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14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, la small round thing, as small as the hoar frost behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay on the ground.

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salah to be quiet, easy, or secure; and hence the quail carnés semicrude. This drying then of flesh in the sun, from their remarkably living at ease and plenty among is not so preposterous as the bishop imagined. On the the corn. "An amazing number of these_birds," says other hand, none of the authors thai speak of their way Hasselquist, Travels, p. 209. "come to Egypt at this of preserving locusts in the east, so far as I at present retime, (March) for in this month the wheat ripens. They collect, give any account of drying them in the sun. conceal themselves among the corn, but the Egyptians They are, according to Pellow, first purged with water and know that they are thieves, and when they imagine the salt, boiled in new pickle, and then laid up in dry salt. field to be full of them, they spread a net over the corn, So Dr. Russel says, the Arabs eat these insects when and make a noise, by which the birds being frightened, fresh, and sale them up as a delicacy. Their immense and endeavouring to rise, are caught in the net in great quantities also forbid the bishop's believing they were numbers, and make a most delicate and agreeable dish.” quails. And in truth, he represents this difficulty in all its

The Albé Pluche tells us in his Histoire du Ciel, that the force, perhaps too forcibly. A circle of forty miles in diquail was, among the ancient Egyptians, the emblera of ameter, all covered with quails, to the depth of more than sufety and security.

forty-three inches, without doubt, is a startling representaSeveral learned men, particularly the famous Ludolf, tion of this matter; and I would beg leave to add, that the Bishop Patrick, and Scheuchzer, have supposed that the like quantity of locusts would have been very extrnordiOns sclavim eaten by the Israelites were locusts. But nary. But then this is not the representation of Scripnot to insist oa other arguments against this interpretation, ture. It does not even agree with it: for such a quantity they are expressly called my sheér, flesh, Psal. Ixxviii. of either quails or locusis would have made the clearing 27. which surely locusts are not : and the Hebrew word is places for spreading them out, and the passing of Israel constantly rendered by the Septuagint oprugomentea, a large up and down in the neighbourhood of the camp very fakind of quail, and by the Vulgate coturnices, quails. tiguing, which is not supposed. Compare Wied. xvi. 2. xix. 12. Numb. xi. 31, 32. Psal. "Josephus supposed they were quails, which he says cv. 40. and on Numb. xi. observe, that O'nons keama- are in greater numbers thereabouts than any other kinde thayim, should be rendered not two cubits high, but as of birds, and that having crossed the sea to the camp of Mr. Bate translates it, “ two cubits distant, i. e. one from Israel, they, who in common fly nearer the ground than the other; for quails do not settle like the locusts one most other birds, flew so low through the fatigue of their upon another, but at small distances." “And had the passage, as to be within reach of the Israelites. This exquails lain for a day's journey round the camp, to the plains what he thought was meant by the two cubits from great height of tuo cúbits, upwards of three feet, the people ihe face of the earth-their flying within three or four feet could not have been employed two days and a night in of the ground. gathering them. The spreading them round the camp, “And when I read Dr. Shaw's account of the way in was in order to dry them in the burning sanda for use, which the Arabs frequently catch birds that they have which is sull practised in Egypt." See Parkhurst, sub tired, that is, by running in upon them, and knocking them voce ako salah.

down with their Zerwattys, or bludgeons as we should The difficulties which encumher the text, supposing call them; I think I almost see the Israelites before me, these to be quails, led Bishop Patrick to imagine

them to pursuing the poor, fatigued, and languid quails.

"This is indeed a laborious method of catching these a wind. 2. Their immense quantities, covering a circle birds, and not that which is now used in Egypt: for Eg. of thirty or forty miles, two cubits thick. 3. Their being mont and Heyman tell us, that in a walk on the shore of spread in the sun for drying, which would have been pre- Egypt, they saw a sandy plain several leagues in extent, posterous, had they been quails, for it would have made and covered with reeds without the least verdure; between them corrupt the sooner; but this is the principal way of which reeds, they saw many nets laid for catching, quails, preparing locusts, to keep for a month or more, when they which come over in large flights from Europe during the are boiled, or otherwise dressed." This difficulty he month of September. If the ancient Egyptians made use thinks interpreters pass over, who suppose quails to be of the same method of catching quails, that they now pracintended in the kt. Mr. Harmer takes up the subject, tise on those shores, yet Israel in the wilderness, without removes the bishop's difficulties, and vindicates the com these conveniences, must of course make use of that more mon version.

inartificial and laborious way of catching them. The Arabs “These difficulties appear pressing; or at least the two of Barbary, who have not many conveniences, do the same last: nevertheless I have met with several passages in thing still. books of travels, which I shall here give an account of, “Bishop Patrick supposes a day's journey to be sixteen that may soften them; perhaps my readers may think or twenty miles, and thence draws his circle with a radius they do more.

of that length; but Dr. Shaw, on another occasion, makes No interpreters, the bishop complains, supposing they a day's journey but ten miles, which would make a circle were quails, account for the spreading them out in the but of twenty miles diameter; and as the text evidently sun. Perhaps they have not. Let me then translate a designs to express it very indeterminately, as it were & passage of Maillet, which relates to a little island which day's journey, it might be much less. covers one of the ports of Alexandria. "It is on this “But it does not appear to me at all necessary, to sup. island, which lies farther into the sea than the main land pose the text intended their covering a circular or nenrly a of Egyph that the birds annually alight, which come circular spot of ground, but only that these creatures ap. hither for refuge in autumn, in order to avoid the severity peared on both sides of the camp of Israel, about a day's of the cold of our winters in Europe. There is so large journey. The same word is used Exod. vii. 24. where a quantity of all sorts taken there, that after these little round about can mean only on each side of the Nile. And birds have been stripped of their feathers, and buried in so it may be a little illustrated by what Dr. Shaw tells us, the burning sands for about half a quarter of an hour, they of the three flights of storks which he saw when at anchor are worth but two sols the pound. The crews of those under the mount Carmel, some of which were more scat. vessels, which in that season lie in the harbour of Alexan- tered, others more compact and close; each of which took dria, have no other meat allowed them.' Among other up more than three hours in passing, and extended itself refugees of that time, Maillet elsewhere expressly men more than half a mile in breadth. Had this flight of tions quails, which are, therefore, I suppose, treated after quails been no greater than these, it might have been this manner. This passage then, does whai

, according to thought like them, to have been accidental; but so unusual the bishop, no commentator has done : it explains the de a flock as to extend fifteen or twenty miles in breadth, sign of spreading these creatures, supposing they were and to be two days and one night in paesing, and this in quails, round about the camp; it was to dry them in the consequence of the declaration of Moses, plainly deterburning sands in order to preserve them for use. So mined that the finger of God was there. Maillet tells us of their drying fish in the sun of Egypt, “A third thing which was a difficulty with the bishop, as well as of their preserving others by means of pickle. was their being brought with a wind. A hot poutherly Other authors speak of the Arabs drying camel's flesh in wind, it is supposed, brings the locusts; and why quails the sun and wind, which, though it be not at all salted, migh not be hrought by the instrumentality of a like wind, will, if kept dry, remain good a long while, and which or what difficulty there is in that supposition, I cannot oftentimes, to save themselves the trouble of dressing, imagine. As soon as the cold is felt in Europe, Maillet they will eat raw. This is what St. Jerom may be sup- tells us, turtles, quails, and other birds, come to Egypt in posed to refer to wben he calls the food of the Arabs great numbers: but he observed that their numbers were

15 And when the children of Israel saw it, ling to the number of your persons; take ye they said one to another, It is manna: for they every man for them which are in his tents. wist not what it was. And Moses said unto 17' And the children of Israel did so, and gathem, n This is the bread which the LORD hath thered, some more, some less. given you to eat.

18 And when they did mete it with an omer, 16 | This is the thing which the Lord hath - he that gathered much, had nothing over, and commanded, Gather of it every man according he that gathered little, had no lack; they gatherto his eating, an omer y for every man, accord- ed every man according to his eating.

m Or, What is this? or, it is a portion.-n John 6. 31. 49, 58. 1 Cor. 10. 3.

o Ver. 36. -p Heb. by the poll, or head.- Heb. souls:- 2 Cor.& 15.

not so large in those years in which the winters were fa ver. 31. we learn that this substance was afterward called vourable in Europe; from whence he conjectured, that it is ? man, probably in commemoration of the question they rather necessity ihan habit which causes them to change had asked on its first appearance. Almost all our own their climate : if so,

it appears that it is the increasing heat ancient versions translate the words, What is this? that canses their return, and consequently that the hot sul What this substance was, we know not. It was notry winds from the south must have a great effect upon thing that was common to the wilderness. It is evident the them, 10 direct their flight northwards.

Israelites never saw it before; for Moses says, Deut. viii. "It is certain, that it is about the time that the south 3, 16. he fed thee uith manna which thou kneedst not

, wind begins to blow in Egypt, which is in April, that neither did thy fathers know ; and it is very likely, that many of these migratory birds return. Maillet, who joins nothing of the kind had ever been seen before; and by a quails and turtles together, and says that they appear in pot of it being laid up in the ark, it is as likely, that noEgypt when the cold begins to be felt in Europe, does not thing of the kind ever appeared more, after the miraculous indeed tell us when they return : but Thevenot may be supply in the wilderness had ceased. It seems to have said to do it: for after he had told his readers that they been created for the present occasion; and like him, whom catch snipes in Egypt from January to March, he adds, it typified, to have been the only thing of the kind, the that in May they catch turtles; and that the turtles return only bread from heaven, which God ever gave to preserve again in September: now as they go together southward the life of man; as Christ is the true bread that came down in September, we may believe they return again northward from heaven, and was given for the life of the world. much about the same time. Agreeably to which, Russel See John vi. 31–58. tells us, that quails appear in abundance about Aleppo in Verse 16. An omer for every man) I shall here once spring and autumn.

for all give a short account of the measures of capacity "If natural history were more perfect, ive might speak among the Hebrews. to this point with great distinctness; at present, however, Omen, noy from the root âamar, to press, squeeze, col. it is so far from being an objection to their being gnails, lect and bind together: hence a sheaf of corn, a multitude that their coming was caused by a wind, that nothing is of stalks pressed together. It is supposed that the omet, more natural. The same wind, would, in course, occasion which contained about three quarts English, had its name sickness and mortality among the Israelites, at least it from this circumstance; that it was the most contracted, does so in Egypt. The miraculousness then in this story, or the smallest measure of things dry, known to the does not lie in their dying, but the prophet's foretelling ancient Hebrews; for the ap kab, which was less, was with exactness the coming of that wind ; and in the pro not known till the reign of Jehoram, king of Israel, 2 digious numbers of the quails that came with it, together Kings vi. 25. Parkhurst. with the unusualness of the place, perhaps where they The EPHAH, NDX or now eiphah, from nok aphoh, to alighted.

bake, because this was probably the quantity which was Nothing more remains to be considered, but the gath- baked at one time. According to Bishop Cumberland, the ering so large a quantity as ten omers by those that cphah contained seren gallons, tuo quarts, and about gathered fewest. But till that quantity is more precisely half a pint wine measure: and as the omer was the tenth ascertained, it is sufficient to remark, that this is only part of the ephah, ver. 31. it must have contained about affirmed of those expert sportsmen among the people, six pints English. who pursued the game two whole days and a whole night, The KAB OP is said to have contained about the sixth without intermission; and of them, and of them only, i part of a seah, or three pints and one third English. presume it is to be understood, that he that gathered fewest, The HOMER, nonchomer, mentioned Lev. xvii. 16. was gathered ten omers. Hasselquist, who frequently ex- quite a different measure from that above, and is a different presses himself in the most dubious manner in relation to word in the Hebrew. The chomer was the largest meathese animals

, at other times is very positive, that if they sure of capacity among the Hebrews, being equal to ten were birds at all, they were a species of the quail different baths or ephahs, amounting to obout serenty-fire gallons, from ours, which he describes as very much resembling the three pinis, English. See Ezek. xlv. 11, 13, 14. Good fred partridge, but as not being larger than the turtle-dove.' win supposes that this measure derived its name from on To this he adds, that the Arabians carry thousands of them chamor, an ass, being the ordinary load of that animal. to Jerusalem about Whitsuntide, to sell there, p. 442. In The bath na was the largest measure of capacity next another place he tells us, it is found in Judea as well as in to the homer, of which it was the tenth part. It was the Arabia Petraca, and that he found it between Jordan and same as the ephah, and consequently contained about seven Jericho, p. 263. One would imagine that Hasselquist gallons, two quarts, and half a pini, and is always used in means the scala, which is described by Dr. Russel, vol. ii. Scripture as a measure of liquids. p. 194. and which he represents as brought to market at The SEAH, and was a measure of capacity for things Aleppo in great numbers in May and June, though they dry, equal to about tuo gallons and a half English. See are to be met with in all seasons.

2 Kings vii. 1, 16, 18. “A whole ass-lood of them, he informs us, has often The hin, 17 according to Bishop Cumberland, was the been taken at once shutting a clasping net, in the above- one-sixth part of an ephah, and contained a little more mentioned months; they are in such pleniy." Harmer, than one gallon and tico pints. See Exod. xxix. 40. vol. iv. p. 367.

The log, 25 was the smallest measure of capacity for Verse 14. Behold, on the face of the wilderness there liquids among the Hebrews, it contained about three lay a small round thing] It appears that this small quarters of a pint. See Levit: xiv. 10, 12. round thing fell with the dew; or rather the dew fell first, Take ye-for them which are in his tents.) Some might and this substance fell on it. The dew might have been have been confined in their tents through sickness or inintended to cool the ground, that the manna, on its fall, firmity, and charity required, that those who were in health might not be dissolved; for we find from ver. 21. that the should gather a portion for them. For though the Psalmheat of the sun melied it. The ground therefore, being ist says, Psal. cv. 37. There was not one fecble person sufficiently cooled by the dew, the manna lay unmelted among their tribes, this must refer principally to their long enough for the Israelites to collect a sufficient quan- healthy state when brought out of Egypt: for it appears tity for their daily use.

that there were many infirm among them when attacked Verse 15. They said one to another, It is manna : for by the Amalekites. See the note on chap. xvii. 8. they wist not what it was] This is a most unfortunate Verse 17. Some more, some less.] According to their translation, because it not only gives no sense, but it con- respective families, an omer for a man; and according to tradicts itself. The Hebrew Ninin man hu, literally sig- the number of infirm persons, whose wants they undernifies, What is this? for, says the text, they wist not took to supply. what it was; and therefore they could not give it a mame. Verse 18. He that gathered much had nothing over) Moses immediately answers the question, and says, This Because his gathering was in proportion to the number of is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat. From persons for whom he had to provide. And some having

19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it 27 | And it came to pass, that there went out till the morning.

some of the people, on the seventh day, for to 20 Notwithstanding, they hearkened not unto gather, and they found none. Moses; but some of them left of it until the 28 And the Lord said unto Moses, How long morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and refuse ye to keep my commandments and my Moses was wroth with them.

laws? 21 And they gathered it every morning, every 29 See, for that the Lord hath given you the man according to his eating: and when the sun sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth waxed hot, it melted.

day the bread of two days; abide ye every man 22 1 And it came to pass, that on the sixth in his place ; let no man' go out of his place on day they gathered twice as much bread, two the seventh day. omers for one man: and all the rulers of the

30 So the people rested on the seventh day. congregation came and told Moses.

31 And the house of Israel called the name 23 And he said unto them, This is that which thereof Manna: and wit was like coriander seed, the LORD hath said, To-morrow is the rest of white; and the taste of it was like wafers made the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which with honey. ye will bake to-day, and seethe that ye will 32 1 And Moses said, This is the thing which seethe; and that which remaineth over, lay up the Lord commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be for you to be kept until the morning.

kept for your generations; that they may see 24 And they laid it up till the morning, as the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilMoses bade: and it did not stink, neither was derness, when I brought you forth from the land there any worm therein.

of Egypt. 25 And Moses said, Eat that to-day; for to 33 And Moses said unto Aaron, - Take a pot, day is a sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye shall and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay not find it in the field.

it up before the LORD, to be kept for your gene26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the rations. seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there 34 As the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron shall be none.

laid it up y before the Testimony, to be kept.

& Gen, 22 Ch. 20. 8. & 31. 15. & 35.3 Lev. 23. 3.-t Ver. 20.--a Ch. 20.9, 10.

2 Kings 17. 14. Pea. 78. 10, 22. & 106. 13.

w Numb. 11. 7, 8.-x Heb. 9.4.-y Ch. 25. 16, 21. & 40. 20. Numb. 17. 10. Deut.

10. 5. 1 Kings 8. 9.

fewer, others more in family, and the gathering being in observance of it; 3d. When he gave the LAW, he made proportion to the persons who were to eat of it, therefore, it a tenth part of the whole; such importance has this inhe that gathered much, had nothing over, and he that ga stitution in the eyes of the Supreme Being! thered little, had no lack. Probably every man gathered Verse 29. Abide ye crery man in his place] Neither go as much as he could; and then, when brought home, and out to seek manna, nor for any other purpose : rest at measured by an omer, if he had a surplus, it went to sup- home, and devote your time to religious exercises. Several ply the wants of some other family, that had not been able of the Jews understood by place in the text, the camp, and to collect a sufficiency, the family being large, and the have generally supposed, that no man should go out of time in which the manna might be gathered, before the the place, i. e. the city, town, or village, in which he re'heat of the day, not being sufficient to collect enough for sides, any farther than 1000 cubits, about an English mile, so numerous a household : several of whom might be so which also is called a sabbath day's journey, Acts i. 12. confined, as not to be able to collect for themselves. Thus and so many cubits, they consider the space round the city, there was an equality; and in this light, the words of St. that constitutes its suburbs, which they draw from Numb. Paul, 2 Cor. viii. 15. lead us to view the passage. Here xxxv. 3, 4. Some of the Jews have carried the rigorous the 36th verse should come in, Now an omer is the tenth observance of the letter of this law to such a length, that part of an ephah.

in whatever posture they find themselves on the sabbath Verse 19. Let no man leave of it till the morning) For morning, when they awake, they continue in the same God would have them to take no thought for the morrow ; during the day; or, should they be up, and happen to fall, and constantly to depend on him for their daily bread. they refuse even to rise till the sabbath be ended !-Mr. And is not that petition in our Lord's prayer, founded on Stapleton tells a story of one Rabbi Solomon, who fell this very circumstance, Gire us, day by day, our daily into a slough on the Jewish sabbath, Saturday, and refused brcad!

to be pulled out, giving his reason in the following Leonine Verse 20. It bred worms] Their sinful curiosity and couplet : covetousness led them to make the trial; and they had a

Sabbatha sancta colo, De Stercore furgere nolo.

* Out of this slouch I will not rise, mass of the most loathsome putrefaction for their pains.

For holy sabbath-day I prize." How gracious is God! He is continually rendering dis The Christians finding luim thus disposed, determined obedience and sin irksome to the transgressor; that, find he should honour their sabbath in the same place, and ing his evil ways to be unprofitable, he may return to his actually kept the poor man in the slough all Sunday, givMaker, and trust in God alone.

ing their reasons in nearly the same way: Verse 22. On the sixth day they gathered twice as

Sabbatha nostra quidem, Solomon celebrabia ibidem. much) This they did, that they might have a provision for

"In the same slough, thou stubborn Jew, the sabbath, for on that day no manna fell, ver. 26, 27.

Our sabbath-day thou shalt spend too." What a convincing miracle was this! No manna fell on This might have served to convince him of his folly; the sabbath. Had it heen a natural production, it would but, certainly, was not the likeliest way to convert him to have fallen on the sabbath, as at other times; and had Christianity: there not been a supernatural influence to keep it sweet Fabyan, in his Chronicles, tells the following story of and pure, it would have been corrupted on the sabbath, as a case of this kind. “In this yere also (1259) fell that well as on other days. By this series of miracles, God happe of the lewe of Tewkysbury, which fell into a gonge showed his own power, presence, and goodness, 1st. In upon the Satyrday, and wolde noi, for reverence of his sending the manna on each of the six days; 2d. In send-sabot-daye, be pluckyd out; whereof heryng the Erle of ing none on the seventh, or sabbath ; 3d. In preserving it Gloucetyr, that the lewe dyd so great reverence to his from putrefaction, when laid up for the use of that day, sabot-day, thought he wolde doo as moch unto his holy though it infallibly corrupted, if kept over night on any daye, which was Sonday; and so kepte hym there tyll other day.

Monday, at whiche season he was foundyn dede." Verse 23. To-morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath] Verse 31. Called the name thereof manna] See note There is nothing either in the text or context, that seems

on verse 15. to intimate that the sabbath was now first given to the Verse 32. To be kept for your generations] See note Israelites, as some have supposed ; on the contrary, it is on verse 9. here spoken of as being perfectly well known, from its Verse 34. Lay it up before the Testimony] The nicy having been generally observed. The commandment, it is eduth, or testimony, belonged properly to the tabernacle; true, may be considered as being now reneved ; because but that was not yet built. --Some are of opinion, that the they might have supposed, that in their unsettled state in tabernacle, built under the direction of Moses, was only a the wilderness, they might have been exempted from the renewal of one that had existed in the patriarchal times. See observance of it. Thus we find, Ist. That when God fin- the note on ver. 9. The word signifies reference to someished his creation, he instituted the sabbath ; 2d. When he thing beyond itself ; thus the tabernable, the manna, the brought the people out of Egypt, he insisted on the strict I tables of stone, Aaron's rod, &c. all bore reference and

mur for lack of water, 2, 3

35 And the children of Israel did eat manna 2 · Wherefore the people did chide with Mo. forty years, a until they came to a land inhab- ses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. ited; they did eat manna, until they came unto And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with the borders of the land of Canaan.

me? wherefore do ye d tempt the LORD ? 36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. 3 And the people thirsted there for water; and

the people . murmured against Moses, and said, CHAPTER XVII.

Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up The Israelites journey from the wil lerness of Sir to Rephidim, 1, where they mur

out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our Moses arlin counsel of God, 4, who cominands him to cattle with thirst? take his rolan smite the rock, and promises that water should proceel from it for the people in drink, 6. The place is called Masakan. Meribah, 7. The Amalek.

4 And Moses' cried unto the LORD, saying, itee attack Israel in Rephidim,

What shall I do unto this people? they be almost Moses, Aaron, an.) Hur, go to the top of a hill, and while Muses holls np his hants, the Israelites prevail, when te let them down, Amalek prevails, 10, II. ready to & stone me. Moses being weary, w down, an 1 Aaron and Hu hold up his hande, 12. "The Amalekites are to ally routed, 13, and the event commanded to be recorded, 14.

5 And the LORD said unto Moses, 5 Go on beMoses btul is an altar, and calls i Jelovah-Nissi, 15. Amalek is wreatened with fore the people, and take with thee of the elders continual wars, 16.

of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith i thou smotest An Exod. Isr. I. Ijar or Zif. ND - all the congregation of the the river, take in thine hand, and go.

6 kBehold, I will stand before thee there, upon the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, ac- the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the cording to the commandment of the Lord, and rock, and there shall come water out of it, that pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people may drink. And Moses did so in the the people to drink.

sight of the elders of Israel.

Joshua in commandel to fight with them, 9.

A children of Israel journeyed from

Namb. 33. 32. Deut. 8. 2, 3. Neh. 9. 20. 21. John 6. 31. 49.a Josh. 5. 12 Neh. 9. 15.-Ch. 16. L. Numb. 33 12, 11.-c Numb. 20.-- Deut. 6. 16. Poa. 78. 18, 41. Isa. 7. 12. Matt. 4. 7. I Cor. 10. 9.

e Ch. 16. 2-1 Ch 11.15.— 1 Sam. 30.6. John 8. 59. & 10. 31.—b Ext. 2 i Ch. 7. 2. Numh. 20. 8.-k Nurab. 20. 10, 11. Psa. 73. 15, 2. & 105. 11. & 114 & Wisd. 11. 4. 1 Cor. 10. 4.

testimony to that spiritual good which was yet to come, do it not! Property acquired in this way, will be a curse viz. Jesus CHRIST and his salration.

both to thee and to thy posterity. Verse 35. The children of Israel did eat manna forty 4. To show their children and children's children what years) From this verse it has been supposed that the book God had done for their fathers, a pot of manna was laid up of Exodus was not written till after the miracle of the before the testimony. We should remember our proví. manna had ceased. But these words might have been dential and gracious deliverances, in such a way, as to give added by Ezra, who, under the direction of the Divine God the praise of his own grace. An ungrateful heart is Spirit, collected and digested the different inspired books, always associated with an unbelieving mind, and an unadding such supplementary, explanatory, and connecting holy life. Like Israel, we should consider with what bread sentences, as were deemed proper to complete and arrange God has sed our fathers; and see that we have the same: the whole of the sacred canon. For previously to his the same Christ, the bread of life, the same doctrines, the time, according to the universal testimony of the Jews, all same ordinances, and the same religious experience. How the books of the Old Testament were found in an uncon little are we benefited by being Protestants, if we be not nected and diepersed state.

partakers of the Protestant faith? And how useless will Verse 36. Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.] | even that faith be to us, if we hold the truth in unrighteousAbout six pints, English. See the note on ver. 16. The ness? Our fathers had religion enough to enable them to true place of this verse seems to be immediately after verse burn gloriously for the truth of God!-Reader, hast thou 18; for here it has no connexion.

so much of the life of God in thy soul, that thou coulds: 1. On the miracle of the manna, which is the chief sub- burn to ashes at the stake rather than lose it? In a word, ject in this chapter, a good deal has already been said in couldst thou be a martyr? Or hast thou so little grace to the preceding notes. The sacred historian has given us lose, that thy life would be more than an equivalent for thy the most circumstantial prools, that it was a supernatural loss? Where is the manna on which thy fathers fed ? and miraculous supply: that nothing of the kind had ever been seen before, and probably nothing like it had ever

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVII. afterward appeared. That it was a type of our blessed Verse 1. Pitched in Rephidim] In Numb. xxxiii. 12 Redeemer, and of the salvation which he has provided for -14. it is said, that when the Israelites came from Sin, man, there can be no doube; for in this way it is applied they encamped in Dophkah, and next in Alush, after which by Christ himself; and from it, we may gather this general they came io Rephidim. Here, therefore, iwo stations are conclusion, that salvation is of the Lord. The Israelites omitted; probably because nothing of moment took place must have perished in the wilderness, had not God fed at either. --See the notes on Numb. xxxii, them with bread from heaven. And every human soul Verse 2. Why chide ye with me?] God is your leader, must have perished, had not Jesus Christ come down from complain to him: Wherefore do ye tempt the Lord? As heaven, and given himself for the life of the world, he is your leader, all your murmurings against me, he con-,

2. God would have the Israelites continually dependent siders as directed against himself: why therefore do ye on himself for all their supplies; but he would make them, tempı him? Has he not given you suificient proofs that in a certain way, workers with him. He provided the he can destroy his enemies, and support his friends ? And manna; they gathered and ate it. The first was God's is he not among you to do you good? ver. 7. Why therework; the latter their own. They could not produce the fore do ye doubt his power and goodness, and thus provoke manna, and God would not gather it for them. Thus the him to treat you as his enemies providence of God appears in such a way, as to secure the Verse 3. And the people murmured] The reader must co-operation of man. Though man should plant and wa not forget, what has so often been noied, relating to the ter, yet, it is God who giveth the increuse. But, if man degraded state of the minds of the Israelites. A strong neither plant nor water, God will give no increase. We argument, however, may be drawn from this in favour of cannot do God's work : and he will not do ours. Let us, their supernatural escape from Egypt. Had it been a therefore, both in things spiritual and temporal, be workers scheme concerted by the heads of the people, provision tog cther with HIM.

would necessarily have been made for such exigencies es 3. This daily supply of the manna, probably gave rise these. But, as God chose to keep them constantly dependto that petition, Give us to-day our daily bread. It is ent upon himself, for every necessary of life; and as they worthy of remark, 1st. That what was left over night, con had Moses alone, as their mediator to look to, they mur. trary to the command of God, bred worms and stank; mured against him when brought into straits and difficul. 2dly, That a double portion was gathered on the day pre- ties, regretted their having left Egypt, and expressed the ceding the sabbath; 3dly, That this alone continued whole strongest desire to return. This shows that they had left some on the following day; 4thly, And that none fell on Egypt reluctantly; and as Moses and Aaron never appear the sabbath! Hence we find that the sabbath was consi- to have any resources, but those which came most evidered a divine institution, previously to the giving of the dently in a supernatural way, therefore the whole exodus, Mosaic law; and that God continued to honour that day or departure from Egypt, proves itself to have been do by permitting no manna to fall during its course. Whai- human contrivance, but a measure concerted by God himever is earned on the sabbath, is a curse in a man's pro- self. perty-they who will be rich, fall into temptation and Verse 6. I will stand before thee there upon the rock in into a snare, &c. for, using illicit means to acquire lawful Horeb) The rock non ha tsur. It seems as if God bed things, they bring God's curse upon themselves; and are directed the attention of Moses 10 a particular rock, wih drowned in destruction and perdition-Reader, dost thou which he was well acquainted; for every part of the mount, work on the sabbath to increase thy property ? See thou I and its vicinity, must have been well known to Moses

In And he called the name of the place 1. Mas-1 up his hand, that Israel prevailed ; and when he sah, mand " Meribah, because of the chiding of let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. the children of Israel, and because they tempted 12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and they the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not? took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat

8 To Then came Amalek and fought with Is- thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his rael in Rephidim.

hands, the one on the one side, and the other on 9 And Moses said unto p Joshua, Choose us the other side; and his hands were steady until out men, and go out, fight with Amalek : to- the going down of the sun. morrow I will stand on the top of the hill, with 13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his 9 the rod of God in mine hand.

people, with the edge of the sword. 10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, 14 || And the Lord said unto Moses, · Write and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in and Hur, went up to the top of the hill.

the ears of Joshua: for "I will utterly put out 11 And it came to pass, when Moses' held the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.

I Numb. 30. 13. Psa. 31. 7. & 95. 8. Hebr. 3.8.-m That is, tentation.-n That chiding, or strije. o Gen. 36. 12 Numb. 24. 20. Deut. 25. 17. 1 Sam. 15. 2. Wisd. 11.3.

p Called Jesus, Acts 7. 45. Hebr. 4.8.-q Ch. 4. 20.- James 5. 16.-, Paa. 35. 3. Janies 1. 6. . Heb12. 12. - Ch. 34. 77.-- Numb 24. 20. Deut. 25. 19. 1 Sam. 15. 3, 7. & 30. 1, 17. 2 Sam. 8. 12. Ezra 9. 14.

during the time he kept Jethro's flocks in those quarters. cessor in the government. Joshua was at first called Dr. Priestley has left ihe following sensible observations Hoshea, Numb. xii. 16. and afterward called Joshua by upon this miracle:

Moses. Both in the Septuagint and Greek Testament, he "The luminous cloud, the symbol of the divine presence, is called Jesus: the name signities sariour ; and he is would appear on the rock, and Horeb was probably a part allowed to have been a very expressive type of our of the saine mountain with Sinai. This supply of water, blessed Lord. He fought with and conquered the enemies on Moses only striking the rock, where no water had been of his people, brought them into the promised land, and before, nor has been since, was a most wonderful display divided it to them by lot. The parallel between him and the of the divine power. The water must have been in great Saviour of the world is too evident to require pointing out. abundance to supply two millions of persons, which ex Top of the hill] Probably some part of Horeb, or cluded all possibility of artifice or imposture in the case. Sinai, to which they were then near. The miracle must also have been of some continuance ; Verse 10. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up] It is very no doubt, so long as they continued in that neighbourhood, likely that the Hur mentioned here is the same with that which was more than a year. There are sufficient traces Hur mentioned i Chron. ii. 19. who appears, from the of this extraordinary miracle remaining at this day. This chronology in that chapter, to have been the son of Caleb, rock has been visited, drawn, and described by Dr. Shaw, the son of Ezron, the son of Pharez, the son of Judah. Dr. Pocock, and others; and holes and channels appear in The rabbins and Josephus say, he was the brother-in-law the stone, which could only have been formed by the burst of Moses, having married his sister Miriam. He was a ing out and running of the water. No art of man could person in whom Moses put much confidence; for he left have done it, if any motive could be supposed for the un him conjoint governor of the people with Aaron, when he dertaking in such a place as this."

went to confer with God on the mount, Exod. xxiv. 14. The rock mentioned above, has been seen and described His grandson, Bezaleel, was the chief director in the by Norden, p. 144. 8vo. Dr. Shaw, p. 314. 4to. where there work of the tabernacle. See chap. xxxi. 2—5. is an accurate drawing of it; Dr. Pocock, vol. i. p. 143, &c. Verse 11. When Moses held up his hand] We cannot where the reader may find some fine plates of mount Ho- understand this transaction in any literal way; for the reb, and Sinai, and four different views of the wonderful lifting up or letting down the hands of Moses, could not, rock of Meribah. It is a vast block of red granite, fifteen humanly speaking, influence the battle. It is likely that feet long, ten broad, and twelve high.-See Dr. Shaw's be held up the rod of God in his hand, ver. 9. as an ensign account at the end of Exodus.

to the people. We have already seen, that in prayer, the Verse 7. He called the name of the place Massah, and hands were generally lifted up and spread out, (see the Meribah) op Massah, signifies temptation or trial; note on chap. ix. 29.) and therefore it is likely, that by and Meribah, Sno, contention or litigation. From this act, prayer and supplication are intended. The JeI Cor. x. 4. we learn that this rock was a type of Christ, rusalem "Targum says, that “when Moses held up his and their drinking of it, is represented as their being made hands in prayer, the house of Israel prevailed; and when partakers of the grace and mercy of God through Christ he let down his hands from prayer, the house of Amalek Jesus; and yet many who drank, fell and perished in the prevailed.” We may therefore conclude that by holding wilderness in the very act of disobedience !--Reader, be up the hands in this case, these two things were intended: not high-minded, but fear!

1. That hereby a reference was made to God, as the On the smiling of the rock by the rod of Moses, Mr. source whence all help and protection must come, and Ainsworth has the following pious note :-"This rock sig- that on him alone they must depend. 2. That prayer and nified Christ, and is therefore called a spiritual Rock, supplication to God were essentially necessary to their 1 Cor. x. 4. He being smitten with Moses's rod, and prevalence over all their enemies. It is indisputably true, bearing the curse of the Law for our sins: and by the ihat while the hands are stretched out, that is, while the preaching of the Gospel, crucified among his people, Gal. soul exerts itself in prayer and supplication to God, we uji. 1. from him floweth the spiritual drink, wherewith all are sure to conquer our spiritual adversaries: but if our believing hearts are refreshed.” John vii. 37. and Isai. hands become heavy, if we restrain prayer before God, lini. 1-3.

Amalek will prevail : cvery spiritual foe, every internal Verse 8. Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel) corruption, will gain ground. Several of the fathers conThe Amalekites seem to have attacked the Israelites in the sider Moses, with his stretched-out hands, as a figure of same way, and through the same motives, that the wan Christ on the cross, suffering for mankind, and getting a dering. Arabs attack the caravans, which annually pass complete victory over sin and Satan. through the same desert. It does not appear that the Is Verse 13. Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people) raelites gave them any kind of provocation; they seem to Amalek might have been the name of the ruler of this have attacked them merely through the hopes of plunder. people, continued down from their ancestor, (see on ver. The Amalekites were the posterity of Amalek, one of the 8.) as Pharaoh was the name of all succeeding kings in dukes of Eliphaz, the son of Esau; and consequently Is- Egypt. If this were the case, then Amalek and his peorael's brother, Gen. xxxvi. 15, 16.

ple mean the prince and the army that fought under him. Fought with Israel] In the most treacherous and das But if Amaiek stand here for the Amalekites, then his tardly manner; for they came at the rear of the camp, people must mean the confederates he had employed on smote the hindmost of the people, even all that were feeble this occasion. bchind, when they were saint and weary, see Deut. xxv. Verse 14. Write this for a memorial in a book] This 18. The baggage, no doubt, was the object of their ava is the first mention of writing on record : what it sig. rice : but finding the women, children, aged and infirm nified, or how it was done, we cannot tell. It is very persons, behind with the baggage, they smote them, and likely, that the first regular alphabetical writing in the took away their spoils.

world, was that written by the finger of God himself, on Verse 9. Moses said unto Joshua) This is the first the two tables of stone. What is said here was probably place in which Joshun the son of Nun is mentioned: the by way of anticipation, or means some other method of illustrious part which he took in the Jewish affairs, till the registering events than by alphabetical characters, if we settlement of his countrymen in the promised land, is well allow that God gave the first specimen of regular writing known. He was captain-general of the Hebrews under on the tables of stone ; which did not take place till somo Moses; and on this great man's death, he became his suc- 1 time after this.

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