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22 | And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thine oxen: in all places, where I record my thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye name, I will come unto thee, and will dbless theé. have seen that I have talked with you z from 25 And e if thou wilt make me an altar of heaven.

stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone; 23 Ye shall not make with me, * gods of silver, for if thou list up thy tool upon it, thou hast pola neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. luted it.

24 | An altar of earth thou shalt make unto 26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps, unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offer- mine altar, 8 that thy nakedness be not discovered ings, and thy peace-offerings, b thy sheep and thereon.

, Deut. 4. 36. Neh. 9. 13.-a Ch 32 1, 2, 4. I Sam. 5. 4, 5. 2 Kings 17. 33. Ezek 29. 39. & 13. 9. Dan. 5. 4, 23 Zeph. 1.5.2 Cor. 6. 14, 15, 16.-b Lev. 1. 2. c Deut. 12 5, 11, 21. & 14. 2. & 16.6, U. & 35.2. 1 Kings 8. 43. & 9. 3. 2 Chron.

6. 6. & 7. 16. & 12. 13. Ezra 6. 12 Neh 1.9 Pa 74. 7. Jer. 7. 10, 12-Gen. 12. 2. Dent. 7. 13.-e Dext. 27. 5. Josh. 8. 31. 1 Mac. 4. 47.- Hich build then with heroing. Deut. 27. 5, 6.-g Lev. 10. 3. Psa 9.7. Heh. 12. 24, 29.

through the love and reverence ye feel to your Maker and inspired writer refers to those, in these prohibitions. God Sovereign, ye may abstain from every appearance of evil, therefore ordered his altars to be made, 1. Either of simple lest you should forfeit that love which is to you better than turf, that there might be no unnecessary expense, which, life. He who fears in the first sense, can neither love nor in their present circumstances, the people could not well obey: he who fears not in the latter sense, is sure to fall afford; and that they might be no incentives to idolatry under the first temptation that may occur. Blessed is the from their costly or curious structure: or, 2. Of unheun man who thus feureth always.

stone, that no images of animals or of the celestial bodies Verse 22. I have talked with you from heaven) Thongh might be sculptured on them, as was the case among the God manifested himself by the fire, the lightning, the idolaters, and especially among the Egyptians, as several earlhquake, the thick darkness, &c. yet the ten words or of their ancient altars which remain to the present day, commandments, were probably uttered from the higher amply testify; which altars themselves, and the images regions of the air, which would be an additional proof to carved on them, became, in process of time, incentives to the people that there was no imposture in this case; for idolatry, and even objects of worship. In short, God though strange appearances and voices might be counter formed every part of his worship so, that every thing befeited on earth, as was often, no doubt, done by the magi-longing to it might be as dissimilar as possible, from that cians of Egypt; yet it would be utterly impossible to rep- of ihe surrounding heathenish nations, and especially the resent a voice, in a long-continued series of instruction, as Egyptians, from whose land they had just now departed. proceeding from heaven itself, or the higher regions of the This seems to have been the whole design of those statutes, atmosphere. This, with the earthquake and repeated on which many commentators have written 60 largely and thunders, see on ver. 18. would put the reality of this learnedly, imagining difficulties, where probably there are whole procedure beyond all doubt; and this enabled Moses, none. The altars of the tabernacle were of a different Deut. v. 16. to make such an appeal to the people on a kind. fact incontrovertible, and of infinite importance, that God In this and the preceding chapter, we have met with had indeed talked with them face to face.

some of the most awful displays of the Divine majesty :Verse 23. Ye shall not make with me gods of silver) manifestations of justice and holiness, which have had no The expressions here are very remarkable. Before, it was parallel, and can have none, till that day arrive, in which said, Ye shall have no other gods BEFORE me, D Sy al he shall appear in his glory, to judge the quick and the panai, ver. 3. Here they are commanded, Ye shall not dead. The glory was truly terrible, and to the children make gods of silver or gold, vna iti, with me, as emblems of Israel insufferable: and yet how highly privileged or representatives of God, in order, as might be pretended, to have God himself speaking to them from the midst of to keep these displays of his magnificence in memory; on the fire, giving them statutes and judgments, so righteous, the contrary, he would have only an altar of earth, of so pure, so holy, and so truly excellent in their operation plain turf, on which they should offer those sacrifices, hy and their end, that they have been the admiration of all which they should commemorate their own guilt, and the the wise and upright, in all countries and ages of the necessity of an atonement to reconcile themselves to God. world, where their voice has been heard. Mohammed See the note on ver. 4.

defied all the poets and literati of Arabia to match the laniVerse 24. Thy burnt-offerings and thy peace-offer- guage of the Korân: and for purity, elegance, and dig. ings) The law concerning which, was shortly to be given, nity, it bore away the palm, and remained unrivalled. though sacrifices of this kind were in use from the days of This indeed, was the only advantage which the work deAbel.

rived from its author; for its other excellencies, it was In all places where I record my name] Wherever I am indebted to Moses and the prophets, to Christ and the worshipped, whether in the open wilderness, at the taber; apostles ; as there is scarcely a pure, consistent, theologinacle, in the temple, the gynagogue, or elsewhere, I will cal notion in it, that has not been borrowed from our sacred come unto thee and bless thee. These words are precisely books. Moses calls the attention of the people not to the the same in signification with those of our Lord, Matt. language in which these divine laws were given, though xviii

. 20. For where two or three are gathered together that is all that it should be, and every way worthy of its in my name, there am I in the midst of them. And it author; compressed yet perspicuous; éimple yet dignified; was JESUS, who was the angel that spoke to them in in short, such as God should speak if he wished his creathe wilderness, Acts vii. 33. from the same mouth this tures to comprehend; but he calls their attention to the promise in the Law, and that in the Gospel proceeded. purity, righteousness, and usefulness of the grand revela

Verse 25. Thou shalt not build it of hewn stone) Be- tion which they had just received. For whal nation, says cause they were now in a wandering state, and had as yet he, is there so great, rcho hath God so nigh unto them as no fixed residence; and therefore no time should be wasted Jehovah our God is, in all things that we call upon him io rear costly altars, which could not be transported with for? And what nation hath statutes and judgments so them, and which they must soon leave. Besides, they righteous as all this law which I set before you this day? must not lavish skill or expense on the construction of an And that which was the sum of all excellency in the prealtar; the altar, of itself, whether costly or mean, was sent case was this, that the God who gave these laws nothing in the worship: it was only the place, on which dwelt among his people; to him they had continual access, the victim should be said, and their mind must be atten and from him received that power, without which, obr. tively fixed on that God, to whom the sacrifice was offer- dience, so extensive and so holy, would have been imposed, and on the sacrifice itself, as that appointed by the sible: and yet not one of these laws exacted more than Lord to make an atonement for their sins.

eternal reason, the nature and fitness of things, the prosVerse 26. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto my perity of the community, and the peace and happiness of altar) The word altar, comes from altus, high or elerated, the individual required.' The law is holy, and the coxthough the Hebrew word naid mizbeach, from na! zabach, MANDMENT is Holy, just, and good. to slay, kill, &c. signifies merely a place for sacrifice : see To show still more clearly the excellence and great Gen. xviii. 20. But the heathens, who imitated the rites utility of the ten commandments, and to correct some misof the true God in their idolatrous worship, made their laken notions concerning them, it may be necessary to altars very high ; whence they derived their namne altaria, make a few additional observations. And, 1. It is worthy altars, i. e. very high or elevated places; which they built of remark, that there is none of these commandments, nor thus, partly through pride and vain-glory, and partly that any part of one, which can fairly be considered as merely their gods might the better hear them. Hence also the ceremonial. All are moral, and consequently of everlasthigh places or idolatrous altars, so often and so severely ing obligation. 2. When considered merely as to the leteondemned in the Holy Scriptures. The heathens made ter, there is certainly no difficulty in the moral obedience some of their allars excessively high; and some imagine required to them. Let every reader take them up one by that the pyramids were allars of this kind, and that the one, and ask his conscience before God, which of them ha


3 If he came in k by himself, he shall go out

by himself: if he were married, then his wife Laws concerning serranter they shall serve for only seven years, 1:2 SJ a servant shall go out with him. 3. If his master hat given him a wife, and she hore him children, he might go out 4 If his master have given him a wife, and she free on the seventh year, but his wife ani chir freu must remain, as the property of the maker, t. If throngh love to his maser, wife, and children, he did not have borne him sons or daughters; the wife and chose to avail himself of the privilege grante! by the law, or going out free on

her children shall be her master's, and he shall the seventh year, tus car was to there to the door post with an awl, as an emblem of his being atuaches to the family for ever, 5, 6. Laws concerning maid. go out by himself. sereanis, betronel to their inasters, or to the sous of their masters, 7-11. Laws

5 1 And if the servant m shall plainly say, I earning tum that curies his parents, 17 of strife mwen man and man, is, love my master, my wife, and my children; I pregnancy, 22 The Les Talons, or law of like for like, 33–35. Of injuries will not go out free: due to servants, by which they gain the right of freedota, 21, 27. Laws coricerning the or wtsch has girol men, 2412 02 the pillefi ineoverel, into which a

6 Then his master shall bring him unto the man or beast has fallen, 3), 31. Lws concerning the of that kills another, 35, 36. judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or An Exod. I. L. TOW these are the judgments unto the door post; and his master shall • bore

his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve them.

him for ever. 2 Ir thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years 7 | And if a man Peell his daughter to be a he shall serve: and in the seventh, he shall go maid-servant, she shall not go out 9 as the menout free for nothing.

servants do.


Ch 21 3, 4. Deal 1 14. & 6.1.-i Lev. 25 39, 40, 41. Deul 15.12 Jer. 34. 14.

Heb teith his body.

I Deut. 15. 16, 17.-m Heb. saying shall say - Ch. 12 12 & 22 8, 29.- Pra.

10.6.-p Neh 5.5.-- Ver 2, 3.


is under a fałal and uncontrollable necessity to break ? | every intelligent reader; and they are so very plain, as to 3. Though by the incarnation and death of Christ, all the require very little comment. The laws in this chapter are ceremonial law, which referred to him and his sacrifice, is termed political, those in the succeeding chapter judicial necessarily abrogated; yet as none of these ten command-laws; and are supposed to have been delivered to Moses. ments refers to any thing properly ceremonial, therefore alone, in consequence of the request of the people, chap. they are not abrogated. 4. Though Christ came into the xx. 19. that God should communicate his will to Moses, world to redeem them who believe from the curse of the and that Moses should, as mediator, convey it to them. law, he did not redeem them from the necessity of walk Verse 2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant] Calmet enuing in that newness of life, which these commandments merates six different ways in which a Hebrew might lose 80 strongly inculcate. 5. Though Christ is said to have his liberty: 1. In extreme poverty they might sell their fulfilled the law for us, yet it is nowhere intimated in the liberty. "Levit. xxv. 39. If thy brother be waren poor, Scripture, that he has so fulfilled these TEN LAWS, as to and be sold unto thee, &c. 2. A father might sell his exempt us from the necessity and privilege of being no children. If a man sell his daughter to be a maid-ser. idolaiers, swearers, sabbath-breakers, disobedient and cruel vant, see ver. 7. 3. Insolvent debtors became the slaves children, murderers, adulterers, thieves, and corrupt wit of their creditors. My husband is dead and the credi

All these commandments, it is true, he punctually tor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen, fulfilled himself; and all these he writes on the heart of 2 Kings iv. 1. 4. A thief, if he had not money to pay the every soul redeemed by his blood. 6. Do not those who fine laid on him by the law, was to be sold for his profit scruple not to insinuaie, that the proper observation of whom he had robbed. If he have nothing, then he shall these laws is impossible in this life, and that erery man be sold for his theft, chap. xxii. 3. 4. 5. A Hebrew was since the fall does daily break them in thought, word, liable to be taken prisoner in war, and so sold for a slave. and deed, bear false witness against God and his truth? 6. A Hebrew slave, who had been ransomed from a Genand do they not greatly err, not knowing the scripture, tile by a Hebrew, might be sold by him who ransomed which teaches the necessity of sich obedience; nor the him, to one of his own nation. power of God, by which the evil principle of the heart is Six years shall he serve) It was an excellent provision destroyed, and the law purity written on the soul? If in these laws, that no man could finally injure himself by even the regenerate man, as some have unwarily assert- any rash, foolish, or precipitate act. No man could make ed, does daily break these commands, these ten words, in himself a servant or slave for more than seven years; and thought, word, and deed, he may be as iad as Satan, for if he mortgaged the family inheritance, it must return to aught we know; for Satan himself cannot transgress in the family ai the jubilce, which returned every fiftieth more forms than these: for sin can be committed in no year. other way, either by bodied or disembodied spirits, than It is supposed that the term six years is to be understood by thought, or word, or deed. Such sayings as these tend as referring to the sabbatical years; for let a man come to destroy the distinction between good and evil, and leave into servitude at whatever part of the interim between two the infidel and the believer on a par as to their moral state. sabbatical years, he could not be detained in bondage beThe people of God should be careful how they use them. yond a sabbatical year: so that if he fell into bondage the 7. It must be granted, and indeed has sufficiently appeared third year after a sabbatical year, he had but three years from the preceding exposition of these commandments, to serve ; if the fifth, but one. See on chap. xxiii. 11, &c. that they are not only to be understood in the letter, but Others suppose that this privilege belonged only to the also in the spirit ; and that therefore they may be broken year of jubilee, beyond which no man could be detained in the heart, while outwardly kept inriolate: yet this can in bondage, though he had been sold only one year before. not prove, that a soul intluenced by the grace and Spirit Verse 3. If he came in by himself ] If he and bis wife of Christ cannot most conscientiously observe them; for came in together, they were to go out together: in all rethe grace of the Gospel not only saves a man from oul- spects as he entered, so should he go out. This consideraward, but also from inward sin ;---for, says the heavenly tion seems to have induced St. Jerom to translate the pasmessenger, his name shall be called Jesus, (i. e. Saviour) sage thus : Cum quali reste intrarerat, cum tali ereat. because he shall sare (i. e. DELIVER) his people from “He shall have the same coat in going out, as he had their sins. Therefore the weakness or corruption of hu when he came in; i. e. if he came in with a new one, he man nature forms no argument here, because the blood of should go out with a new one, which was perfectly just, Christ cleanses from all unrighteousness: and he saves to as the former coat must have been worn out in his master's the uttermost all who come into the Father through him. service, and not his own. It is therefore readily granted, no man, un assisted and un Verse 4. The wife and her children shall be her mas. influenced by the grace of Christ

, can keep these com- ter's] It was a law among the Hebrews, that is a Hebrew Inandments either in the letter or in the spirit'; but he who had children by a Canaanitish wonan, those children must is truly converted to God, and has Christ dwelling in lois be considered as Canaanitish only, and might be sold and heart by faith, can in the letter and in the spirit do all bought, and serve for ever. The law here refers to such these things, BECAUSE CHRIST STRENGTHENS him. Reader, a case only. the following is a good prayer, and oftentimes thou hast Verse 6. Shall bring him unto the judges) on SNS said it; now learn to pray it: "Lord, have mercy upon el ha Elohim, literally, to God : or, as the Septuagint have us, and ineline our hearts to keep these laws! Lord, have it, tpos to xpornpoor Dieu, to the judgment of God; who mercy upon us, and write all these thy laws in our hearts, condescended to dwell among his people, who determined we beseech thee!" Communion Service.

all their differences, till he had given them laws for all cases;

and who by his omniscience brought to light the NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI.

hidden things of dishonesty. See chap. xxii. 8. Verse 1. Now these are the judgments) There is so Bore his ear through with an aw] This was a ceremuch good sense, feeling, humanity, equity, and justice, mony sufficiently significant, as it implied, 1. That he was in the following laws, that they cannot but be admired by closely attached to that house and family. 2. That he was


8 If she please not her master, who hath 18 | And if men strive together, and one betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her smite e another with a stone, or with his fist, be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation, and he die not, but keepeth his bed : he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt 19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon deceitfully with her.

his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: 9 And if he have betrothed her unto his son, only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and he shall deal with her after the manner of shall cause him to be thoroughly healed. daughters.

20 || And if a man smite his servant, or his 10 If he take him another wife, her food, her maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he raiment, *and her duty of marriage shall he not shall be surely h punished. diminish.

21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or 11 And if he do not these three unto her, two, he shall not be punished: for i he iš his then shall she go out free, without money.

12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, 22. If men strive, and hurt a woman with shall be surely put to death.

child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet 13. And if a man lie not in wait, but God no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, * deliver him into his hand: then I will appoint according as the woman's husband will lay upon thee a place whither he shall Ace.

him; and he shall k pay as the judges determine. 14 But if a man come * presumptuously upon 23 And if any mischief follow, then thou his neighbour, to slay him with guile; 's thou shalt give life for life, shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die. 24 Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand,

15 | And he that smiteth his father, or his foot for foot, mother, shall be surely put to death.

25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, 16 | And he that stealeth a man, and a sell- stripe for stripe. eth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall 26 | And if a man smite the eye of his sersurely be put to death.

vant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he 17 T And he that a curseth his father, or his shall let him go free, for his eye's sake. mother, shall surely be put to death.

27 And if he smite out his man-servant's tooth,


r Heb.be epil in the eyes of, &- 1 Cor. 7.5.-t Gen. 9. 6. Lev. 24. 17. Numb. 35. 30, 31 Matt 26. 52-u Naub. 35. 22. Deut. 194.5.- 1 Sam 24. 4, 10, 18. w Nomb. 33. 11. Deut. 19. 3. Josh. 20. 2. --* Nurnb. 15. 30. & 35. 20. Dent. 19. 11, 12 Heb. 10. 5.-y 1 Kings 2. 2-34 2 Kingy 11. 15.

z Dent. 21. 7.-a Gen. 37. 29.-b Ch. 22. 4.-c Ler. 20. 9. Pror. 2.2. Mart. 15. 4. Mark 7. 10. Or, revileth.- Or, his neighbour.- 2 Sam. 3 2- Heb. his censing-h Heb. arengad. Gen. 1. 15, 21. Rom. 13. 4.-i Lev. 5. 5, 15. - Ya. 30. Deut. 22 18, 19.- Lev. 21. 20. Deut. 19. 21. Matt. 5. 3

Siti. 102.

bound to hear all his master's orders, and to obey them fore the cities of refuge were assigned, the altar of God punctually. Boring of the ear was an ancient custom in was the common asylum. the east. It is referred to by Jurenal

Verse 15. That gmiteth his father, or his mother] As Prior inquit, ege addsun

such a case argued peculiar depravity, therefore no mercy Cur timsam, dubitemte lacum defendere ? quamris Natus ad Euphrateu, mulles quod in sure ferieste.

was to be shown to che culprit. Arguerint, licct ipse negem.

Verse 16. He that stealeth a man) By this law, every "First come, first prved, he cries; an: 1, in spite

man-stealer, and every receiver of the stolen person, Ot your great lortships, will maintain my right: Though born a lare, though my torn ears are bord,

should lose his life: no matter whether the latter stole the Tis not the birth, 'us money makes the lonl.” Dryden.

man himself or gave money to a slave-captain, or negroCalmet quotes a saying from Petronius as attesting the dealer, to steal him for him. same thing; and one from Cicero, in which he rallies a Verse 19. Shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall Lybian who pretended he did not hear him: “It is not,” cause him to be thoroughly healed] This was a wise and said he, “because your cars are not sufficiently bored." excellent institution, and most courts of justice still reguAlluding to his having been a slare.

late their decisions on such cases by this Mosaic precept. Verse 7. If a man sell his daughter] This the Jews Verse 21. If the slave who had been beaten by his allowed no man to do but in extreme distress, when he master, died under his hand, the master was punished had no goods, either moveable or immoveable left, even to with death; see Gen. ix. 5, 6. But is he survived the the clothes on his back; and he had this permission only beating a day or two, the master was not pranished; bewhile she was unmarriageable. It may appear at first cause it might be presumed, that the man died through view strange, that such a law should have been given; some other cause. And all penal laws should be conbut let it be remembered, that this servitude could extend strued as favourably as possible to the accused. at the utmost only to six years; and that it was nearly the Verse 22. And hurt a woman with child] As a poslesame as in some cases of apprenticeship among us, rity, among the Jews, was among the peculiar promises where the parents bind the child for seren years, and have of their covenant, and as every man had some reason to from his master so much per week during that period. think that the Messiah should spring from his family,

Verse 9. Betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with therefore, any injury done to a woman with child, by her] He shall give her the same dowry he would give to which the fruit of her womb might be destroyed, was one of his own daugliters. From these laws we learn, considered a very heavy oflence: and as the crime was that if a man's son married his servant, hy his father's committed principally against the husband, the degree of consent, the father was obliged to treat her in every respect punishment was left to his discretion. But if mischief as a daughter : and if the son married another woman, as followed, i. e. if the child had been fully formed, and was it appears he might do, ver. 10. he was obliged to make no killed by this means, or the woman lost her life in conse abatement in the privileges of the first wife, either in her quence, then the punishment of the person was dea:] .food, raiment, or duty of marriage; the word andy in other cases of murder : ver. 23. Ônathah here, is the same with St. Paul's 5$:17 svmv evrovov, Verse 24. Eye for eye) This is the earliest account the marriage debt, and with the 9,212,090 of the Septuagint, we have of the Ler Talionis or law of like for like, which signifies the cohabitation of man and wife. which afterward prevailed among the Greeks and Ro

Verse 11. These three] 1. Her food, 7980 shearah, mans. Ainong the latter, it constituted a part of the her flesh, for she must not, like a common slave, be fed twelve tables, so famous in antiquity; but the punishment merely on vegetables. 2. Her raiment, her private ward was afterward changed to a pecuniary fine, to he levied robe, with all occasional necessary additions.

And, 3.

at the discretion of the prætor. It prevails less or more The marriage debt, a due proportion of the husband's in most civilized countries; and is fully acted upon in the time and company.

canon laut, in reference to all calumniators :

-CalumniaVerse 13. I will appoint thee a place whither he shall tor, si in accusatione defecerit, talionem recipial. “If flee] From the earliest times, the nearest akin had a the calumniator fail in the proof of his accusation, let him right to revenge the murder of his relation; and as this suffer the same punishment which he wished to have inright was universally acknowledged, no law was ever flicted upon the man whom he falsely accused." Nothing made on the subject, but as this might be abused, and a however of this kind was left to prirate rerenge: the person who had killed another accidentally, having had magistrate awarded the punishment, when the fact was no previous malice against him, might be put to death by proved. Otherwise the Lex Talionis would have utterly the avenger of blood, as the nearest kinsman was termed, destroyed the peace of society, and have sown the seeds therefore God provided the cities of refuge to which the of hatred, revenge, and all uncharitableness. accidental manslayer might flee, till the affair was in Verse 26. If a man smite the eye, &c.] See the folquired into, and settled by the civil magistrate.

lowing verse. Verse 14. Thou shalt take him from mine altar] Be Verse 27. If he smite out his-tooth] It was a noble


or his maid-servant's tooth; he shall let him gol 34 The owner of the pit shall make it good, free for his tooth's sake.

and give money unto the owner of them; and 28 TIf an ox gore a man or a woman, that the dead beast shall be his. they die : then mthe ox shall be surely stoned, 35 | And if one man's ox hurt another's, that and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide of the ox shall be quit.

the money of it; and the dead or also they shall 29 But if the ox were wont to push with his divide. horn in time past, and it hath been testified to 36 Or if it be known, that the ox hath used to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that push, in time past, and his owner hath not kept he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to dead shall be his own. death. 30 If there be laid on him a sum of money,

CHAPTER XXII. then he shall give for the ransom of his lite Laws concerning thefl, 1-4; concerning trespass, 5; concerning caeualties, 6. whatsoever is laid upon him.

Laws concerning deporits, or gools lei in custoly of others, which may have been

loat, stolen, or damaged, 1-13 Lawa concerning things borrored, or let out on 31 Whether he have gored a son, or have hire, 14, 15. Law's concerning seduction, 16, 17 latus concerning witcherol,

18, bestiality, 19, idolatry, 3. Lawa conurning strangers, 21; concerning gored a daughter, according to this judgment widous, 22-24; lending money to the por, 25, concerning pledges, 6; concernishall it be done unto him.

ing respect to magistrale, 2; concerning the first ripe frite, and the Arsl-torn

of man and becsl, 29, 30. Directions concerning carcasses found torn in the 32 If the ox shall push a man-servant or field, 31. maid-servant; he shall give unto their master F a steal an ox, or a An. Exol. Isr. 1. stoned.

five oxen for an ox, and ' four sheep for a sheep. 33 | And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man 2 If a thiet be found breaking up, and be shall Jig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an smitten that he die, there shall i no blood be ass fall therein;

shed for him. m Gen. 9. 5.- Ver. 22 Namb. 35. 31.- See Zech. 11, 12, 13. Matt. 26. 15. 9 Or, goat.-- 2 Sam. 12. 6. Luke 19. 8. See Prov. 6. 31.- Matt. 21. 43.-t Numb.

Phil. 27.-p Ver. 2

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35. 27

law that obliged the unmerciful slaveholder, to set a slave on preventing the commission of them. The law of God at liberty, whose eye or tooth he had knocked out. If this always teaches and warns, that his creatures may not fall did not teach them humanity, it taught them caulion, as into condemnation; for judgment is his strange work, i. e. one rash blow might have deprived them of all right to one relueto.ntly and seldom executed, as this text is frethe future services of the slave : and thus, self-interest quently understood. obliged them to be cautious and circumspect. Verse 29. If an or gore a man] It is more likely that

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII. a bull is here intended, as the word signifies both, see Verse 1. If a man shall steal] This chapter consists chap. xxii. I. and the Septuagint translate the ro shor, chiefly of judicial laws, as the preceding chapter does of of the original by taupos, a bull, and some are of opinion, political ; and in it the same good sense, and well-marked that there were no castrated animals among the Jews. attention to the welfare of the community, and the moral Mischief of this kind was provided against by most improvement of each individual, are equally evident. nations: it appears that the Romans twisted hay about the In our translation of this first verse, by rendering differhorns of their dangerous cattle, that people seeing it ent Hebrew words by the same term in English, we have might shun them: hence that saying of Horace, Sat. lib. greatly obscured the sense. I shall produce the verse, i. ver. 34. Fænum habet in cornu, longè fuge. “He with the original words which I think improperly transhas hay on his horns : fly for life !" The laws of the lated, because one English term is used for two Hebrew troelde tables ordered, that the owner of the beast should words, which, in this place, certainly do not mean the pay for what damages he commilled, or deliver him to same thing. If a man shall steal an ox, (w shor] or a the person injured. See on chap. xxii. 1.

sheep, (nd sehland kill il, or sell it; he shall restore five His flesh shall not be eaten] This served to keep up a oxen (a bakar) for an o.t, (shor] and four sheep, due detestation of murder, whether committed by man or [rus lson) for a sheep, (19 seh.] I think it must appear beast ; and at the same time punished the man as far as

evident that the sacred writer did not intend that these possible, by the total loss of the beast.

words should be understood as above. A shor certainly is Verse 30. If there be laid on him a sum of money, different from a bakar, and a sch from a tson. Where the the ransom of his life) So it appears, that though hy difference in every case lies, wherever these words occur, it the law he forfeited his life, yet this might be commuted is difficult to say. The shor and the bakar are doubtless for a pecuniary mulct; at which, the life of the deceased creatures of the berre kind, and are used in different parts might be valued by the magistrates.

of the Sacred Writings, to signify the bull, tie ox, the Verse 32. Thirty shekels] Each worth about three heifer, the steer, the calf. The sch and the ison are used shillings English ; see Gen. xx. 16. xxxii. 15. So, to signify the ram, the wether, the ere, the lamb, the hecounting the shekel at its utmost value, the life of a slave | goat, the she-goat, and the kid. And the latter word 113 was valued at four pounds, ten shillings. And at this ison, seems frequently to signify the flock composed of price, these same vile people, valued the life of our blessed either of these lesser cattle, or both sorts conjoined. Lord ; see Zech. xi. 12, 13. Matt. xxvi. 15. And in return, As 790 shor is used Job xxi. 10. for a bull, probably it the justice of God has ordered it so, that they have been may mean so here. If a man steal a BULL, he shall gire sold for slates into every country of the universe. And five oxen for him, which we may presume was no more yet, strange to tell, they see not the hand of God in this so than his real value; as very few bulls could be kept in a visible retribution

country destitute of horses, where oren were so necessary Verse 33. And if a man shall open a pit-or dig a pit) to till the ground. For though some have imagined that That is, if a man shall open a well or cistern that had there were no castrated cattle among the Jews, yet this been before closed up, or dig a new one, for these two cannot be admitted on the above reason : for as they had no cases are plainly intimated; and if he did this in some horses, and bulls would have been unmanageable and public place, where there was danger that men or catile dangerous, they must have had oren for the purposes of might fall into it: for a man might do as he pleased in agriculture. Tson 793 is used for a flock either of sheep or his own grounds, as those were his private right. In the goats ; and sch nw for an individual of either species. above case if he had neglected to cover the pit, and his for every seh, four, taken indifferently from the ison, or neighbour's ox or ass was killed by falling into it, he was flock, must be given: i.e. a sheep, stolen might be recomto pay its value in money. The 330 and 34th verges seem penged with four out of the flock, wherber of sheep or to be out of their places. They probably should conclude goats. So that a goat might be compensated with four the chapter, as, where they are, they interrupt the statutes sheep ; or a sheep with four goats. concerning the goring or, which begin at verse 28.

Verse 2. If a thief be found] If a thief was found These different regulations are as remarkable for their breaking into a house in the night season, he might be justice and prudence, as for their humanity. Their great killed; but not if the sun had risen, for then he might be tendency is, to show the valuableness of human life, and known and taken, and the restitution made which is menthe necessity of having peace and good understanding in tioned in the succeeding verse. So, by the law of England, every neighbourhood : and they possess that quality which it is a burglary to break and enter a house by night ; and should be the object of all good and wholesome laws, the "anciently the day was accounted to begin only from sunpretention of crimes. Most criminal codes of jurispru- rising, and to end immediately upon sun-set : but it is now dence seem more intent on the punishment of crimes, then I generally agreed, that if there be day-light enough begun

3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighblood shed for him ; for he should make full res- bour. titution; if he have nothing, then he shall be 10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, u sold for his theft.

or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and 4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; heit: shall w restore double,

11 Then shall an oath of the Lord be be5 TIf a man shall cause a field or vineyard to tween them both, that he hath not put his hand be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it feed in another man's field: of the best of his shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, good. shall he make restitution.

12 And bif it be stolen from him, he shall make 6 If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that restitution unto the owner thereof. the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the 13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it field, be consumed therewith ; he that kindled for witness, and he shall not make good that the fire shall surely make restitution.

which was torn. 7 | If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour 14 || And if a man borrow ought of his neighmoney, or stuff' to keep, and it be stolen out of bour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof the man's house; sif the thief be found, let him being not with it, he shall surely make it good. pay double.

15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall 8 If the thief be not found, then the master of not make it good : if it be an hired thing, it came the house shall be brought unto the y judges, to for his hire. see whether he have put his hand unto his neigh 16 T And <if a man entice a maid that is not bour's goods.

betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely en9 For all manner of trespass, vhether it be dow her to be his wise. for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any 17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto manner of lost thing, which another challengeth him, he shall pay money, according to the to be his, the ? cause of both parties shall come e dowry of virgins. before the judges; and whom the judges shall 13 11 + Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

u Ch. 21. 2- Ch. 21. 16.-w See Ver. 1.7 Prov. 6. 31.-X Ver. 4.--y Ch. 21. 6.

Ver. 29.-2 Dent. 25. 1.--2 Chron. 19. 10.- Heb. 6. 16.-b Gen. 31. 39.

c Deut. 22. 28, 29.- Heb ucigh. Gen. 23. 16.- Gen. 34. 12. Deut. 22.9.1 Sum

13. 25. - 1 Lev. 19. 23, 31. & 20. 7. Deut. 18. 10, 11, 1 Sam. 2. 3,

p. 509.

or left, either by the light of the sun or twilight, whereby ing the business, the thief might be found out, and if the countenance of a person may be reasonably discerned, found, be obliged to pay double to his neighbour, it is no burglary: but that this does not extend to moon Verse 11. An oath of the Lord be belueen them] So light ; for then many midnight burglaries would go un solemn and awful were all appeals to God considered in punished. And besides, the malignity of the offence does those ancient times, that it was taken for granted that the not 80 properly arise, as Mr. Justice Blackstone observes, man wis innocent, who could by an oath appral 10 the from its being done in the dark, as at the dead of night; omniscient God, that he had not put his hand to his neighwhen all the creation, except beasts of prey, are at rest; bour's goods. Since oaths have become multiplied, and when sleep has disarmed the owner, and rendered his since they have been administered on the most trifling castle defenceless." East's Pleas of the Crown, vol. ii. occasions, their solemnity is gone, and their importance

little regarded. Should the oath ever reacquire its weight Verge 4. He shall restore double.) In no case of theft, and importance, it must be when administered only in was the life of the offender taken away: the utmost that cases of peculiar delicacy and difficulty; and as sparingly the law says on this point is, that, if when found break as in the days of Moses, ing into a house, he should be smitten so as to die, no Verse 13. I it be torn in pieces-Ict him bring it for blood should be shed for him, ver. 2. If he had stolen and witness] Rather, Let him bring oorun my ed ha-terephoh, sold the property, then he was to restore four or fire fold, a testimony or evidence of the torn thing, such as the ver. 1.; but if the animal was found alive in his posses- horns, hoofs, &c. This is still a law in some countries sion, he was to restore double.

among graziers: if a horse, cow, sheep, or goat, entrusied Verse 6. If a fire break out) Mr. Harmer observes, to them be lost, and the keeper asserts it was devoured by that it is a common custom in the east, to set the dry dogs, &c. the law obliges him to produce the horns and herbage on fire before the autumnal rains; which fires, for hoofs, because, on these the owner's mark is generally want of care, often do great damage: and in countries found. If these can be produced, the keeper is acquitted where great drought prevails, and the herbage is generally by the law. The car is often the place marked, but this is parched, great caution was peculiarly necessary; and a not absolutely required, because a ravenous beast may eat law to guard against such evils, and to punish inattention the car as well as any other part; but he cannot eat the and neglect, was highly expedient. See Harmer's Observ. horns or the hoofs. It seems, however, that in after-times, vol. iii. p. 310, &c.

two of the legs and the ear, were required as evidences to Verse 7. Deliver unto his neighbour] This is called acquit the shepherd of all guilt. See Amos m. 12. pledging in the Law of Bailments: it is a deposit of Verse 16. If a man entice a maid] This was an exgoods by a debtor to his creditor, to be kept till the debt be ceedingly wise and humane law, and must have operated discharged. Whatever goods were thus left in the hands powerfully against seduction and fornication; because the of another person, that person, according to the Mosaic person who might feel inclined to take the advantage of a law, became responsible for them : if they were stolen, young woman, knew that he must marry her, and give her and the thief was found, he was to pay double: if he could a dowry, if her parents corsented; and if they did not cobnot be found, the oath of the person who had them in sent that their daughter should wed her seducer, in this keeping, made before the magistrates, that he knew nothing case he was obliged to give her the full dowry which could of them, was considered a full acquittance. Among the have been demanded, had she been still a virgin. AccordRomans, if goods were lost which a man had entrusted to ing to the Targumist here, and to Deut. xxii. 29. the his neighbour, the depositary was obliged to pay their full dowry was fifty shckels of silver, which the seducer was value. But if a man had been driven by necessity, as in to pay to her father, and he was cbliged to take her to wile; case of fire, to lodge his goods with one of his neighbours, nor had he authority, according to the Jewish canons, erer and the goods were lost, the depositary was obliged to pay to put her away by a bill of dirorce. This one consideradouble their value, because of his unfaithfulness in a case tion was a powerful curb on disorderly passions, and must of such distress, where his dishonesty, connected with the tend greatly to render marriage respectable, and prevent destruction by the fire, had completed the ruin of the suf all crimes of this nature. ferer. To this case the following law is applicable : Cum Verse 18. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.) If quis fidem elegit, nec depositum redditur, contentus esse there had been no ritches, such a law as this had never detet simplo: cum verò extante nccessitate deponat, been made. The existence of the law, given under the crescit perfidiæ crimen, &c. Digest. lib. xvi. tit. 3. 1. 1. direction of the Spirit of God, proves the existence of the

Verse 8. Unto the judges See the note on chap. xxi. 6. thing. It has been doubted whether novso mecashephah,

Verse 9. Challen geth to be his] It was necessary that which we translate witch, really means a person who pracsuch a matter should come before the judges, because the tised divination or sorcery by spiritual or internal agency. person in whose possession the goods were found, inight Whether the persons thus denominated only pretended to have had them by a fair and honest purchase ; and by sift- I have an art which had no existence, or whether they really

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