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19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with 21 And & the Lord went before them by day him: for he had straitly sworn the children of in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and Israel, saying, "God will surely visit you; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you. go by day and night.
20 | And they took their journey from Suc 22 He' took not away the pillar of the cloud coth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from the wilderness.
before the people.
e Gen. 50. 25. Josh. 21. 32 Aets 7. 16.- Numb. 33. 6. Ch. 14, 19, 21. & 40. 38.
Nunb 9. 15. & 10. 31. & 14. 14. Deut. 1. 33. Neh. 9. 12, 19. Poa. 78. 14. & 99. 7. $
105. 33. Isai. 4. 5. 1 Cor 10.1.
the right hand, and the desert of the Egyptian Arabia, was requisite. 2. At night, to prevent that confusion which which lies all the way open to the land of the Philistines must otherwise have taken place, the pillar of cloud became to the left. See his account of these encampments at the a pillar of fire, not to direct their journeyings, for they end of Exodus.
seldom travelled by night, but to give light to every part Went up harnessed) Divon chamushim. It is truly of the Israelitish camp. 3. In such a scorching, barren, astonishing what a great variety of opinions are entertained thirsty desert, something farther was neceessary than a relative to the meaning of this word. After having ma- light and a guide. Women, children, and comparatively turely considered all that I have met with on the subject, I infirm persons, exposed to the rays of such a burning sun, think it probable, that the word refers simply to that orderly must have been destroyed, if without a covering : hence or well-arranged manner in which the Israelites com we find that a cloud overshadowed them: and from what menced their journey from Egypt. For to arrange, array, St. Paul observes, 1 Cor. x. 1, 2. we are led to conclude, or set in order, seems to be the ideal meaning of the word that this covering cloud was composed of aqueous particles upr chamash. As it was natural to expect, that in such for the cooling of the atmosphere, and refreshment of themcircumstances, there must have been much hurry and con selves and their cattle; for he represents the whole camp fusion, the inspired writer particularly marks the contrary, as being sprinkled or immersed in the humidity of its va to show that God had so disposed matters, that the utmost pours, and expressly calls it a being under the cloud, and regularity and order prevailed; and had it been otherwise, being baptized in the cloud. To the circumstance of the thousands of men, women, and children, must have been cloud covering them, there are several references in Scriptrodden to death. Our margin has it, by five in a rank, ture. Thus Psal. cv. 39. He spread a cloud for their cobut had they marched only five abreast, supposing only one vering. And the Lord will create upon every dwellingyard for each rank to move in, it would have required not place of Mount Zion, and upon her assemblies A CLOUD less than sixty-eight miles for even the 600,000 io proceed and SMOKE BY DAY, and the shining of a FLAMING FIRE on regularly in this way: for 600,000 divided by five gives by night; for upon all the glory shall be a DEFENCE-or 120,000 ranks of five each: and there being only 1760 COVERING, Isai. iv. 5. which words contain the most yards in a mile, the dividing 120,000 by 1760 will give the manifest allusion to the threefold office of the cloud in the number of miles such a column of people would take up, wilderness. See Numb. ix. 16, 17, 18, &c. which by such an operation will be found to be something Verse 22. He took not away the pillar of the cloud more than 68 miles. But this the circumstances of the Neither Jews nor Gentiles are agreed how long the cloud history will by no means admit. Harmer. The simple continued with the Israelites. It is very probable that it meaning therefore, appears to be that given above; and if first visited them at Succoth, if it did not accompany them the note on the concluding verse of the preceding chapter from Rameses; and that it continued with them till they be considered, it may serve to place this explanation in a came to the river Jordan, to pass over opposite to Jericho; still clearer point of view.
for after that, it appears that the ark alone was their Verse 19. Moses took the bones of Joseph] See the guide, as it always marched at their head. See Josh. iu. note on Gen. I. 25. It is supposed that the Israelites car 10, &c. But others think that it went no farther with ried with them the bones or remains of all the twelve sons them than Mount Hor, and never appeared after the death of Jacob, cach tribe taking care of the bones of its own of Aaron. We may safely assert that while it was indiepatriarch, while Moses took care of the bones of Joseph. pensably necessary, it continued with them; when it was St. Stephen expressly says, Acts vii. 15, 16. that not only not so, it was removed. But it is worthy of remark, that the Jacob, but the fathers were carried from Egypt into Sy- ark of the covenant became its substitute. While a mirachem; and this, as Calmet remarks, was the only oppor-cle was necessary, a miracle was granted; when that was tunity that seems to have presented itself for doing ihis:
necessary, then the testimony of the Lord depoand certainly the reason that rendered it proper to remove sited in the ark, was deemed sufficient by Him who cannot the bones of Joseph to the promised land, had cqual weight err. So, under the Gospel dispensation, miracles were in reference to those of the other patriarchs. See the note necessary at its first promulgation : but after that the on Gen. xlix. 29.
canon of Scripture was completed, the new covenant Verse 20. Encamped in Etham] As, for the reasons having been made, ratified by the blood of the Lamb, and assigned on ver. 17. God would not lead the Israelites by published by the Holy Spirit; then God withdrew, genethe way of the Philistines' country, he directed them to- rally, those outward signs, leaving his word for a continual ward the wilderness of Shur, ch. xv. 22. upon the edge or testimony, and sealing it on the souls of believers by the extremity of which, next to Egypt, at the bottom of the Spirit of truth. Arabian gulf, lay Etham, which is the second place of en It is also worthy of remark, that the ancient heathen campment mentioned. See the Extracis from Dr. Shaw writers, represent their gouls, in their pretended manifestaat the end of Erodus.
tions to inen, as always encompassed with a cloud. Verse 21. The Lord went before them] That hy the Homer and Virgil abound with examples of this kind; LORD here, is meant the Lord Jesus, we have the authority and is it not very probable, that they borrowed this, as of St. Paul to believe, 1 Cor. x. 9. it was he whose spirit they did many other things in their mythologic theology, they tempted in the wilderness, for it was he who led them froin the tradition of Jehovah guiding his people through through the desert to the promised rest.
the desert, by means of the cloud, in, and by which, he Pillar of a cloud] This pillar, or column, which ap-repeatedly manifested himself? peared as a cloud by day, and a firc, by night, was the 1. EXTRAORDINARY manifestations, and interpositions symbol of the Divine presence. This was the Shockinah, of Providence and grace, should be held in contmual or divine dwelling-place, and was the continual proof of remembrance. We are liable to forget the hole of the pit the presence and protection of GOD. It was necessary whence we were digred, and the rock whence we were that they should have a guide to direct them through the hewn. Prudence and piety will institute their anniverwilderness, even had they taken the most direct road; and saries, that the merciful dealings of the Lord, may never how much more so when they took a circuitous route, be forgotten. The passover, and the feast of unleavened not usually travelled, and of which they knew nothing bread, by an annual commemoration, becane standing but just as the luminous pillar pointed out the way: Be: proofs, to the children of Israel, of the divine origin
of sides, it is very likely, that even Moses himself did not their religion : and are supporting pillars of it to the pree know the route which God had determined on, nor the sent day. For, when a fact is reported to have taken places of encampment, till the pillar that went before them place, and certain rites or ceremonies have been instituted became stationary, and thus pointed out not only the road in order to commemorate it, which rites or ceremonies but the different places of rest. Whether there was more continue to be observed through succeeding ages, then the than one pillar is not clearly determined by the text. If fact itself, no matter how remote the period of its occurthere was but one, it certainly assumed three different ap rence may have been, has the utmost proofs of authenticity pearances, for the performance of Three very important that it is possible for any fact to have ; and such as every offices. 1. In the day time, for the purpose of pointing person, pretending to reason and judgment, is obliged to out the way, a column, or pillar of a cloud, was all that
On this ground, the Mosaic religion, and the VOL. 1. -30
3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of The Israelites are commanded to encamp before Pinakiroth, l. 2r God predicterele Israel, They are entangled in the land, the
that he sufferol them to depart, 5. He musters his troops and pursues ther, 6-8. wilderness hath shut them in. Overtakes them in their encampment by the Red sea, 9. The Jeraclites are terrifial at his approach, 10. They murmur against Moses for leading them out, 11, 4 And mI will harden Pharaoh's heart, that 12 Moses encourages them, and assures them of deliverance, 13, 14, Goal.com: he shall follow after them; and I will be honit might be dividend, 15, 16, and promises utterly to discomfit the Egyptiana, oured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; 19. The pillar of the cloud becomes darkpeas to the Egyptians, while ii gives that the Egyptians may know that I am the light to the Israelites, 2. Moses suretches out his rod, and a strong east wind LORD. And they did so. blows, and the waters are divuled, 21. The Israelites enter and walk on dry ground, 22. The Egyptian enter also in pursuit of the Israeliter, B. The Lord looks out of 5 1 And it was told the king of Egypt that the to their formur bel, 25. He does so, and the whole Egypuan durmy is overwhelmed his servants, was turned against the people, and Moses is commande! to stretch for's his rod over the waters, that they may return people fled : and P the heart of Pharaoh, and of versaries, they acknowleulge the power of God, and credit
the mission of Moses, 30, 31. they said, Why have we done this, that we An Exod. Tar. l. ND the LORD spake unto Moses, have let Israel go from serving us ? Abid or Nisan. saying,
6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, 5 that people with him: they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, be 7 And he took 9 six hundred chosen chariots, tween « Migdol and the sea, over against Baal- and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over zephon; before it shall ye encamp by the sea. every one of them.
h Ch 13. 18.-i Numb. 33. 7.-k Jer. 44. 1.- 1 Psa. 71. 11.-m Ch. 4. 21. & 7. 3.
n Ch. 9. 16. Ver. 17, 18 Rom. 9. 17, 22, 23.-0 Ch. 7.5.—p Paz 105. 25.4 Ch. 15.
facts recorded in it are indubitably proved ; and the figurative saying of a Jewish rabbin is worthy of regard. Christian religion, and its facts, being commemorated in God addresses Israel, and says, My son, I give thee my the same way, particularly by baptism and the Lord's lamp, give me thy lamp. If thou keep my lamp, I will supper, stand on such a foundation of moral certainty, as keep thy lamp; but if thou quench my lamp, I will exno other records in the universe can possibly boast. tinquish thy lamp;" i. e. I give thee my word and Spirit, Reader, praise God for his ordinances : they are not only give me thy heart and soul; if thou carefully attend to my means of grace to thy soul, but standing irrefragable word, and grieve not my Spirit, I will preserve thy soul proofs of the truth of that religion, which thou hast re- alive; but it thou rebel against my word, and quench my ceived as from HIM.
Spirit, then thy light shalĩ be put out, and thy soul's bless2. A serious public profession of the religion of Christ edness extinguished in everlasting darkness. has, in all ages of the church, been considered not only highly becoming, but indispensably necessary to salvation.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XIV. He who consistently confesses Christ before men, shall be Verse 2. Encamp before Pi-hahiroth) nana e pi-haconfessed by him before God and his angels. A Jero wore chiroth, the mouth, strait, or bay of Chiroth. Between his phylacteries on his forehead, on his hands, and round Migdol suo migdol, the tower, probably a fortress that his garments, that he might have reverence in the sight served to defend the bay. Over against Baal-zephon, of the heathen-he gloried in his law, and he exulted that IDs Sya baal tsephon, the lord or master of the watch Abraham was his father. Christian, with a zeal not less probably an idol temple, where a continual guard, watch, becoming, and more consistently supported, let the words or light, was kept up for the defence of one part of the of thy mouth, the acts of thy hands, and all thy goings, haven, or as a guide to ships. Dr. Shaw thinks that show that thou belongest unto God; that thou hast taken chiroth may denote the valley which extended itself from his Spirit for the guide of thy heart, his word for the rule the wilderness of Etham to the Red sea; and that the part of thy life, his people for thy companions, his heaven for in which the Israelites encamped was called Piha-chiroth, thy inheritance, and himself for the portion of thy soul. i. e. the mouth or bay of Chiroth. See his Travels, p. And see that thou hold fast the truth, and that thou hold 310, and his account at the end of Exodus. it in righteousness.
Verse 3. They are entangled in the land? God him3. How merciful is God in the dispensations of his pro- self brought them into straits, from which no human vidence. He permits none to be tried above what he is power or art could extricate them. Consider their situaable to bear, and he proportions the burden to the back tion when once brought out of the open country, where that is to bear it. He led not the Israelites by the way of alone they had room either to fight or fly. Now they had the Philistines, lest, seeing war, they should repent and the Red sea before them, Pharaoh and his host behind be discouraged. Young converts are generally saved from them, and on their right and left hand, fortresses of the severe spiritual conflicts and heavy temptations, till they Egyptians to prevent their escape : nor had they one boat have ncquired a habit of believing, are disciplined in the or transport prepared for their passage! If they be now school of Christ, and instructed in the nature of the path saved, the arm of the Lord must be seen, and the vanity in which they go, and the difficulties they may expect to and nullity of the Egyptian idols be demonstrated. By find in it. They are informed that such things may take bringing them into such a situation, he took from them all place, they are thus armed for the battle, and when trials hope of human help, and gave their adversaries every do come, they are not taken by surprise: God, the most advantage against them, so that they themselves said: merciful and kind God, “tempers even the blast to the they are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut shorn lamb." Trust in him, therefore, with all thy heart, them in. and never lean to thy own understanding,
Verse 4. I will harden Pharaoh's heart] After relent4. The providence and goodness of God are equally ing and giving them permission to depart, he now changes observable in the pillar of eloud, and the pillar of fire. his mind and determines to prevent them, and without any The former was the proof of his providential kindness by farther restraining grace, God permits him to rush on to day, the latter by night. Thus he adjusts the assistance his final ruin: for the cup of his iniquity was now full. of his grace and Spirit, to the exigencies of his creatures; Verse 5. And it was told the king-that the people flod] giving at some times when peculiar trials require it, more of their departure he could not be ignorant, because himparticular manifestations of his mercy and goodness, but self had given them liberty to depart; but the word fled at all times, such evidences of his approbation as are here, may be understood as implying, that they had utterly sufficient to satisfy a pious faithful heart. It is true, the left Egypt without any intention to return, which is probapillar of fire, was more observable in the night, because bly what he did not expect; for he had only given them of the general darkness, than the pillar of cloud was by permission to go three days' journey into the wilderness, day; yet the latter was as convincing, and as evidenta in order to sacrifice to Jehovah; but from the circumstances proof of his presence, approbation, and protection, as the of their departure, and the property they had gol from the former. It is the duty and interest of every sound be- Egyptians, it was taken for granted, that they had no deliever in Christ, to have the witness of God's Spirit in his sign to return; and this was in all likelihood, the considsoul at all times, that his spirit and ways please his eration that weighed most with this acaricious king, and Maker ; but in seasons of peculiar difficulty, he may determined him to pursue, and either recover the spoil, or expect the more sensible manifestations of God's goodness. bring them back, or both. Thus the heart of Pharaoh and A good man is a temple of the Holy Spirit ; but he who his servants was turned against the people, and they said, has an unholy heart, and who lives an unrighteous life, Why have we let Israel go from serving us? Here was though he may have an orthodox creed, is a hold of the grand incentive to pursuit ; their service was profitable unclean spirits, and an abomination in the sight of the to the state, and they were determined not to give it up. Lord. Reader, let not these observations be fruitless to Verse 7. ' Six hundred chosen chariots, &c.] Accordthee. God gives thee his word and his Spirit: obey this ing to the most authentic accounts we have of war chariots word, that thou grieve not his Spirit. The following they were frequently drawn by two, or by four horses, and
8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pha 14 : The Lord sball fight for you, and ye shall raoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the
a hold your peace. children of Israel: and the children of Israel 15 TAnd the LORD said unto Moses, wherewent out with a high hand.
fore criest thou unto me? speak unto the chil9 But the · Egyptians pursued after them, dren of Israel, that they go forward: (all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his 16 But b lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out horsemen, and his army,) and overtook them thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before children of Israel shall go on dry ground through Baal-zephon.
the midst of the sea. 10 T And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the chil 17_And I, behold, I will < harden the hearts of dren of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and the Egyptians marched after them; and they I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon were sore afraid: and the children of Israel all his host, and upon his chariots, and upon his "cried out unto the LORD.
horsemen. 11 And they said unto Moses, Because there 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Phaaway to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast raoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of 19 |And the angel of God, which went beEgypt?
fore the camp of Israel, removed and went be12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee hind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may before their face, and stood behind them: serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for 20 And it came between the camp of the us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should Egyptians, and the camp of Israel; and it was die in the wilderness?
a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light 13 | And Moses said unto the people, * Fear by night to these: so that the one came not near ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the the other all the night. LORD, which he will show to you to-day: y for 21 | And Moses h stretched out his hand over the Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go shall see them again no more for ever.
back by a strong east wind all that night, and
r Ver. 4 Ch. 6. 1. & 13. 9 Numb. 33. 3.- Ch. 15. 9. Josh. 21 A I Mac. 4.9. Josh 24. 7. Neh. 9. 9. Paz 2. 17. & 107. 6. - Psa. 106. 7, 8-w Ch. 5. 21. & 6.9.
2 Chron. 99 15, 17. Lai AL 10, 13, 14-y Or, for whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, ke.
z Ver. 25. Deut. 1. 30. & 3. 22. & 20. 4. Josh 10. 14, 12. & 23. 3. 2 Chron. 20. 29. Neh. 4. 21 Isaj. 31. 4.- Isai. 30. 15.- Ver. 21, 26. Ch. 7. 19.- Ver. 8. Ch. 7.3. d Ver. 4.- Ver. 4.- Ch. 13. 21. & 2. 20. & 32. 31. Numb. 20. 16. Isai. 63. 9. g See Isai. 8. 14. 2 Cor. 4. 3-h Ver. 16.
carried three persons, one was charioteer, whose business God, whose Spirit has thus convinced thee of sin, righteit was to guide the horses, but he seldom fought; the ousness, and judgment, knows thy unutterable groanings, second chiefly defended the charioteer, and the third alone and reads the inexpressible wish of thy burthened soul: a was properly the combatant. It appears that in this case wish, of which himself is the Author, and which he has Pharaoh' had collected all the cavalry of Egypt, see ver. breathed with the purpose to satisfy it. 17. and though these might not have been very nurnerous, Verse 16. List thou up thy rod] Neither Moses nor yet humanly speaking, they might easily overcome the his rod could be any effective instruments in a work, which unarmed and encumbered Israelites, who could not be sup- could be accomplished only by the omnipotence of God; posed to be able to make any resistance against cavalry and but it was necessary that he should appear in it, in order war chariots.
that he might have credit in the sight of the Israelites; Verse 10. The children of Israel cried out unto the and that they might see that God had chosen him to be the Lord] Had their prayer been accompanied with faith, instrument of their deliverance. we should not have found them in the next verses murmur Verse 18. They shall know that I am the LORD] Phaing against Moses, or rather against the Lord, through raoh had just recovered from the consternation and confuwhose goodness they were now brought from under that sion with which the late plagues had overwhelmed him ; bondage, from which they had often cried for deliverance. and now he is emboldened to pursue after Israel, and God Calmet thinks that the most pious and judicious cried unto is determined to make his overthrow so signal by such an God, while the unthinking and irreligious murmured exertion of omnipotence, that he shall get himself honour against Moses.
by this miraculous act; and that the Egyptians shall know, Verse 13. Moses said-Fear ye not] This exhortation i. e. acknowledge, that he is Jehovah, the omnipotent, selfwas not given to excite them to resist, for of that there was existing, eternal God. no hope they were unarmed, they had no courage, and Verse 19. The angel of God] It has been thought by their minds were deplorably degraded.
some that the angel, 1. e. messenger, of the Lord, and the Stand still Ye shall not be even workers together with pillar of cloud, mean here the same thing. An angel might God; only be quiet, and do not render yourselves wretched assume the appearance of a cloud ; and even a material by your fears and your confusion.
cloud thus particularly appointed, might be called an angel See the saloation of the Lord! Behold the deliverance or messenger of the Lord; for such is the literal import of which God will work, independently of all human help the word 78 bp malac, an angel. It is however most proand means.
bable, that the Angel of the Covenant, the Lord Jesus, apYe shall see them again no more] Here was strong peared on this occasion, in behalf of the people : for, as faith, but this was accompanied by the spirit of prophecy : this deliverance was to be an illustrious type of the deliverGod showed Moses what he would do, he believed, and ance of man from the power and guilt of sin, by his incartherefore he spoke in the encouraging manner related nation and death, it might have been deemed necessary, in above.
the judgment of divine wisdom, that he should appear Verse 14. The Lord shall fight for you) Ye shall have chief agent in this most important and momentous crisis. no part in the honour of the day-God alone shall bring on the word angel, and Angel of the Covenant, see on you off, and defeat your foes.
Gen. xvi. 7. xviii. 13, and Exod. iii. 2. Ye shall hold your peace, Your unbelieving fears and Verse 20. It was a cloud and darkness to them, &c.] clamours shall be confounded; and ye shall see, that by That the Israelites might not be dismayed at the appearmight none shall be able to prevail against the Lord; and ance of their enemies, and that these might not be able to that the feeblest shall take the prey when the power of discern the object of their pursuit, the pillar of cloud moved Jehovah is exerted.
from the front to the rear of the Israelitish camp, so as Verse 15. Wherefore criest thou unto me?] We hear perfectly to separate between them and the Egyptians. It not one word of Moses's praying; and yet here, the Lord appears also, that this cloud had two sides, one dark and asks him why he cries unto him? From which we may the other luminous: the luminous side gave light to the learn, that the heart of Moses was deeply engaged with whole camp of Israel, during the night of passage ; and God, though it is probable he did not articulate one word; the dark side turned toward the pursuing Egyptians, prebut the language of sighs, tears, and desires, is equally vented them from receiving any benefit from that light. intelligible to God, with that of words. This considera- How easily can God make the sume thing an instrument tion should be a strong encouragement to every feeble, of destruction or salvation, as seems best to his godly wisdiscouraged mind- Thou canst not pray-but thou canst dom! He alone can work by all agents, and produce any weep: if even tears are denied thee, for there may be deep kind of effect, even by the same instrument; for all things and genuine repentance, where the distress is so great as to serve the purposes of his will. stop up those channels of relief, then thou canst sigh: and Verse 21. The Lord caused the sea to go back] That
made the sea dry land, and the waters were may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their i divided.
chariots, and upon their horsemen. 22 And k the children of Israel went into the 27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over midst of the sea, upon the dry ground: and the the sea, and the sea 'seturned to his strength, waters were la wall unto them, on their right when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians hand, and on their left.
fled against it; and the LORD 'overthrew - the 23 '| And the Egyptians pursued, and went in Egyptians in the midst of the sea. after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pha 28. And the waters returned and covered the raoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning Pharaoh, that came into the sea after them; watch, m the LORD looked unto the host of the there remained not so much as one of them. Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the 29 But the children of Israel, walked upon cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, dry land, in the midst of the sea; and the waters
25 And took off their chariot wheels, "that were a wall unto them, on their right hand, and they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians on their left. said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the 30 Thus the LORD W saved Israel that day out LORD O fighteth for them against thé Egyp- of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel í saw tians.
the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore. 26 | And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch 31 And Israel saw that great s work which out thine hand over the sea, that the waters the Lord did upon the Egyptians: and the peo
o Ver. 14-p Ver 16.- Josh. 4. 18.-r Ch. 15. 1, 7.-. Heb shook of Deat. Q. 13. I Cor. 10. 1. Hebr. 11. 29.- Hab. 3. 10.-m See Poa. 77. 17, &c.-n Or, and Ver. 22. Poa. 77, 20. & 78. 52, 53. -w Pea. 106. 8, 10.-- Psa. 56 10. & 59. 10.made them to go heavily.
y Heb. hand.
h Psa. CG. 6.- Ch. 15. 9. Josh. 3. 16. & 4. 23. Nch. 9.11. Psa. 74. 13. & 106. 9. & 114. 3. lsal. 63. 12- Ver. 19. Ch. 15. 19. Numb. 33. 8. Ps. 66. 6. & 78. 13. Isai.
11. 4. Pra, 78. 53. Neh. 9. 11. Ilebr. 11. 29- Hab. 3. 6, 13 - Pra. 105. Il
part of the sea over which the Israelites passed, was, ac As the Israelites went out of Egypt at the vernal equicording to Mr. Bruce and other travellers, about four nox, the morning watch, or according to the Hebrew, leagues across, and therefore might easily be crossed in pan nowna be-ashemroth ha-boker, the watch of dayone night. In the dividing of the sea, two agents appear break, would answer to our four o'clock in the morning. to be employed, though the effect produced can be attri Calmet. buted to neither. By stretching out the rod, the waters
The Lord looked out] This probably means, that the were divided; by the blowing of the vehement, ardent east cloud suddenly assumed a fiery appearance where it had wind, the bed of the sea was dried. It has been observed, been dark before; or they were appalled by violent thun. that in the place where the Israelites are supposed to have ders and lightning, which we are assured by the Pslamist passed, the water is about fourteen fathoms, or twenty- did actually take place; together with great inundations eight yards deep: had the wind mentioned here been of rain, &c. The clouds POURED OUT WATER, the skies strong enough, naturally speaking, to have divided the wa sent out a SOUND, thine Arrows also went abroad. The ters, it must have blown in one narrow track, and continued Voice of thy THUNDER was in the heavens, the LIGHTNINGS blowing in the direction in which the Israelites passed; LIGHTENED the yorld, the earth TREMBLED and shook. and a wind sufficient to have raised a mass of water Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great waters. twenty-cight yards deep, and twelve miles in length, out Thou leddest thy people like a flock, by the hand of Moof its bed, would necessarily have blown the whole six ses and Aaron. Peal. Ixxvii. 14--20.
Such tempests as hundred thousand men away, and utterly destroyed them these would necessarily terrify the Egyptian horses, and and their cattle. I therefore conclude that the east wind, produce general confusion. By their dashing hither and which was ever remarked as a parching, burning wind, hither, the wheels must be destroyed, and the chariots was used after the division of the waters, merely to dry broken; and foot and horse must be mingled together in one the bottom, and render it passable. For an account of the universal ruin: see ver. 25. During the time that this hot drying winds in the east, see the note on Gen. viii. 1. state of horror and confusion was at its summit, the Isra. God ever puts the highest honour on his instrument, Na- elites had safely passed over, and then Moses, at the comture, and where it can act, he ever employs it. No natu mand of God, ver. 26. having stretched out his rod over the ral agent could divide these waters and cause them to stand waters, the sea returned to its strength, ver. 27. i. e. the as a wall upon the right hand and upon the left; therefore waters by their natural gravity resumed their lerel, and the God did it by his own sovereign power. When the waters whole Egyptian host were completely overwhelmed, ver. were thus divided, there was no need of a miracle to dry 28. But as to the Israelites, the waters had been a wall the bed of the sea, and make it passable; therefore the unto them on the right hand and on the lefl, ver. 29. This, strong desiccating east wind was brought, which soon ac the waters could not have been, unless they had been sucomplished this object. In this light I suppose the text pernaturally supported, as their own gravity would necesshould be understood.
sarily have occasioned them to have kept their level; or, Verse 22. And the waters were a wall unto them, on their if raised beyond it, to have regained it, if left to their naright hand and on their left] This verse demonstrates tural law, to which they are ever subject, unless in cases that the pasage was miraculous. Some have supposed of miraculous interference. Thus, the enemies of the that the Israelites had passed through, favoured by an ex Lord perished; and that people who decreed that the male traordinary ebb, which happened at that time to be pro- children of the Hebrews should be drowned, were themduced by a strong wind, which happened just then to blow! selves destroyed in the pit which they had destined for Had this been the case, there could not have been waters others. God's ways are all equal; and he renders to every standing on the right hand and on the left: much less man according to his works, could those waters, contrary to every law of fluids, have Verse 28. There remained not so much as one of them) stood as a wall on either side while ihe Israelites passed Josephus says, that the army of Pharaoh consisted of fifty through; and theu happen to become obedient to the laws | thousand horse, and two hundred thousand foot, of whom of gravitation, when the Egyptians entered in! An infi not one remained to carry tidings of this most extraordidel may deny the revelation in toto, and from such we ex nary catastrophe. pect nothing better; but to hear those who profess to be Verse 30. Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sealieve this to be a divine revelation, endeavouring to prove shore.] By the extraordinary agitation of the waters, no that the passage of the Red sea had nothing miraculous doubt multitudes of the dead Egyptians were cast on the in it, is really intolerable. Such a mode of interpretation shore, and by their spoils, the Israelites were probably furrequires a miracle to make itself credible. Poor intidelity! nished with considerable riches, and especially clothing how miserable and despicable are thy shifls.
and arms; wbich latter were essentially necessary to them Verse 24. The morning watch] A watch was the fourth in their wars with the Amalekites, Basanites, and Amorpart of the time from sun-setting to sun-rising; so called ites, &c. on their way to the promised land. If they did from the soldiers keeping guard by night, who, being not get their arms in this way, we know not how they changed four times during the night, the periods came to be got them; as there is not the slightest reason to believe called watches. Dodd.
that they brought any with them out of Egypt. As here, and in Sam. xi. 11. is mentioned the morning Verse 31. The people feared the Lord] They were watch ; so in Lam. ii. 19. the beginning of the watches ; convinced by the interference of Jehovah, that his power and in Judy. vii. 19. the middle watch is spoken of: in was unlimited ; and that he could do whatsoever he Luke xii. 33. the second and third watch; and in Matt. pleased, both in the way of judgment and in the way of xiv. 25. the fourth watch of the night: which in Matt. mercy, xii. 35. aro named evening, midnight, cock-croicing, and And believed the Lord, and his servant Moses). They day-dawning. Ainsworth.
now clearly discerned that God had fulfilled all his pro
ple feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, | LORD; and spake, saying, I will b sing unto the and his servant Moses.
LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the
horse and his rider, hath he thrown into the sea. CHAPTER XV.
2 The Lord is my strength and · song, and Moses and the Israeliter sing a song of praise to God for their late deliverance, in he is become my salvation: he is my God, and which they celebrate the power tod, gloriously manifested in the destruction of Pharaoh and his hoe, 1, express their confidence in him as their strength and pro I will prepare him a habitation; my • father's 43, and relate the purposes they had formul, for the Destruction of God's people, God, and I ' will exalt him. 9, anil how he destruyet them in the imaginations of their hearte, 10. Jelioval in 3 The LORD is a man of 6 war: the LORD is celetratexi, for the perfectens of his nature and his wondrous works, 11-13. A prelciu' of the elect which the account of the destruction of the Egyptians his h name. sho bave on the Fontes, Moabitea, and Canaanites, 11-16. A prediction of the establisiment of leone in the premier lan:1, 17. The full cheris of praise, 18. 4 i Pharaoh's chariots and his host, hath he 19 Slisian and the women join in and prelong the chorus, a, auctor peopli cast into the sea : "his chosen captains also, are travel three days in the wildernes of Sher, and find in water, 22 Coning to drowned in the Red sea. Maran, and to ling biter watrrs, they murmur against Moses, 23, 24. swer to the prayer of Moses, Gosiows trim a tree by which the waters are 5 The depths have covered them: 1 they sweetened, 3. Gol give them statutes and gracious promises, 26. They come to sank into the bottom, as a stone. Elim, where they find twelce wells of water, and seventy palm trees, and there they encarnp, 27.
6 Thy right hand, O LORD, is become gloriAa. Exod. Igr. 1. AVIS or Nisan.
ous in power: thy right hand, O LORD, hath dren of Israel, this song unto the dashed in pieces the enemy.
THEN sang Moses and the chil
Ch 4 31. & 19 9 Ps. 106. 12 John 2 11. & 11. 45.-a Judg 5.1. 2 Sam. 22. 1. Psa. 106. 12 Wisl. 10. 20.- Ver. 21.- Deut. 10. 21. Pst. 18 2 & 22. 3. & 59. 17. & 62. 6. & 109. 1. & 118. 14. & 1.10. 7. Isaj. 12. 2. Hab. 3. 19, 19. Gen. 23. 21,
22. 2 Sam. 7. 5. Psa. 132. 5.-- Ch. 3. 15, 16.- 2 Sam. 22. 17. Pea. 99. 5. & 118. 2 Ixai. 25. 1. - Psa. 21. 8. Rev. 15. ll.-h Ch. 6. 3. Psa. 83. 18.-- Ch. 14. 23. k Ch. 14. 7.-- Ch. 14. 2-m Neh. 9. 11.-n Psa. 118. 15, 16.
mises; and that not one thing had failed of all the good or recitatiro air, rendered them easily transmissible to which he had spoken concerning Israel. And they believed posterity; and by means of tradition, they passed safely his sertant Moses. They had now the fullest proof that from father to son, through the times of comparative dark. he was divinely appointed to work all these miracles, and ness, till they arrived at those ages in which the pen and to bring them out of Egypt into the promised land. the press have given them a sort of deathless duration
Thus God got himself honour upon Pharaoh and the and permanent stability, by multiplying the copies. Many Egyptians, and credit in the sight of Israel. After this of the ancient historic and heroic British tales, are continoverthrow of their king and his host, the Egyptians inter- ued by tradition, among the aboriginal inhabitants of rupted them no more in their journeyings, convinced of Ireland to the present day; and the repetition of them the omnipotence of their Protector: and how strange, that constitutes the chief amusement of the winter evenings. after such displays of the justice and mercy of Jehovah, | Even the prose histories, which were written on the the Israelites should ever have been deficient in faith, or ground of the poctic, copied closely their exemplars; and have given place to murmuring!
the historians ihemselves were obliged to study all the 1. The events recorded in this chapter are truly aston beautics and ornaments of style, that their works might ishing; and they strongly mark what God can do, and become popular; and to this circumstance we owe not a what he will do, both against his enemies, and in behalf small measure of what is termed refinement of language. of his followers. In vain are all the forces of Egypt united How observable is this in the history of Herodotus, who to destroy the Israelites : at the breath of God's mouth appears to have closely copied the ancieni poetic records, they perish: and his fecble, discouraged, unarmed follow in his inimitable and harmonious prose ; and that his ers take the prey! With such a history before their eyes, books might bear as near a resemblance as possible, to is it not strange that sinners should run on frowardly in the the ancient and popular originals, he divided them into path of transgression; and that those who are redeemed nine, and dedicated each to one of the muses. His work from the world, should ever doubt of the all-sufficiency and therefore seems to occupy the same place between the goodness of their God! Had we not already known the ancient poctic compositions and mere prosaic historics, sequel of the Israelitish history, we should have been led as the polype does beiween plants and animals. Much to conclude, that this people would have gone on their way even of our sacred records, is written in poetry, which rejoicing, trusting in God with their whole heart, and ne God has thus consecrated to be the faithful transmitter of ver leaning to their own understanding : but alas! we find remote and important events : and of this, the song, before that as soon as any new difficulty occurred, they murmured the reader is a proof in point. Though this is not the first against God and their leaders, despised the pleasant land, specimen of poetry we have met with in the Pentateuch, and gave no credence to his word.
see Lamech's speech to his wives, Gen. iv. 23, 24. Noah's 2. Their case is not a solitary one: most of those who prophecy concerning his sons, chap. ix. 25—27. and Jaare called Christians, are not more remarkable for faith cob's blessing to the twelve patriarchs, chap. xlix. 2-27. and patience. Every reverse will necessarily pain and and the notes there ; yet it is the first regular ode of any discompose the people who are seeking their portion in considerable length, having but one subject : and it is all this life. And it is a sure mark of a worldly mind, when written in hemislichs, or half lines, the usual form in Hewe trust the God of providence and grace no farther than brew poetry; and though this form frequently occurs, it we see the operations of his hand in our immediate sup is not attended to in our common printed Hebrew Bibles; ply; and murmur and repine when the hand of his bounty except in this and three other places, Deut. xxxii. Judg. seems closed, and the influences of his Spirit restrained; V. and 2 Sam. xxii. all of which shall be noticed as they though our unthankful and unholy carriage has been the But in Dr. Kennicott's edition of the Hebrew Bicause of this change. Those alone who humble them- ble, all the poetry, wheresoever it occurs, is printed in its selves under the mighty hand of God shall be lifted up in own hemistich form. due season. Reader, thou canst never be deceived in After what has been said, it is perhaps scarcely necestrusting thy all, the concerns of thy body and soul, to sary to observe, that as such ancient poetic histories comHim who divided the sea, saved the Hebrews, and 'de- memorated great and extraordinary displays of provistroyed the Egyptians.
dence, courage, strength, fidelity, heroism, and picty; NOTES ON CHAPTER XV.
hence the origin of Epic poems, of which the song in this
chapter is the carliast specimen. And on the principle Verse 1. Then sang Moses and the children of Is- of preserving the memory of such events, most nations rael this song) Poetry has been cultivated in all ages, have had their epic poets, who have generally taken for and among all people, from the most refined to the most their subject the most splendid or most remote events of barbarous, and to it principally, under the kind provi, their country's history, which either referred to the fordence of God, we are indebted for most of the original mation or extension of their empire, the exploits of iheir accounts we have of the ancient nations of the universe. ancestors, or the establishment of their religion. Hence Egually measured lines, with a harmonious collocation the ancient Heenews had their Shir ha® Mosheh, the of expressive, sonorous, and sometimes highly metapho- piece in question : the GREEKS their Nias : the Hindoos rical terms, the alternate lines either answering to each their Mahabarat : the Romans their Æneis: the Norother in sense, or ending with similar sounds, were easily WEGIANS their Edda : the Irish and Scotch their Fincommitted to memory, and easily retained. As these gal and Chronological Poems: the Welsh their Tawere often accompanied with a pleasing air or tune, the liessin and his Triads: the Arabs their Nebiun-Nameh subject being a concatenation of striking and interesting (exploits of Mohammed) and Hamleh Heedry (exploits events, histories formed thus, became the amusement of of Aly:) the PERSIANS' their Shah Namch (book of youth, the softeners of the tedium of labour, and even the kings :) 'the ITALIANS their Gerusalemme Liberata : the Bolace of age. In such a way the histories of most na PORTUGUESE their Lusiad: the English their Paradise tions have been preserved. The interesting events cele- Lost: and, in humble imitation of all the rest, (etsi non brated, the rythm or metre, and the accompanying tune I passibus equis,) the FRENCH