuagint, to do novor stop ti con, but the flat was in contend, not with Moses and Aaron, mortals like himself, seed, or was seeding.

but with the living God. How strange, then, that he Verse 32. But the wheat and the rie were not smitten.) should continue to resist! Many affect to be astonished Wheat non chittah, which Mr. Parkhurst thinks should at this, and think it must be attributed only to a sovereign be derived from the Chaldee and Samaritan wyn chati, controlling influence of God, which rendered it impossible which signifies tender, delicious, delicate, because of the for him to repent or take warning. But the whole conduct superiority of its flavour, &c. to every other kind of grain. of God, shows the improbability of this opinion. And is But this term in Scripture appears to mean any kind of not the conduct of Pharaoh and his courtiers copied and bread-corn. Rie, ndos cussemeth, from Dos, casam, to reacted by thousands, who are never suspected to be under have long hair ; and hence, though the particular species any such necessitating, decree ? Every sinner under is not known, the word must mean some bearded grain. heaven, who has the Bible in his hand, is acting the same The Septuagint call it onvex, the Vulgate far, and Aquila part. God says to the swearer and the profane-- Thou 312, which signify the grain called spelt ; and some sup- shall not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain ; pose that rice is meant.

and yet common swearing and profanity are most scandaMr. Harmer, referring to the double harvest in Egypt, lously common among multitudes who bear the Christian mentioned by Dr. Pocock, says that the circumstance of name, and who presume on the mercy of God to get at the wheat and the rie being soda aphiloth, dark or hid- last to the kingdom of heaven! He says also- Rememden, as the margin renders it, (i. e. they were sown, but ber the Sabbath-day to keep it holy-thou shall not killnot grown up) shows that it was the Indian wheat, or thou shalt not commit adulterythou shall not steal surgo rosso, mentioned ver. 31. which, with the rie, es thou shalt not bear false witness-thou shalt not covetcaped ; while the barley and flax were smitten, because and sanctions all these commandments with the most they were at or nearly at a state of maturity. See Har- awful penalties; yet, with all these things before them, mer's Obs. vol. iv. p. 11. edit. 1808. But what is intended and the professed belief that they came from God, Sab by the words in the Hebrew text, we cannot positively bath-breakers, men-slayers, adulterers, fornicators, thieves say: as there is a great variety of opinions on this subjeci, dishonest men, false 'witnesses, liars, slanderers, backboth among the versions and the commentators. The biters, covetous men, lovers of the world more than lovers Anglo-Saxon translator, probably from not knowing the of God, are found by hundreds and thousands! What meaning of the words, omits the whole verse.

were the crimes of the poor, half-blind Egyptian king, Verse 33. Spread abroad his hands) Probably with the when compared with those ! He sinned against a compe


and the heart of his servants, that I might

show these my signs before him : Moss so again sent to Pharaoh, and expostulates with him on his refusal to let the Hebrew go, 1–3. The eighth plague, viz locusta, is threatenel, 4. The extent

2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears of aral oppressive nature of this plaque, 5,6 Pharaoh's servants counsel him to do thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I miss the Hebrews, 7. He calls for Moses and Aaron, and inquires who they are of the Heurewe who wish to go, & Moses having answered that the whole people, have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I with their docks and her's, mint goan holl a leasi to the Lord, 9. Pharash is en

have done among them; that ye may know naged, and buving grantel permission only to the men, drives Moses and Aaron from his presence, 10, T. Misses is commanded to stretch ont his band and bring the how that I am the LORD. locusta, 12 'He does so, am an eas! wind is sent, which blowing all that day and night, bring the locusts the next morning, 13. The devastation occasioned by these 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Phainsels, 14,

15, Pharaoh is bumblel, acknowledges his sin, and beau Moses to in. tercete with Jehovah for tim, 16, 17. Moses dues so, and at his request a strong

raoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD west wind is so, which carries all the locusts to the Red sea, 18, 19. Pharaoh's God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse heart ta again hardened, 20 Muse is commanded to bring the ninth plague, an extraordinary dajsness, over all the lan i of Egypt, 21. The nature, duration, and

to a humble thyself before me? let my people eft of this, 22, 23 Pharaoh again bunbleu, consent to let the people go, provided they leave their cattle behind, 24. Moses inaista on having all their caide,

go, that they may serve me ;,

4 Else, it thou refuse to let my people go, aga u hande ved, retuses, 2. Orders Moses from this presenter and charge atenur bim behold, to-morrow will I bring the locusts into DO mure, 29.

thy coast :

5 And they shall cover the face of the earth, Pharaoh : 4 for I have hardened his heart, that one cannot be able to see the earth : and

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a Oh 4. 2. & 7. 14.- Ch.7.1.- Deut. 4. 9. Psa 14. 1. & 71. 18. & 78, 5, &c.

Joel 3

dl Kings 21. 29. 2 Chron. 7. 14. & 34. 27. Job 12 6. Jer. 13. 18. James 4. 10. 1 Pet. 5.

6.- Prov. 30. 27. Wisd. 16. 9. Rev. 9.?- Heb. eye. Ver. 15.

ratively unknown God : these sin against the God of their fathers-against the God and Father of Him whom they

The EIGHTH plague— The Locusts. call their Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ! They sin with

Verse 4. To-morrow will I bring the locusts] The the Bible in their hand, and a conviction of its divine word, 234 arbeh, a locust, is probably from the root 127 authority in their hearts! They sin against light and rabah, he multiplied, became great, mighty, &c. because knowledge--against the checks of their consciences, the of the immense swarms of these animals, by which difreproofs of their friends, the admonitions of the messen ferent countries, especially the east, are infested. The gers of God-against Moses and Aaron in the law-against locust, in entomology, belongs to a genus of insects known the testimony of all the prophets-against the evangelists, among naturalists by the term GRYLLI; and includes three the apostles, the Maker of heaven and earth, the Judge species, crickets, grasshoppers, and those commonly called of all men, and the Saviour of the world! What were locusts; and as they multiply faster than any other animal Pharaoh's crimes, to the crimes of these? On compa in creation, they are properly entitled to the name naus rison, his atom of moral turpitude is lost in their world of arbeh, which might be translated the numerous or multiiniquity: And yes, who supposes these to be under any plied insect. See this circumstance referred to Judg. vi. necessitating decree to sin on, and go to perdition? Nor 5. vii. 12. Psal. cv. 34. Jerem. xlvi. 23. li. 14. Joel i. 6. are they-nor was Pharaoh. In all things, God has Nahum iii. 14. Judith ii

. 19, 20. where the most numerous proved both his justice and mercy to be clear in this point. armies are compared to the arbeh or locust. The locust Pharaoh, through a principle of covetousness refused to has a large open mouth; and in its two jaws it has four dismiss the Israelites, whose services he found profitable incisive teeth, which traverse each other like scissors, to the state; these are absorbed in the love of the world, being calculated, from their mechanism, to gripe or cut. the love of pleasure, and the love of gain ; nor will they Mr. Volney, in Travels in Syria, gives a striking account let one lust go, even in the presence of the thunders of of this most awful scourge of God : Sinai, or in sight of the agony, bloody sweat, crucifixion, “Syria partakes, together with Egypt and Persia, and and death of Jesus Christ? - Alas ! how many are in the almost all the whole middle part of Asia, in that terrible habit of considering Pharaoh the worst of human beings, scourge, I mean those clouds of locusts of which travelinevitably cut off from the possibility of being saved, lers have spoken; the quantity of which is incredible to because of his iniquities, who outdo him so far in the any person who has not himself seen them, the earth viciousness of their lives, that Pharaoh hardening his being covered by them for several leagues round. The heart against ten plagues, appears a saint, when compared noise they make in browsing the plants and trees, may be with those who are hardening their hearts against ten

heard at a distance, like an army plundering in secret. millions of mercies.-Reader, art thou of this number? Fire seems to follow their tracks. Wherever their legions Proceed no farther! God's judgments linger not. Des- march, the verdure disappears from the country, like a perate as thy state is, thou mayest return; and thou, even curtain drawn aside; the trees and plants, despoiled of thou, find mercy through the blood of the Lamb. See the their leaves, make the hideous appearance of winter note at the conclusion of the next chapter.

instantly succeed to the bright scenes of spring. When

these clouds of locusts take their flight, in order to surmount NOTES ON CHAPTER X.

some obstacle, or the more rapidly to cross some desery Verse 1. Hardened his heart] God suffered his natural one may literally say, that the sun is darkened by them.' obstinacy to prevail, that he might have farther opportuni Baron de Toit gives a similar account: Clouds of ties of showing forth his eternal power and Godhead. locusts frequently alight on the plains of the Noguais, See the notes on chap. iv. 21.

(the Tartars) and giving preference to their fields of millet, Verse 2. That thou mayest tell in the cars of thy son) ravage them in an instant. Their approach darkens the That the miracles wrought at this time might be a record horizon, and so enormous is their multitude, it hides the for the instruction of the latest posterity, that Jehovah light of the sun. They alight on the fields, and there alone, the God of the Hebrews, was the sole Maker, form a bed of six or seven inches thick. To the noise of Governor, and Supporter of the heavens and the earth. their Alight succeeds that of their devouring actively, Thus we find, God 80 did his marvellous works, that they which resembles the rattling of hailstones ; but its conmight be had in everlasting remembrance. It was not sequences are infinitely more destructive. Fire itself eats to crush the poor worm, Pharaoh, that he wrought such not so fast ; nor is there any appearance of vegetation to mighty wonders, but to convince his enemies, to the end be found when they again take their flight, and go elseof the world, that no cunning or power can prevail against where to produce new disasters." him; and to show his followers, that whosoever trusted in Dr. Shaw, who witnessed most formidable swarms of him should never be confounded.

these in Barbary, in the year 1724 and 1725, gives the folVerse 3. How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself?] lowing account of them : " They were much larger than Had it been

impossible for Pharaoh, in all the preceding our grasshoppers, and had brown spotted wings, with legs plagues, to have humbled himself and repented, can we and bodies of a bright yellow. Their first appcarance was suppose that God could have addressed him in such lan toward the latter end of March. In the middle of April, guage as the preceding? We may rest assured that there their numerous swarms, like a succession of clouds, darkwas always a time in which he might have relented, and ened the sun. In the month of May, they retired to the that it was because he hardened his heart at such times, adjacent plains to deposit their eggs : these were no that God is said to harden him ; i. e. to give him up to his sooner haiched, in June, than the young brood firat proown stubborn and obstinate heart, in consequence of duced, while in their caterpillar or worm like state, formed which he refused to let the people go, so that God had a themselves into a compact body of more than a furlong fresh opportunity to work another miracle, for the very square, and marching directly forward, climbed over trees, gracious purposes mentioned in verse 2d. Had Pharaoh walls, and houses, devouring every plant in their way relented before, the same gracious ends would have been within a day or two, another brood was hatched, and accomplished by other means.

advancing in the same manner, gnawed off the young Vol. 1.-28


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