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the man that brought us up out of the land brother, and every man his companion, and of Egypt, we wot not what is become of every man his neighbour. him.

28 And the children of Levi did according to 24 And I said unto them, Whosoever hath the word of Moses: and there fell of the people any gold, let them break it off

. So they gave it that day about three thousand men. me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came 29 h For í Moses had said, “ Consecrate yourout this calf.

selves to-day to the LORD, even every man upon 25 T And when Moses saw that the people his son, and upon his brother; that he may bewered naked; (for Aaron had made them naked stow upon you a blessing this day. unto their shame, among 'their enemies:)

30 | And it came to pass on the morrow, that 26 Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a and said, Who is on the Lord's side ? let him great sin: and now I will go up unto the LORD ; come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gather w peradventure I shall " make an atonement for ed themselves together unto him.

27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the 31 And Moses o returned unto the Lord, and LORD God of Israel. Put every man his sword said, Oh this people have sinned a great sin, by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate and have p made them gods of gold. throughout the camp, and & slay every man his 32 Yet now, if thou wilt, forgive their sin;

your sin.

c Ver Led Ch 3. 4,5 - 2 Chron. 2. 19.- Heb those that roze up against Bem-- Numb 25. 5 Deat. 33.9.- Nunb. 25. 11, 12, 13. Deut. 13. 6-11 & 33. 9, 10 1 Sam. 15, 19, 22 Prov. 21. 3. Zech. 13. 3. Matl. 10.37.-i Or, And Mosea, caich Consecrate yourselres to-day to the LORD, because every man hat, been

against his son, and againat his brother, &c.-k Heb. Fill your hands.mel 1 Sam. 12 20, 23. Luke 15. 18.-- 2 Sam. 16. 12 Amos 5. 15.-n Numb. 35. 13.-- Deut. 9. 18.-p Ch. 20. 23.

Verse 24. I cast it into the fire, and there came out this hensive that this would be the case, we may see plainly calf.) What a silly and ridiculous subterfuge! He seems from the following verse. to insinuate that he only threw the mettle into the fire, and Verse 32. Forgive their sin-if not, blot me out of that the calf came unexpectedly out, by mere accident! thy book] It is probable that one part of Moses's work The Targim of Jonathan ben Úzziel makes a similar ex- during the forty days of his residence on the mount with cuse for him: “And I said unto them, whosoever hath God, was his regulating the muster-roll of all the tribes gold, let him break it off and give it to me; and I cast it and families of Israel, in reference to the parts they were into the fire, and Satan entered into it, and it came out in respectively to act in the different transactions in the wilthe form of this call!"

derness, promised land, &c. and this being done under the Verse 25. Moses saw that the people were naked) | immediate direction of God, is termed God's book, which They were stripped, says the Targum, of the holy crown he had written ; such muster-rolls, or registers, called also that was upon their heads, on which the great and precious genealogies, the Jews have had from the remotest period name, 30 JEHOVAH, was engraved. But it'is more of their history; and it is probable that God had told him, likely that the word ynd pharâ, implies that they were re that those who should break the covenant that he had then duced to the most helpless and wretched state, being aban made with them, should be blotted out of that list, and doned by God in the midst of their enemies. This is ex never enter into the promised land. All this Moses apactly similar to that expression, 2 Chron. xxviii. 19. For pears to have particularly in view, and without entering the Lord brought Judah lou, because of Ahaz king of into any detail, immediately comes to the point which Israel: for he made Judah NAKED, non, hippriâ, and he knew was fixed, when this list or muster-roll was transgressed sore against the Lord. Their nakedness, made, namely, that those who should break the covenant therefore, though, in the first sense, it may imply that should be blotted out, and never have any inheritance in several of them were despoiled of their ornaments, yet it the promised land; therefore he says, this people have may also express their defenceless and abandoned state, sinned a great sin, and hare made them gods of gold; in consequence of their sin.--That they could not, literally, thus they had broken the corenant, see the first and second have all been despoiled of their ornaments, appears evi- commandments: and by this, had forfeited their right to dent from their offerings, chap. xxxv. 21, &c.

Canaan. Yet now, he adds, if thou will, forgire their Verse 26. Who is on the Lord's (Jehovah’s) side ?! sin, that they may yet attain the promised inheritance, That is, who among you is free from this transgression and, if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which

And all the sons of Leri, &c.] It seems they had no thou hast written. If thou wilt blot out their names from part in this idolatrous business.

this register, and never suffer them to enter Canaan, blot Verse 27. From gate to gate) There was probably an me out also, for I cannot bear the thought of enjoying that enclosed or intrenched camp, in which the chief rulers and blessedness, while my people and their posterity shall be heads of the people were; and that this camp had two for ever excluded. And God, in kindness to Moses, spared gates or outlets; and the Levites were commanded to him the mortification of going into Canaan, without taking pass from one to the other, slaying as many of the trans the people with him. They had forfeited their lives, and gressors as they could find.

were sentenced to die in the wilderness; and Moses's Verse 23. There fellabout three thousand men] prayer was answered in mercy to him, while the people These were, no doubt, the chief transgressors, having suffered under the hand of justice. But the promise of broken the covenant, by having other gods besides Jeho- God did not fail: for although those who sinned were dah, they lost the divine protection, and then the justice of blotted out of the book, yet their posterity enjoyed the inGod laid hold on and slew them. Moses, doubtless, had heritance. positive orders from God for this act of justice, see ver. 27. This seems to be the simple and pure light in which this for though through his intercession the people were spared, place should

be viewed: and in this sense St. Paul is to be so as not to be exterminated as a nation, yet the principal understood, Rom. ix. 3. where he says, For I could wish transgressors, those who were set on mischief, ver. 22. that myself were ACCURSED from Christ, for my brethren were put to death.

my kinsmen according to the flesh ; who are ISRAELITES, Verse 29. For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves] to whom pertaineth the ADOPTION, and the Glory, and the Fill your hands to the Lord. See the reason of this form COVENANTS. Moses could not survive the destruction of of speech in the note on chap. xxix. 19.

his people, by the neighbouring nations, nor their excluVerse 31. Moses returned unto the Lord) Before he sion from the promised land; and St. Paul, seeing the went down from the mountain, God had acquainted him Jews about to be cut off by the Roman sword, for their with the general defection of the people, whereupon he rejection of the Gospel, was willing to be deprived of every immediately, without knowing the extent of their crime, earthly blessing, and even to become a sacrifice for them, began to make intercession for them, and God having given if this might contribute to the preservation and salvation him a general assurance, that they should not be cut off, of the Jewish state. Both those eminent men, engaged in bastened him to go down and bring them off from their the same work, influenced by a spirit of unparalleled patidolatry. Having descended, he finds matters much worse riotism, were willing to forfeit every blessing of a secular then he expected, and ordered three thousand of the prin- kind, and even die for the welfare of the people. But cercipal delinquents to be slain ; but knowing that an evil so tainly, neither of them could wish to go to eternal perdiextensive must be highly provoking in the sight of the tion, to save their countrymen from being cut off, the one just and holy God, he finds it highly expedient that an by the sword of the Philistines, the other by that of the atonement be made for the sin; for although he had the Romans. Even the supposition is monstrous. promise of God, that, as a nation, they should not be er On this mode of interpretation, we may at once see what terminated, yet he had reason to believe, that divine jus- is implied in the book of life, and being written in, or tice must continue to contend with them, and prevent them blotted out of such a book. In the public registers, all from ever entering the promised land; that he was appre- that were born of a particular tribe, were entered in the

and if not, 9 blot me, I pray thee, 'out of thy w and the people which thou hast brought up out book which thou hast written.

of the land of Egypt, unto the land which I 33 | And the Lord said unto Moses, . Who- sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob soever hath sinned against me, him will I blot saying, Unto thy seed will I give it: out of my book.

2 » Ảnd I will send an angel before thee, 34 Therefore, now go, lead the people unto and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amothe place of which I have spoken unto thee: rite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hii behold, mine Angel shall go before thee: nev- vite, and the Jebusite : ertheless, " in the day when I visit, I will visit 3 a Unto a land flowing with milk and honey: their sin upon them.

bo for I will not go up in the midst of thee, for thou 35 And the LORD plagued the people, because art a stiff-necked people, lest d I consume thee they made the calf, which Aaron made. CHAPTER XXXIII.

4 T And when the people heard these evil Moses is commanded to depare from the mount, and lead up the people toward the tidings, they mourned; and no man did put

on him his ornaments. and the Lord refuses to go widi them, 3. The people mourn, and surip themelves of Urir ornamenta, 4-6. The tabernacle or tent in pitched without the camp, 7.

5 For the Lord had said unto Moses, Say Moses goes to it, lo consult the Lord, and the cloudy pillar descends on it, 8, 9. The

unto the children of Israel, & Ye are a stillpeople, standing at their teut doors, witness this, 10. The Lord speaks familiarly with Mous, he returns to the camp, and leaves Joma in the taternacle, 11. Moses necked people; I will come up k into the midst pleals wiun God, and desires to know whom he will send to tw their suchen and to be of thee in a moment, and consume thee; thereshall go with them, 1. Maxes plea is that the people may be taken under the divine fore, now put off thy ornaments from thee, that

And God promises to make his goxiness paw before them, and to pro I may i know what to do unto thee. claim his name, 19. Showwiat no man can see his glory and live, 20, but promises to put him in a cleft of the rock, and to cover him with his hand while his glory

6 And the children of Israel stripped thempasst] by, and then to remove his band, and let him see his back parts, 21-23. selves of their ornaments by the mount Horeb.

7 | And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitchDepart, and go up hence, thou ed it without the camp, afar off from the camp,

in the way;

glory, 18.

An Exod. Isr. I.


A De the Lord said unto Moses

Psal. 69. 23. Roin. 9. 3. Psa 56. 8. & 139. 16. Dan. 12. 1. Phil. 4. 3. Rev 3. 5. & 13. 8. & 17. 8. & 20. 12, 15. & 21. 27. & 22. 19. Lev. 23. 30. Ezek. 18. 4.-- Cb. 37. 2, 14, &c. Numb). 20. 16. -- Deut. 32. 35. Amos 3. 14. Rom. 2. 5, 6.-- 2 Sain. 12. 9 Acts 7. 41. --W Ch. 32 7.-x Gen. 12 7. Ch. 32. 13.- Ch. 32. 34. & 31. .

z Dent. 7. 22. Jorb. 24.11.a Ch. 3. 8. -b Ver. 15, 17.-- Ch. 32 9. & 34. 9. Deut 9. 6, 13. Ch. 23. 21 & 32. 10. Numb. 16. 21, 45.-e Numbs. 14. 1,39-1 Lev. lu. 6. 2 Sam. 19. 24. I king 21. 27. 2 Kings 19.1. Esther 4.1, 4. 9. 3. Job l. 20. & 2. 12. Isai. 32. 11. Ezek. 2. 17, 3. & 2. 16.-8 Ver. 3.- See Nurab. 16. 45, 46 i Deut. 8. 2 Psa. 139. 23

list of their respective families, under that tribe. This was shall not enter into the promised land. They shall wander the book of life: but when any of those died, his name in the wilderness till the present generation become extinct. might be considered as blotted out from this list. Our Verse 35. The Lord plagued the people] Every time baptismal registers, which record the births of all the in- they transgressed afterward, Divine Justice seems to have habitants of a particular parish or district, and which are remembered this transgression against them. The Jews properly our books of life; and our bills of mortality, have a metaphorical saying, apparently founded on this which are properly our books of death, or the lists of those text: "No affliction has ever happened io Israel, in which who are thus blotted out from our baptismal registers, or there was not some particle of the dust of the golden calf.” books of life, are very significant and illustrative remains 1. The attentive reader has seen enough in this chapter of the ancient registers, or books of life and death, among to induce him to exclaim, How soon a clear sky may be the Jews, the Grecks, the Romans, and most ancient na overcast! How soon may the brightest prospects be oba tions. Ii is worthy of remark, that, in China, the names scured! Israel had just ratified its covenant with Jehovah, of the persons who have been tried on criminal processes, and had received the most encouraging and unequivocal are written in two distinct books, which are called the pledges of his protection and love. But they sinned, and book of life, and the book of death; those who have been provoked the Lord to depart from them, and to destroy the acquitted, or who have not been capitally convicted, are work of his hands. A lule more faith, patience, and perwritten in the former ; those who have been found guilty, severance, and they should have been safely brought into in the latter. These two books are presented to the em the promised land. For want of a little more dependence peror by his ministers, who, as sovereign, has a right to upon God, how often does an excellent beginning come to erase any name from either : to place the living among an unhappy, conclusion. Many, who were just on the the dead, that he may die; or the dead, that is, the person borders of the promised land, and about to cross Jordan, condemned to death, among the living, that he may be have, through an act of unfaithfulness, been turned back preserved. Thus he blots out of the book of life, or the to wander many a dreary year in the wilderness. Reader, book of death, according to his sovereign pleasure, on the be on thy guard! Trust in Christ, and watch unto prayer. representation of his ministers, or the intercession of 2. Many people have been greatly distressed on losing friends, &c. An ancient, extremely rich picture, in my their baptismal register, and have been reduced, in conseown possession, representing this circumstance, painted in quence, to great political inconvenience. But still they China, was thus interpreted to me by a native Chinese. had their lives, and should a living man complain?. But

Verse 33. Whoever hath sinned against me, him will a man may so sin, as to provoke God to cut him off; or, I blot out] As if the Divine Being had said, All

like a fruitless tree, be cut down, because he encumbers duct is regulated by infinite justice and righteousness: in the ground. Or he may have sinned a sin unto death, 1 no case shall the innocent ever suffer for the guilty: that John v. 16, 17. that is, a sin which God will punish with no man may transgress through ignorance, I have given temporal death, while he extends mercy to the soul. you my law, and thus publish my covenant; the people 3. With respect to the blotting out of God's book, on themselves have acknowledged its justice and equity, and which there has been so much controversy, is it not evident have voluntarily ratified it. He then, that sins against that a soul could not be blotted out of a book, in which it me, for sin is the transgression of the law, (1 John iii. 4.) had never been written ? And is it not farther evident, from and the law must be published and known, that it may be ver. 32, 33. that although a man be written in God's book, binding, him will I blot out of

And is it not if he sins, he may be blotted out? Let him that realeth, remarkable, that to these conditions of the covenant God understand : and let him that standeth, take heed lest he strictly adhered, so that not one soul of these transgressors fall! Reader, be not high-ininded, but sear. See the note ever entered into the promised rest! Here was justice: on ver. 32 and 33. and yet, though they deserved death, they were spared !

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIII. Here was mercy. Thus, as far as justice would permit, Verse 1. Unto the land] That is, toward it, or to the mercy extended : and, as far as mercy would permit

, justice borders of it

. See chap. xxxii. 34. proceeded. Behold, O reader, the GOODNESS and SEVERITY Verse 2. I will send an angel] In chap. xxiii. 20. God of GOD! Mercy saves all that justice can spare; and promises to send an angel to conduct them into the good JUSTICE destroys all that MERCY should not sare.

land, in whom the name of God should be; that is, in Verse 34. Lead the people unto the place] The word whom God should dwell. See the note there. Here, he place is not in the text, and is with great propriety omitted. promises that an angel should be their conductor ; but as For Moses never led this people into that place--they all there is nothing particularly specified of him, it has been died in the wilderness, except Joshua and Caleb-but thought that an ordinary angel is intended, and not that Moses led them toward the place, and thus the particle 5w angel of the covenant promised before. And this sentiel, here, should be understood: unless we suppose, that ment seems to be confirmed by the following verse. God designed to lead them to the borders of the land, but Verse 3. I will not go up in the midst of thee) Connot to take them into it.

sequently the angel here promised to be their guide, wag I will visit their sin] I will not destroy them, but they I not that angel in whom Jehovah's name was : and so the


my con

my book.

k and called it the Tabernacle of the congrega 10 And all the people saw the cloudy pillar tion. And it came to pass, that every one which stand at the tabernacle door; and all the people i sought the LORD, went out unto the tabernacle rose up and worshipped, every man in his tent of the congregation, which was without the door. camp.

11 And P the LORD spake unto Moses face to 8 And it came to pass, when Moses went out face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he unto the tabernacle, that all the people rose up, turned again into the camp: but his servant and stood every man mat his tent door, and Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed looked after Moses, until he was gone into the not out of the tabernacle. tabernacle.

12 | And Moses said unto the LORD, See, 9 And it came to pass, as Moses entered thou sayest unto me, Bring up this people: and into the tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt send and stood at the door of the tabernacle, and the with me. Yet thou hast said, I know thee by LORD talked with Moses.

name, and thou hast also found grace in my sight.

* Ch N 42, 43.-1 Dent. 4.2.2 Sam. 21. I-m Numb. 16. 27.-n Ch. 25. 22 &

31. 18. Psa. 99. 7.- Ch. 4. 31.-p Gen. 32. 30. Numb. 12. 8. Deut. 34. 10.

q Ch. 24. 13. - Ch. 32. 31. Ver. 17. Gen. 18. 19. Psa. I. 6. Jer. 1. 5. John 10.

14, 15. 2 Tim. 2. 19.

people understood it, and hence the mourning which is The ancient Jewish commentators were of opinion, that afterward mentioned.

the Israelites had the name of Jehorah, ma inscribed on Verse 5. Nov put off thy ornaments from thee) them in such a way as to ensure them the divine protection; "The Septuagint, in their translation, suppose, that the and that this, inscribed probably on a plate of gold, was children of Israel 'not only laid aside their ear-rings, and considered their choicest ornament; and that when they such like ornaments, in a time of professed deep humilia- gave their ornaments to make the golden calf, this was Lion before God, but their upper, or more beautiful gar- given by many; in consequence of which they were conments too. Moses says nothing of this last circumstance; sidered as naked and defenceless. All the remaining but as it is a modern practice, so it appears by their ver- parts of their ornaments, which it is likely were all emsion, to have been as ancient as their time, and probably blematical of spiritual things, God commands them here took place long before that. The Septuagint gives us this to lay off; for they could not with propriety bear the symas the translation of the passage: The people having bols of the divine protection, who had forfeited that proheard this sad declaration, mourned with lamentations. tection for their transgression. And the Lord said unto the children of Israel, Now, there That I may know what to do unto thee.) For it seems, fore, put off your robes of glory, and your ornaments, and that while they had these emblematic ornaments on them, I will show you the things I will do unto you. And the they were still considered as under the divine protection. children of Israel put off their ornaments and robes, by These were a shield to them, which God commands them the mount, by Horeb.'

to throw aside. Though many had parted with their " If it had not been the custom to put off their upper choicest ornaments, yet not all, only comparatively a few, garments in times of deep mourning, in the days that the of the wives, daughters and sons of 600,000 men, could Septuagint translation was made, they would not have in- have been thus stripped, to make one golden calf. The serted this circumstance, in the account Moses gives of -major part still had these ornaments; and they are now their mourning, and concerning which he was silent. They commanded to lay them aside. must have supposed too, that this practice might be in use

Verse 7. Moses took the tabernacle] Sonn nn et hachel, in those elder times.

the TENT, not jawan nx et hamishcen, the tabernacle, the " That it is now practised in the east, appears from the dwelling-place of Jehovah, see chap. xxxv. 11. for this account Pitis gives of the ceremonies of the Mohammedan was not as yet erected, but probably the tent of Moses, pilgrimage to Mecca. "A few days after this, we came to which was before in the midst of the camp, and to which a place called Rabbock, about four days' sail on this side of the congregation came for judgment; and where, no doubt, Mecca, where all the hagges or pilgrims (excepting those God frequently met with his servant. This is now reof the female sex) do enter into hirrawem, or ihram, i. e.

moved to a considerable distance from the camp, two thouthey take off all their clothes, covering themselves with sand cubits, according to the Talmudists, as God refuses

two hirrawems, or large white cotton wrappers : one they to dwell any longer among this rebellious people. And as : pul about their middle, which reaches down to their ankles; this was the place, to which all the people came for justice

with the other they cover the upper part of their body, and judgment, hence it was probably called the tabernacle, except the head; and they wear no other thing on their more properly, the tent of the congregation. bodies, but these wrappers, only a pair of grimgameca,

Verse 9. The cloudy pillar descended] This very cirthat is, thin-soled shoes, like sandals, the oyer leather of cumstance precluded the possibility of deception. The cloud which covers only the toes, the insteps being all naked. descending at these times, and at none others, was a full In this manner, like humble penitents, they go from Rab- proof that it was miraculous, and a pledge of the divine bock, lintil they come to Mecca, to approach the temple ; presence. It was beyond the power of human art to counmany times enduring the scorching heat of the sun, until terfeit such an appearance; and let it be observed that all the very skin is burnt off their backs and arms, and their the people saw this, ver. 10. How many indubitable, and heads swollen to a very great degree.' Page 115, 116. Pre- irrefragable proofs of its own authenticity and divine orisent ly after, he informs us, that the time of their wearing gin, does the Pentateuch contain ! this mortifying habit, is about the space of seven days. Verse 11. The Lord spake unto Moses face to face] Again, (p. 133) It was a sight indeed, able to pierce one's That there was no personal appearance here, we may heart, to behold so many thousands in their garments of readily conceive; and that the communications made by humility and mortification, with their naked heads, and God to Moses, were not by risions, ecstacies, dreams, incheeks watered with tears; and to hear their grievous ward inspirations, or the mediation of angels, is suffisighs and sobs, begging earnestly for the remission of their ciently evident: we may therefore consider the passage as sins, promising newness of life, using a form of penitential implying that familiarity and confidence with which the expressions, and thus continuing for the space of four or Divine Being treated his servant; and that he spake with five hours.'

him by articulate sounds, in his own language, though no "The Septuagint supposes, the Israelites made much the shape or similitude was then to be seen. same appearance as these Mohammedan pilgrims, when Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man] There is a Israel stood in anguish of soul at the foot of mount Horeb, difficulty here: Joshua certainly was not a young man in though Moses says nothing of putting off any of their vest the literal sense of the word; "but he was called so," says ments.

Mr. Ainsworth, "in respect of his service, not of his years; Some passages of the Jewish prophets seem to confirm for he was now above fifty years old, as may be gathered the notion of their stripping themselves of some of their from Josh. xxiv. 29. But because ministry and service clothes, in times of deep huiniliation, particularly Micah i. are usually by the younger sort, all serrants are called 8. Therefore I will wail and howl: I will go stript and young men, Gen. xiv. 24."-See also Gen, xxxii. 7. and naked: I will make a wailing like the dragons, and xli. 12. Perhaps the word nya naâr, here translated young mourning as the ouls.

man, means a single person, one unmarried. "Saul's stripping himself, mentioned I Sam. xiv. 24. is Verse 12. Moses said unto the Lord] We may suppose, perhaps to be understood of his assuming the appearance that after Moses had quitted the tabernacle, he went to the of those that were deeply engaged in devotional exercises, camp, and gave the people some general information relainto which he was unintentionally brought by the prophetic tive to the conversation he lately had with the Lord; after influences that came upon him, and in which he saw others which, he returned to the tabernacle or tent, and began to engaged." Harmer's Observat. Vol. iv. p. 172.

plead with God, as we find in this and the following verses.


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13 Now therefore, I pray thee, if I have found 18 | And he said, I beseech thee show me grace in thy sight,

show me now thy way, thy glory. that I may know thee, that I may find grace 19 And he said, I will make all my goodness in thy sight: and consider that this nation is pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name thy people.

of the Lord before thee, and will be bgracious, 14 And he said, * My presence shall go with to whom I will be gracious, and I will show thee, and I will give thee * rest. is And he said unto him » If thy presence gol forn there shall no man see me, and live.

mercy on whom I will show mercy.

20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: not with me, carry us not up hence.

16 For wherein shall it be known here that I 21 And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place and thy people have found grace in thy sight? by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: z is it not in that thou goest with us? aso shall 22 And it shall come to pass, while my glory we be separated, I and thy people, from all the passeth by, that I will put thee i in a cleft of the people that are upon the face oi' the earth. rock, and will k cover thee with my hand while I

17 And the LORD said unto Moses, I will do pass by: this thing also that thou hast spoken: for cthou 23 And I will take away mine hand, and thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not


be seen.

t Ch. 34 9.--u Psa. 3. 4. & 9. 11. & fi. 11. & 119. 33.- Dent. 9. 36, 2. Joel 2. 17.- Ch 13. 21. & 40. 31-38. Isai. 63. 9.X Deut. 3. 30. Josh. 21. 44. & 22 1. & 23. 1. Pa 95. 11. -y Ver. 3. Ch. 31. 9.-2 Numb. 14. 14. - Ch. 34. 10. Deut. 4. 7, 31. 2 Sam. 7. 23. ' 1 Kings 8. 53. Psa. 117.20.

b Gen. 19. 21. James 5. 16. Ver. 12-1 Ver. 2. 1 Tim. 6. 16. Ch. 31. 5, 6, 7. Jer. 31. 14.--f Rom. 9. 15, 16, 18.- Rom. 4.4, 16. - Gen. 32 30. Deut. 5. 24. aug. 6. 22 & 13. 22. lral. 6.5. Rev. 1. 16, 17. See Ch. 4. 10.-i Isa. 2. A- Ps. 91.1, I Ver. 20. Johul. 18.

Thou hast not let me know, &c.] As God had said, he they seem lost to this; and yet, in opposition to their interwould not go up with this people, Moses wished to know ests, for which, in other respects, they would sacrifice every whom he would send with him, as he had only said, in thing, they are still kept distinct from all the people of the general terms, that he would send an angel.

earth, and for this, an especial providence can alone account Verse 13. Show me now thy way] Let me know the Verse 18. Show me thy glory] Moses probably desired manner in which thou wouldest have this people led up to see that which constitutes the peculiar glory or exceland governed, because this nation is thy people, and should lence of the divine nature, as it stands in reference to man. be governed and guided in thy ouon way:

By many this is thought to signify his eternal mercy in Verse 14. My presence shall go with thee) 1050 1D sending Christ Jesus into the world. Moses perceived panai yelecu, my faces shall go. I shall give thee mani that what God was now doing had the most important festations of my grace and goodness through the whole and gracious designs, which at present he could not disof thy journey. I shall vary my appearances for thee, as tinctly discover; therefore he desires God to show him thy necessities shall require.

his glory. God graciously promises to indulge him in this Verse 15. If thy presence go not] Dubo 70D/NON im request as far as possible, by proclaiming his name, and ein paneyca holcim, if thy faces do not go. If we have making all his goodness pass before him, verse 19. But not inanifestations of thy peculiar providence and grace, at the same time he assures him, that he could not see his carry us not up hence. Without supernatural assistance, face—the fulness of his perfections, and the grandeur of and a most particular providence, he knew that it would his designs and live; as no human being could bear, in be impossible either to govern such a people, or support the present state, this full discovery. But he adds, thou them in the desert; and therefore he wishes to be well shall see my back parts, x n 'et achoray; probably assured on this head, that he may lead them up with con- meaning, that appearance which he should assume in fidence, and be able to give them the most explicit assur-aftertimes, when it should be said, God is manifest in the ances of support and protection. But by what means flesh. This appearance did take place; for we find God should these manifestations take place ? This question putting him into a cleft of the rock, covering him with his seems to be answered by the prophet, Isai. Ixiii. 9. In all hand, and passing by in such a way as to exhibit a human their affliction he was afflicted, and the Angel of his pre- similitude. John may have had this in view when he sence, 1D panaiv, of his faces, saved them. So we find, said, The Word was made flesh, and dwell AMONG US, that the goodness and mercy of God were to be manifested full of grace and truth, and WE BEHELD HIS GLORY. by the Angel of the covenant, the Lord Jesus, the Mes- What this glory was, and what was implied by this grace siah : and this is the interpretation which the Jews them and truth, we shall see in the succeeding chapter. selves give of this place. Can any person lead men to the Verse 19. I will make all my goodness pass before thee) typical Canaan, who is not himself influenced and directed | Thou shall not have a sight of my justice, for thou couldst by the Lord? And of what use are all the means of grace, not bear the infinite splendour of my purity; but I shall if not crowned with the presence and blessing of the God show myself to thee as the Fountain of inexhaustible comof Israel! It is on this ground, that Jesus Christ hath said, passion—the sovereign Dispenser of my own mercy, in Where two or three are gathered together in my name, I my own way; being gracious to whom I will be graciam in the midst of them, Matt. xviii. 20. Without which, ous, and showing mercy on whom I will show mercy. what would preachings, prayers, and even SACRAMENTS, I will proclaim the name of the Lord]

See the note, avail?

chap. xxxiv. 6. Verse 16. So shall we be separated] By having this Verse 20. No man can see me, and lire] The splendivine protection, we shall be saved from idolatry, and be dour would be insufferable to man: he only, whose morpreserved in thy truth, and in the true worshipping of thee: tality is swallowed up of life, can see God as he is; see and thus shall we be separated from all the people that are 1 John iii. 2. From some disguised relation of the circumupon the face of the earth, as all the nations of the world, stances mentioned here, the fable of Jupiter and Semele the Jews only excepted, were at this time idolaters. was formed : she is reported to have entreated Jupiter to

Verse 17. I will do this thing also] My presence shall show her his glory, who was at first very reluctant, knowgo with thee, and I will keep thee separate from all the ing that it would be fatal to her ; but, at last, yielding to people of the earth.-Both these promises have been re her importunity, he discovered his divine majesty, and she markably fulfilled. God continued miraculously, with was consumed by his presence. This story, is told by them, till he brought them into the promised land; and Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, book iii. fable iv. 5. from the day in which he brought them out of Egypt, to Verse 21. Behold, there is a place by mc] There seems the present day, he has kept them a distinct, unmired to be a reference here to a well-known place on the mount, people! Who can account for this on any principle but where God was accustomed to meet with Moses. This that of a continual especial providence, and a constant was a rock, and it appears there was a cleft or cave in it, divine interference? The Jews have ever been a people in which Moses was to stand, while the Divine Majesty fond of money ; had they been mingled with the people was pleased to show him all that human nature was capaof the earth, among whom they have been scattered, their ble of bearing ; but this appears to have referred more to secular interests would have been greatly promoted by it; the counsels of his mercy and goodness, relative to his purand they who have sacrificed every thing besides to their pose of redeeming the human race, than to any visible aplove of money, on this point have been incorruptible! They pearance of the Divine Majesty itself.--See the note on chose, in every part of their dispersions, rather to be a poor,

ver. 18. despised, persecuted people, and continue separate from 1. The conclusion of this chapter is very obscure ; we all the people of the earth, than to enjoy ease and afluence can scarcely pretend to say, in any precise manner, what it by becoming mixed with the nations. For what great means :--and it is very probable that the whole concerned purposes must God be preserving this people! for it does Moses alone. He was in great perplexity and doubt, he not appear that any moral principle binds them together, I was afraid that God was about to abandon this people ;


in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present Mores is commanded to hew two tables similar to the first, and bring them up to the thyself there to me in the top of the mount, mount, to get the covenant renewed, 1-3. He prepares the tables, and goes up to

3. And no man shall Pcome up with thee, What this name significs, 6, 7. Mioses worships and intercedes, 39: The Lord neither let any man be seen throughout all the the Canaanites, &c 10, 11. No covenant to be made with the lolatrous nations, mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed beto be contacted with them, 16 The Israelites must have no molten gods, 17. The fore that mount. commandment of the feast of unleavene bread, and of the sanctification of the

4 | And he hewed two tables of stone like first-boro renewed, 18-20, as also that of the subbath, and the three great annual feasts, 21-3 The promise, that the surrounding nations shall not invaule their unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the territories, while all the males were at Jerusalem, celebrating the annual feasts, 24. Direcuons concening the pass-over, 25, and the first-fruils, 36. Moses is com morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the manded to write all these words, as containing the covenant which God had now renewed with the Israelites, 7 Moses being forty days with God without eating

LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand or drinking, writes the words of the covenant ; and the Lord writes the ten com. the two tables of stone. mandmenta apon the tables of stone, Moses descends with the table his face shines, 22 Aaron and the people are afraid to approach him, because of his glori.

5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, and ols appearance, Moms delivers to them the covenant and commandments of stood with him there, and 9 proclaimed the name the Lord, and pats a veil over his face while he is speaking, 31-33; but lakes it off when he goes to minister before the Lord, 31, 35.

of the LORD. An. Exod. Is. L.

6 And the LORD passed by before him, and m Hew thee two tables of stone proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, mercilike unto the first: "and I will write upon these ful, and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant tables the words that were in the first tables, in 'goodness and truth. which thon brakest.

? Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving 2 And be ready in the morning, and come up iniquity and transgression and sin, and that


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m Ch 32 16, 19. Deut. 10. L-a Ver. 28. Deut. 10. 2, 4.-0 Ch 19. 20. & 21. 12.

Ch. 19. 12, 13, 21.- Ch. 33. 19. Numb. 14. 17.- Numb. 14. 18. 2 Chron 30. 9. Neh 9. 17. Psa. %6. 15. & 103. 8. & 111. 4. & 112 4. & 116. 5. & 145. 8. Joel 2 13.

* Psa. 31. 19. Rom. 24.- Psa. 57. 10. & 108. - Ch. 20. 6. Deut. 5. 10. Psa. Sel 15. Jer. 32. 18. Dan. 9. 4.- Psa. 103. 3. & 130. 4. Duo. 9. 9. Eph. 4. 32. 1 John 1. w Ch. 23. 7, 21. Josh. 24. 19. Job 10. 14. Mic. 6. 11. Nah. 1 3.

and he well knew that if he did so, their destruction must In order to reconcile these accounts, let us suppose that be the consequence. He had got general directions to de- the ten words, or ten commandments, were written on both camp, and lead the people towards the promised land; but tables by the hand of God himself, and that what Moses this was accompanied with a threat, that Jehovah would wrote, ver. 27. was a copy of these, to be delivered to the not go with them. The prospect that was before him was people, while the tables themselves were laid up in the ark exceedingly gloomy and discouraging: and it was ren before the testimony, whither the people could not go to dered the more so, because God predicted their persevering consult them; and therefore a copy was necessary for the stiff-neckedness, and gave this, as one reason, why he use of the congregation; this copy being taken off, under would not go up among them, for their provocations would the direction of God, was authenticated equally with the be so great, and so frequens, that his justice would be so original; and the original itself was laid up as a record, to provoked as to break through in a moment and consume which all succeeding copies might be continually referred, them. Moses, well knowing that God must have some in order to prevent corruption. This supposition removes great and important designs in delivering them, and bring the apparent contradiction; and thus, both God and Moses ing them thus far, earnestly entreated him to give him may be said to have written the covenant and the ten comsome discovery of it, that his own mind might be satisfied. mandments: the former, the original; the latter, the copy. God mercifully condescends to meet his wishes in such a This supposition is rendered still more probable by the 27th way as, no doubt, gave him full satisfaction : but, as this verse itself. “And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thou referred to himself alone, the circumstances are not relat- these words (that is, as I understand it, a copy of the words ed, as probably they could be of no farther use to us than which God had already written,) for AFTER THE TENOR the mere gratifying of a principle of curiosity:

D by âl pi, ACCORDING TO THE MOUTH of these words, I 2. On some occasions, to be kept in the dark, is as in- have made a covenant with thee, and with Israel." Here structive as to be brought into the light. In many cases the original writing is represented, by an elegant prosopothose words of the prophet are strictly applicable, Verily, paia, or personification, as speaking, and giving out, from thou art a God who HIDEST THYSELF, 8 God of Israel

, its oron mouth, a copy of itself. It may be supposed that the Saviour! One point we see here very plainly, that this mode of 'interpretation is contradicted by the 28th while the people continued obstinate and rebellious, that verse, AND HE wrote upon the tables the words of the presence of God, by which his approbation was signified, covenant : but, that the pronoun ne, refers to the LORD, could not be manifested among them--and yet, without and not to Moses, is sufficiently, proved by the parallel his presence, to guide, protect, and provide for them, they place, Deut. x. 1-4. At that lime the Lord said unto could neither go up nor be saved. This presence is pro- me, Hew thec two tables of stone like unto the first-and mised, and on the fulfilment of the promise, the safety of I will write on the tables the words that were in the first Israel depended. The church of God is often now in such tables-and I howed two tables of stone, as at first-And a state, that the approbation of God cannot be manifested in HE wrote on the tables according to the first writing.it; and yet, if his presence were wholly withdrawn, truth This determines the business, and proces that God wrote would fall in the streets, equity go backward, the church the second as well as the first tables, and that the pronoun must become extinct. How have the seeds of light and in the 28th verse of this chapter, refers to the LORD, and life been preserved, during the long, dark and cold periods, not to Moses. By this mode of interpretation, all contrawhen error was triumphant, and the pure worship of God diction is removed. Houbigant imagines that the difficulty adulterated by the impurities of idolatry, and the thick may be removed by supposing, that God wrote the ten darkness of superstition ?-By the presence of his endless commandments, and that Moses wrote the other parts of mercy, preserving his own truth in circumstances, in which the covenant from ver. 11. to ver. 26. and thus it might be he could not show his approbation. He was with the said, that both God and Moses wrote on the same tables. church in the wilderness, and preserved the living oracles, This is not an improbable case, and is left to the reader's kept alive the heavenly seeds, and is now showing forth consideration.-See on ver. 27. the glory of those designs, which before he concealed from There still remains a controversy whether what are mankind. He cannot crr, because he is infinitely wise: called the ten commandments were at all written on the he can do nothing that is unkind, because he delighteth first tables, those tables containing, according to some, only in mercy. We, as yet, see only through a glass darkly: the terms of the covenant, without the ten words, which by and by we shall see face to face. The Lord's presence are supposed to be added here for the first time.' "The is with his people: and those who trust in him have confi- following is a general view of this subject. In chap. xx. dent rest in his mercy.

the ten commandments are given; and at the same time, NOTES ON CHAPTER XXXIV.

various political and ecclesiastical statutes, which are deVerse 1. Hew thee two tables of stone, like unto the first) tailed in the xxi. xxii. and xxiii. chapters. To receive In chap. xxxii. 16. we are told that the two first tables these, Moses had drawn near unto the thick darkness, were the work of God, and the writing was the writing where God was, chap. xx. 21. and having received them, of God—but here Moses is commanded to provide tables he came again with them to the people, according to their of his own workmanship; and God promises to write on request, before expressed, ver. 19. Speak thou with us them the words which were on the first. That God wrote but let not the Lord speak noith us, lest we die, for they the first tables himself, see proved by different passages of had been terrified by the manner in which God had uttered Scripture, at the end of the xxxii. chapter. But here, in the ten commandments, see ver. 18. After this, Moses, ver. 27. it seems as if Moses was commanded to rerite these with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and the seventy elders, zoords—and in ver. 28. it is said, And he wrote upon the went up to the mountain ; and on his return, he announced tables,but in Deut. x. 1, 4. it is expressly said, that God all these laws unto the people, chap. xxiv. 1, &c. and they wrote the second tables as well as the first.

promised obedience. Still there is no word of the tables VOL. I.-38


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