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13 And the breadth of the court on the east 18 | The length of the court shall be a hunside eastward, shall be fifty cubits.

dred cubits, and the breadth fifty, every where, 14 The hangings of one side of the gate shall and the height five cubits of fine twined linen, be fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their and their sockets of brass. sockets three.

19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the 15 And on the other side shall be hangings service thereof, and all the pins thereof, and all fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their the pins of the court, shall be of brass. sockets three.

20 | And thou shalt command the children of 16 And for the gate of the court, shall be a Israel, that they bring thee pure oil olive beaten, hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, for the light, to cause the lamp . to burn always, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with 21 In the tabernacle of the congregation, needlework: and their pillars shall be four, and without the veil, which is before the testimony: their sockets four.

u Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening 17 And all the pillars, round about the court to morning before the LORD: 'it shall be a statshall be filleted with silver; their hooks shall be ute for ever unto their generations, on the beof silver, and their sockets of brass.

half of the children of Israel.

9 Heb. Afty by Afty.-

Ler. 24. 2-5 Heb. to ascend up:-1 Ch 26. 31, 33.—u Ch.

30. 8. 1 Sam. 3. 3. 2 Chron. 13. 11.

v Ch. 28. 43. & 29. 9,28 Lev. 2. 17. & 16. 31. & 24. 9. Numb. 18. 23. & 19. 21.

1 Sam. 30. 25.

And as

verse.

was made with pillars or posts, and hangings. It was A statute for ever] This ordering of the lamps night one hundred cubils in length, about fifty-eight yards and and morning, and attendance on the service of the tabera half, the breadth, as we learn from ver. 12. and 18. and nacle, was a statute that was to be in full force while the five cubits, or nearly three yards high, ver. 18.

tabernacle and temple stood; and should have its spiritual this was but half the height of the tabernacle, chap. xxvi. accomplishment in the Christian Church to the end of 16. that sacred building might easily be seen by the people time. Reader, the tabernacle and temple are both destroyfrom without.

ed: the church of Christ is established in their place. Verse 16. And for the gate of the court) It appears that The seven golden candlesticks were typical of this church the hangings of this gate were of the same materials and and the glorious light it possesses; Rev. i. 12–20. and workmanship with that of the inner covering of the taber- Jesus Christ, the Fountain and Dispenser of this true nacle, and the outer and inner veil.–See chap. xxvi. 36. light, walks in the midst of them. Hast thou that celestial

Verse 19. All the vessels shall be of brass.] It would flame to enlighten and animate thy heart, in all those acts have been improper to have used instruments made of the of devotion, which thou professest to pay to him as thy more precious metals about this altar, as they must have Maker, Redeemer, and Preserver ? What is thy profession, been soon worn out by the severity of the service.

and what thy religious acts and services without this į Verse 20. Pure oil olive beaten] That is, such oil as A sounding brass--a tinkling cymbal. could easily be expressed from the olives, after they had Tertullian asserts, that all the ancient heathens borrowed been bruised in a mortar, the mother drop, as it is called, their best notions from the Sacred Writings : "Which,” which drops out of itself, as soon as the olives are a little says he, "of your poets, which of your sophists have not broken; and which is much purer, than that which is ob drunk from the fountain of the prophets? It is from those tained, after the olives are put under the press.

sacred springs that your philosophers have refreshed their Columella, who is a legitimate evidence in all such mat thirsty spirits: and if they found any thing in the Holy ters, says, that the oil which flowed out of the fruit either Scriptures which hit their fancy, or which served their spontaneously, or with little application of the force of the hypothesis, they took and turned it to a compliance with press, was of a much finer flavour than that which was their own curiosity; not considering those writings to be obtained otherwise.—Quoniam longè melioris saporis est, sacred and unalterable, nor understanding their true sense, quod minore ri præli, quasi luxurians deflurerit.- Co- every one altering them according to his own fancy.' LUM. lib. xii. c. 50.

Apologet. To cause the lamp to burn always] They were to be The reader's attention has already been called to this kept burning through the whole of the night; and, some point several times in the preceding parts of this work, think, all the day besides : but there is a difference of sen and the subject will frequently recur.

At the conclusion timent upon this subject. --See the note on the following of chap. xxv. we had occasion to observe, that the hea

thens had imitated many things in that divine worship This oil and continual flame, were not only emblemat- prescribed by Moses; bui in application to their own corical of the unction and influences of the Holy Ghost, but rupt system, every thing was in a certain measure falsified also of that pure spirit of devotion, which ever animates and distorted; yet not so far as to prevent the grand outthe hearts and minds of the genuine worshippers of the lines of primitive truth from being discerned. One of the true God.

The temple of Vesta, where a fire was kept most complete imitations of the tabernacle, and its whole perpetually burning, seems to have been formed on the service, is found in the very ancient temple of Hercules. model of the tabernacle; and from this, the followers of founded probably by the Phenicians, at Gades, now Cadiz, Zeratusht, commonly called Zoroaster, appear to have in Spain; so minutely described by Silius Italicus, from derived their doctrine of the perpetual fire, which they actual observation. He observes, that though the temple still worship as an emblem of ihe Deity.

was at that time very ancient, yet the beams were the Verse 21. The tabernacle of the congregation] The same that had been placed there by the founders, and that place where all the assembly of the people were to wor- they were generally supposed to be incorruptible ; a ship; where the God of that assembly was pleased to re- quality ascribed to the shitlim wood, termed Eva ox 407770v, side ; and to which, as the habitation of their king and incorruptible wood, by the Septuagint. That women were protector, they were ever to turn their faces, in all their not permitted to enter this temple, and that no swine were adorations.

ever suffered to come near it. That the priests did not Before the testimony] That is, the ark where the tables wear parti-coloured vestments, but were always clothed of the covenant were deposited. See chap. xxv. 16. in fine linen, and their bonnets made of the saine. That

Aaron and his sons] These and their descendants being they offered incense to their god, their clothes being unthe only legitimate priests, God having established the girded-for the same reason doubtless given, chap. xx. priesthood in this family.

26. that in going up to the altar nothing unseemly inight Shall order it from evening to morning) Josephus appear; and therefore they permitted their long robes lo says, the whole of the seven lamps burned all the night; fall down to their feet. He adds, that by the laws of their in the morning four were extinguished, and three kept forefathers, they bore on their sacerdotal vestments the burning through the whole day. Others assert that the latus clarus, which was a round knob or stud of purple, whole seven were kept lighted both day and night con with which the rohes of the Roman knights and senators tinually; but it appears sufficiently evident from 1 Sam. were adorned; which these priests seem to have copied iii. 3. that these lamps were extinguished in the morning: from the breastplate of judgment, made of cunning work, And ere the lamp of God went out in the temple of the embroidered with purple, blue, &c. See ch. xxviii. 15. Lord, where the ark of God was: and Samuel was laid They also ministered barefooted, their hair was trimmed down to sleep, &c. See also chap. xxx. 8. And when or cut off, and they observed the strictest continency; and Aaron LIGHTETH THE LAMPS AT EVEN. It appears there- kept a perpetual fire burning on their altars. And he fore, that the business of the priests was to light the lamps further adds, that there was no image or similitude of the in the evening; and either to extinguish them in the morn- gods to be seen in that sacred place. This is the substance ing, or permit them to burn out: having put in, the night of his description : but as some of my readers may wish before, as much oil as was necessary to last till daylight. to see the original, I shall here subjoin it.

him, from among the children of Israel, that he CHAPTER XXVIII.

may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron and him sone are set apart for the priest's office, Garments to be providez? | Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar,

Aaron's sons. its shoulder pieces an) girdle, 6-3. The two onyr stones, on which the names of

The brosseplate of judgment, its 2 | And *thou shalt make holy garments for twelve preciosa stones, engravings, rings, chains, and ils , 15-23 The trim

The role of the ephon, its bor ler, bells, pomegranates, &c. Aaron thy brother, for glory and for beauty. antherus, 31-3. The pinte of pare gull, and its inotto, 36, to be placed un Aarou's maitre, 37,3 The embroidered coa: for Aaron), 39' Coats, ginules, and

3 And i thou shalt speak unto all that are wise Aaron and this siis to be anointed for the priest's vilice, 11. Other hearted, ? whom I have filled with the spirit of arucies of clothing, and their (se, 12, 13.

wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments , and his sons me in the priest's office.

the iwelse irbes were to be engraven, 9-14

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bonnets, 10

An Exol. Isr. L.

Sipan.

AND take theory ando hice com Aaron te consecrate shim, ficat he may minister unto

w Numb. 18. 7. Ecelus. 15. 6. Heur. 5.1, 1.-x Ch 29. 5, 9 & 31. 10. & 39. 1, 2

Lev. & 7, 30. Numb. 20. 26, 23. Eccli. 45. 7, 8.

y Ch. 31. 6. & 35. 31-35. & 36. 1,2 Isai, 2.21-29.-- Ch 31. 3. & 35. 30, 31. Deut.

34. 9. James 1. 17.

In forilau labor Alrida Lerncea recisio

Vulgatum (nec cassa fides) ab origine fani

useless because the substance is come.'

." I ask, why then Imposiles durare tratam, solawque jrer arum Con lentum nurisse manus: hic credere gaudent

is black almost universally worn? Why is a particular Consedisse Deuin, seniumque repellere lemplis.

colour preferred, if there be no signification in any ? Is Tum, pucis fos el honos adyti penetralia nosca, Funrineos probibent gressus, rc limine curant

there not a danger, that in our zeal against shadows, we Sortigeros arcere sues: nec discolor ulli

shall destroy, or essentially change the substance itself?
Anle aras cullua: velantur corpora lino,
E: Pelus.uco præfuigel stamine vertex.

Would not the same sort of argumentation exclude water
Disciucris mos tura dare, atque e lege parentum
Sacnficam lato vextem distinguere clavo.

in baptism, and bread and wine in the sacrament of the Pes nudus, conseque comæ, castumqne cubilo,

Lord's Supper? The white surplice, in the service of the
Irrestincta focis, serrani altaria flamine.
Sed nulla effigies, simulacrave nota Deorum

church, is almost the only thing that remains of those anMajestate locum, el sacro implevere timore.

cient and becoming vestments, which God commanded to Punicor. lib. lii. ver. 17–31.

be made for glory and beauty. Clothing emblematical of This is such a remarkable case, that I think myself jus- office, is of more consequence than is generally imagined. tified in quoting it at length, as an extraordinary monu Were the great officers of the crown, and the great officers ment, though corrupted, of the tabernacle and its service. of justice, to clothe themselves like the common people, It is probable that the original founders had consecrated when they appear in their public capacity, both their persons this temple to the true God, under the name of SN EL, the and their decisions would be soon held in little estimation. strong God, or 123 SN EL GIBBOR, the strong, prevailing, Verse 3. Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom) and viclorious God, Isai. ix. 5. out of whom the Greeks So we find that ingenuity in arts and sciences, even those and Romans made their Hercules, or god of strength: of the ornamental kind, comes from God. It is not intiand to make it agree with this appropriation, the labours mated here, that these persons were filled with the spirit of Hercules were sculptured on the doors of this temple at of wisdom for this purpose only; for the direction to Gades.

Moses is, to select those whom he found to be expert

artists ; and those who were such, God shows, by these Anguibus Hydra jacet, &c. &c.

words, had derived their knowledge from himself. Every

man should be permitted, as far as possible, to follow the NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVIII.

bent or direction of his own genius, when it evidently Verse l. Aaron-and his sons) The priesthood was leads him to new inventions, and improvements on old to be restrained to this family, because the public worship plans. How much has the labour both of men and cattle wus to be confined to one place; and previously to this, the been lessened, by improvements in machinery! And can eldest in every family officiated as priest, there being no we say that the wisdom which found out these improvesettled place of worship. It has been very properly ob ments, did not come from God? No man by course of served, that if Moses had not acted by the divine appoint- reading, or study, ever acquired a genius of this kind: ment, he would not have passed by his own family, which we call it natural, and say it was born with the man: continued in the condition of ordinary Levites; and estab Moses teaches us to consider it as divine. Who taught lished the priesthood, the only dignity in the nation, in the NEWTON to ascertain the laws by which God governs the family of his brother Aaron.' "The priests, however, had universe; through which discovery, a new source of profit no power of a secular nature ; nor does it appear from and pleasure has been opened to mankind, through every history, that they ever arrived at any, till the time of the part of the civilized world? No reading, no study, no exAsmoneans or Maccabees.” See the note on chap. xix. 22. ample, formed his genius. God, who made him, gave

Verse 2. For glory and for beauty] Four articles of him that compass and bent of mind, by which he made dress were prescribed for the priests in ordinary; and four those discoveries; and for which his name is celebrated in more for the high priest. Those for the priests in general, the earth. When I see Napier inventing the logarithms; were a coat, druvoers, a girdle, and a bonnet. Besides COPERNICUS, Des Cartes, and KEPLER, contributing to these, the high priest had a robe, an ephod, a breastplate, pull down the false systems of the universe; and NEWTON and a plate or diadem of gold on his forehead. The gar- demonstrating the true one ; and when I see the long list ments, says the sacred historian, were for honour and for of PATENTEES of useful inventions, by whose industry and beauty. They were emblematical of the office in which skill, long and tedious processes in the necessary arts of they ministered. 1. It was honourable. They were the life have been shortened, labour greatly lessened, and ministers of the Most High; and employed by him in much time and expense saved; I then see, with Moses, transacting the most important concerns between God and men who are wise-hearted, whom God has filled with the his people; concerns in which all the attributes of the spirit of wisdom for these very purposes ; that he might Divine Being were interested, as well as those which re- hold man by man, and that as time rolls on, he might give ferred to the present and eternal happiness of his creatures. to his intelligent creatures, such proofs of his being, infi2. They were for beauty. They were emblematical of nitely varied wisdom, and gracious providence, as should that holiness and purity which ever characterise the Divine cause them to depend on him, and give him that glory Nature, and the worship which is worthy of him; and which is due to his name. which are essentially necessary to all those who wish to How pointedly does the prophet Isaiah refer to this sort serve him in the beauty of holiness here below; and with of teaching, as coming from God, even in the most comout which none can ever see his face in the realms of glory. mon, and less difficult arts of life. The whole passage is Should not the garments of all those who minister in holy worthy of the reader's most serious attention. things still be emblematical of the things in which they “Doth the ploughman plough all day to sow? doth he minister? Should they not be for glory and beauty, ex open and break the clods of his ground? When he hath pressive of the dignity of the Gospel ministry, and that made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the beauty of holiness, without which none can see the Lord ? fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal As the high priest's vestments, under the law, were em- whear, and the appointed barley, and the rye, in their blernatical of what was to come, should not the vestments place? For his God doth INSTRUCT HIM to discretion, of the ministers of the Gospel bear some resemblance to and doth teach him. For the fitches are not threshed what is come? Is then the dismal black, now worn by with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart-wheel turnalmost all kinds of priests and ministers, for glory and ed about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out beauty? Is it emblematical of any thing that is good, glo- with a staff, and the cummin with a rod. Bread corn is rious, or excellent? How unbecoming of the glad tidings bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor announced by Christian ministers, is a colour, emble- break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his matical of nothing but mourning and 100, sin, desolation, horsemen. This also cometh forth from the Lord of and death? How inconsistent the habit and office of these hosts, who is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in work. men ? Shwuld it be said, " these are only shadows, and are l ing." See Isai. xxviii. 24–29.

14 And these are the garments which they work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purshall make; "a breast-plate, and an ephod, and ple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. •a robe, and da broidered coat, a mitre, and a 9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and girdle: and they shall make holy garments for grave on them the names of the children of IsAaron thy brother, and his sons that he may rael: minister unto me in the priest's office.

10 Six of their names on one stone, and the 5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and pur- other six names of the rest, on the other stone, ple, and scarlet, and fine linen:

according to their birth. 6 T And they shall make the ephod of gold,

11 With the work of an engraver in stone, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou entwined linen, with cunning work.

grave the two stones with the names of the ? It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof, children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall set in ouches of gold. be joined together.

12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon 8 And the curious girdle of the ephod, which the shoulders of the ephod for stones of meis upon it, shall be of the same, according to the morial unto the children of Israel: and b Aaron

10r, einbroidered. Ch. 39. 20. Isai. 11. 5. Rev. 1. 13. Wisd. 18. 24.– Ve. 23.

a Ver. 15.- Ver. 6.c Ver. 31.- Ver. 39. Exod. 29. 2-21.-e Ch. 39. 2,

4, 27, 2

Ch. 39. 7.

arms.

This principle, that God is the author of all arts and reached down to the feet, not made of two distinct pieces, sciences, is too little regarded : Every good gift, and but was one entire long garment, woven throughout. This every perfect gift, says St. James, comes from above, was immediately under the ephod. See on ver. 31, &c. from the Father of lights. Why has God constructed Broidered coat] pawn nang cetonet tashbets, what every part of nature with such a profusion of economy and Parkhurst translates a close straight coat or garment :skill, if he intended this skill should never be discovered according to Josephus, "a tunic circumscribing, or closely by man, or that man should not attempt to examine his encompassing the body, and having tight sleeves for the works in order to find them out? From the works of

This was immediately under the mêil or robe, CREATION, what proofs, astonishing and overwhelming and answered the same purpose to the priests, that our proofs, both to believers and infidels, have been drawn both shirts do to us. See on ver. 13. of the nature, being, attributes, and providence of God! Mitre) nouso mitsnepheth. As this word comes from What demonstrations of all these have the Archbishop of the root 993 tsanaph, to roll, or urap round, it evidently Cambray, Dr. Nieuwentyt, Dr. Derham, and Mr. Charles means that covering of the head so universal in the easiBonney given in their philosophical works! And who ern countries, which we call turband or turbant, corgave those men this wisdom? GOD, from whom alone rupted from the Persian Jiwo doolbend, which signiMIND, and all its attributes proceed. While we see fies what encompasses and binds the head or body; and Count de Buffon and Swammerdam examining and hence is applied not only to this corering of the head, but tracing out all

the curious relations, connexions, and laws to a sash in general. As the Persian word is compounded of the ANIMAL kingdom: Tournefort, Ray and Linné, of dool or dawal, a rerolution, vicissitude, icheel, those of the VEGETABLE ;— Theophrastus, Werner, Kla- &c. and uclis binden, to bind ; it is very likely that proth, Cronstedt, Morveau, Reaumur, Kirwan, and a the Hebrew words 97 dur, to go round and a benet, a host of philosophical chemists, Boerhaave, Boyle, Stahl, band, may have been the original of doolbend and turbant. Priestley, Lavoisier, Fourcroy, and Black, those of the The turbant consists generally of two parts, the cap MINERAL ;--the discoveries they have made, the latent and which goes on the head; and the long sash, of musiin, important properties of vegetables and minerals which linen, or silk, that is wrapped round the head. These they have developed, the powerful machines which through sashes are generally several yards in length. their discoveries have been constructed, by the operations A girdle] WIN abnet, á belt or girdle: see before. of which the human slave is restored to his own place in This seems to have been the same kind of sash or girdle, society, the brute saved from his destructive toil' in our so common in the eastern countries, that confined the manufactories, and inanimate, un feeling NATURE caused loose garments about the waist; and in which their long to perform the work of all these better, more expeditiously, skirts were tucked up, when they were employed in work, and to much more profit, shall we not say, that the hand or on a journey. After being tied round the waist, the of GOD is in all this ? He alone girded those eminent two ends of it fell down before, to the skirts of their men, though many of them knew him not; he inspired robes. them with wisdom and understanding; by his all-pervad Verse 8. The curious girdle of the ephod) The word ing and all-informing, Spirit, he opened to them the en own chosheb, rendered here curious girdle, signifies trance of the paths of the depths of science; guided them merely a kind of diaper or embroidered work; see the in their researches; opened to them successively, more and note on chap. xxvi. 1. and is widely different from man more of his astonishing treasures ; crowned their perse- abnet, which is properly translated girdle, ver. 4. The vering industry with his blessing, and made them his meaning, therefore, of the text, according to some, is this, ministers for good to mankind. The antiquary and the that the two pieces, ver. 7. which connected the parts of medalist are also his agents: their discernment and pene- the ephod at the shoulders, where the onyx stones were tration come from him alone. By them, how many dark set, should be of the same texture with the ephod itself

, ages of the world have been brought to light, how many i. é. of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, names of men and places, how many customs and arts embroidered together. But others suppose, that some that were lost, restored! And by their means, a few busts, kind of girdle is meant, different from the abnet, ver. 39. images, stones, bricks, coins, rings, and culinary uten being only of plain workmanship: sils, the remaining wrecks of long passed numerous cen Verse 9. Two onyx stones] See on chap. xxv. 7. turies, have supplied the place of written documents, and Verse 11. Like the engravings of a signet] So, sig. cast a profusion of light on the history of man, and the nets or seals were in use at this time, and engraving on history of providence ! And let me add, that the provi- prccious stones, was then an art ; and this art, which was dence which preserved these materials, and raised up men one of the most elegant and ornamental, was carried, in to decipher and explain them, is, itself, gloriously illus- ancient times, to a very high pitch of perfection, and partrated by them.

ticularly among the ancient Greeks; such a pitch of of all those men, and the noble list might be greatly perfection, as has never been rivalled, and cannot now be swelled, we may say the same that Moses said of Bezaleel even well imitated. And it is very likely, that the Greeks and Aholiab. GOD hath filled them with the Spirit of themselves borrowed this art from the ancient Hebrews, God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in know as we know it flourished in Egypt and Palestine, long ledge ; and in all manner of workmanship, lo devise before it was known in Greece. cunning works; to work in Gold, and in silver, and in Verse 12. Aaron shall bear their names before the BRAss, in cutting of STONES, CARVING of Timber, and Lord] He was to consider, that he was the representain ALL MANNER of WORKMANSHIP. Chap. xxxi. 3-6. tive of the children of Israel: and the stones on the The works of the Lord are great ; sought out of all ephod, and the stones on the breastplate, were for a methem that have pleasure therein. Psal. cxi. 2.

morial, to put Aaron in remembrance, that he was the Verse 4. Breastplate) ion choshen. See on chap. xxv. 7. priest and mediator of the twelve tribes; and, speaking Ephod) DN See the note on chap. xxv. 7.

after the manner of men, God was to be put in mind of Robel suyo mêil, from my âlah, to go up, go upon;

the children of Israel, their wants, &c. as frequently as hence the mêil may be considered as an upper coat, a the high priest appeared before him with the breastplate surtoul. It is described by Josephus as a garment that I and the ephod. - See ver. 29.

shall bear their names before the LORD, upon chains at the ends of wreathen work, of pure his two shoulders, i for a memorial.

gold. 13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold; 23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate 14 And two chains of pure gold at the ends ; Ptwo rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings of wreathen work shalt thou make them, and on the two ends of the breastplate. fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches. 24 And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains

15 | And thou shalt make the breast-plate of gold in the two rings, which are on the ends of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the breastplate. of the ephod thou shalt make it ; of gold, of 25 And the other two ends of the two 9 wreathblue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine en chains, thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, twined linen, shalt thou make it.

and put them on the shoulder pieces r of the ephod 16 Foursquare it shall be, being doubled; a before it. span shall be the length thereof, and a span 26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and shall be the breadth thereof.

thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the 17 1 And thou shalt " set in it settings of stones, breastplate, in the border thereof, which is in even four rows of stones: the first row shall be the side of the ephod, inward. a "sardius, a topaz, a carbuncle: this shall be 27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt the first row.

make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the 18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a ephod, underneath, toward the forepart thereof, sapphire, and a diamond.

over against the other coupling thereof, above 19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and the curious girdle of the ephod. an amethyst.

28 And they shall bind ihe breastplate by the 20 And the fourth row a bery!, and an onyx, rings thereof, unto the rings of the ephod with a and a jasper : they shall be set in gold in their lace of blue, 'that it may be above the curious • inclosings.

girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be 21 And the stones shall be with the names of not loosed from the ephod. the children of Israel, twelve, according to 29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the their names, like the engravings of a signet; children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment, every one with his name shall they be according upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy to the twelve tribes.

place, for a memorial before the LORD con22 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate, tinually. I See Jout. 4. 7. Zech 6 14.-k Ch 39. 8. – Ch 39. 10, &c.—um Heb. Fill it in

Alings of stone.

a Or, ruby.-o Heb. Fillings - Ch. 5. 11-15.- Ch. 28. 14. & 39. 15.-r Ch. X.

7, 25. & 39. L- Ver. 12

Verse 13. Ouches of gold) nøp mishebetsoth, strait position. As it is difficult to ascertain in every case, what places, sockets to insert the stones in, from paw shabats, to these precious stones were, it may be necessary to consider close, inclose, straiten. Socket, in this place, would be a this subject more at large. more proper translation, as ouch cannot be traced up to 1. A SARDIUS, O'N odem, from the root adam, he was any legitimate authority: It appears sometimes to signify ruddy, the ruby, a beautiful gem of a fine deep red colour. a hook, or some mode of attaching things together. The sardius, or sardie stone, is defined to be a precious

Verse 15. The breastplate of judgment] WaVo yun stone of a blood red colour, the best of which come from choshen mishpat, the same as the un choshen, see chap. Babylon. xxv. 7. but here called the breastplate of judgment, because 2. A TOPAZ, 1770D pitdah, a precious stone of a pale dead the high priest wore it upon his breast, when he went to ask green, with a mixture of yellow; sometimes of a fine yelcounsel of the Lord, to give judgment in any particular low, and hence it was called chrysolite, by the ancients, case. As also when he sat as judge to teach the law, and from its gold colour. It is now considered by mineraloto determine controversies. See Lev. x. 11. Deut. xvii. 8, 9. gists as a variety of the sapphire.

Verse 16. Foursquare shall it be] Here we have the 3. CARBUNCLE, npa bareket, from pa barak, to lighten, exact dimensions of this breastplate

, or more properly glitter, or glister, a very elegant gem of a deep red colour, breast-piece, or stomach It was a span in length and with an admixture of scarlet. From its bright lively cobreadth when doubled, and consequently two spans long, lour, it had the name carbunculus, which signifies a little one way, before it was doubled. Between these doublings, coal; and among the Greeks veze, anthrax, a coal, beit is supposed, the Urim and Thummim were placed cause when held before the sun it appears like a piece of See on ver. 30.

bright burning charcoal. It is found only in the East Verse 17. Four rows of stones) With a name on each Indies, and there but rarely. stone, making in all, the twelve names of the twelve 4. EMERALD, 703 nophec, the same with the ancient tribes. And as these were disposed according to their Smaragdus; it is one of the most beautiful of all the birth, ver. 10. we may suppose they stood in this order, gems, and is of a bright green colour without any other the stones being placed also in the order in which they are mixture. The true oriental emerald is very scarce, and is produced, ver. 17-20.

only found at present in the kingdom of Cambay. FIRST ROW.

5. SAPPHIRE, Yoo saphir. See this described, chap. upon a was engraven

xxiv. ver. 10. Sardius or Ruby Reuben

6. DIAMOND, ob. yahalom, from oso halam, to beat, or Topaz Simeon

smite upon ; the diamond is supposed to have this name Carbuncle Levi

from its resistance to a blow, for the ancients have assured

us, that if it be struck with a hammer, upon an anvil, it upon an

was engraven

-Sons of Leah. I will not break, hut either break them, or sink into the surEmerald Judah

face of that which is softest. This is a complete fable; as Sapphire Issachar

it is well known that the diamond can be easily broken, Diamond Zebulun

and is capable of being entirely volatilized or consumed by THIRD ROW.

the action of fire. It is however the hardest, as it is the upon a was engraven

most valuable of all the precious stones hitherto discovered, Ligure or Jasyncth Dan 17 Sons of Bilhah, and one of the most inflammable substances in nature. Agate

Naphthali SnDs Rachel's maid. 7. LIGURE, ov'y leshem, the same as the jasyncth or Amethyst Gad

hyacinth, a precious stone of a dead red colour, with a con

Sons of Zilpah, siderable mixture of yellow. upon a was engraven

Leah's maid. 8. AGATE, 19v shebo, this is a stone that assumes such a Beryl or Chrysolite Asher

variety of hues and appearances, that Mr. Parkhurst thinks Onyx or Sardonyx Joseph 70Sons of Rachel.

it derives its name from the root av shab, to turn, to change, Jasper Benjamin )

"as from the circumstance of the agate changing its ap: In this order, the Jews in general agree to place them ; pearance without end, it might be called the varier." see the Jerusalem Targum on this place; and the Tar- | Agates are met with so variously figured in their substance, gum upon Canticles v. 14. and see also Ainsworth. The that they seem to represent the sky, the stars, clouds, earth, Fargum of Jonathan says, "these four rows were placed water, rocks, villages, birds, trees, flowers, men, and aniopposite to the four quarters of the world;" but this could mals of different kinds. Agates have a white, reddish, yelonly be when laid down horizontally, for when it hung on lowish or greenish ground. They are only varieties of the the breast of the high priest, it could have had no such fiint, and he love in value of all the precious stones, VOL. I.-36

291

ראובן שמעין ליי

SECOND ROW.

יהודה יש שכר

זבולן

גר

FOURTH ROW.

אשר

30 | And · thou shalt put in the breastplate | in before the LORD: "and Aaron shall bear the of judgment, the Urim and the Thummim; and judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart, they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth | betore the Lord continually.

t Lev. S. & Nunib. 27. 21. Deut. 33. 8. 1 Sam. 23. 6. Ezra 2. 63.

Yeh. 7. 65. Ecclus. 45. 10.-u Zech. 6. 13. 2 Cor. 7. 3. Heb. 2. 17.

9. AMETHYST, 2 box achelamah, a gem generally of a what manner, he was thus consulted, appears in none. purple colour, composed of a strong blue and deep red. 7. This mode of consultation, whatever it was, does not The orientol amethijst is of a dore colour, though some are appear to have been in use from the consecration of Solopurple, and others white like diamonds. The name ame mon's temple, to the time of its destruction; and after its thyst is Greek, aus Burtos, and it was so called, because it destruction, it is never once mentioned. Hence the Jews was supposed that it prevented inebriation.

say, that the fire following things, which were in the first 10. The Beryl, winnn tarshish. Mr. Parkhurst derives temple, were wanting in the second. "1. The ark with this name from antar, to go round, and vw shas, to be the mercy-seat, and cherubim. 2. The fire which came ririd or bright in colour. If the beryl be intended, it is a down from heaven. 3. The Shechinah, or divine presence. pellucid gem of a bluish green colour, found in the East 4. The Holy Spirit, i. e. the gift of prophecy. 5. And the Indies, and about the gold mines of Peru. But some of Urim and Thummim." the most learned mineralogists and critics suppose the 8. As the word ons urim signifies Lights, and the word chrysolite to be ineant: this is a gem of a yellowish green d'on thummim PERFECTIONS; they were probably designed colour, and ranks at present among the topazes. Its name, to point out the light, the abundant information in epiin Greek, chrysolite, Zguronoges, literally signifies the golden ritual things, afforded by the wonderful revelation which slone.

God made of himself by, and under the law; and the per11. The Onyx, onu shoham. See the notes on Gen. ii. fection, entire holiness, and strict conformity to himself, 12. Exod. xxv. 1. There are a great number of different which this dispensation required; and which are introsentiments on the meaning of the original; it has been duced and accomplished by that dispensation of light and translated beryl, emerald, prasius, sapphire, sardius, truth, the GOSPEL, which was prefigured and pointed out ruby, carnelian, onyx, and sardonyx. It is likely that the by the law, and its sacrifices, &c. and in this light the nanie may signify both the onyx and sardonyx. This lat- subject has been viewed by the Vulgate, where the words ter stone is a nixture of the chalcedony and carnelian, are translated Doctrina ei Veritas, doctrine and truth; a Bometimes in strata, at other times blended together, and system of leaching, proceeding from truth itself. The is found striped with white and red strata, or layers. It is Septuagint translate the original by öndvoos xz: ahmso-s, the generally allowed, that there is no real difference, except manifestation and the truth; meaning probably the maniin the degree of hardness, between the ony.x, carnelian, festation which God made of himself to Moses and the chalcedony, sardonyr, and agate. It is well known thai Israelites, and the truth which he had revealed to them

; the ony.r is of a darkish horny colour, resembling the hoof of which this breastplate should be a continual memorial. or nail, from which circumstance it has its name. It has All the other versions express nearly the same things, often a plate of a bluish white or red in it, and when on and all refer to intellectual and spiritual subjects, such as one or both sides of this white, there appears a plate of a light, truth, manifestation, doctrine, perfection, &e. &c. rcddish colour, the jewellers, says Woodward, call the not one of them supposing that any thing material is intendstone a sardonyx.

ed. The Samaritan text is however different: it adds here 12. Jasper, 100* yashpch. The similarity of the He a whole clause not found in the Hebrew: Ameusz brew name has determined most critics and mineralogists wmp AB HAR 2079 x tf veâsita et hato adopt the jasper, as intended by the original word. The urim de ei ha-tummim, Thou shall make the Urim and jasper is usually defined, a hard stone, of a bright bcau the Thummim. If this reading be admitted, the Urim tiful green colour; sometimes clouded with white, and and Thummim were manufactured on this occasion, as spotted with red or yellono. Mineralogists reckon not less well as the other articles. However it be, they are inde that fifteen varieties of this stone, 1. green, 2. red, 3. yel- scribable and unknown. low, 4. brown, 5. violet, 6. black, 7. bluish gray, 8. milky The manner in which the Jews suppose that the inquiry white, 9. variegated with green, red, and yellow clouds, was made by Urim and Thummim, is the following: 10. green, with red speche, 11. reined with various co “When they inquired, the priest stood with his face before lours, apparently in the form of letters, 12. with rariously, the ark; and he that inquired, stood behind him, with his coloured zoncs, 13. with rarious colours, mixed without face to the back of the priest. And the inquirer said, Shall any order, 14. with many colours together, 15. mixed with I go up? or, Shall I not go up? And forthwith the Holy particles of agate.

Ghost came upon the priest, and he beheld the breastplate, In examining what has been said on these different pre- and saw therein, by the vision of prophecy, Go up, or, Go cious stones, by the best critics, I have adopted such ex not up, in the letters which showed forth themselves upon planations, as appeared to me to be best justified by the the breastplate, before his face." See Numb. xxvii. 18, 21. meaning and use of the original words; but I cannot say | Judg. i. 1. xx. 19, 28. 1 Sam. xxiii. 9–12. xxviii. 6. And that the stones which I have described are precisely those see Ainsirorth. intended by the terms in the Hebrew text; nor can I take It was the letters that formed the names of the turelce upon me to assert that the tribes are arranged exactly in tribes upon the breastplate, which the Jews suppose, were the manner intended by Moses; for as these things are not used in a miraculous way, to give answers to the inquirers. laid down in the tert, in such a way as to preclude all Thus when David consulted the Lord whether he should mistake, some things must be left to conjecture. Of several go into a city of Judea, three letters which constituted the of these stones many fabulous accounts are given by the word aby âlah, Go, rose up, or became prominent in the ancients, and indeed by the moderns also: these I have in

names on the breasiplate; s ain from the name of Simeon, general omitted, because they are fabulous; as also all 5 lamed from the name of Leri, and he from the name spiritual meanings, which others have found so plentifully of Judah. But this supposition is without proof. in each stone, because I consider some of thein puerile, all Among the Egyptians, a breastplate, something like that futilc, and not a few dangerous.

of the Jewish high priest, was worn by the president of Verse 30. Thou shalt put in the breastplate-the URIM the courts of justice.' Diodorus Siculus has these words, and THUMMIM] What these were, has, I believe, never Εφορει δ'ουτος περί τον τραχηλον εκ χρυσης αλυσε ας ήρτημεναν yet been discovered. 1. They are nowhere described. <wbrov TWY TOMUTIAW 405wx, o p3809 pivor AA HOETAN. 2. There is no direction given to Moses, or any other, how bore about his neck a golden chain, at which hung an imto make them. 3. Whatever they were, they do not appear age set about or composed of precious stones, which was to have been made on this occasion. 4. If they were the called TRUTH.” Bib. Hist. lib. 1. chap. lxxv, p. 225. work of man at all, they must have been articles in the And he farther adds, "that as soon as the president put ancient tabernacle, matters used by the patriarchs, and not this gold chain about his neck, the legal proceedings comhere particularly described, because well known. 5. It is menced, but not before. And that when the case of the probable that nothing material is designed. This is the plaintiff and defendant had been fully and fairly heard, the opinion of some of the Jewish doctors. Rabbi Menachem president turned the image of truth, which was hung to on this chapter says, "The Urim and Thummim were the golden chain round his neck, towards the person whose not the work of the artificer; neither had the artificers, nor cause was found to be just,” by which he seemed to intithe congregation of Israel in them any work, or any volun mate that truth was on his side. tary offering: but they were a mystery delivered to Moses Ælian in his Hist. Var. lib. xxxiv. gives the same acfrom the mouth of God; or they were the work of God count. “The chief justice, or president, he says, “ was himself; or a measure of the Holy Spirit.” 6. That God always a priest, of a venerable age, and acknowledged was often consulted by Urim and Thummim, is sulti- probity. Eixo 8o xzo egoed us aseo Toy auxi** "******pte cicntly evident from several Scriptures; but how, or in 12.08.2, X20 528X1150 nyanya AAHOEIA, That he had an image

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