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9 Ye shall offer no i strange incense thereon, 16 And thou shalt take the atonement money nor burnt-sacrifice, nor meat-oilering; neither of the children of Israel, and w shalt appoint it shall ye pour drink-offering thereon.

for the service of the tabernacle of the congre10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon gation; that it may be *a memorial unto the the horns of it, once in a year, with the blood of children of Israel before the LORD, to make an the sin-offering of atonements : once in the year atonement for your souls. shall he make atonement upon it, throughout 17 | And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, your generations: it is most holy unto the LORD. 18 y Thou shalt also make a laver of brass,

11 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and 12 "When thou takest the sum of the children thou shalt 2 put it between the tabernacle of the of Israel after mtheir number, then shall they congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put give every man, a ransom for his soul unto the water therein. LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be 19 For Aaron and his sons a shall wash their

plague among them, when thou numberest hands and their feet thereat: them.

20 When they go into the tabernacle of the 13 " This they shall give, every one that pass- congregation, they shall wash with water, that eth among them that are numbered, half a shekel they die not; or when they come near to the after the shekel of the sanctuary : ('a shekel is altar to minister, to burn offering, made by fire twenty gerahs:) " a half shekel shall be the offer- unto the LORD: ing of the LORD.

21 So they shall wash their hands and their 14 Every one that passeth among them that feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute are numbered, from twenty years old and above, for ever to them, even to him and to his seed shall give an offering unto the Lord.

throughout their generations. 15 The rich shall not give more, and the 22 | Moreover the Lord spake unto Moses, poor shall not give less than half a shekel, saying, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to 23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, make an atonement for your souls.

of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of

no 0

d

i Lev. 10. 1.--k Lev. 16. 18.& 23. 27.-1 Ch 38. 25. Numb. 1. 2,5 & 26 2 2 Sam. 24. 2.-m Heb. then that are to be numbered: See Numb. 31. 50.-n Job 33. 24. & 36. 18. Pwa. 49. 7. Matt. 20. 2. Mark 10. 15. I Tim. 26. 1 Pet. 1. 19, 19.- 2 Sam. 24. 15.-- Matt. 17. 21. - Lev. 27. 25. Numb. 3. 47. Ezek 15. 12-r Ch. 38. 26.

s Job 31. 19. Prov. 22 2 Epher. 6. 9. Col. 3. 25.- Het multiply - Wets. diminish -y Ver. 12.-w Ch. 39. 25.-x Numb. 16. 40.-5 Ch 34. 8. i Kings 7.34 z Ch 40. 7,30.-a Ch. 40. 31, 32 Ps. 26. 6. Isai. 52. 11. Jolin 13. 10. Hebr. 10. 22 b Ch. 28. 13.-C Cant 4. 14. Ezek. 27. 22.- Pea. 45. & Prov. 7. 17.

way.

pleasing perfume to counteract the disagreeable smells that 1 Pet. i. 18, 19, 20. 9. Therefore all these things seem to must have arisen from the slaughter of so many animals, refer to Christ alone, and to the atonement made by his the sprinkling of so much blood, and the burning of so blood; and upon him who is not interested in this alonemuch flesh, &c. The perfume that was to be burnt on this ment, God's plagues must be expected to fall. ---Reader, altar is described, ver. 34. No blood was ever sprinkled acquaint now thyself with God, and be at peace; and on this altar, except on the day of general expiation, which thereby good shall come unto thee. happened only once in the year, ver. 10. But the perfume Verse 18. A larer of brass] 19 ciyor, sometimes sig. was necessary in every part of the tabernacle and its en nifies a cauldron, 1 Sam. ii. 16. but it seems to signify any virons.

large round vessel or basin used for washing the hands and Verse 9. No strange incense] None made in any other feet. There were doubtless cocks or spiggots in it, to draw

off the water, as it is not likely the feet were put into it in Nor burnt-sacrifice] It should be an altar for incense, order to be washed. The foot of the laver must mean the and for no other use.

pedestal on which it stood. Verse 10. An atonement-once in a year] On the tenth Verse 20. They shall wash with water, that they die day of the seventh month.-See Lev. xvi. 18, &c. and the not] This was certainly an emblematical washing; and notes there.

as the hands and the feet are particularly mentioned, it Verse 12. Then shall they give every man a ransom for must refer to the purity of their whole conduct. Their his soul] This was a very important ordinance, and should hands, all their works; their feet, all their goings, must be be seriously considered.-See the following verse. washed, must be holiness unto the Lord. And this washing

Verse 13. Half a shekel] Each of the Israelites was must be repeated every time they entered into the taberordered to give, as a ransom for his soul, (i. e. for his life,) nacle

, or when they came near to the altar to minister. half a shekel, according to the shekel of the sanctuary. This washing was needful, because the priests all minis. From this we may learn, 1. That the life of every man tered barefoot ; but it was equally so, because of the guilt was considered as being forfeited to Divine Justice. 2. That they might have contracted, for the washing was emblemthe redemption-money given, which was doubtless used in atical of the putting away of sin, or what St. Paul calls the service of the sanctuary, was ultimately devoted to the the laver of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy use and profit of those who gave it. 3. That the standard Ghost, Tit. . 5. as the influences of the Spirit must be by which the value of coin was ascertained, was kept in repeated for the purification of the soul, as frequently as the sanctuary: for this appears to be the meaning of the any moral defilement has been contracted. words after the shekel of the sanctuary. 4. The shekel is Verse 21. And it shall be a statute for ever] To conhere said to be twenty gerahs. A gerah, according to Mai tinue, in its literal meaning, as long as the Jewish economy monides, weighed sixteen barley-corns; a shekel, three lasted; and, in its spiritual meaning, to the end of time. hundred and twenty of pure silver. The shekel is gene What an important lesson does this teach the ministers of rally considered to be equal in value to three shillings the Gospel of Christ! Each time they minister in public, English; the redemption-money, therefore, must be about whether in dispensing the WORD or the SACRAMENTS, they one shilling and sixpence. 5. The rich were not to give should take heed that they have a fresh application of the more; the poor not to give less. To signify that all souls grace and Spirit of Christ, to do away past transgressions were equally precious in the sight of God; and that no or unfaithfulness, and to enable them to minister with the difference of outward circumstances could affect the state greater effect, as being in the divine favour, and conseof the soul; all had sinned; and all must be redeemed by quently entitled to expect all the necessary assistances of the the same price. 6. This atonement must be made, that divine unction, to make their ministrations spirit and life there might be no plague among them ; intimating, that to the people.--Sce on chap. xxix. ver. 20. a plague or curse from God, must light on those souls for Verse 23. Take--unto thee principal spices) From this whom the atonement was not made. 7. This was to be a and the following verse we learn, that the holy anointing memorial unto the children of Israel, ver. 16. to bring to oil was compounded of the following ingredients: their remembrance their past deliverance, and to keep in view their future redemption. 8. St. Peter seems to al

( 500 shekels.—Myrrh is lude to this, and to intimate that this mode of atonement

the produce of an oriwas ineffectual in itself, and only pointed out the great

ental tree not well sacrifice, which, in the fulness of time, should be made for

known, and is colthe sin of the world. Ye know, says he, that ye were not

lected by making an redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, Pure myrrh, 1770 mar deror

incision in the tree. from your rain conrcrsation, received by tradition from

What is now called your fathers; but with the precious blood Christ, as of a

by this name, is prelamb without blemish and without spot: who verily uras

cisely the same with fore-ordained before the foundation of the world, &c.

that of the ancients.

sweet cinnamon hall so much, eren two hundred | whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, and fifty shekels, and of sweet e calamus two P shall even be cut off from his people. hundred and fifty shekels.

31 | And the Lord said unto Moses, 9 Take 24 And of 'cassia five hundred shekels, after unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and the shekel of the sanctuary, and ofoil olive a shin: galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frank

25 And thou shalt make it an oil of holy oint- incense: of each shall there be a like weight: ment, an ointment compound after the art of the 35 And thou shalt make it a perfume, a conapothecary: it shall be i a holy anointing oil. fection after the art of the apothecary, • tem

26 < And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of pered together, pure and holy: the congregation therewith, and the ark of the 36 And thou shalt beat some of it very small, testimony,

and put of it before the testimony in the taber27 And the table and all his vessels, and the nacle of the congregation, “where I will meet candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of in- with thee: uit shall be unto you most holy. cense,

37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt 28 And the altar of burnt-offering with all his make, 'ye shall not make to yourselves accordvessels, and the laver and his foot.

ing to the composition thereof: it shall be unto 29 And thou shalt sanctify them, that they thee holy for the Lord. may be most holy: 'whatsoever toucheth them 38 w Whosoever shall make like unto that, to shall be holy.

smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his 30 - And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his people. sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me the priest's office.

CHAPTER XXXI.

Bezaleel appointed for the work of the tabernacle, 1–5. 31 And thou shalt speak unto the children of

Aholiah appointed for the

kame, 6. The particular things on which they were to be employed, the ark and Israel, saying, This shall be a holy anointing oil mercy-seat, 7 " Table, candlestick, and allar of incense, & Altar of burnt-offer.

ing, and the laver, 9. 'Pricst's garments, 10. Anointing oil, and sweet incense, unto me, throughout your generations.

11. God renews the command relative to the sanctification of the Sabbath, 12-17. 32 Upon man's fesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any other like it, after the ND the Lord spake unto Moses, an. Exod. br. holy unto you.

2 * See, I have called by name Bezaleel the 33 • Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or y son of Uri, the son of Hur of the tribe of Judah:

Delivers to Moses the two tables of stone, 18.

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e Cant. 4. 11. Jer. 6. 2.- Pea. 45. &-& Ch. 29. 40.-- Or, perfumer.-i Ch. 37. 9. Xankb. 35.5 P. 99. . & 133 2.-k Ch 40.9. Lev. & 10. Numb. 7. 1. 1 Ch. 3. 37.-In Ch. 2. 7, &c. Lev. 8. 12, 30.-n Ver. 25, 37.- Ver. 38.

Gen. 17. 14. Ch. 12 15. Lev. 7. 20, 21.-- Ch. 25. 6. & 37. 29.-r Ver. 25.

.. Ch. . . 3.- Ver. 32-W Ver. 33.- Ch. 35. 30. & 36. 1.-y I Chron. 2. 20.

taste.

lbs. oz dots

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Sweet , kin

juice which proceeds from this plant, is what is commonly naman bosem, (probably from 250 shekels.

called galbanum, from the chelbenah of the Hebrews. Arabia)

FRANKINCENSE pure, pas lebonah zakah. FrankSweet calamus, ova mop keneh

incense is supposed to derive its name from frane, free, bosem, or sweet cane, Jer. vi. 250 shekels.

because of its liberal or ready distribution of its odours. It 20.-Calamus aromaticus Cassia, 17p kidah, (cussia lig- 500 shekels.

is a dry, resinous substance, in pieces or drops of a pale

yellowish white colour, a strong smell, and bitter acrid nea) brought also from Arabia

The tree which produces it is not well known. Olive oil, nypov shemen zayit,

5 quarts.

Dioscorides mentions it as gotten in India. What is callone hin, about .

ed here pure frankincense, is no doubt the same with the

mascula thura of Virgil, and signifies what is first ob500 shekels of the first and last, make 48 4 12 2131 tained from the tree--that which is strongest, and most 250 of the cinnamon and cassia

24 2 6 1031 free from all adventitious mixtures. For the necessity of Olive oil is supposed to be the best preservative of such a perfume as that here described, see the note on ver. 7. odours. As the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit are The Israelites were most strictly prohibited, on the most termed the anointing of the Holy Ghost, therefore this awful penalties, from making any anointing oil or perholy ointment appears to have been designed as emblemati-fume, similar to those described in this chapter. He that cal of those gifts and graces.-See Acts i. 5. x. 38. 2 Cor. should compound such, or apply any of this to any comi. 21. 1 John ii. 20, 27.

mon purpose, even to smell to, ver. 38. should be cut off, Verse 25. After the art of the apothecary] The original that is, excommunicated from his people, and so lose ali npr rokeach signifies a compounder or confectioner-any right, title, and interest in the promises of God, and the reperson who compounds drugs, aromatics, &c.

demption of Israel. From all this, we may learn, how Verse 30. Thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons] For careful the Divine Being is to preserve his own worship the reason of this anointing, see the note on chap. xxix. 7. and his own truth, so as to prevent them from being adulIt seems that this anointing oil was an emblem of divine terated by human inventions: for he will save men in his teaching, and especially of those influences by which the oun ıray, and upon his own terms. What are called huchurch of Christ was, in the beginning, guided into all man inventions in matters of religion, are not only of no truth, as is evident from the allusion to it by St. John, Ye worth, but are, in general, deceptive and ruinous. Arts have an Unction from the Holy One, and ye know all and sciences, in a certain way, may be called inventions of things. The ANOINTING which ye hare received from men; for the spirit of a man knowcth the things of a him abideth in

you,
and

ye need not that any man teach man; can comprehend, plan, and execute, under the you, but as the same ANOINTING teacheth you of all things, general influence of God, every thing in which human life and is TRUTH, and is no lie; and eren as it hath taught is immediately concerned; but religion, as it is the gift, you, ye shall abide in Him, 1 John chap. ii. 20, 21. so it is the invention of God: its doctrines and its ceremos

Verse 34. Take unto thee sweet spiccs] The holy PER nies proceed from his wisdom and goodness—for HE alone FUME was compounded of the following ingredients: could devise the plan by which the human race may be

STACTE, qua nataph, supposed to be the same with what restored to his favour and image, and taught to worship was afterward called the balın of Jericho. Stacte is the him in spirit and in truth. And that worship which Him. gumn which spontaneously flows from the tree which pro- self has prescribed, we may rest assured, will be most duces myrrh. See the note on ver. 23.

pleasing in his sight. Nabab and Abihu offered strange Oxycha, na na shecheleth, allowed by the best critics to fire before the Lord; and their destruction by the fire of be the unguis odoriferans, described by Rumph, which Jehovah, is recorded as a lasting warning to all presumpis the external crust of the shell-fish purpura, or murer ; tuous worshippers, and to all who attempt to model his and is the basis of the principal perfumes made in the East religion according to their own caprice, and to minister in Indies.

sacred things, without that authority which proceeds from GALBANUM, naabn chelbenah, the bubon gummiferum, himself alone. or African serula: it rises with a ligneous stalk from eight

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXI to len feet, and is garnished with leaves at each joint. Verse 2. I have called by name Bezaleel] That is, I The top of the stalk is terminated by an umbel of yellow have particularly appointed this person to be the chief su

floreers, which are succeeded by oblong channelled seeds, perintendent of the whole work. His name is significant, which have a thin membrane or wing on their border: 5wboa betsal-el

, in or under the shadow of God, meaning, When any part of the plant is broken, there issues out a under the especial protection of the Most High. He was little thin milk of a cream colour. The gummy resinous the son of Uri, the son of Hur, the son of Caleb or Calubi, VOL. I.--37

299

3 And I have a filled him with the Spirit of cense for the holy place: according to all that I God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in have commanded thee, shall they do. knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; 12 1 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,

4 To devise cunning works, to work in gold, 13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, and in silver, and in brass,

saying, • Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for 5 And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in it is a sign between me and you throughout your carving of timber, to work in all manner of generations; that ye may know that I am the workmanship,

LORD that dóth sanctify you. 6 And I, behold, I have given with him * Aho 14 p Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore ; for liab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I shall surely be put to death: for whosoever have put wisdom, that they may make all that doth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off I have commanded thee;

from among his people. 7 The tabernacle of the congregation, and 15 - Six days may work be done; but in the d the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat seventh is the sabbath of rest, ' holy to the that is thereupon, and all the f furniture of the Lord: whosoever doeth any work in the sabtabernacle,

bath day, he shall surely be put to death. 8 And s 'the table and his furniture, and the 16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall pure candlestick with all his furniture, and the keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath, altar of incense;

throughout their generations, for a perpetual 9 And i the altar of burnt-offering with all his covenant. furniture, and the laver and his foot,

17 It is wa sign between me and the children 10 And the clothes of service, and the holy of Israel for ever: for "in six days the LORD garments for Aaron the priest, and the gar- made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day inents of his sons, to minister in the priest’s he rested, and was refreshed. office;

19 | And he gave unto Moses, when he had 11 in And the anointing oil, and sweet in- made an end of communing with him upon

2 Ch. 33. 31. 1 Kings 7. 11.- Ch. 35. 31.- Ch. 2. 2 & 35. 10,35. & 36. l. c Ch. 36. 8. - Ch. 37. 1.-e Ch. 37. 6.-? Heb. ressels.8 Ch. 37. 10.-h Ch. 37. 17.-1 Ch 39. 1. - Ch. 33. 8-1 Ch. 39. 1, 41. Numb. 4. 5, 6, &e-m Cl. 30. 25, 31. & 37. 29.

n Ch. 30. 34. & 37. 29.-O Lev. 19. 3, 30. & 26. 2 Ezek. 20. 12, 20 & 4496 p Ch. 10. 8. Deat. 5. 12 Fuck. 2). 12 - Ch. 35. 2 Nui 15 - Ch 1 4 8 Gen 2.2 Ch. 16. 23. & 20. 10.-- Heb. holiness.-u Ver. 13. Ezek. 20. 12, 22. y Gen. 1. 31. & 2 2.

the son of Esron, the son of Pharez, the son of Judah. brightness and splendour of its workmanship, or of the See 1 Chron. ii. 5, 9, 18, 19, 20. and the note on chap. light which it imparted in the tabernacle, as the purest, xvii. 10.

finest oil was always burnt in it. Verse 3. I have filled him with the Spirit of God] See Verse 9. The altar of burnt-offerings] See on chap. the note on chap. xxviii. 3.

xxvii. 1. In wisdom) non chocmah, from our chacam, to be The larer and its foot] The pedestal on which it wise, skilful, or prudent, denoting the compass of mind | stood. and strength of capacity, necessary to form a wise man: Verse 10. Clothes of service] Vestments for the ordibence our word wisdom, the power of judging what is dinary work of their ministry; the holy garments, those wise or best to be done. From the Saxon piran, to teach, which were peculiar to the high priest. to advise, and deman, to judge; hence piredom, the Verse 11. The anointing oil) See on chap. xxx. 23. doom or judy ment of the well taughl, wise, or prudenl Sreet incense] See on chap. xxx. 34. inan.

Verse 13. Nhy sabbaths ye shall keep] See the notes on Understanding an tebunah, from ya, ban or bun, Gen. ii. 3. Exod. xx. 8. to separate, distinguish, discern, capacity to comprehend Verse 14. Erery one that defileth it] By any kind of the different parts of a work, how to connect, arrange, &c. idolatrous or profane worship. in order to make a complete whole.

Shall surely be put to death] The magistrates shall Knowledge) nyi, dùat, denoting particular acquaint-examine into the business, and if the accused be found ance with a person or thing, practical, experimental guilty, he shall be stoned to death. knowledge.

Shall be cut off'] Because that person who could so Verse 4. Cunning work] navno, mechashabot, works for contemn the sabbath, which was a sign to them of the of invention or genius, in the gold and silversmith line. rest which remained for the people of God, was of course

Verse 5. In culling of stones, &c.] Every thing that an infidel, and should be cut off from all the privileges concerned the lapidary's, jerceller's, and carver's art. and expectations of an Israelite.

Verse 6. In 'the hearts of all that are wisehearted I Verse 16. A perpetual covenant.) Because it is a sign have put wisdom) So every man that had a natural of this future rest and blessedness, therefore the religious genius, as we term it, had an increase of wisdom by im. observance of it must be perpetually kept up. The type mediate inspiration from God, so that he knew how to must continue in force till the antitype come. execute the different works which divine wisdom designed Verse 17. Rested, and was refreshed] God, in condefor the tabernacle and its furniture. Dark as were the scension to human weakness, applies to himself here, what heathens, yet they acknowledged that all talents, and the belongs to man. If a man religiously rest on the sabbath, beeds of all arts came from God. Hence Seneca, Insita both his body and soul shall be refreshed: he shall acquire nobis omnium artium semina, magisterquc ex occulto new light and life. Deus producit ingenia.

Verse 18. When he had made an end of com muning) In the same way Homer attributes such curious arts to When the forty days and forty nights were ended. Minerva the goddess of wisdom, and Vulcan the god of Tuo tables of testimony] See on chap. xxiv. 1. handicrafts.

Tables of stone] That the record might be lasting, Ως δ'οτι τις χρυσον περιχευεται αργυρω αν η

because it was a testimony that referred to future genera14 pes, oy Hotos &#825V **• IIxL3*, Agron

tions, and therefore the materials should be durable. Τιχνην παντου ην, χαριεντα δε έγκαι τελι1ει.

Written with the finger of God.] All the letters cut

OlyBut I. vi. v. 232. by God himself. Dr. Winder, in his History of Know-
As by some artist, to whom Vuican gives
His skill dicine, a breathing statne lives;

ledge, thinks it probable that this was the first writing in By Palin laugh, he frames the won'rous mould,

alphabetical characters ever exhibited to the world, though And w'er wie alver poura de fusile gold.

Pope.

there might have been marks or hieroglyphics cut on wood, And all this the wisest of men long before them declar- stone, &c. before this time, see chap. xvii. 14. That these ed; when speaking of the wisdom of God he says, 1, tables were written, not by the commandment but by the Wisdom, dwell with Prudence, and find out knowledge power of God himself, the following passages scem to of witty inventions, Prov. viii. 12. See the note on chap. prove: “And the Lord said unto Moses, come up to me xxviii. 3. to which the reader is particularly desired to into the mountain, and be thou there; and I will give thee refer. There is something remarkable in the name of this tables of stone which I HAVE WRITTEN, that thou mayest second superintendent, 31957X, Aholiab, the tabernacle of teach them." Exod. xxiv. 12. “And he gave unto Mothe father; or the father is my tabernacle; a name nearly ses, upon Mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of similar in its meaning to that of Bezaleel, see the note on verse 1.

stone, WRITTEN WITH THE FINGER OF GOD," chap. xxxi. Verse 8. The purc candlestick] Called so, either be

18. And Moses went down from the mount, and the two

tables of testimony were in his hand; and the tables were cause of the pure gold of which it was made, or the written on both their sides. And the tables were THE

290

to go before them, 1.

Ile builts an altar before it, 5,

mount Sinai, wtwo tables of testimony, tables wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and of stone, written with the finger of God. bring them unto me. CHAPTER XXXII.

3 And all the people brake off the golden earThe Israeliten , finding that Musea Selayed his return, desire Aaroa to make them gole rings which were in their ears, and brought them Aaron consents, an] requires their ornaments, % They de

unto Aaron. Liver then to him, and he takes it moltes call, 3. and the peuple ofter burol toffringa and peace offering, 6. The Lord commands 4 And he received them at their hand, and

, fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had Lord is angry, and threatens to destroy the m, 9, 10. Ms. # interceles for them, 11-13. Anl the Lord prorris's to pare ther, 14 Moses goox down with the made it a molten calf: and they said, These be tables in his bank, 15, 16 Joshua beiring the noise they ma le in their festival, mukes home remuks on it, 17, Morus corning to live camp, and seeing their thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of Idolatrous worship, is greatly diesel, throws down and breaks the two tables, 19. Take the cult, reinees it to povjer, strews it upon water, and cause them

the land of Egypt. te drink it, 2. News expuolate with Aaron, 21 Aaron sindicates himself, 22 5 And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar Me or lers tha lasite to ally the transgresurs, 35-27. They do so, and

Mosesteturns to the Lord on the mour, and maken supplication before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and for the penple, 30–32 God threatens and yet spares, 33 Gormahel pelle auto said, To-morrow is a feast to the Lord. lead the peuple, and promises bim the direction of an angel, 31. The people are plagnou because of their ki, 35.

6 And they rose up early on the morrow, and ND, when the people saw that offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offer

Moses * delayed to come down ings; and the people sat down to eat and to out of the mount, the people gathered themselves drink, and rose up to play. together unto Aaron, and said unto him, y Up, 7 || And the LORD said unto Moses, Go, get make us gods, which shall go before us; thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtfor as for this Moses, the man that brought us est out of the land of Egypt, ' have corrupted up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what themselres: is become of him.

8 They have turned aside quickly out of the 2 And Aaron said unto them, Break off the way which I commanded them: they have *golden ear-rings, which are in the ears of your made them a molten calf, and have worshipped

24
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Ab. Exod. Igr. L.

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w Ch. 21. 12. & 12. 15, 16. & 34. 23, 2. Deut. 4. 13. & 5 22 & 9. 10. 11. 2 Cor. 83-* Cb 94. 18. Deat. 9.9.- Acts 7. 00.-Ch. 13. 21.- Julg. & 21-27. b Ch 22. 23. Deat. 9. 16. Judg. 11.3, 4 i Kings 12. 3. Neh. 9. 19. Isa. 106. 19.

Isai. 16. 6. Acts 7. 41. Rom. 1. 23.- Lev. 23. 2, 4, 21, 37. 2 Kings 10. 20 2 Chron. 30. 5-d I Cor. 10.7-e Deut. 9.12 Ver. 1 Ch 33. 1. Dan. 9. 24 - Gen. 6.11, 12. Deut. 4. 16. & 32 5. Judg. 2. 19. Hos 9. 9.-g Ch. 20. 3, 4, 2. Deut. 9. 16.

Was it pos

WORK OF God, and the WRITING WAS THE WRITING OF cheret, in the text: some make it a mould, others a gar. God, graven upon the tables," ch. xxxii. 15, 16. "These ment, cloth, or apron, some a purse or bag, and others a words (the ten commandments,) the Lord spake in the graver. It is likely that some mould was made on this ocmount, out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the casion; that the gold when fused, was cast into it, and · thick darkness, with a great voice: and he added no more, that afterward it was brought into form and symmetry by BUT HE WROTE THEM on two tables of stone." Deut. v. the action of the chisel and graver. 22. It is evident therefore that this writing was properly These be thy gods, O Israel] The whole of this is a and literally the writing of God himself. He wrote now most strange and unaccountable transaction. on tables of stone, what he had originally written on the sible, that the people could have so soon lost sight of the heart of man; and in mercy he placed that before his eyes, wonderful manifestations of God upon the mount?

Was which by sin had been obliterated from his soul, and by it possible, that Aaron could have imagined that he could this he shows us what, by the Spirit of Christ, must be make any god that could help them? And yet, it does rewritten in the mind, 2 Cor. iii. 3. and this is according not appear that he ever remonstrated with the people ! to the covenant, which God long before promised to make Possibly he only intended to make them some symbolical with mankind, Jer. xxxi. 33. See also what is said on representation of the divine power and energy, that might this subject, chap. xx. 1. and see chap. xxxiv. 1. be as evident to them as the pillar of cloud and fire had

been; and to which God might attach an always present • NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXII.

energy and influence! or, in requiring them to sacrifice Verse 1. When the people say that Moses delayed) their ornaments, he might have supposed they would have How long this was before the expiration of the forty days, desisted from urging their request ; but all this is mere we cannot tell; but it certainly must have been some con conjecture, with very litile probability to support it. It siderable time, as the ornaments must be collected, and the must, however, be granted, that Aaron does not appear to cals or ox, after having been founded, must require a con have even designed a worship that should supersede the siderable time to fashion it with the graving tool; and cer- worship of the Most High ; hence we find him making tainly not more than two or three persone could work on proclamation, To-morrow is a feast to the LORD : it at once. This work, therefore, must have required se and we find farther, that some of the proper rites of the veral days.

true worship were observed on this occasion, for they They gathered themselves together) They came in a brought burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, ver. 6, 1. umultuous and seditious manner, insisting on having an hence it is evident he intended that the true God should be object of religious worship made for them, as they intended, the object of their worship, though he permitted and even under its direction, to return to Egyph, see Acts vii. encouraged them to offer this worship through an idola39, 40.

trous medium, the molten calf. It has been supposed that As for this Moses, the man that brought us up] This this was an exact resemblance of the famous Egyptian seems to be the language of great contempt, and by it we god Apis, who was worshipped under the form of an or; may see the truth of the character given them by Aaron, which worship the Israelites, no doubt, snw often practised verze 22. they were set on mischief. It is likely they might in Egypt. Some, however, think that this worship of have supposed that Moses had perished in the fire, which | Apis was not then established; but we have already had they saw had invested the top of the mountain, into which sufficient proof that different animals were sacred among he went.

the Egyptians; nor have we any account of any worship Verse 2. Your earrings] Both men and women wore in Egypt, earlier than that offered to Apis, under the these ornaments; and we may suppose that these were a figure of an OX. part of the spoils which they brought out of Egypt. How Verse 6. The people sat down to eat and to drink) strange, that the very things which were granted them by The burnt-offerings were wholly consumed; the peacean especial influence and providence of God, should be offerings, when the blood had been poured out, became now abused to the basest idolatrous purposes; but it is fre- the fond of the priests, &c. When, therefore, the strictly girently the case, that the gifts of God become desecrated religious part of these ceremonies was finished, the people by being employed in the service of sin. I will curse sal down to eat of the peace-offerings, and this they did your blessings, saith the Lord, Mal. ii. 2.

merely as the idolaters, eating and drinking to excess. Verse 3. And all the people brake of the golden ear. And it appears they went much farther, for it is said, they rings} The human being is naturally fond of dress, rose up to play, pasy, letsachek, a word of ominous imthough this has been improperly attributed to the female port, and seems to imply here fornicating and adulterous sex alone, and those are most fond of it, who have the intercourse ; and in some countries the verb to play is still shallowest capacities; but on this occasion, the bent of the used precisely in this sense. In this sense the original is people to idolatry was greater than even their love of dress, evidently used, Gen. xxxix. 14. so that they readily stripped themselves of their ornaments, Verse 7. Thy peoplehave corrupted themselves] in order to get a molten god. They made some compen- They had not only got into the spirit of idolatry, but they sation for this afterward, see chap. xxxv. and the note, had become abominable in their conduct, so that God chap. xxxviii. 9.

disowns them to be his : THY people, they have broken the Verse 4. Fashioned it with a graving-tool] There has covenant, and are no longer entitled to my protection and been much controversy about the meaning of the word aan I love.

V

it, and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, mony were in his hand: the tables were written These be thy gods, O Israel, which have on both their sides; on the one side and on the brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. other were they written.

9 Änd the Lord said unto Moses, i I have seen 16 And the tables were the work of God, this people, and, behold it is a stiff-necked people: and the writing was the writing of God, graven

10 Now therefore k let me alone, that my upon the tables. wrath may wax hot against them, and that I 17 And when Joshua heard the noise of the may consume them: and mI will make of thee people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, a great nation.

There is a noise of war in the camp. ii | - And Moses besought the Lord his 18 And he said, It is not the voice of them God, and said, Lord, why doth thy wrath wax that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice hot against thy people, which thou hast brought of them that cry for being overcome: but the forth out of the land of Egypt with great noise of them that sing do I hear. power, and with a mighty hand ?

19 | And it came to pass, as soon as he came 12 P Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, nigh into the camp, that he saw the call, and and say, For mischief did he bring them out, to the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and slay them in the mountains, and to consume he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them from the face of the earth ? Turn from them beneath the mount. thy, fierce wrath, and 9 repent of this evil 20 | 3 And he took the calf which they had against thy people.

made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, powder, and strawed it upon the water, and thy servants, to whom thou'swarest by thine made the children of Israel drink of it. own self, and saidst unto them, • I will multiply 21 1 And Moses said unto Aaron, : What did your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so land that I have spoken of, will I give unto your great a sin upon them? seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.

22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my 14 And the LORD + repented of the evil which Lord wax hot: a thou knowest the people, that he thought to do unto his people.

they are set on mischief. 15 | And u Moses turned, and went down 23 For they said unto me, Make us gods, from the mount, and the two tables of the testi. which shall go before us: for as for this Moses,

h 1 Kings 12. 20-i Ch. 33. 3,5. & 31.9. Deut. 9. 6, 13. & 31. 27. 2 Chron. 30.8. I j. 48. 4.° Ace 7. 51. Deut. 9. 14, 19.--I Ch 22. 21.--m Numb. 11. 12. --n Deut. 9. 18, 26-29. Pisa 74. 1. 2. & 106 2.--) Ileb. the face of the LORD-p Numb. 11. 13. Deut. 9. 2 & 32. 27.- Ver. 11.-r Geu 22. 16. Hebr. 6.13 Gen. 12. 7. & 13.

15. & 15. 7, 18. & 20. 4. & 3.13. & 35. 11, 12- Deut. 32. 6. 2 Sam. 94. 16. 1 Chron 21. 15. Pre 106. 45. Jer. 198. & 28. 13, 19. Jool2. 13. Jonah 3 10 & 4.2- Deat. 9. 15.- Ch. 31. 18.-w Heb. weakness.- Deul 9, 16, 17.-y Deut. 9. 21.-Gen. 20. 9. & 26. 10.-, Ch. 14. 11. & 15. 21. & 16. 2, 20, 28. & 17.2, 4.--- Ver. 1.

Verse 9: A stift-necked pcople! Probably an allusion of the new covenant, which God had promised to make to the stiff-necked ox, the object of their worship.

with men in the latter days. I will make a nei covenant Verse 10. Now therefore' let me alone] Moses had with the house of Israel-I will PUT MY LAWS IN THEIR already begun to plead with God in behalf of this rebel MINDS, AND WRITE THEM IN THEIR HEARTS, Jerem. xxxi. lious and ungrateful people; and so powerful was his 33. Heb. viii. 10. 2 Cor. iii. 3. That the writing of these intercession, that even the Omnipotent represents himself tables was the writing of God, see proved at the concluas incapable of doing any thing in the way of judgment, sion of the last chapter. unless his creature desisted from praying for mercy! See Verse 17. Joshua-said-there is a noise of war in the an instance of the prevalence of fervent intercession in camp.] How natural was this thought to the mind of a the case of Abraham, Gen. xviii. 23–33. from the model military man! hearing a confused noise, he supposed that of which, the intercession of Moses seems to have been the Israelitish camp had been attacked by some of the formed.

neighbouring tribes. Verse 14. And the Lord repented of the eril] This Verse 19. And he said] That is, Moses, returned this is spoken merely after the manner of men, who having answer to the observations of Joshua. formed a purpose, permit themselves to be diverted from Verse 19. He cast the tables out of his hands, and it by strong and forcible reasons, and so change their brake them] He might have done this through distress minds relative to their former intentions.

and anguish of spirit, on beholding their abominable Verse 15. The tables were written on both their sides] idolatry and dissolute conduct : or he probably did it enIf we take this literally, it was certainly a very unusual blematically, intimating thereby that, as by this act of thing; for in ancient times the two sides of the same sub- his, the tables were broken in pieces, on which the law of stance were never written over. However, some rabbins God was written; so they, by their present conduct, had suppose that by the writing on both sides is meant, the made a breach in the covenant, and broken the laws of leiters were cut through the tables, so that they might be their Maker. read on both sides, though on one side they would appear Verse 20. He took the calf-and burnt-and ground it reversed. Supposing this to be correct, if the letters were to powder, &c.] How truly contemptible must the object the same with those called Hebrero now in common use, of their idolatry appear, when they were obliged to drink the samech, o, which occurs twice, and the final mem, S their god, reduced to powder, and strewed on the water ! which occurs twenty-three times in the ten command "But," says an objector, “how could gold, the most ments, both of these being close letters could not be cut ductile of all metals, and ihe most ponderous, be stamped through on both sides, without falling out, unless, as some into dust, and strewed on water!' In Deut. ix. 21. this of the Jews have imagined, they were held in by miracle; matter is fully explained. I took, says Moses, your sin, but if this ancient character were the same with the Sa- the calf which ye had made, and burnt it with fire, thai maritan, this thorough cutting might have been quite is, melted it down, probably into ingots or gross plates, practicable, as there is not one close letter in the whole and slamped it, that is, beat it into thin lamina, someSamaritan alphabet. On this transaction there are the thing like our gold-leaf, and ground it very small, even three following opinions. 1. We may conceive the tables until it was as small as dust, which might be very easily of stone to have been thin slabs, or a kind of slate, and done by the action of the hands, when beat into thin the writing on the backside to have been a continuation plates or leaves, as the original words nan ccoth, and pro of that on the front, the first not being sufficient to con- dak, imply. And I cast the dust thereof into the brook, tain the whole : 2. Or the writing on the backside was and being thus lighter than the water, it would readily probably the precepts that accompanied the ten com- float, so that they could easily see, in this reduced and mandments: the latter were written by the Lord, the uselegs state, the idol to which they had been lately offerformer by Moses, see the note on chap. xxxiv. 1. and 27. ing divine honours, and from which they were vainly 3. Or the same words were written on both sides, so that expecting protection and defence. No mode of arguwhen held up, two parties might read at the same time. mentation could have served so forcibly to demonstrate

Verse 16. The tables were the work of God] Because the folly of their conduct, as this method pursued by such a law could proceed from none but himself; God Moses. alone is the fountain and author of law, of what is right, Verse 21. What did this people unto thee?] It seems,

just, holy, and good; see the meaning of the word law, if Aaron had been firm, this evil might have been preExod. xii. 49.

vented. The writing was the writing of God] For as he is Verse 22. Thou knowdest the people] He excuses him. the sole author of law and justice, so he alone can write self by the wicked and seditious spirit of the people, intithem on the heart of man. This is agreeable to the spirit I mating that he was obliged to accede to their desires.

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