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7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike 8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, it on the two side posts, and on the upper door- roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
March and April; whereas it is supposed that previously things that were required in the first paseover, that were to this, the year began with Tisri, which answers to a never required afterward: 1. The eating of the lamb in part of our September; for in this month the Jews suppose their houses dispersed through Goshen. 2. The taking God created the world, when the earth appeared at once the lamb on the tenth day. 3. The striking of its blood with all its fruits, in perfection. From this circumstance, on the door-posts and lintels of their houses. And 4. the Jews have formed a twofold commencement of the Their eating it in haste. These things were not required year, which has given rise to a twofold denomination of of the succeeding generations. the year itself, to which they afterward attended in all their The whole asscmbly-shall kill it] Any person might reckonings: that which began with Tisri or September, kill it; the sacrificial act in this case, not being confined was called their ciril year; that which began with Abió
to the priests. or March, was called the sacred or ecclesiastical year. In the evening]-anynya beyn ha-ârabayim, "between
As the Exodus of the Israelites formed a particular era, the two evenings." The Jews divided the day into mornwhich is referred to in Jewish reckonings down to the ing and evening : till the sun passed the meridian, all building of the temple, I have marked it as such in the was morning or forenoon ; after that, all was afternoon chronology in the margin; and shall carry it down to the or evening. Their first evening began just after twelve time in which it ceased to be acknowledged.
o'clock, and continued till sunset ; their second evening Some very eminently learned men dispute this; and began at sunset, and continued till night, i. e. during the especially Houbigant, who contends with great plausibility whole time of twilight :--between twelve o'clock, thereof argument, that no new commencement of the year is fore, and the termination of twilighi, the passover was to noted in this place; for, that the year had always begun in be offered. this month, and that the words shall be, which are inserted “The day, among the Jews, had twelve hours, Josh. xi. by different versions, have nothing answering to them in 9. Their first hour was about six o'clock in the morning the Hebrew, which he renders literally thus, Hic mensis with us. Their sixth hour was our noon. Their ninth vobis est caput mensium; hic robis primus est anni hour answered to our three'o'clock in the afternoon. By mensis. "This month is to you the head or chief of the this we may understand that the time in which Christ was months; it is to you the first month of the year.” And he crucified, began at the third hour, that is, at nine o'clock observes farther, that God only marks it thus, as is evident in the morning, the ordinary time for the daily morning from the contexi, to show the people that this month, which sacrifice, and ended at the ninth hour, that is, three o'clock was the beginning of their year, should be so designated as in the afternoon, the time of the evening sacrifices, Mark to point out to their posterity, on what month and on what xv. 25, 33, 34, 37. Wherefore their ninth hour was their day of the month they were to celebrate the passover and hour of prayer, when the used to go into the temple at the feast of unleavened bread. His words are these: Ergo the daily evening sacrifice, Acts ini. 1. and this was the superest, et Hebr. ipso ex contextu efficitur, non hic nori ordinary time for the passover. It is worthy of remark, ordinis annum constitui, sed cum anni mensem, qui esset that God sets no particular hour for the killing of the passprimus, ideo commemorari, ut posteris constaret, quo over: any time between the two evenings, i. e. between mense, et quo die mensis pascha et azyma celebranda twelve o'clock in the day and the termination of twilight, essent.
was lawful. The daily sacrifice, see Exod. xxix. 38, 39. Verse 3. In the tenth day of the month] In after times, was killed at half-past the eighth hour, that is, half an they began their preparation on the thirteenth day, or day hour BEFORE three in the afternoon; and it was offered up before the PASSOVER, which was not celebrated till the at half-past the ninth hour, that is, half an hour AFTER fourteenth day, see ver. 6. but on the present occasion, as three. In the evening of the passover it was killed at half this was their first passover, they probably required more past the seventh hour, and offered at half past the eighth, time to get ready in: as a state of very great confusion that is, half an hour BEFORE three: and if the evening of must have prevailed at this time. Mr. Ainsworth remarks, the passover fell on the evening of the sabbath, it was that on this day the Israelites did afterward go through killed at half past the sixth hour, and offered at half past Jordan into the land of Canaan, Josh. iv. 19. And Christ the SEVENTH, that is, half an hour BEFORE tro in the our paschal Lamb, on this day, entered Jerusalem, riding afternoon. The reason of this was, they were first obliged on an ass; the people bearing palm branches, and crying, to kill the daily sacrifice, and then to kill and roast the Hosanna, John xii. 1, 12, 13, &c. and in him this type was paschal lamb, and also to rest the evening before the passtruly fulfilled.
over. Agreeably to this, Maymonides says, The killing A lamb] The original word na seh, signifies the young of the passover is after mid-day: and if they kill it before, of sheep and of goats, and may be indifferently translated it is not lawful; and they do not kill it till after the daily either lamb or kid. See ver. 5.
evening sacrifice, and burning of incense: and after they A limb for a house) The whole host of Israel was have trimmed the lamps, they begin to kill the paschal divided into twelve tribes, these tribes into fumilies, the lambs until the end of the day. By this time of the day, families into houses, and the houses into particular per- God foreshowed the sufferings of Christ in the evening of sons; Numb. i. Josh. vii. 14. Ainsworth.
times, or in the last days, Heb. i. 2. 1 Pet. i. 19, 28. and Verse 4. If the household be too little] That is, If there about the same time of the day, when the paschal lamb be not persons enow in one family, to eat a whole lamb, ordinarily died, He died also, viz. at the ninth hour: then two families must join together. The rabbins allow Matt. xxvii. 1-50." See Ainsworth. that there shall be at least ten persons to one paschal lamb, Verse 7. Take of the blood and strike it on the two and not more than twenty.
side posts] This was to be done by dipping a bunch of Take it according to the number of the souls) The hyssop into the blood, and thus sprinkling it upon the persons who were to eat of it were to be first ascertained, posts, &c. see ver 22. That this sprinkling of the blood and then the lamb to be slain and dressed for that number of the paschal lamb, was an emblem of the sacrifice and
Verse 5. Without blemish) Having no natural imper- atonement made by the death of Jesus Christ is most fection, no disease, no deficiency or redundancy of parts. clearly intimated in the Sacred Writings, 1 Pet. i. 2. Heb. On this point the rabbins have trifled most egregiously, ix. 13, 14. viii. 10. It is remarkable that no blood was to reckoning fifly blemishes that render a lamb or a kid, or be sprinkled on the threshold, 10 teach, as Mr. Ainsworth any animal, improper to be sacrificed : five in the ear, properly observes, a reverent regard for the blood of three in the eye-lid, cight in the eye, three in the nose, sit Christ, that men should not tread under foot the Son of in the mouth, &c. &c.
GOD, nor count the blood of the corenant wherewith A male of the first year] That is, Any age in the first they were sanctified, an unholy thing. Heb. x. 29. year, between eight days and trelve months.
Verse 8. They shall eat the flesh-roast with fire] As. From the sheep or from the goats) That is, the nu seh it was the ordinary custom of the Jews to boil their flesh, means either; and either was equally proper, if without some think that the command given here was in opposiblemish. The Hebrews, however, in general, preferred tion to the custom of the Egyptians, who ate raw filesh in the lamb to the kid.
honour of Osiris. The Ethiopians, are to this day remarkVerse 6. Yc shall keep it up until the fourteenth day] able for cating ruu ficsh ; as is the case with most savage The lamb or kid was to be taken from the flock on the nations. tenth day, and kept up and fed by itself till the fourtecnth Unlearened bread) noso matsoth, from no matsah, to day, when it was to be sacrificed. This was never com squeeze or compress, because the bread prepared without manded nor practised afterward. The rabbins mark four I learen or yeast was generally compresoed, sad, or heary.
9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with 12 For I l will pass through the land of Egypt water, but roast with fire; his head with his this night, and will smite all the first-born in the legs, and with the purtenance thereof.
land of Egypt, both man and beast; and m magainst 10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: the morning; and that which remaineth of it I am the LORD. until the morning, ye shall burn with fire. 13 And the blood shall be to you for a token
11 | And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins upon the houses where ye are: and when I see girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: kit is shall not be upon you P to destroy you, when I the Lord's passover.
smite the land of Egypt.
h Deut. 16. 7.-1 Ch. 2. 18. & 31. 25- Deut. 16. 5.-1 Ch. II. 4, 5. Amos 5. 17.
m Numb. 33. 4.
n Or, princes. Ch. 21. 6. & 22 28 Pk. 82 1, 6. John 10. 34, 35.- Ch 6.2
p Heb. for a destruction.
as we term it. The word here properly signifies unleav- when they went to a banquet. The servants took them ened cakes ; the word for leaven in Hebrew is ponchamets, off when they entered the house; and returned them when which simply signifies to ferment. It is supposed that they departed to their own habitations. leaven was forbidden on this and other occasions, that the Your staf' in your hand] The same writer observes, bread being less agreeable to the taste, it might be em that the eastern people universally make use of a staf blematical of their bondage and bitter servitude: as this when they travel on foot. seems to have been one design of the bitter herbs which Ye shall eat it in haste) Because they were suddenly were commanded to be used on this occasion ; but this cer to take their departure; the destroying angel was at hand, tainly was not the sole design of the prohibition; leaven their enemies were coming against them, and they had itself is a species of corruption, being produced by fer- not a moment to lose. mentation, which in such cases, tends to putrefaction. In It is the Lord's PASSOVER.] That is, Jehovah is now this very light St. Paul considers the subject in this place; about to pass over the land, and the houses only where the hence, alluding to the passover as a type of Christ, he blood is sprinkled, shall be safe from the stroke of death. says, Purge out therefore the old leaven--for Christ our The Hebrew word nod pesach, which we very properly passoper is sacrificed for us: therefore let us keep the translate PASSOVER, and which should be always profeast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of nounced as two words, has its name from the angel of God malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread passing by or over the houses of the Israelites, on the of sincerity and truth, 1 Cor. v. 6—8.
posts and lintels of which the blood of the lamb was Bitter herbs) What kind of herbs or sallad is intended sprinkled; while he stopped at the houses of the Egypby the word bin merarim, which literally signifies tians to slay their first-born. bitters, is not well known. The Jews think cichory, wild Verse 12. Against all the gods of Egypt, &c.) As lettuce, horehound, and the like, are intended. Whatever different animals were sacred among the Egyptians, the may be implied under the term, whether bitter herbs, or slaying of the first-born of all the beasts might be called bitler ingredients in general, it was designed to put them executing judgment upon the gods of Egypt. As this, in mind of their bitter and severe bondage in the land of however, does not appear very clear and satisfactory, some Egyp, from which God was now about to deliver them. have imagined that the word 75 elohey should be trans
Verse 9. With the purtenance thereof) All the intes-lated princes, which is the rendering in our margin; for tines, for these were abused by the heathens for purposes as these princes, which were rulers of the kingdom under of divination; and when roasted in the manner here di- Pharaoh, were equally hostile to the Hebrews with Pharected, they could not be thus used. The command also raoh himself, therefore these judgments fell equally heavy implies, that the lamb was to be roasted whole ; neither on them also. But, we may ask, Did not these judgments the head or legs were to be separated, nor the intestines re fall equally on all the families of Egypt, though multitudes moved. I suppose that these last simply included the heart, of them had no particular part either in the evil counsel lungs, liver, kidneys, &c. and not the intestinal canal. against the Israelítes, or in their oppression? Why then
Verse 10. Ye shall let nothing of it remain until the distinguish those in calamities, in which all equally shared? morning] Merely to prevent putrefaction ; for it was not None of these interpretations, therefore, appear satisfactory. meet that a thing offered to God should be subjected to Houbigant, by a very simple and natural emendation, has, corruption, which, in such hot countries, it must speedily he thinks, restored the whole passage to sense and reason. undergo. Thus the body of our blessed Lord sa zo no cor He supposes, that an elohey, Gods, is a mistake for box quption, Psal. xvi. 10. Acts ii. 27. because, like the paschal ahley, TENTS, or habitations; the nhé, and the 5 lamed lamb, it was a sacrifice offered to God.
being merely interchanged. This certainly gives a very It appears that, from the Jewish passover, the heathens consistent sense, and points out the universality of the deborrowed their sacrifice, termed PROPTER VIAM. It was solation, to which the whole context continually refers. their custom previously to their undertaking a journey, to He therefore contends that the text should be read thus offer a sacrifice to their gods, and to eat the whole, if pos- And on all the TENts or HABITATIONS of Egypt I will sible ; but if any part was left
, they burned it with fire; exccute judgment! by which words the Lord signified, and this was called propter viam; because it was made to that not one dwelling in the whole land of Egypt should procure a prosperous journcy. It was in reference to this, be exempted from the judgment here threatened. It is but that Cato is said to have rallied a person called Q. Albi- justice to say, that however probable this criticism may dius, who, having eaten up all his goods, set fire to his appear, it is not supported by any of the ancient versions, house, his only remaining property,
“He has offered his nor by any of the MSS. collated by Kennicott and De sacrifice propter viam,” said Cato," because he has burned Rossi. The parallel place also, Numb. xxxiii. 4. is rather what he could not eat.” This account is given by Macro- against Houbigant's interpretation. For the Egyptians bius, Saturn. lib. ii. 2. edit. Bipont. vol. I. p. 333. and is a buried all their first-born, which the Lord had smitten remarkable instance how closely some of the religious ob- among them: upon their gods also [DOS u be clo servances of the people of God have been copied by the heyhem) the Lord executed judgments. But Houbigant heathen nations.
amends the word in this place, in the same way as he does Verse 11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins that in Exodus. There appears also to be an allusion to girded] As in the eastern countries they wear long loose this former judgment, Isai. xix. 1. Behold, the Lord shall garments, whenever they travel, they tuck up the foreparts come into Égypt, and the idols (505x eileyley) of Egypt of their garments in their girdle, which they wear round shall be moved at his presence. And in Jerem. xliii. 13. their loins.
The houses of the gods [77bn na batey cohey) of the Your shoes on your feet] This seems particularly men. Egyptians shall he burn wilh fire. The rabbins say, that tioned, because not customary. “The easterns throw off when Israel came out of Egypt, the holy blessed God their shoes when they eat, because it would be trouble threw down all the images of their abominations, and they some, says Sir J. Chardin,' to keep their shoes upon their were broken to pieces.'-_When a nation was conquered, feet, they sitting cross-legged on the floor, and having no it was always supposed that their gods had either abanhinder quarters to their shoes, which are made like slip- doned them, or were overcome. Thus Egypt was ruined, pers: and as they do not use tables and chairs as we do and their gods confounded and destroyed by Jehovah.-See in Europe, but have their floors covered with carpets, they the note on chap. xi. 7. throw off their shoes when they enter their apartments, Verse 13. The blood shall be to you for a token] It lest they should soil those beautiful pieces of furniture." shall be the sign to the destroying angel, that the house On the contrary, the Israelites were to have their shoes on, on which he sees this blood sprinkled is under the protecbecause now
about to commence their journey. It was tion of God, and that no person in it is to be injured. See customary among the Romans to lay aside their shoes on ver. 11.
14 And this day shall be unto you for a me 19 : Seven days shall there be no leaven found morial; and ye shall keep it a ' feast to the LORD in your houses: for whosoever cateth that which throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a is leavened, - even that soul shall be cut off from • feast by an ordinance for ever.
the congregation of Israel, whether be be a 15 T i Seven days shall ye eat unleavened stranger, or born in the land. bread; even the first day ye shall put away lea 20 Ye 'shall eat nothing leavened; in all your ven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread. leavened bread from the first day until the 21 | Then Moses called for all the elders of seventh day, « that soul shall be cut off from Israel, and said unto them, “ Draw out and take Israel.
you a ' lamb according to your families, and kill 16 And in the first day there shall be a holy the passover. convocation, and in the seventh day there shall 22 d And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and be a holy convocation to you; no manner of work dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and shall be done in them, save that which every strike the lintel and the two side posts with the w man must eat, that only may be done of blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall you.
go out at the door of his house until the morning. 17 And ye shall observe the feast of unlea 23_' For the Lord will pass through to smite vened bread; for ? in this self-same day have I the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the therefore shall ye observe this day in your gene- LORD will pass over the door, and will not rations by an ordinance for ever.
suffer the destroyer to come in unto your 18 » In the first month, on the fourteenth day houses to smite you. of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened 24 And ye shall observe this thing for an orbread, until the one and twentieth day of the dinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. month at even.
25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be
Ch. 13.4- Lev. 2. 4,5. 2 Kings 23. 21. -- Ver 21, 43 & Ch. 13. 10.- Ch. 13 6. 7. & 15. & 34 1%, 5 Lev. 23 5, 6. Numb. & 17. Deut. 16.3, 8. I Cor. 5.7. u Gen 17. 14 Numb. 9. 13.- Les B. 7, & Numb. 23. 19, 25. -w Heb. souh » Ch. 13 3.- Lev. 23.5 Numb. 25. 16.
z Fxod. 23. 15. & 34. 18. Dent. 16. 3. I Cor. 5. 7,8-a Nurob. 9. 13.- Ver. & Numb. 9. 4. Josh. 5. 10. 2 King 23. 21. Ezra 6. 20. Matt. 26. 18, 19. Mark 14. 12-16 Luke 22. 7,&c-c Or, lad Hebr. 11. 2.- Va 7-1 Ver. 12, 13 -& Ezek. 9. 6. Res. 7. 3. & 9. 4.- 2 Sam. 21. 16. I Cor. 10. 10. Hebr. U.
Verse 14. A memorial] To keep up a remembrance of mere purpose of religious worship. Such assemblies are the severity and goodness, or justice and mercy of God. called holy conrocations, which is a very appropriate apYe shall keep it a feast-it shall be annually observed, and pellation for a religious assembly: they were called togeshall be celebrated with solemn religious joy.— Through-ther by the express command of God; and were to be emout your generations-as long as ye continue to be a dis- ployed in a work of holiness : Nipo mikra, convocation, tinct people--an ordinance, a divine appointment-an in is a word of similar import with the Greek sxxanoux, which stitution of God himself, neither to be altered nor set aside we commonly translate church, and which properly signiby any human authority.
fies an assembly convened by public call. For erer] obw npn chukath ôlam, an everlasting or Verse 17. self-same days oxya boêlsem-in the body endless statute, because representative of the Lamb of God of this day, or in the strength of this day--probably they who taketh away the sin of the world; whose mediation, began their march about day-break, called here the body in consequence of his sacrifice, shall endure while time or strength of the day; and in Deut. xvi. 1. by night, itself lasis ; and to whose merits and efficacy, the salva some time before the sun rose. tion of the soul shall be ascribable throughout eternity!
Verse 19. No learen found in your houses] To meet This, therefore, is a statute and ordinance, that can have the letter of this precept in the fullest manner possible, the no end, either in this world or in the world to come. It is Jewe, on the eve of this festival, institute the most rigorous remarkable that though the Jews have ceased from the search through every part of their houses, not only rewhole of their sacrificial system, so that sacrifices are no moving all leavened bread, but sweeping every part clean, longer offered by them in any part of the world, yet they that no crumb of bread shall be left that had any leaven in all, in all their generations and in all countries, keep up the it. And so strict were they in their observance of the letter remembrance of the pass-over, and observe the feast of of this law, that if even a mouse was seen to run across unleavened bread! But no lamb is sacrificed. Their sa the floor with a crumb of bread in its mouth, they consicrifices have all totally ceased, ever since the destruction dered the whole house as polluted, and began their purifiof Jerusalem by the Romans. Even the flesh that is used cation afresh. We have already seen that louren was an on this occasion, is partly roasted, and partly boiled, that emblem of sin, because it proceeded from corruption : and It may not even resemble the primitive sacrifice; for they the putting away of this, implied the turning to God with deem it unlawful to sacrifice out of Jerusalem. The truth simplicity and uprightness of heart. See the note on ver. is, the true Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the 8. and on ver. 27. world, has been offered; and they have no power to restore
Verse 21. Kill the passorcr.] That is, the lamb, which the ancient type. See on ver. 27.
was called the paschal or passover lamb; the animal that Verse 15. Seven days shall ye eat unlearened bread) was to be sacrificed on this occasion, got the name of the This has been considered as a distinct ordinance, and not institution itself: thus the word covenant is put often for essentially connected with the passover. The passover the sacrifice offered in making the covenant--so the rock was to be observed on the fourteenth day of the first month; was Christ, 1 Cor. x. 4. bread and wine, the body and the feast of unleavened bread began on the fifteenth, and blood of Christ, Mark xiv. 22, 24. St. Paul copies the exlasted seven days; the first and the last of which were pression, 1 Cor. v. 7. Christ our pass-over (that is, our holy convocations.
paschal lamb)) is sacrificed for us. That soul shall be cut off"] There
are thirty-six places, Verse 22. A bunch of hyssop] The original word SYN in which this excision or cutting off is threatened against esob has been variously translated musk, rosemary, polythe Jews for neglect of some particular duty; and what is pody of the wall, inint, origanum, marjoram, and implied in the thing itself, is not well known. Some think Hyssop; the latter seems to be the inost proper. Parkit inoans a violent death; some a premature death ; and hurst says it is named from its detersive and cleansing some an eternal death. It is very likely that it means no qualities, whence it was used in sprinkling the blood of more, than the separation from the rights and privileges the paschal lamb, in cleansing the leprosy, Lev. xiv. 4, 6, of an Israelite; so that after this excision, the person was 51, 52. in composing the water of purification, Numb. xix. considered as a mere stranger, who had neither lot nor part 6. and sprinkling it, ver. 18. It was a type of the puriin Israel, nor any right to the blessings of the covenant. fying virtue of the bitter sufferings of Christ. And it This is probably what St. Paul means, Rom. ix. 3. But is plain from Psal. li. 9. that the Psalmist understood its we naturally suppose this punishment was not inflicted, meaning. Among botanists, Hyssop is described as "a but on those who had showed a marked and obstinate con- genus of the gymnospermia (naked sced) order, belonging tempt for the divine authority. This punishment appears to th: didynamia class of plants. It has under shrubby, to have been nearly the same with excommunication low, bushy stalks, growing a foot and a half high; small, among the Christians: and from this general notion of spear-shaped, close-sitting, opposite leaves, with several the culting of, the Christian excommunication seems to smaller ones rising froin the same joint; and all the have been borrowed.
stalks and branches terminated by ercct whorled spikes Verse 16. In the first day--and in the seventh day there of flowers of different colours, in the varieties of the plant. shall be a holy convocation This is the first place where the leaves have an aromatic smell, and a warm pingent we meet with the account of an assembly collected for the The leaves of this plant are particularly recomVOL. I.-29
come to the land which the LORD will give you, the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And
according as he hath promised, that ye shall the people mbowed the head and worshipped. keep this service.
28 And the children of Israel went away, and 26 k And it shall come to pass, when your ndid as the LORD had commanded Moses and children shall say unto you, What mean ye by Aaron, so did they. this service?
29 1 And it came to pass, that at midnight 27 That ye shall say, 1 It is the sacrifice of the P the LORD smote all the first-born in the land LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of of Egypt," from the first-born of Pharaoh that the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote sat on his throne, unto the first-born of the cap
i Ch. 3. 8, 17.-k Ch. 13. 8, 14. Deut. 32 7. Josh. 4. 6. Pan. 78.6.-Ver. 11.
ra Ch. 4. 31.- Hebr. 11. 23.
o Ch. 11. 1-p Namba 8. 17. & 33. 1. Psa. 78. 51. & 105. 36. & 135. 8. & 136. 10
r Ch. 4. 23. & ll. 5. Wind. 18. 11.
mended in humoral asthmas, and other disorders of the be the continual representatives of that sacrifice till the breast and lungs, and greatly promote expectoration.” Its end of the world. Thus the passover in itself, and in its medicinal qualities were probably the reason why this reference, is an ordinance for ever; and thus the words plant was so particularly recommended in the Scriptures. of the Lord are literally fulfilled. Reader, learn from this,
Verse 26. What mean ye by this service?] The estab- | 1. That if thou art not rescued from the thraldom of sin, lishment of this service annually, was a very wise provi- thou must perish for ever. 2. That nothing less than the sion to keep up in remembrance this wonderful deliver power and mercy of God can set thee free. 3. That God
From the remotest antiquity, the institution of will save thee in no other way, than by bringing thee out feasts, games, &c. has been used to keep up the memory of thy sinful state, and from thy wicked practices, and of past grand events. Hence God instituted the sabbath, companions. 4. That in order to thy redemption, it was to keep up the remembrance of the creation : and the absolutely necessary that the Son of God should take thy pass-over to keep up the remembrance of the deliverance nature upon him, and die in thy stead. 5. That unless from Egypt. "All the other feasts were instituted on the blood of this sacrifice be sprinkled in its atoning efficacy similar reasons. The Jews never took their sons to the and merits, on thy heart and conscience, the guilt and tabernacle or temple till they were twelve years of age, power of thy sin cannot be taken away. 6. That as the nor suffered them to eat of the flesh of any victim till they blood of the paschal lamb must be sprinkled on every had themselves offered a sacrifice at the temple, which house, in order to the preservation of its inhabitants, so they were not permitted to do before the twelfth year of there must be a personal application of the blood of the their age. It was at this age that Joseph and Mary took cross to thy conscience, to take away thy sins. 7. As it our blessed Lord to the temple, probably for the first time, was not enough that the passover was instituted, but the to offer his sacrifice.-See Calmet.
blood must be sprinkled on the lintels and door-posts of Verse 27. It is the sacrifice of the Lord's passover] | every house, to make the rite effectual to the salvation of We have already intimated, that the paschal lamb was an each individual; so, it is not enough that Christ should illustrious type of Christ; and we shall find, that very have taken human nature upon him, and died for the sin thing in this account is typical, or representative. 1. The of the world; for no man who has the opportunity of bondage and affliction of the people of Israel may be con- hearing the Gospel, is saved by that death, who does not, sidered as emblems of the hard slavery and wretchedness by faith, get a personal application of it to his own heart. consequent on a state of sinfulness. Satan reigns over 8. That those who wish for an application of the atoning both body and soul, bringing the whole into subjection to blood, must receive this spiritual passover, with a perfect the law of sin and death ; while various evil tempers, readiness to depart from the land of their captivity, and passions, lusts, and irregular appetites, act as subordinate travel to the rest that remains for the people of God: it tormentors, making the lives of the vassals of sin bitter, being impossible, not only to a gross sinner, continuing because of the rigour by which they are obliged to serve. such, to be finally saved, (however he may presume upon Reader, is this thy case? 2. 'The inercy of God projects the mercy of God) but also to a worldly-minded man, to the redemption of man from this cruel bondage and op- get to the kingdom of God : for Christ died to save us pression; and a sacrifice is appointed for the occasion, by from the present evil world, according to the will of God. God himself; to be offered with particular and significant 9. That in order to commemorate aright, in the sacrament rites and ceremonies, all of which represented the passion of the Lord's supper, the great atonement made for the and death of our blessed Lord; and the great end for sin of the world, all leaven of mulice, bitterness, and inwhich he became a sacrifice, viz. the redemption of a lost sincerity, must be put away; as God will have no man to world from the power, the guilt, and the pollution of sin, partake of this mystery who does not fully enter into its &c. And it is worthy of remark, 1st. That the anniver- spirit and meaning. See 1 Cor. v. 7. 8. sary or annual commemoration of the passover was Ver. 29. Smote all the first-born] If we take the term strictly and religiously kept by the Jews, on the day, and first-born in its literal sense only, we shall be led to conhour of the day, on which the original transaction took clude, that in a vast number of the houses of the Egypplace, throughout all their succeeding generations. 2dly, tinns there could have been no death, as it is not at all 'That on one of these anniversaries, and, as many suppose, likely that every first-born child of every Egyptian family, on the very day and hour on which the paschal lamb was was still alive, and that all the first-born of their cattle originally offered, our blessed Lord expired on the cross still remained. And yet it is said, ver. 30. that there was for the salvation of the world. 3dly, That after the de not a house where there was not one dead. The word, struction of Jerusalem, the paschal lamb ceased to be therefore, must not be taken in its literal sense only. From offered by the Jews throughout the world, though they its use in a great variety of places in the Scriptures it is continue to hold the anniversary of the passover, but evident that it means the chief, most excellent, best belored, withoul any sacrifice, notwithstanding their deep-rooted, most distinguished, &c. In this sense our blessed Lord inveterate antipathy against the Author and grace of the is called the FIRST-BORN of cvery creature, Cologs. i. 15. Gospel. 4thly, That the sacrament of the Lord's supper and, the FIRST-BORN among many brethren, Rom. viii. was instituted to keep this true paschal sacrifice in com 29. that is, he is more excellent than all creatures, and memoration, and that this has been religiously observed greater than all the children of men. In the same sense by the whole Christian world (one very small class of we may understand Rev. i. 5. where Christ is called the Christians excepted) from the foundation of Christianity FIRST-BEGOTTEN from the dead, i. e. the chief of all that to the present day! 5thly, That the Jews were commanded have ever visited the empire of death, and on whom death to eat the paschal lamb; and our Lord, commemorating has had any power; and the only one, who by his own the passover, commanded his disciples, saying, Take, eat, might, quickened himself. In the same sense wisdom is This is my body, which is given for you ; do this in represented as being brought forth before all the creatures, remembrance of ME. In the communion service of the and being possessed by the Lord in the beginning of his Church of England, the spirit and design both of the type ways, Prov. viii. 22—30. that is, the wisdom of God is and antitype, are most expressively condensed into one peculiarly conspicuous in the production, arrangement, point of view, in the address to the communicant. "Take and government of every part of the creation. So Ephand eat this in remembrance that Christ died for THEE; raim is called the Lord's FIRST-BORN, Jer. xxxi. 9. And and Feed upon him in thy heart by FAITH, with THANKS the people of Israel are often called by the same name, see GIVING.” Thus, God continues the memorial of that | Exod. iv. 22. Israel is my son, my FIRST-BORN: that is, grand transaction which he has said should be an ordinance the people in whom I particularly delight and whom i for ever; evidently meaning thereby, that the paschal | shall especially support and defend. And because the lamb should be the significator till the passion and death first-born are, in general, peculiarly dear to their parents, of Christ; and that afterward bread and wine taken sac and because among the Jews, they had especial and pecuramentally in commemoration of his crucifixion, should I liar privileges, whatever was most dear, most valuable,
tive that was in the dungeon; and all the first 34 And the people took their dough before it born of cattle.
was leavened, their akneading troughs being 30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and bound up in their clothes upon iheir shoulders. all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and 35 And the children of Israel did according to there was a great cry in Egypt; Tor there was the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the not a house where there was not one dead. Egyptians "jewels of silver, and jewels of gold,
31 | And he called for Moses and Aaron by and raiment: night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from 36 . And the LORD gave the people favour in among my people, both ye and the children of the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said. I unto them such things as they required. And
32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as d they spoiled the Egyptians. ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. 37 T And the children of Israel journeyed
33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the from 'Rameses to Succoth, about esix hundred people, that they might send them out of the thousand on foot that were men, besides chilland in haste; for they said, 'We be all dead men. dren.
. Heb. house of the pil.-- Ch. Il. 6. Prov. 21. 13. Amos 5. 17. Jaunie 2 13. 4 Ch 11. I. Psa 105 8-Ch. 10. 9=w Ch. 10. ô-x Geri 27. 31.-y Ch. 11. 8. Psa. 105. 38
2 Gen 30. 3-a Or, dough. Ch. 8. 3.-b Ch. 3. 22. & 11.2--- Ch. 3. 21. & 11. 3. d Gen. 15. 14. Ch. 3. 22. Psa. 105. 37.-e Numb. 13. 3,5.- Gen. 47. 11.-g Gen. 12 2 & 46. 3. Ch 38. 3. Numb. I. 16. & 11. 21.
and most prized, was thus denominated. So Micah vi. 7. was not one dead; and according to their custom, all the Shall I give my FIRST-BORN for my transgression, the family running out into the streeis, bewailing this calamity! fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? Shall I give Verse 31. Called for Moscs and Aaron] That is, he up the most beloved child I have, he that is most dear and sent the message here mentioned to them; for it does not most necessary to me, in order to make an atonement for appear that he had any farther interview with Moses and my sins? In like manner the prophet Zech. xii. 10. Aaron, asier what is mentioned, chap. x. 28, 29. and xi. 8. speaking of the conversion of the Jews to the Gospel of See the notes there. Christ, represents them as looking on hin whom they Verse 33. The Egytians were urgent upon the people} have pierced, and being as one that is in bitterness for his They felt much, they feared more; and therefore wished FIRST-BORN: that is, they shall feel distress and anguish to get immediately rid of a people, on whose account they as those who had lost their most beloved child. So the found they were smitten with so many and such dreadful church trinmphant in the kingdom of God, are called, plagues. Heb. xii. 23. the general assembly and church of the Verse 34. They took their dough before it was leavened, FIRST-BORX, i. e. the most noble and excellent of all &c.] There was no time now to make any regular prehuman if not created beings. So Homer, Il. iv. v. 102. paration for their departure, such was the universal hurry Αρνον πρωτογενων ρεξει κλιταν εκατομεν, "Á hecatomb of and confusion. The Israelites could carry but little of lambs, all firstlings of the flock.” That is, the most their household utensils with them; but some, such as excellent of their kind.
they kneaded their bread and kept their meal in, they were In a contrary sense, when the word first-born is joined obliged to carry with them. The kneading troughs of the to another that signifies any kind of misery or disgrace, it Arabs are comparatively small wooden bowls, which, after then signifies the depth of misery, the utmost disgrace. kneading their bread in, serve them as dishes, out of which So the FIRST-BORN of the poor, Isai. xiv. 30. signifies the they eat their victuals. And as to these being bound up in mosi abject, destituie, and impoverished.
The FIRST their clothes, no more may be intended than their wrapping BORN of death, Job xvii. 13. means the most horrible kind them up in their long loose garments, or in what is still of death. So in the threatening against Pharaoh, chap. used among the Arabs, and called hykes, which is a long xi. 5. where he informs him that he will slay all the first- kind of blanket, something resembling á Highland plaid, born, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon in which they often carry their provisions, wrap themselves the throne, to the first-born of the maid-serrant that is by day, and sleep at night. Dr. Shaw has been particular behind the mill, he takes in the very highest and lowest in his description of this almost entire wardrobe of an conditions of life. As there was no state in Egypt supe- Arah. He says, they are of difl'erent sizes and of different rior to the throne, so there was none inferior to that of the qualities, but generally about six yards in length, and five female slave that ground at the mill. The prophet Ha or six feet broad. He supposes, that what we call Ruth's hakkuk seeins to fix this as the sense in which the word veil, Ruth iii. 15. was a hyke, and that the same is to be is used here ; for speaking of the plagues of Egypt in gen- understood of the clothes of the Israelites mentioned in eral, and the salvation which God afforded his people, he | this verse. See his Travels, p. 224. 4to. edition. says, chap. iii. 13. Thou wentest forth for the saltation Verse 35. They borrowed of the Egyptians] See the of thy people-thou woundedst the HEAD (un rosh, the note on chap. iii. 22. where the very exceptionable term chief, the most excellent) of the house of the wicked-of borrow is largely explained. Pharaoh and the Egyptiane. And the author of the book Verse 37. From "Rameses to Succoth) Rameses apof Wisdom understood it in the same way. The master pears to have been another name for Goshen, though it is and the servant were punished after one manner; and probable that there might have been a chief city or village like as the king, so suffered the common people for in in that land where the children of Israel rendezvoused, one moment the NOBLEST OFFSPRING of them was destroy- previously to their departure, called Rameses. As the ed: chap. xviii. 11, 12. And in no other sense can we term Succoth signifies booths or tents, it is probable that understand the word in Psal. lxxxix. 27. where, among this place was so named from its being the place of the the promises of God to David, we find the following, first encampment of the Israelites. Also I will make him my FIRST-BORN, higher than the Six hundred thousand] That is, there was this numkings of the earlh ; in which passage, the latter clause ber of effective men, twenty years old and upwards, who explains the former: David, as king, should be the FIRST were able to go out to war. But this was not the whole BORN of God, i. e. he should be higher than the kings of number, and therefore the sacred writer says, they were the carth-the MOST EMINENT potentate in the universe. about 600,000; for when the numbers were taken about In this sense, therefore, we should understand the passage thirteen months after this, they were found to be six hunin question: the most eminent person in every family in dred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty, without Egypt
, as well as those who were literally the first-born, reckoning those under twenty years of age or any of the being slain in this plague. Calmet and some other critics tribe of Levi, see NŲmb. i. 45, 46. Bui besides those on particularly contend for this sense.
foot, or foot-men, there were no doubt many old and comVerse 30. There was a great cry) No people in the paratively infirm persons, who rode on camels, horses, or un verse were more remarkable for their mournings than asses, besides the immense number of women and child the Egyptians, especially in matters of religion : they dren, which must have been, at least, three to one of the whipped, beat, tore themselves, and howled in all the ex others; and the mixed multitude, ver. 38. probably of ce4g of grief. When a relative died, the people left the resugees in Egypt, who came to sojourn there, because of house, ran into the streets, and howled in the most lainent- the dearth which had obliged them to emigrate from their able and frantic manner, see Diod. Sicul. lib. i. and Herod. own countries; and who now, seeing that the hand of Jelib. ii. c. 85, 86. And this latter author, happening to be hovah was against the Egyptians, and with the Israelites, in Egypt on one of their solemnities, saw myriods of peo availed themselves of the general consternation, and took ple whipping and benting themselves in this manner, lib. their leave of Egypt; choosing Israel's God for their porf. c. 60. and see Mr. Bryant on the Plagues of Egypt, tion, and his people for their companions. Such a comwhere many examples are given, p. 162, &c. How dread pany moving at once, and emigrating from their own ful then must the scene of horror nnd distress appear, when country, the world never before nor since witnessed; no there was not one house or family in Egypt where there I doubt upwards of two millions of souls, besides their flocks