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38 And ha mixed multitude went up also with hundred and thirty years, even the self-same them; and flocks, and herds,eren very much cattle. day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the

39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt. dough, which they brought forth out of Egypt, 42 It is ma night to be much observed unto for it was not leavened; because i they were the LORD, for bringing them out from the land thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither of Egypt: this is that night of the Lord, to be had they prepared for themselves any victual. observed of all the children of Israel in their

40 | Now the sojourning of the children of generations. Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was * four hundred 43 | And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaand thirty years.

ron, This is the ordinance of the passover: 41 And it came to pass at the end of the four There shall no stranger eat thereof:

h Heb. a greal mixture. Numb. 11. 4.- Ch. 6. 1. & 11. 1. Ver. 33.-k Gen. 15. 13.

Acts 7. 6. Gal. 3. 17.

I Ch. 7. 4. & Ver. 51.-m Heb. a night of observations.-a See Deat. 16. &

o Numb. 9. 14.

woulun munt to


Their chillren

and herds, even very much cattle; and what but the mere U moshab beney Yishrael reabotam âsher yashebit providence of God, could support such a multitude, and in baarels Cenaân übaarets milsraim sheloshim shanah the wilderness too, where to this day, the necessaries of rearbâ mooth shanah. life are not to be found ?

"Now the sejourning of the children of Israel, and of Suppose we take them at a rough calculation, thus, two their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan, millions will be found too small a number.

and in the land of Egypt, was 430.” The same sum is Effectise men, 20 years old and npwards Two-tirds of whom we may suppose were married, in which case their wives

600,000 given by St. Paul, Gal. ii. 17. who reckons from the

400,000 promise made to Abraham, when God commanded him These on an asemgr, might have five children under 20 years of age, an esti io go to Canaan, to the giving of the law, which soon male which falls considerably short of the number of children each famuly must have a vrragel, in orler to pro luce from 75 persons, in A. M. 2291 followed the departure from Egypt; and this chronology upwards of 600,00) ele live inen in A MI. 2191, a priori of only 196 years 2,000,000 The Lentes, who probably were not included among the effecuve men

of the apostle is concordant with the Samaritan PentaTheir wives.

33,00 teuch, which, by preserving the two passages, they and

165,000 The mixel multitude, probably not less than

their fathers, and in the land of Canaan, which are lost 20,000

out of the present copies of the Hebrew text, has rescued Total


this passage from all obscurity and contradiction. It Besides a multitude of old and in firm persons, who would may be necessary to observe, that the Alexandrian copy be obliged to ride on camels and asses, &c. and who must, of the Septuagint has the same reading as that in the from the proportion that such bear to the young and healthy, Samaritan. The Samaritan Pentateuch is allowed by amount to many thousands more! Exclude even the Levites many learned men to exhibit the most correct copy of the and their families, and upwards of three millions will be left. five books of Moses; and the Alexandrian copy of the

Had not Moses the fullest proof of his divine mission, Septuagint must also be allowed to be one of the most he never could have put himself at the head of such an authentic, as well as most ancient copies of this rersion immense concourse of people, who, without the most es which we possess. As to St. Paul, no man will dispute pecial and effective Providence, must all have perished for the authenticity of his statement; and thus in the mouth lack of food. This single circumstance, unconnected with of these three most respectable witnesses, the whole acall others, is an ample demonstration of the divine mission

count is indubitably established. That these three witof Mosos, and of the authenticity and divine inspiration of nesses have the truth, the chronology itself proves; for, the Pentateuch. To suppose that an impostor, or one pre- from Abraham's entry into Canaan to the birth of Isaac tending only to a divine call, could have ventured to place was 25 years, Gen. xii. 4.-xvii. 1—21. Isaac was 60 himself at the head of such an immense body of people, to years old at the birth of Jacob, Gen. xxv. 26. And Jacob lead them through a trackless wilderness, utterly unpro was 130 at his going down into Egypt, Gen. xlvii. 9. vided for such a journey, to a land as yet in the possession which three sums make 215 years. And then Jacob and of several powerful nations, whom they must expel before his children having continued in Egypt 215 years more, they could possess the country, would have implied such the whole sum of 430 years is regularly completed.-See an extreme of madness and folly, as has never been wit. Kennicott's Dissertation on the Hebrew Text. nessed in an individual; and such a blind credulity in the Verse 42. A night to be much observed] A night to multitude, as is unparalleled in the annals of mankind! be held in everlasting remembrance, because of the pecuThe succeeding stupendous events proved that Moses had liar display of the power and goodness of God; the obserThe authority of God to do what he did : and the people vance of which annually, was to be considered a religious had, at least, such a general conviction that he had this precept, while the Jewish nation should continue. authority, that they implicitly followed his directions, and Verse 43. This is the ordinunce of the passorer) received their law from his mouth.

From the last verse of this chapter, it appears pretty eviVerse 40._Nor the sojourning of the children of Is- dent, that this, to the 50th verse inclusive, constituted a qael, &c.). The statement in this verse is allowed on all part of the directions given to Moses relative to the proper hands to be extremely difficult : and therefore the pas observance of the first passover, and should be read consage stands in especial need of illustration. "That the jointly with the preceding account, beginning at verse 21, descendants of Israel did not dwell

430 years in Egypt," It may be supposed that these latter verses contained says Dr. Kennicott

, may be easily proved; and has often such particular directions as God gave to Moses after been demonstrated. Some, therefore, imagine, that by he had given those general ones mentioned in the pre

Egypt here, both it and Canaan are to be understood. ceding verses; but they seem all to belong to this first But this greater latitude of place will not solve the diffi

passover. culty: since the Israelites, including Israel their father, No stranger shall eat of it) 73312 ben necar, the son did not sojourn 430 years in both countries

, previous to of a stranger, or foreigner; i. e. one who was not of the their departure from Egypt. Others, sensible of the still genuine Hebrew stock, or who had not received circumciremaining deficiency, would not only have Egypt in the sion; for any circumcised person might eat the passover, text to signify it and Canaan; but, by a figure more as the total exclusion extends only to the uncircumcisc, comprehensive, would have the children of Israel to

see ver. 48. As there are two sorts of strangers mentioned mean, Israel's children ; and Israel their father, and in the Sacred Writinys; one who was admitted to all the Isaac the father of Israel

, and part of the life of Abra- Jewish ordinances, and another, who, though he dwelt ham, the father of Isaac.

among the Jews, was not permitted to eat the passover, "Thus, indeed," says Dr. Kennicott, we arrive at the

or partake of any of their solemn feasts, it may be necesexact sum, and by this method of reckoning we might sary to show what was the essential point of distinction, arrive at any thing--but truth ; which we may presume through which the one was admitted, and the other exwas never thus conveyed by an inspired writer." Butcluded. can the difficulty be removed withoui having recourse to In treatises on the religious customs of the Jews, we much absurd shista? Certainly it can. The Samaritan frequently meet with the term proscyte, from the Greek Pentateuch, in all its manuscripts and printed copies, reads the place thus :

TOOOHAUTOS, a stranger, or foreigner, one who is come

from his own people and country to sojourn with another. ask94 2fquem mig gezuyz

All who were not descendants of some one of the twelve

sons of Jacob, or of Ephraim and Manasseh, the two sons TONIK YO'y mgtg questo geet of Joseph, were reputed strangers or proselytes, among vgra que aspere 2eue Mystamy the Jews. But of those strangers or proselytes, there

were two kinds, called among them prosclytes of the ҳ2 gue soruy

gate, and proselytes of justice or of the covenant. The

44 But every man's servant that is bought 48 And 'when a stranger shall sojourn with for money, when thou hast p circumcised him, thee, and will keep the pass-over to the LORD, then shall he eat thereof.

let all his males be circumcised, and then let 45 - A foreigner, and a hired servant shall him come near and keep it: and he shall be as not eat thereof.

one that is born in the land: for no uncircum46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt cised person shall eat thereof. not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of 49 w One law shall be to him that is homethe house; neither shall ye break a bone born, and unto the stranger that sojourneth thereof.

among you. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall u keep 50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the it.

LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

John 19. 33, 36. Ver. 6.

p Gen. 17. 12, 13.- Lev. 22. 10.-. Numb. 9. 12.

Numb. 9. 13.

u Heb. do it- Numb. 9. 11-w Numb. 9. 14. & 15. 15, 16. Gal. 3. 28.

former were such as wished to dwell among the Jews, which signifies to aim at, teach, point out, direct, lead, but would not submit to be circumcised: they, however, guide, make straight or even : and from these significaacknowledged the true God, avoided all idolatry, and ob tions of the word, and in all these senses it is used in the served the seven precepts of Noah; but were not obliged Bible, we may see at once, the nature, properties, and deto observe any of the Mosaic institutions. The latter sign of the law of God. It is a system of INSTRUCTION submitted to be circumcised, obliged themselves to observe in righteousness : jt teaches the difference between moral all the rights and ceremonies of the law, and were in no- good and evil; ascertains what is right and fil to be done, thing different from the Jews, but merely in their having and what should be left undone, because improper to be once been heathens. The former, or proselytes of the performed. It continually aims at the glory of God, and gale, might not eat the passover, or partake of any of the the happiness of his creatures-teaches the true knowledge sacred festivals; but the latter, the proselytes of the cove of the true God, and the destructive nature of sin-points nant, had the same rights, spiritual and secular, as the out the absolute necessity of an atonement, as the only Jews themselves.-See ver. 43.

means by which God can be reconciled to transgressors; Verse 45. A foreigner] =yin toshab, from 3 yashab, and in its very significant rites and ceremonies, points out to sit down, or duell

, one who is a mere sojourner, for the Son of God till he should come to put away iniquity the purpose of traffic, merchandise, &c. but who is neither by the sacrifice of himself. It is a revelation of God's proselyte of the gate, nor of the covenant.

wisdom and goodness, wonderfully well calculated to direct And a hired serrant). Who, though he be bought with the hearts of men into the truth : to guide their feet into money, or has indented himself for a certain term, to serve the path of life: and to make straight, eren, and plain, a Jew; yet has not become either proselyte of the gate, that way which leads to God, and in which the soul must or of the covenant. None of these shall eat of it, because walk, in order to arrive at eternal life. It is the fountain not circumcised ; not brought under the bond of the cove whence every correct notion relative to God, his perfections, nant; and not being under obligation to observe the Mo- providence, grace, justice, holiness, omniscience, and omsaic law, had no right to its privileges and blessings. nipotence, has been derived. And it has been the origin Even under the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, He is whence all the true principles of law and justice have the Author of eternal salvation only to them who OBEY been deduced. The pious study of it was the grand means him, Heb. v. 9. And those who become Christians, are of producing the greatest kings, the most enlightened chosen to salvation through SANCTIFICATION of the statesmen, the most accomplished poets, and the most holy Spirit, and belief of the truth, 2 Thess. ii. 13. And the and useful men that ever adorned the world. It is exceedgrace of God, that bringeth salration to all men, hath ed only by the Gospel of Jesus Christ, which is at once appeared ; teaching us, that DeNYING UNGODLINESS and the accomplishment of its rites and predictions, and the WORLDLY LUSTS, we should live soBERLY, RIGHTEOUSLY, fulfilment of its great plan and outline. As a system of and GODLY, in this present world, Tit. ii. 11, 12. Such teaching or instruction, it is the most sovereign and most persons only, walk worthy of the vocation wherewith effectual : as by it is the knowledge of sin; and it alone they are called.

is the schoolmaster, 7*18x7wgos, that leads men to Christ, Verse 46. In one house shall it be eaten] In one that they may be justified through faith, Gal. iii. 24. Whó family, if that be large enough, if not, a neighbouring can absolutely ascertain the exact quantum of obliquity in family might be invited, verse 4.

a crooked line, without the application of a straight one ? Thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh] Every And could sin, in all its twistings, windings, and varied family must abide within doors, because of the destroying involutions, have ever been truly ascertained, had not God angel; none being permitted to go out of his house till given to man this perfect rule to judge by ? The nations the next day, ver. 22.

who acknowledge this revelation of God, have, as far as Neither shall ye break a bone thereof.) As it was to they attend to its dictates, the wisest, purest, most equal, be eaten in haste, ver. 11. there was no time either to and most beneficial laws. The nations that do not receive separate the bones, or to break them, in order to extract it, have laws at once extravagantly severe and extravathe marrow; and lest they should be tempted to consume gantly indulgent. The proper distinctions between moral time in this way, therefore this ordinance was given. It good and evil, in such states, are not known; hence the is very likely that, when the whole lamb was brought to penal sanctions are not founded on the principles of jugtable, they cut off the flesh without even separating any tice, weighing the exact proportion of moral turpitude ; of the large joints, leaving the skeleton, with whatever but on the most arbitrary caprices, which, in many cases, flesh they could not eat, to be consumed with fire, ver. 10. show the utmost indulgence to first-rate crimes, while they This precept was also given to point out a most remark- punish minor offences with rigour and cruelty: What is able circumstance, which 1500 years after, was to take the consequence ? Just what might be reasonably expectplace in the crucifixion of the Saviour of mankind, who ed; the will and caprice of a man being put in the place was the true Paschal Lamb, that Lamb of God, that takes of the wisdom of God, the government is oppressive; and away the sin of the world; who, though he was crucified the people frequently goaded to distraction, rise up in a as a common malefactor, and it was a universal custom mass and overturn it: so that the monarch, however powto break the legs of such on the cross, yet so did the pro-erful for a time, seldom lives out half his days. This was vidence of God order it, that a bone of HIM was not bro the case in Greece, in Rome, in the major part of the ken. -See the fulfilment of this wondrously expressive Asiatic governments, and is the case in all nations of the type, John xix. 33, 36.

world to the present day, where the governor is despotic, Verse 48. And when a stranger-will keep the pass- and the laws not formed according to the revelation of oper, &c.] Let all who sojourn among you, and who God. desire to partake of this sacred ordinance, not only be cir The word ler, law, among the Romans, has been derived cumcised themselves, but all the males of their families from lego, I read; because when a law or statute was likewise, that they may all have an equal right to the made, it was hung up in the most public places, that it blessings of the covenant.

might be seen, read, and known by all men ; that those Verse 49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, who were to obey the laws, might not break them through &c.] As this is the first place that the term in torah, ignorance, and thus incur the penalty. This was called or Law, occurs, a term of the greatest importance in Di- promulgatio legis, q. provulgatio, the promulgation of vine Revelation and on the proper understanding of which the law, i. e. the laying it before the common people. Or much depends, 1 judge it best to give its genuine explana- from ligo, I bind, because the law binuls men to the strict tion once for all.

observance of its precepts. The Greeks call a law youose The word aan torah, comes from the root of yarah, I nomos, from vw, to divide, distribute, minister to, or

51 * And it came to pass the self-same | Israel out of the land of Egypt y by their day, that the Lord did bring the children of armies.

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serve, because the law divides to all their just rights, dies under the hand of Jehovah. Thus does he execute appoints or distributes to each his proper duty, and thus judgment against all the gods of Egypt. See. ver. 12. serres or ministers to the welfare of the individual, and 6. The sixth plague, viz. of biles and blains, was as the support of society. Hence, where there are either no appropriate as any of the preceding; and the sprinkling laws, or unequal and unjust ones, all is distraction, vio- of the ashes, the means by which it was produced, peculence, rapine, oppression, anarchy, and ruin.

liarly significant. Pharmacy, Mr. Bryani has observed, Verse 51. By their armies.] Dnxas tsebotam, from was was in high repute among the Egyptians, and Isis, their tsaba, to assemble, mect together in an orderly or regulated most celebrated goddess, was considered as the preventer manner; and hence to war, to act together as troops in bat or healer of all diseases.'"For this goddess," says Diodotle: whence was tsebaoth, troops, armics, hosts. It is from rus, Hist. lib. i. "used to reveal herself to people in their this that the Divine Being calls himself as my Ycho- sleep, when they laboured under any disorder, and afford rah tsebaoth, the LORD of hosts or armies, because the them relief. Many who placed their confidence in her Israelites were brought out of Egypt under his direction, influence, texfetes ugo se svefox, were miraculously restormarshalled and ordered by himself; guided by his wisdom, ed. Many, likewise, who had been despaired of, and given supported by his providence, and protected by his might over by the physicians, on account of the obstinacy of the This is the true and simple reason why God is so frequently distemper, were saved by this goddess. Numbers, who styled in the Scripture, The Lord of Hosts ; for the had been deprived of their eyes, and of other parts of their Lord did bring the children of Israel out of the land of bodies, were all restored on their application to Isis." By Egypt by their ARMIES.

this disorder, therefore, which no application to their god On this chapter, the notes have been so full and so ex could cure, and which was upon the magicians also, who plicit, that little can be added to set the subject before the were supposed to possess most power and influence, God reader in a clearer light. On the ordinance of the Pass confounded their pride, showed the folly of their worship OVER, the reader is requested to consult the notes on verses and the vanity of their dependence. The means by which 7, 14, and 27. For the display of God's power and provi- these biles and blains were inflicted, riz. the sprinkling dence in supporting so great a multiunde, where, humanly of ashes from the furnace, were peculiarly appropriate. speaking, there was no provision ; and the proof that the Plutarch assures us, De Iside et Osiride, that in several Exodus of the Israelites gives of the truth of the Mosaic cities in Egypt, they were accustomed to sacrifice human history, he is referred to ver. 37. And for the meaning of beings to Typhon, whom they burnt alive upon a high the term law, to ver. 49.

altar ; and at the close of the sacrifice, the priests gathered On the ten plagues, it may be but just necessary, after the ashes of these victims, and scattered them in the air ; what has been said in the notes, to make a few general | "I presume," says Mr. Bryant, "with this view, that reflections. When the nature of the Egyptian idolatry is where an atom of their dust was wafted, a blessing might considered, and the plagues which were sent upon them; be entailed. The like was done by Moses with the ashes we may see at once the peculiarity of the judgment, and of the furnace, that wherever any, the smallest portion, the great propriety of its being inflicted in the way related alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse to this cruel, by Moses. The plagues were either inflicted on the objects ungrateful, and infatuated people. Thus there was a deof their idolatry, or by their means.

signed contrast in these workings of Providence : an ap1. That the river Nile was an object of their worship, parent opposition to the superstition of the times." and one of their greatest gods, we have already seen. As 7. The grierous hail, the SEVENTH plugue, attended the first plague, its wuters were therefore turned into with rain, thunder, and lightning, in a country where blood ; and the fish, many of which were objects also of these scarcely ever occur, and according to an express their adoration, died. Blood was particularly offensive to prediction of Moses, must, in the most signal manner, them, and the touch of any dead animal rendered them point out the power and justice of God. Fire and water unclean. When, then, their great god, the river, was were some of the principal objects of Egyptian idolatry; turned into blood, and its waters became putrid, so that all and fire, as Porphyry says, they consider usgår svar 6035, the fish, minor objects of their devotion, died, we see a to be a great god. To find, therefore, that these very elejudgment at once calculated to punish, correct, and reform ments, the objects of their adoration, were at the command them. Could they ever more trust in gods, who could of a servant of Jehovah, brought as a curse and scourge neither save themselves nor their deluded worshippers ? on the whole land, and upon men also, and cattle, must

2. Mr. Bryant has endeavoured to prove that frogs, the have shaken their belief in these imaginary deities, while SECOND plague, were sacred animals in Egypt and were it proved to the Israelites, that there was none like the God dedicated to Osiris : they certainly appear on many an- of Jeshurun. cient Egyptian monuments; and in such circumstances 8. In the EIGHTH plague we see, by what insignificant and connexions, as to show that they were held in reli creatures God can bring about a general destruction. A gious veneration. These therefore became an awful caterpillar is beyond all animals the most contemptible, scourge; first, by their numbers, and their intrusion into and taken singly, the least to be dreaded in the whole emevery place; and secondly, by their death, and the infec- pire of nature; but in the hand of divine justice, it becomes tion of the atmosphere which took place in consequence. one of the most formidable focs of the human race. From

3. We have seen, also, that the Egyptians, especially the examples in the notes, we see how little human power, the priests, affected great cleanliness: and would not wear industry, or art, can avail against this most awful scourge. woollen garments, lest any kind of vermin should harbour Not even the most contemptible animal should be considabout them. The THIRD plague, by means of lice, or such-ered with disrespect, as in the hand of God, it may become like vermin, was wisely calculated both to humble and the most terrible instrument for the punishment of a crimconfound them. In this, they immediately saw a power inal individual, or a guilty, land. superior to any that could be exerted by their gods or their 9. The Ninth plague, the total and horrible darkness, magicians; and the latter were obliged to confess, This is that lasted for three days, afforded both Israelites and the finger of God!

Egyptians the most illustrious proof of the power and 4. That flies were held sacred among the Egyptians, universal dominion of God: and was, particularly to the and among various other nations, admits of the strongest latter, a most awful, yet instructive lesson against a species proof. It is very probable that Baal-zebub himself was of idolatry, which had been long prevalent in that and worshipped under the form of a fly, or great cantharid. other countries, viz. The worship of the celestial lumiThese, therefore, or some kind of winged noxious insects, naries. The sun and moon were both adored as supreme became the prime agents in the FOURTH plague: and if the deities ; as the sole dispensers of light and life ; and the cynomyia or dog-fly be intended, we have already seen in sun was invoked as the giver of immortality and eternal the notes, with what propriety and effect this judgment blessedness. Porphyry De Abstin. l. 4. preserves the very was inflicted.

form used by the Egyptian priests in addressing the sun 5. The murrain, or mortality among the cattle, was the on behalf of a deceased person, that he might be admitted FIFTH plague, and the most decisive mark of the power into the society of the gods : 2. 050701* Haus, 24: essi and indignation of Jehovah. That dogs, cats, monkeys, **0585,00 Tau (* TON5 cv6qw796 dortos, todo so*: us, *** rams, heifers, and bulls, were all objects of their most παραδοτι τοις αιδεσις Θεις συνδικον. “O sovereign lord the religious veneration, all the world knows. These were Sun, and all ye other Deities who bestow life on mankind, smitten in a most singular manner by the hand of God : receive me; and grant that I may be admitted as a comand the Egyptians saw themselves deprived at once of all panion with the immortal gods!" These objects of their their imaginary helpars. Even Apis, their ox-god, in superstitious worship, Jehovah showed by this plague to whom they particularly trusted, now suffers, groans, and l be his creatures, dispensing or withholding their light

A saying

1. 9. Isai. 49. 16. Jer. 22. 2. Matt. 2. 5.

4 This day came ye out in the month Abib. CHAPTER XIII.

5 And it shall be when the LORD shall & bring God establishes the law concerning the foret-born, and commands that all such, both thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the

in Lay in winieh ihey were lorousine out of top, shen they should be brought to Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the lablo Canta ; ant to keep this service in the mouth Abib, 3_5. Repeats the contraing Vie loc? breath, i, an lonks them to leach the clieren

the Jebusites, which he b sware unto thy fathers the cause of it, and to ke-psichy i remembrance, that it was by the might of to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, God slune, thay la Ilken delivej fruit Exy, Slow that the consecration of the first time buth of ninu ani LEAN, studiake place when they should be settled i that thou shalt keep this service in this month. en (un, 10-12 Third, of man and best to be redecinel, 13. The rea. on ohist to buwatother childun, 14, 15, Fileti or phylocteries for

6 k Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened the hands and foretal, cuanlei, 16. And the people are not lei dircrlly to bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the pral lani titahukuruch the wilderness, the re* Sou asigned, 17, 1 102tos da bucs of Joseph with him, 19. They journey from Succoth, the Lord. ani cute to Ella,201 Ani telands before then ly day in a pillar of 7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; chal, and by night in a pillar of fire, 21, which miracle is regularly continued, buth kry day and night, 22

and there shall no leavened bread be seen with An Eroller. 1.

ND the LORD spake unto Moses, thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee Aber Nisan

in all thy quarters. 2 Sanctify unto me all the first-born, what 8 And thou shalt m show thy son in that day, soever openeth the womb among the children of saying, This is done because of that which the Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine. Lord did unto me, when I came forth out of

3 TAnd Moses said unto the people, 6 Re- Egypt. member this day, in which ye came out from 9 And it shall be for na sign unto thee upon Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for a by thine hand, and for a memorial between thine strength of hand the Lord brought you out from eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: this place : e there shall no leavened bread be for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought eaten.

thee out of Egypt. a Ver. 12, 13, 15 Ch 22. 29, 32 & 34. 19. Lev. 27. 2. Numb. 3. 13. & 8. 16, 17. g Ch 3.8.-h Ch. 6.8.-i Ch. 12. 25, 28.-k Ch. 12. 15, 16.- Ch. 12. 19.-m Ver. & 16. 15. Deat 15. 19. Luke 2 2-6 Ch. 12 12 Deut. 16. 3.- Heb. serpanta. 14. Ch. 12. 26.-n See Ver. 16. Ch. 12. '14. Numb. 15. 39. Deut. 6.8. & II. 18. Prov. d Ch. 6. 1.-e Ch 12 &- Ch. 23. 15. & 31. 18. Deut. 16. 1. merely at his will and pleasure ; and that the people might in this chapter appear to have been given at Succoth, on be convinced that all this came by his appointment alone, the same day in which they left Egypt. he predicted this awful darkness and that their astrono Verse 2. Sanctify unto me all the first-born] To sancmers might have the fullest proof that this was no natural tify, wip kadash, signifies to consecrate, separate, and set occurrence, and could not be the effect of any kind of apart a thing or person from all secular purposes, to some eclipse, which even when total, could endure only about religious use; and exactly answers to the import of the four minutes, and this case could happen only once in Greek myos(x, from a privative, and on the earth, because 1000 years, he caused this palpable darkness to continue every thing offered or consecrated to God, was separated for three days!

from all carthly uses. Hence a holy person, or saint, is 10. The Tenth and last plague, the slaying of the first termed Aytos, i. e. a person separated from the earth-one born, or chief person in each family, may be considered in who lives a holy life, entirely devoted to the service of God. the light of a divine retribution; for, after that their nation Thus the persons and animals sanctified to God, were emhad been preserved by one of the Israelitish family, they ployed in the service of the tabernacle and temple; and had, says Mr. Bryant, "contrary to all right, and in defiance the animals, such as were proper, were offered in sacrifice. of original stipulation, enslaved the people to whom they Whatsoever openeth the womb] i. e. the first-born, if a had been so much indebted : and not contented with this, male, for females were not offered; nor the first male, if a they had proceeded to murder their offspring, and to render female had been born previously. Again, if a man had the people's bondage intolerable, by a wanton exertion of several wives, the first-born of each, if a male, was to be power. It had been told them, that the family of the Is- offered to God. And all this was done, to commemorate raelites were esteemed as God's first-born, chap. iv. 22. the preservation of the first-born of the Israelites, when therefore God said, Let my son go, that he may serve me; those of the Egyptians were destroyed. and if thou refuse--behold, I will slay thy son, even thy Verse 5. When the Lord shall bring thee into the land] first-born, ver. 23. But they heeded not this admonition, Hence it is pretty evident, that the Israelites were not and hence those judgments came upon them, that termi- obliged to celebrate the pass-over, or keep the feast of unnated in the death of the eldest in each family: a just re leavened bread, till they were brought into the promised taliation for their disobedience and cruelty.” See several land. curious and important remarks on this subject, in a work Verse 6. Unlcavened bread] See on chap. xii. 15, 16. entitled, Observations upon the Plagues inflicted on the Verse 9. And it shall be for a sign-upon thy hand) Egyptians, by Jacob Bryant, 8vo. 1810.

This direction, repeated and enlarged, ver. 16. gave rise to On the whole, we may say, Behold the goodness and Phylacteries, or Tephillin; and this is one of the passages severity of God! Severity mixed with goodness, even to which the Jews write upon them, to the present day. The the same people. He punished and corrected them at the manner in which the Jews understood and kept these comsame time; for there was not one of these judgments, that mands may appear in their practice. They wrote the folhad not, from its peculiar nature and circumstances, some lowing four portions of the Law upon slips of parchment emendatory influence. Nor could a more effectual mode or vellum: Sanclify unto me the first-born, Exod. xiii, be adopted, to demonstrate to that people, the absurdity of from ver. 2-10. inclusive. And it shall be when the Lord their idolatry, and the inefficacy of their dependence, than shall bring thee into the land, Exod. xiii. from ver. 11that made use of on this occasion by the wise, just, and 16. inclusive. Hear, O Israel

, the Lord our God is one merciful God. At the same time, the Israelites themselves Lord, Deut. vi. from ver. 449. inclusive. And it shall must have received a lesson of the most impressive in come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently, Deut. xi. from struction, on the vanity and wickedness of idolatry, to ver. 13—21. inclusive. These four portions, making in all which they were at all times most deplorably prone ; and 30 verses, written as mentioned above, and covered with of which they would no doubt have given many more ex- leather, they tied to the forchead, and to the hand or arm. amples, had they not had the Egyptian plagues continually Those which were for the head, (the frontlets) they wrote before their eyes. It was, probably, these signal displays on four slips of parchment, and rolled up each by itself, and of God's power and justice, and these alone, that induced placed them in four compartments, joined together in one them to leave Egypt at his command by Moses and Aaron; piece of skin or leather. otherwise, with the dreadful wilderness before them, totally Those which were designed for the hand, were formed unprovided for such a journey, in which, humanly speak of one piece of parchment, the four portions being written ing, it was impossible for them and their households to upon it in four columns, and rolled up from one end to the subsist, they would have rather preferred the ills they then other. These were all correct transcripts from the Mosaic suffered, than have run the risk of greater, by an attempt text, without one redundant or deficient letter, otherwise to escape from their present bondage. This is proved by they were not lawful to be worn. Those for the head, their murmurings, chap. xvi. from which it is evident that were tied on, so as to rest on the forehead. Those for the they preferred Egypt, with all its curses, to their situation hand or arm were usually tied on the left arm, a little above in the wilderness, and never could have been induced to the elbow, on the inside, that they might be near the heart, leave it, had they not had the fullest evidence that it was according to the command, Deut. vi. 6. And these rrords the will of God; which will, they were obliged, on pain which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart. of utter dcstruction, to obey.

These phylacteries formed no inconsiderable part of a Jew's

religion; they wore them as a sign of their obligation to NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII.

God, and as representing some future blessedness, Hence, Verse 1. The Lord spake unto Moses] The commands I they did not wear them on feast days, nor on the sabbath,

10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the in his season, from year to year.

first-born in the land of Egypt, both the first born 11 | And it shall be when the Lord shall bring of man, and the first-born of beast: therefore I thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware sacrifice to the Lord all that openeth the maunto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, trix, being males; but all the first-born of my

12 p That thou shalt 'set apart unto the LORD children, I redeem. all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling 16 And it shall be for 2 a token upon thine that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for males shall be the Lord's.

by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth 13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt out of Egypt. redeem with a ' lamb; and if thou wilt not re 17 | And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had deem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all let the people go, that God led them not through the first-born of man among thy children u shalt the way of the land of the Philistines, although thou redeem.

that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure 14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee the people « repent when they see war, and w in time to come, saying, What is this ? that they return to Egypt: thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand 18 But God • led the people about, through the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and house of bondage:

the children of Israel went up a harnassed out 15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would of the land of Egypt.

o Ch. 12. 14, 21. -p Ver. 2. Ch. 22. 29. & 34. 19. Lev. 27. 3. Numb. & 17. & 18. 15 Deut. 15. 19. Ezek 41. 30.-- Heb. cause to pass over. Ch. 34. 20. Namb. 18. 15, 16. - Or, kid.-u Numb 3. 46, 47. & 18. 15, 16.

v Ch. 12 2. Deut. 6. 20. Josh. 4. 6,21.-Heb. 10-norrow - Ver. 3—, Ch 12. 29.—2 Ver. 9.-a Ch. 11. 11, 12 Numb. 14. 1-1-- Deul 17. 16. - Ch.14% Nurnb. 33. 6, &c. Or, by five in a rank.

because these things were, in themselves, signs; but they Mr. Ainsworth, as a sign of the profession of God's law; wore them always when they read the Law, or when they for that which in the Gospel is called his NAME, Matt. xu. prayed; and hence they called them on tephillin, prayer 21. in the prophets is called his law, Isai. xlii. 4. So ornaments, oratories, or incitements to prayer. In pro- again, anti-christ exacts the obedience to his precepts, by cess of time, the spirit of this law was lost in the letter, and a mark on men's right hands, or on their foreheads, Rev. when the word was not in their mouth, nor the law in their xui. 16. heart, they had their phylacteries on their heads, and on Verse 13. Every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem their hands. And the Pharisees, who in our Lord's time with a lamb] Or, a kid, as in the

margin. In Num. xviii. affected extraordinary piety, made their phylacteries very | 15. it is said, "The first-born of man shalt thou surely broad, that they might have many sentences written upon redeem; and the firstling of an unclean beast shalt thou them, or the ordinary portions in very large and observable redeem.” Hence we may infer, that ass is put here for letters.

any unclean beast, or for unclean beasts in general. The It appears that the Jews wore these for three different lamb was to be given to the Lord, that is, to his priest, purposes.

Num. xviii. 8, 15. And then the owner of the ass mighi 1. As signs or remembrances. This was the original use it for his own service, which, without this redemption, design, as the institution itself sufficiently proves,

he could not do, see Deut. xv. 19. 2. To procure reverence and respect in the sight of the The first-born of man-shalt thou redeem.] This was heathen. This reason is given in the Gemara, Beracoth. done, by giving to the priests fire standard shekes, or shechap. i. “Whence is it proved, that the phylacteries, or kels of the sanctuary; every shekel weighing twenty tephillin, are the strength of Israel? Ans. From what is gerahs. What the gerah was, see on Gen. xx. 16. And written, Deut. xxviii. 10. All the people of the earth shall for the shekel, see Gen. xxiii. 15. see that thou art called by the name of the LORD, (017 It may be necessary to observe here, that the Hebrew Yehorah) and they shall be afraid of thee.”

doctors ieach, that if á father had neglected or refused thus 3. They used them as amulets or charms, to drive away to redeem his first-born, the son himself was obliged to do evil spirits. This appears from the Targum on Canticles it when he came of age. As this redeeming of the firstviii. 3. His left hand is under my head, &c. "The con- born was instituted in consequence of sparing the first-born gregation of Israel hath said, I am elect above all people, of the Israelites, when the first-born both of man and beast because I bind my phylacteries on my left hand and on my among the Egyptians was destroyed; on this ground, all head, and the scroll is fixed to the right side of my gate, the first-born were the Lord's, and should have been emthe third part of which looks to my bed-chamber, that ployed in his service; but he permitted the first-born of a dæmons may not be permitted to injure me.”

useful unclean animal to be redeemed by a clean animal An original phylactery, or boon tephillin, now lies be- of much less value. And he chose the tribe of Levi in fore me: it is a piece of fine vellum, about eighteen inches place of all the first-born of the tribes in general; and the long, and an inch and a quarter broad. It is divided into five shekels were ordered to be paid in lieu of such firstfour unequal compartments; the letters are very well born sons as were liable to serve in the sanctuary; and the formed, but written with many apices, after the manner of money was applied to the support of the priests and Levites. the German Jews. In the first compartment is written See this subject at large, in Num. iii. 12, 13, 41, 43, 45, the portion taken from Exod. xui. 2-10. In the second, 47–51. Exod. xiji. 11–16. In the third, Deut. vi. 4–9. In the Verse 16. It shall be for a token, &c.] See the note fourth, Deut. xi. 13-21. as before related. This had origi- on ver. 9. nally served for the hand or arm.

Verse 17. God led them not through the way of the land These passages seem to be chosen in vindication of the of the Philistines, &c.] Had the Israelites been obliged use of the phylactery itself, as the reader may see on con to commence their journey to the promised land, by a misulting them at large. Bind them for a sign upon thy litary campaign, there is little room to doubt that they HAND; and for FRONTLETS between thy EYES; write them would have been discouraged, have rebelled against Moses upon the posts of thy house, and upon thy GATES; all and Aaron, and have returned back to Egypt. Their long which commands the Jews take in the most literal sense. slavery had so degraded their minds, that they were incaTo acquire the reputation of extraordinary sanctity, they pable of any great or noble exertions: and it is only on the wore the fringes of their garments of an uncommon ground of this mental degradation, the infallible conselength. Moses had commanded them, Num. xv. 38, 39. quence of slarery, that we can account for their many dasto put fringes to the borders of their garments, that when tardly acts, murmurings, and repinings after their escape they looked upon even these distinct threads, they might from Egypt. The reader is requested to bear this in mind, remember not only the law in general, but also the very as it will serve to elucidate several circumstances in the minutiæ or smaller parts of all the precepts, rites, and ensuing history. Besides, the Israelites were in all probaceremonies belonging to it. As those hypocrites, for such bility unarmed, and totally unequipped for battle, encum. our Lord proves them to be, were destitute of all the life bered with their flocks, and certain culinary utensils, which and power of religion within, they endeavoured to supply they were obliged to carry with them in the wilderness 10 its place with phylacteries and fringes without. The same provide them with bread, &c. principles distinguish hypocrites every where, and multi Verse 13. But God led the people about] Dr. Shaw has tudes of them may be found among those termed Chris- shown that there were two roads from Egypt to Canaan; tians, as well as among the Jews. It is probably to this one through the valleys of Jendilly, Rumeleah, and Baiinstitution, relative to the phylactery, that the words, Rev. deah, bounded on each side by the mountains of the lower xiv. 1. allude; And I looked, and lo—144,000 having his Thebais ; the other lies higher, having the northern range Father's name written on their foreheads. That is, says of the mountains of Mocatee running parallel with it, on

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