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& they shall eat the residue of that which is es 11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve caped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were and shall eat every tree which groweth for you driven out from Pharaoh's presence. out of the field :

12 | And the LORD said unto Moses, m Stretch 6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all locusts, that they may come up upon the land of the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, por Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, eren thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that all that the hail hath left. they were upon the earth unto this day. And 13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh. the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an

7 1 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, east wind upon the land all that day, and all that How long shall this man be i a snare unto us? night; and when it was morning, the east wind let the men go, that they may serve the LORD brought the locusts. their God: knowest thou not yet, that Egypt is 14 And the locusts went up over all the land destroyed ?

of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again very grievous were they; P before them there unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve were no such locusts as they, neither after them the LORD your God: but who are they that shall be such. shall go?

15 For they r covered the face of the whole 9 And Moses said, We will go with our young earth, so that the land was darkened; and they and with our old, with our sons and with our did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit daughters, with our flocks and with our herds of the trees which the hail had left: and there rewill we go; for 1 we must hold a feast unto the mained not any green thing in the trees, or in the LORD.

herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt. 10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD be 16 | Then Pharaoh called for Moses and so with you, as I will let you go, and your little Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned ones: look to it; for evil is before you.

against the LORD your God, and against you.

& Ch. 9. 32.

Joel 1. 4. & 2 25.-h Ch. 8.3, 21.-i Ch. 23. 33 Josh. 33. 13. 1 Sam. 18. 21. Eccles. 7. 26. I Cor. 7. 35.-k Heb. who and who, &c-1 Ch. 5. 1.

m Ch. 7. 19.-n Ver. 4,5.- Pra. 78. 46. & 145. 34.-p Joe 22- Vet. 5- Pse.

105. 35.- Heb. hastened to call.-1 Ch 9. 27.

branches and bark of the trees left by the former, making brated by the Egyptians in honour of their deities, that a complete desolation. The inhabitants, to stop their they hold their chief one at the city of Bubastis in honour progress, made a variety of pits and trenches all over of Neith or Diana; that they go thither by water in boats, their fields and gardens, which they filled with water, or men, women, and children; that during their voyage, some else heaped up therein heath, stubble, &c. which they set of the women play, on castenets, and some of the men on fire, but to no purpose; for the trenches were quickly upon flutes, while the rest are employed in singing and filled up, and the fires extinguished, by infinite swarms clapping their hands; and that, when they arrive at Busucceeding one another : while the front seemed regard- bastis, they sacrifice a vast number of victims, and drink less of danger, and the rear pressed on so close, that a re much wine: and that, at one festival, the inhabitants astreat was altogether impossible. In a month's time they sured him, that there were not assembled fewer than threw off their

worm-like state; and in a new form, with 700,000 men and women, without reckoning the children. wings and legs, and additional powers, returned to their Euterpe, chap. lix. Ix. former voracity."-Shaw's Travels, 187, 188. 410 edi Moses and Aaron requesting liberty for the Hebrews to tion.

go three days' journey into the wilderness, and with them The descriptions given by these travellers show that God's all their wives, little ones, and cattle, in order to hold a army, described by the prophet Joel, chap. ii. was innumer feast unto Jehovah their God, must have at least, appeared able swarms of locusts, to which the account given by Dr. as reasonable to the Egyptians as their going to the city Shaw and others exactly agrees.

of Bubastis with their wives, little ones and cattle, to hold Verse 5. They shall corer the face of the earth! They a feast to Neith, or Diana, who was there worshipped. sometimes cover the whole ground to the depth of six or The parallel, in these two cases, is too striking to pass uneight inches. See the preceding accounts.

noticed. Verse 6. They shall fill, thy houses] Dr. Shaw men Verse 10. Let the Lord be so with you! This is an obtions this circumstance: “They entered," says he, into scure sentence. Some suppose that Pharaoh meant it as a our very houses and bedchambers, like so many thieves." curse, as if he had said, “ Nay your God be as surely with Ibid. p. 187.

you, as I shall let you go!" For as he purposed not to Verse 7. How long shall this man be a snare unto us?] | permit them to go, so he wished them as much of the diAs there is no noun in the text, the pronoun - zeh, may vine help as they should have of his permission. either refer to the Israelites, to the plague by which they Look--for evil is before you] OSD 720p reu were then afflicted, or to Moses and Aaron, the instruments ki raâh neged pancycem-Ste ye that eril is before your used by the Most High in their chastisement. The Vul- | faces. If you attempt to go, ye shall meet with the pungate translates. Usquequd patiemur hoc scandalum,?- ishment ye deserve. Probably Pharaol intended to insinHow long shall we suffer this scandal or reproach ?" uate, that they had some sinister designs, and that they Let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their God) wished to go in a body, that they might the better accomMuch of the energy of several passages is lost, by trans- plish their purpose; but if they had no such designs, they lating 7.7 Yehorah, by the term Lord. The Egyptians would be contented for the males to go, and leave their had their gods, and they supposed that the Hebrews wives and children behind; for he well knew, if the ment had a God like unto their own; that this Jehovah required went and left their families, they would infallibly return; their services, and would continue to aftlict Egypt till his but that if he permitted them to take their families with people were permitted to worship him in his own way. them, they would undoubtedly make their escape: there

Egypt is destroyed] This last plaguc had nearly ruined | fore he says, ver. 11. Go now ye that are men, and serve the whole land.

the Lord. Verse 8. Who are they that shall go?). Though the Verse 13. The Lord brought an east wind) As locusts Egyptians, about fourscore years before, wished to destroy abounded in those countries, and particularly in Ethiopiah, the Hebrews, yet they found them now so profitable to the and more especially at this time of the year, God had no state, that they were unwilling to part with them.

need to create new swarms for this purpose; all that was Verse 9. We will go with our young and with our requisite, was to cause such a wind to blow as would bring old, &c.] As a feast was to be celebrated to the honour of those which already existed, over the land of Egypt. The Jehovah, all who were partakers of his bounty and provi- miracle in this business was the bringing the locusts at the dential kindness must go and perform their part of the appointed time, and causing the proper

wind to blow for solemnity. The men and the women must make the feast, that purpose, and then taking them away after a similar the children must witness it, and the cattle must be taken along with them, to furnish the sacrifices necessary on this Verse 14. Before them there were no such locusts, &c.] occasion. This must appear reasonable to the Egyptians, They exceeded all that went before, or were since, in numa because it was their own custom in their religious assem ber, and in the derastations they produced. Probably blies. Men, women, and children, attended them, often to both these things are intended in the passage.-See ver. 15. the amount of several hundred thousand. Hcrodolus Verse 15. There remained not any green thing] See informs us, in speaking of the six annual feasts, cele- I the note on ver. 4.

manner.

e

17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin 23 They saw not one another, neither rose only this once, and entreat the LORD your any from his place for three days: d but all the God, that he may take away from me this death children of Israel had light in their dwellings. only.

21 | And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and 18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and en said, "Go ye, serve the LORD ;, only let your treated the LORD.

flocks and your herds be stayed : let your 'little 19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west ones also go with you. wind, which took away the locusts, and * cast 25 And Moses said, Thou must give & us also them into the Red sea; there remained not sacrifices and burnt-offerings, that we may sacone locust in all the coasts of Egypt.

rifice unto the Lord our God. 20 But the LORD : hardened Pharaoh's heart, 26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there so that he would not let the children of Is- shall not a hoof be left behind; for thereof must

we take to serve the Lord our God; and we 21 | And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch know not with what we must serve ihe LORD, out thine hand toward heaven, that there may until we come thither. be darkness over the land of Egypt, beven dark 27 || But the Lord bhardened Pharaoh's heart, ness which pray be felt.

and he would not let them go. 22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward 28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from heaven; and there was a 'thick darkness in all me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; the land of Egypt three days:

for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.

rael go.

Ch.9.3. 1 Kings 13. 6.-w Ch. &. 30.-* Heb. fastened-y Joel 2 20.-2 Ch.

4. 21. & 11. 10.- Ch. 9. 22-b lleb, that one may feel darknese.

c Paa. 105. 22 Wisl. 17. 2, $cCh. 8. 22 Wisd. 18. 1.- Ver. 8.- Ver. 10.

& Heb. into our hands.-b Ver. 20. Ch. 4. 21. & 14. 4, 8.

Verse 17. Forgive, I pray thee my sin only this once] night. They were scattered under a dark reil of forgelWhat a strange case! And what a series of softening and fulness, being horribly astonished and troubled with hardening, of sinning and repenting! Had he not now strange apparilions; for neither might the corner that another opportunity of returning to God? But the love held liem, keep them from fear; but noises as of waters of gain, and the gratification of leis own self-will and obsti- fulling down, sounded about them; and sad visions apnacy finally prevailed.

peared unto them with heavy countenances. No power Verse 19. A mighly strong west wind) on ruach of the fire could give them light, -only there appeared yam, literally, the wind of the sea; the wind that blew unto them a fire kindled of itself very dreadful; for being from the Mediterranean sea, which lay northwest of much terrified, they thought the things which they saw to Egypt, which had the Red sea on the east. Here again be worse than the sight they sur not-For though no God works by natural means: he brought the locusts by terrible thing did scare them, yet being scared with beasts the east wind, and took them away by the west or north- that passed by, and hissing of serpents, they died for moest wind, which carried them to the Red sea, where they fear:--for whether he were husbandman,, or shepherd, were drowned.

or a labourer in the field, he was overtaken--for they Tre Re sea] mo 'yam suph, the reedy sea, so called were all bound with one ehain of darkness. Whether it as some suppose, from the great quantity of alga, or sea were a whistling wind-or a terrible sound of stones weed, which grows in it, and about its shores; but Mr. cast down, or a running that could not be seen, of tripBruce, who has sailed the whole extent of it, declares that ping beasts ; or a roaring voice of most sarage wild he never saw in it a weed of any kind; and supposes it has beasts, or a rebounding echo from the hollow mountains, its name Suph from the vast quantity of coral which these things made them to swoon for fear.---See Psal. grows in it, as trees and plants do on land. One of these, lxxviii. 49. he observes, from a roor nearly central, throw out ramifica To this description nothing need be added, except this tions on a nearly circular form, measuring trendy-six feet circumstance, that the darkness, with its attendant horrors, diameter every way, Travels, vol. ii. p. 133. In the Sep- lasted for three days. tuagint it is called 6***552 spussex, the Red sen, from which All the children of Israel had light] By thus distinversion we have borrowed the name; and Mr. Bruce sup- guishing the Israelites, God showed the Egyptians that poses that it had this name from Edom, or Esau, whose the darkness was produced by his power, that he sent it territories extended to iis coasis; for it is well known that in judgment againsi them for their cruelty to his peoplethe word ons Edom, in Hebrew, signifies red or ruddy. that because they trusted in him, they were exempted from The Red sea, called also the Arabic gulf, separates Arabia those plagues—that in the displeasure of such a Being, his from Upper Ethiopia and part of Egypt. It is computed enemies had every thing to fear, and in his approbation to be three hundred and fifly leagues in length from Suez his followers had every thing to hope. to the Straits of Babelmandel, and is about forty leagues Verse 24. Only let your flocks and your herds be stayed] in breadth.

Pharaoh cannot get all he wishes: and as he sees it imIt is not very tempestuous; and the winds usually blow possible to contend with Jehovah, he now consents to give from north to south, and from south to north, six months up the Israelites, their wives and their children, provided in the year; and like the monsoons of India, invariably he may keep their flocks and their herds. The cruelty of determine the seasons of sailing into or out of this sea. It this demand, is not more evident than its avarice. Had is divided into two gulfs, that to the east called the Elani- six hundred thousand men, besides women and children, tic gulf, from the city of Elana to the north end of it: and gone three days' journey into the wilderness, without their that to the west called the Hercopolitic gulf, from the city cattle, they must have inevitably perished, being without of Hercopolis ; the former of which belongs to Arabia, the milk for their little ones, and animal food for their own latter to Egypt. The Elanitic gulf is called by the Ara sustenance, in a place where little as a substitute could bians Bahr el Kolzum the sea of destruction or of Clysme, possibly be found. It is evident from this, that Pharaoh an ancient town in that quarter; and the Heroopolitic gulf intended the total destruction of the whole Ísraelitish host. Bahr el Akaba, the sea of Akabı, a town situated on its Verse 26. We know not with what we must scrre the most inland point.

Lord, &c.] The law was not yet given the ordinances The NINTH plague-The thick DARKNESS. concerning the different kinds of sacrifices and offerings, Verse 21. Darkness which may be felt] Probably this not known. What kind and what number of animals was occasioned by a superabundance of aqueous vapours God should require to be sacrificed, even Moses himself floating in the atmosphere; which were so thick as to pre- could not as yet tell. He therefore very properly insists vent the rays of the sun from penetrating through them: on taking the whole of their hords with them, and not an extraordinary thick mist, supernaturally, i. e. miracu- leaving even one hoof behind. lously brought on. An awful 'emblem of the darkened Verse 27. The Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart] He state of the Egyptians and their king.

had yet another miracle to work for the complete convicVerse 23. They saw not one another] So deep was tion of the Egyptians, and triumph of his people; and till the obscurity; and probably such was its nature, that no that was wrought, he permitted the natural obstinacy of artificial light could be procured, as the thick clammy Pharaoh's haughty heart to have its full sway, after each vapours would prevent lamps, &c. from burning; or if resistance of the gracious influence, which was intended to they even could be ignited, the light, through the palpable soften and bring him to repentance, obscurity, could diffuse itself to no distance from the burn. Verse 23. See my face no more) Hitherto Pharaoh ing body. The author of the book of Wislom, chap. xvii. had left the way open for negotiation but now, in wrath 2–19. gives a fearful description of this plague. He says against Jehovah, he dismisses his ambassador, and threatthe Egyptians were shut up in their

houses, the prisoners ens him with death, if he should attempt any more to como of darkness : and were fettered with the bonds of a long l into his presence.

29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, • Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in "I will see thy face again no more.

the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight

of the people. CHAPTER XI.

4 | And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, God purposes to bring another plague upon Pharaoh, after which he should let the PAbout midnight will I go into the midst of Israelites go, 1. 'They are comman lol to ask gold and silver from the Egyptians, 2. The estimation in which Moses was hell among the Egyptians, 3. Moses prelict Egypt: the destruction of the first born or the Egyptians, 1-6, and Israel's protection, ? 5 And all the first-born in the land of Egypt On seeing which Pharaoh and his servants should entreat the Hebrews to depart, 8. The prediction of his previons obstinacy, 9, 10.

shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that NI the LORD said unto oses, Yet will I sitteth upon his throne, even unto the first-born

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upon Egypt; afterward he will let you go hence: all the first-born of beasts. when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust 6 "And there shall be a great cry throughout you out hence altogether.

all the land of Egypt, such as there was none 2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and like it, nor shall be like it any more. let every man borrow of his neighbour, and 7. But against any of the children of Israel every woman of her neighbour, mjewels of sil- | shall not a dog move his tongue, against man ver, and jewels of gold.

or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD 3. And the LORD gave the people favour in doth put a difference between the Egyptians and the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Israel.

Amos 4. 10.-- Ch 12 30.

k Heb. 11. 27.-1 Ch 12 31, 33, 9-m Ch. 3. 22. & 12. 35.-n Ch. 3. 21. 12. 36.

Psa. 106 46.- 2 Sam. 7. 9. Esther 9. 4. Ecclus. 45. 1.

p Ch. 12 12, 23, 2. Amos 5. 17.-9 Ch. 12 12, 20.

Amos 5. 17. Wisd. 18. 10.- Ch. 8. 22.- Josh. 10. 21.

Verse 29. I will see thy face again no more] It is very likely that this was the Inst interview that Moses had with

NOTES ON CHAPTER XI. Pharaoh : for what is related, chap. xi. 4-8. might have Verse 1. The Lord said unto Moses) Calmet contends been spoken on this very occasion, as it is very possible that this should be read in the preterpluperfect tense-for that God gave Moses to understand his purpose to slay the Lord had said to Moses, as the fourth, fifth, sixth, the first-born, while before Pharaoh, at this time; so in all seventh, and eighth verses appear to have been spoken probability, the interview mentioned here, was the last when Moses had the interview with Pharaoh mentioned which Moses had with the Egyptian king. It is true, that in the preceding chapter; see the note there on ver. 29. If in ver. 31. of chap. xii. it is stated, that Pharaoh called for therefore this chapter be connected with the preceding, as Moses and Aaron by night, and ordered them to leave it should be, and the first three verses not only read in the Egypt, and to take all their substance with them, which past tense, but also in a parenthesis, the sense will be seems to imply that there was another interview ; but the much more distinct and clear than it now appears. words may imply no more than that Moses and Aaron Verse 2. Let every man borrow) For a proper correction received such a message from Pharaoh. If, however, this of the strange mistranslation of the word Sky shaal in mode of interpreting these passages should not seem satis this verse, see the note on chap. iii. 22. factory to any, he may understand the words of Moses Verse 3. The man Moses was very great) The mirathus, I will see thy face, seek thy favour no more in be- cles which Pharaoh and his servants had already seen him half of my people-which was literally true: for if Moses work, had doubtless impressed them with a high opinion did appear any more before Pharaoh, it was not as a sup of his wisdom and power. Had he not appeared in their pliant, but merely as the ambassador of God, to denounce his sight as a very extraordinary person, whom it would have judgments, by giving him the final determination of Jeho- been very dangerous to molest, we may naturally conclude, vah, relative to the destruction of the first-born.

that some violence would, long ere this, have been offered 1. To the observations at the conclusion of the preceding to his person. chapter, we may add, that at first view it seems exceed Verse 4. About midnight will I go out] Whether God ingly strange, that after all the proofs Pharaoh had of the did this by the ministry of a good, or of an eril angel, is power of God, he should have acted in the manner related a matter of little importance, though some commentators in this and the preceding chapters, alternately sinning and have greatly magnified it. Both kinds of angels are under repenting: but it is really a common case: and multitudes his power and jurisdiction, and he may employ them as he who condemn the conduct of this miserable Egyptian pleases. Such a work of destruction as the slaying of the king, act in a similar manner. They relent when smart- first-born, is supposed to be more proper for a bad, than ing under God's judgments, but harden their hearts when for a good angel. But the works of God's justice are not these judgments are removed. Of this kind I have wit- less holy and pure than the works of his mercy; and the nessed numerous cases. To such God says by his pro highest archangel may, with the utmost propriety, be em. phet, Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt ployed in either. more and more. Reader, are not the vows of God upon Verse 5. The first-born of Pharaoh, &c.] From tho thee? Often when afflicted in thyself or family, hast thou heir to the Egyptian throne, to the son of the most abject not said like Pharaoh, (ver. 17.) Now therefore, forgive, slave, or the principal person in each family. See on I pray thee, my sin only this ONCE—and take away from chap. xii. ver. 29. me this death only. And yet when thou hadst respite, The maid-servant that is behind the mill] The meandidst thou not harden thy heart, and with returning health est slaves were employed in this work. In many parts and strength, didst thou not return unto iniquity? And of the east, they still grind all their corn with a kind of art thou not still in the broad road of transgression ?---Be portable millstones, the upper one of which is turned not deceived: God is not mocked-He warns thee, but he round by a sort of lever fixed in the rim. A drawing of will not be mocked by thee.-- What thou sowest, that thou one of these machines, as used in China, is now before must reap. Think then, what a most dreadful harvest me, and the person who grinds, is represented as pushing thou mayest expect from the seeds of vice which thou hast the lever before him, and thus running round with the already sown!

stone. Perhaps something like this is intended by the ex. 2. Even in the face of God's judgments, the spirit of pression, Behind the mill, in the text. On this passage avarice will make its requisitions! Only, let your flocks Dr. Shaw has the following observation : "Most families and your herds be stayed, says Pharaoh. The love of grind their wheat and barley at home, having two portable gain was the ruling principle of this man's soul ; and he willstones for that purpose; the uppermost of which is chooses desperately to contend with the justice of his Ma- turned round by a small handle of wood or iron that is ker, rather than give up his hosom sin ! Reader, is this not placed in the rim. When this stone is large, or expedition thy own case? And art thou not ready with Pharaoh to required, a second person is called in to assist; and as it is say to the messenger of God, who rebukes thee for thy usual for women alone to be concerned in this employment, worldly-mindedness, &c. Get thee gone from me :- Take who seat themselves over against each other with the millheed to thyself, and see my face no more. Esau and stone between them, we may see not only the propriety of Pharaoh have both got a very bad name, and many per- the expression, Exod. xi. 5. of s ing behind the mill, but sons who are repeating their crimes, are the foremost the force of another, Matt. xxiv. 1. that tro women shall cover them with obloquy! When shall we learn to look at be grinding at the mill, the one hall be taken and the home? to take warning by the miscarriages of others, and other left." Travels, p. 231. 410. ed.. These portable mills thus shun the pit into which we have seen so many fall? under the name of querns, were used among our ancestors If God were to give the history of every man who hardens in this and the sister kingdoms, and some of them are in himself from his fear, how many Pharaoh-like cases use to the present day. Both the instrument and its name, should we have on record! But a day is coming in which our forefathers seem to have borrowed from the continent. the secrets of every heart shall be revealed, and the history Verse 6. There shall be a great cry] Of the dying and of every man's life laid open to an assembled world. for the dead.-See more on this subject, ch. xii. 30.

8 And all these thy servants shall come / shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders down unto me, and bow down themselves unto may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that 10 And Moses and Aaron did all these wonfollow thee: and after that I will go out. And ders before Pharaoh: ' and the LORD hardened he went out from Pharaoh in wa great anger. Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the 9 | And the LORD said unto Moses, * Pharaoh children of Israel go out of his land.

u Ch. 12. 33. - Heb. that is at thy feet. 8o Judges 4. 10. & 8. 5. 1 Kings 20. 10.

2 Kinga 3. 9.-Heb. heal of anger.

» Ch. 3. 19. & 7. 4. & 10. 1.-4 Ch. 73-2 Ch. 10. 20, 2. Rom. 2 5. &

9. 22.

Verse 7. Not a dog move his tongue) This passage has and by many indiscriminately used; yet they make a most been generally understood as a proverbial expression, in- essential difference in composition, in a variety of cases. timating, that the Israelites should not only be free from For instance, if we translate your as lo yishmå, Pharaoh this death, but that they should depart without any kind Shall not hearken, as in our text, the word shall strongly of molestation: For, though there must be much busile and intimates that it was impossible for Pharaoh to hearken, comparative confusion in the sudden removal of six hun- and that God had placed him under that impossibility; dred thousand persons, with their wives, children, goods, but if we translate, as we should do, Pharaoh will not cattle, &c. yet this should produce so little alarm, that even hearken, it alters the case most essentially, and agrees with the dogs should not bark at them, which it would be natural the many passages in the preceding chapters, where he is to expect, as the principal stir was to be about midnight. said to have hardened his own heart: as this proves that

After giving this general explanation from others, I may he, without any impulsive necessity, obstinately refused to be permitted to hazard a conjecture of my own. And, 1. attend to whai Moses said or threatened ; and that God Is it not probable that the allusion is here made to a well-took the advantage of this obstinacy to work another mirknown custom of dogs howling when any mortality is in acle, and thus multiply his wonders in the land. a village, street, or even house, where such animals are ? Pharaoh will not hearken unto you ; and because he There are innumerable instances of the faithful house- would not, God hardened his heart, -left him to his own dog howling when a death happens in the family, as if obstinacy. distressed on the account, feeling for the loss of his bene To most critics it is well known that there are, in several factor; but their apparent presaging such an event by parts of the Pentateuch, considerable differences between their cries, as some will have it, may be attributed, not to the Hebrew and Samaritan copies of this work. In this any prescience, but to the exquisite keenness of their scent. chapter, the variations are of considerable importance; If the words may be understood in this way, then the and competent critics have allowed that the Samaritan great cry through the whole land of Egypt may refer to text, especially in this chapter, is fuller and better conthis very circumstance; as dogs were sacred among them, nected than that of the Hebrew. 1. It is evident that the and consequently religiously preserved, they must have eighth verse in the present Hebrew text has no natural existed in great multitudes. 2. We know that one of their connexion with the seventh. For in the seventh verse principal deities was Osiris, whose son, worshipped under Moses delivers to the Israelites what God had commanded the form of a dog, or a man with a dog's head, was called him to say ; and in the eighth he appears to continue a Anubis latrator, the barking Anubis. May he not be direct discourse unto Pharaoh, though it does not appear represented as deploring a calamity which he had no when this discourse was begun. This is quite contrary to power to prevent among his worshippers, nor influence to the custom of Moses, who always particularly notes the inflict punishment upon those who set his deity at nought? commencement of his discourses. Hence while there was a great cry, 07 npys tseâkah ge 2. It is not likely that the Samaritans have added these dolah, throughout all the land of Egypt, because of the portions, as they could have no private interest to serve by mortality in every house, yet among the Israelites there so doing; and therefore it is likely that these additions was no death, consequently no dog moved his tongue to were originally parts of the Sacred text, and might have howl for their calamity; nor could the object of the Egyp- been omitted, because an ancient copyist found the substance tians' worship inflict any similar punishment on the wor of them in other places. It must however be granted, that shippers of Jehovah.

the principal additions in the Samaritan, are repetitions of In honour of this dog.god, there was a city called Anubis speeches which exist in the Hebrew text. in Egypt, by the Greeks called Cynopolis, the city of the 3. The principal part of these additions do not appear to dog, the same that is now called Menieh : in this he had have been borrowed from any other quarter. Interpolaa temple, and dogs which were sacred to him, were here tions, in general, are easily discerned from the confusion fed with consecrated victuals.

they introduce; but instead of deranging the sense, the Thus, as in the first plagues, their magicians were con additions hcre, make it much more apparent: for should founded, so in the last, their gods were put to flight. And these not be admitted, it is evident that something is wantmay not this be referred to in chap. xij. 12. when Jehovah ing, without which the connexion is incomplete. See Calsays, Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judg-met. But the reader is still requested to observe, that the ment? Should it be objected, that to consider the passage supplementary matter in the Samaritan is collected from in this light, would be to acknowledge the being and deity other parts of the Hebrew text; and that the principal of the fictitious Anubis, it may be answered, that in the merit of the Samaritan is, that it preserves the words in a Sacred Writings it is not an uncommon thing to see the better arrangement. idol acknowledged in order to show its nullity, and the Dr. Kennicott has entered into this subject at large, and more forcibly to express contempt for it, for its worship- by printing the two texts in parallel columns, the supplepers, and for its worship. Thus Isaiah represents the mentary matter in the Samaritan, and the hiatus in the Babylonish idols as being endued with sense, bowing down Hebrew text, will be at once perceived. It is well known under the judgments of God, utterly unable to help them that he preferred the Samaritan to the Hebrew Pentateuch; selves or their worshippers, and being a burden to the and his reasons for that preference in this case, I shall beasts that carried them; Bel bowelh down, NEBO stoop- subjoin; as the work is extremely scarce from which I eth: their idols were upon the beasts and upon the cattle: select them, one class of readers especially, will be glad to your carriages were heavy loaden ; they are a burden to meet with them in this place. the weary beast. They stoop, they bow down together ; “Within these five chapters, vii., viii., ix., X., and xi. are they could not deliver the burden, but themselves have seven very great differences between the Hebrew and Sagone into captivity. Chap. xlvi. 1, 2. The case of Elijah maritan Pentateuch, relating to the speeches which deand the prophets of Baal should not be forgotten here : nounced seven out of the ten judgments upon the Egyptians: this prophet, by seeming to acknowledge the reality of viz. waters into blood, frogs, flies, murrain, hail, locusts, Baal's being, though by a strong irony, poured the most and destruction of the first-born.' The Hebrew text gives sovereign contempt upon him, his worshippers, and his the speeches concerning these judgments only once at each; worship. And Elijah mocked them and said, Cry aloud: but the Samaritan gives each speech TWICE. In the HeFOR HE IS A GOD: either he is talking, or he is pursuing, brcw we have the speeches concerning the five first as in or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth and command from God to Moses, without reading that Moses must be awaked. 1 Kings xviii. 27. See the observations delivered them; and concerning the two last as delivered at the end of chap. xii.

by Moses to Pharaoh, without reading that God had comThe Lord doth put a difference] See on chap. viii. 22. manded them. Whereas in the Samaritan we find every And for the variations between the Hebrew and Samaritan speech TWICE. God commands

Moses to go and speak Pentateuch in this place, see at the end of the chapter. thus or thus before Pharaoh- Moses goes and denounces

Verse 8. And all these thy servants shall come) A pre- the judgment-Pharaoh disobeys, and the judgment diction of what actually took place. See chap. xii. 31–33. takes place. All this

is perfectly regular, and exactly Verse 9. Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you] Though agreeable to the double speeches of Homer in very ancient shall and will are both reputed signs of the future tense, 1 times. I have not the least doubt, but that the Hebrew

to you.

CHAPTER XII.

2 . This month shall be unto you the beginning

of months: it shall be the first inonth of the year The month Abrih is to be congi lered as the commencement of the year, 1, 2. The

passo per intitute le tire lamb or kid to be used on the occasion, to be taken from the flock the tenth day of the month, and each family to provile one, 3, 4. The lamb or kil to be a male of the first year without blemish, 5. To be killer on the

3 | Speak ye unto all the congregation of Isfourtera, day, c, and the blood to be sprinkled on the side posts and bantels of the rael, saying, In the tenth day of this month they or raw, 8, 9: anno part of it to be left till the murning, 10. The people to eat it

shall take to them every man a blamh, according with their loins girici, &c. as persons prepare for a Joumey, 11. Why called the to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house: Precurer, 12 The blom sprinklel on the door.posts, &c to be a token to them of preservation from the destroying angel, 13. The frurteenth day of the month 4 And if the household be too little for the And to be a toast torever, ll. Unleaver i brea i to be caten seven days, 15. also to be ol served in all their generations for ever, 17---90. Miches Instructs the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his elders of Israel low they are to otler the lamb ant sprinkle his blood, and for what house take it, according to the number of the

lle bind them to insuntct their children in the nature of this nite, 2n. The chuldren of Israel act as comnian let, 20 All the first-boru of Egypi souls; every man according to his eating, shall elain, 29, 30. Phanol and the Egyptian urge Moves, Aaron, and the Ismelites to depart, 31-33. They prepare for their departure, and get gold, silrer, and rai. make your count for the lamb. ment from the Egypukas, 34–35. They joutes from Wamese, to Succoth, in 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a number sir hundre llhousand men, is de voinen and churen, ani a mixed multitude, 37, 33. They bake unleavene à cakes of the dough they brought with male d of the first year: ye shall take it out from them out of Egypt, 39. "The time in which they sjourned in Egypi, 40–12. Dit ferent ordinances concerning the pass-beer, 1-19, which are all punctually ob

the sheep, or from the goats : served by the people, who are brought out of Egypt the same day, 54, 51.

6 And ye shall keep it up until the e fourteenth An Exol.lar. 1.

ND the Lord spake unto Moses day of the same month: and the whole assembly Abib or Nican.

purpose, 21-23

[ocr errors]

saying,

evening.

* Ch. 13. 4. Deut. 16. 1. & 23. 15. & 31. 18. Lev. 13. 5. Nunb. 33. 16. Esther 3. 7

b Or, kid. -c Lev. 22 19, 20, 21. Mal. 1. 8, 14. Heb. 9. 14. 1 Pet. 1. 19.

d Heb. son of a year. Lev. 23. 12-e Les. 23. 5. Numb. 9. & 28. 16. Deut. 16.

1,6- Heb. bclrooen the two evenings. Ch. 16. 12.

text now wants many words in each of the seven following

Hebrew

Samaritan. places : chap. vii. between verses 18. and 19. end of chap:

9. Then Moses said unta vii. chap. viii. between 19 and 20. chap. x. between 2. and

Pharaoh, Thus seith Jeherek, 3. at chap. xi. at verses 3. and 4. The reader will permit

Israel is my son, my first born;

and I said unto thec, Let ry me to refer him (for all the words thus omitted) to my own

son go that he may serre me. edilion of the Hebrero Bible (Oxford 1730. 2 vols. fol.)

10. But thou hast refused to where the whole differences are most clearly described.

let him go; behold, Jekorek As this is a matter of very extensive consequence, I cannot

slayeth thy son, thy first-borr. but observe here, that the present Hebrew text of Exod. 4. And Moscs said. Thus 11. And Moses said. Thug chap. xi. did formerly, and does still appear to me to furnish

saith the Lord, About inid faith Jehovah, About midnight a demonstration against itself, in proof of the double speech might will I go out into the will I go forth into the midst

of Egypt. of the land of Egypt. being formerly recorded there, as it is now in the Samari.

5. And all the first born in 12. And every first born in tan. And some very learned men have confessed the the land of Egypt shall die, the land of Egypt shall die, impossibility of explaining this chapter without the assist from the first-born of Pharaoh from the firstborn of Pharaoh ance of the Samaritan Pentateuch. I shall now give this that sitteth upon his throne, that sittelb upon his throne, important chapter as I presume it stood originally, distin

even unto the first-born of the unto the first born of the maid.

maid-servant that is bebind servant that is behind the guishing by Italics all such words as are added to, or

the mill; and all the first-born mill; and even unto the first. differ from, our present translation. And before this chap- of beasts.

born of every beast. ter must be placed the two last verses of the chapter pre 6. And there shall be a great 13. And there shall be a ceding, Exod. x. 29. And Pharaoh said unto him, Get cry through all the land of great cry through all the land thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; Egypt, such as there was none of Egypt, such as there was for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die. 29. And like it, nor shall be like it any none like it, nor shall be like

more. Moses said, Thou hast well spoken: I will see thy face

it any more.

7. But against any of the 14. But against any of the again no more.

children of Israel shall not a children of Israel shall not a EXODUS XI.

dog move his tongue, against dog move his tongne, against Hebrow tert and present

Samaritan tert and new

inan or

beast; that man, or even against beast; version.

vcrsion.

ye may know how that the that thou mayest know that 1. And the Lord said unto 1. Then Jehovah said unto

Lord doth put a difference be. the Lord doth put a difference Moser, Yet will I bring one Moses, Yet will I bring one

tween the Egyptians and Is., between the Egyptians and Isplague more upon Pharaoh and plague more upon Pharaoh and

rael.

rael. upon Egypt, afterward he upon Egypt, and afterward he 8. And all these thy ser. 15. And all these thy ser. will let you go hence, when will send you out hence, when

vants shall come down unto vants shall come down to me, he shall let you go, he shall he will send you away, he will

me, and bow down themselves and bow down themselves to Burely thrust you out hence surely drive you bence alto

unto me, saying. Get thee ont, me, saying, Go forth, thou and altogether. gether.

and all the people that follow all the people that follow thee; 2. Speak now in the ears of 2. Speak now in the cars

thee; and after that I will go and then I will go forth. the people; and let every man of the people; and let every

ont. And he went out from 16. Then went he forin from borrow of his neighbour, and man ask of his neighbour, and Pharaoh in great anger.

before Pharaoh in great indig. every woman of her neigh every woman of her neigh

nation. bour, jedels of silver and jew. bour vessels of silver, and res.

9. And the Lord said unto 17. And Jehovah said unto els of gold. sels of gold, and raiment. Moses, Pharaoh shall not Moses, Pharaoh goth

not 3. And the Lord gave the peo

3. And I will give this peo. hearken unto you, that my hearken unto you, that my ple favour in the sight of the ple favour in the sight of the

wonders may be multiplied in wonders may be mulliplied in Egyptians. Egyptians, so that they shall the land of Egypt.

the land of Egypt. give them rohat they ask.

10. And Moses and Aaron 18. And Moses and Aaron 4. For about midnight I will

did all these wonders before performed all these wonders go forth into the midst of the

Pharaoh: and the Lord hard before Pharaoh: but Jehovah land of Egypt.

ened Pharaoh's heart, so that hardened Pharaoh's heart, so 5. And erery first born in the

he would not let the children that he would not let the chil. land of Egypi shall die, from of Israel go out of his land. dren of Israelgo outof hisland. the first-born of Pharaoh, woho silleth upon his throne, unto the The reader has now the whole of this chapter before first-born of the maid-servant him. When, therefore, he has first read the 28th and 20th that is behind the mill; and even unto the first-born of every

verses of the preceding chapter, and has then observed, bcast.

with due surprise, the confusion of the Hebreu text in 6. And there shall be a great chap. xi. he will be prepared to acknowledge with due cry through all the land of gratitude, the regularity and truth of the Samaritan text; Egypt, such as there was none through these many and very considerable differences." like it, nor shall be like it any | REMARKS on select passages in the Old Testument. Svo. more.

Oxfd. 1787.
7. But against any of the
children of Israel shall not a

The reader will pass his own judgment on the weight
dog more his tongue, against of this reasoning, and the importance of the additions pre-
man or even against beast ; that served in the Samaritan text'; a conviction of their utility
thou mayest know that Jehovah has induced me to insert them.
doth put a difference between the
Egyptians and Israel.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XII. Moreover the man Moses was 8. And thou also shalt be

Verse 2. This month shall be unto you the beginning very great in the land of greatly honoured in the land Egypt, in the sight of Pha of Egypt, in the sight of Pha of months] It is supposed that God now changed the raoh's servants, and in the raoh's servants, and in the commencement of the Jewish year. The month to which sight of the people. sight of the people.

this verse refers, the month Abib, anewers to a part of our

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