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e Ch. 25. 16.
10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of the CHAPTER XL. Mees is commanded to set up the tabernacle, the first day of the first month, of the the altar: and it shall be an altar ? most
burnt-offering, and all his vessels, and sanctify kecond year of their departure from Egypt, 1,2 The ark to be put into it, 3 The table and candlestick to be brongitiuus s4 with the gokten altar, 5. The attar holy. of burnt-otlering to be set up before the door, 6, and the laver between the tent and the war, 7. The court to be set up, & The tabernacle and its utensils to be 11 And thou shalt anoint the laver and his 15. All these things are done accordingly, 16. the tabernacle is erecte), antall foot and sanctify it. its utenails, &c placed in it on the first of the first month of the second year, 17-33. 12 1 « And thou shalt bring Aaron and his The cloud covers the tent, and the glory of the Lord fills the laterack, 34; so that even Moses is not able to enter, 35. When they were to journey, the cloud was sons unto the door of the tabernacle of the conday and á fire by night, was upon the tabernacle, in the sight of all the Israelites gregation, and wash them with water. through the whole course of the journeyings, 38.
13 And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy An. Exol. Iar. I. Tiri to Adar. AND the Lord spake unto Moses, sarments, and a point nito, and sanctify him;
may unto me in 2 On the first day of the ° first month, shalt office. thou set up p the tabernacle of the tent of the 14 And thou shalt bring his sons, and clothe congregation.
them with coats : 3 And a thou shalt put therein the ark of the 15 And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst testimony, and cover the ark with the veil. anoint their father, that they may minister unto
4 And thou shalt bring in the table, and set me in the priest's office: Tor their anointing in order the things that are to be set in order shall surely be · an everlasting priesthood upon it; u and thou shalt bring in the candle-throughout their generations. stick, and light the lamps thereof.
16 T Thus did Moses: according to all that 5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the the LORD commanded him, so did he. incense before the ark of the testimony, and put 17 And it came to pass in the first An: Exod fat. 2 the hanging of the door to the tabernacle. month in the second year, on the first
6 And thou shalt set the altar of the burnt-day of the month, that the d tabernacle was offering before the door of the tabernacle of the reared up. tent of the congregation.
18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and 7 w And thou shalt set the laver between the fastened his sockets, and set up the boards tent of the congregation and the altar, and shalt thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and reared put water therein.
up his pillars. 8 And thou shalt set up the court round about, 19 And he spread abroad the tent over the and hang up the hanging at the court gate, tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent
9 | And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and above upon it; as the LORD commanded Moses. ? anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, 20 1 And he took and put e the testimony into and shalt hallow it, and all the vessels thereof; the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put and it shall be holy.
the mercy seat above upon the ark: o Ch. 12. 2. & 13 4.-p Ver. 17. & Ch. 26. 1, 30.-9 Ver. 21. Ch. 25. 3. Numb. 4. 5.-r Ver. 2 Ch. 28. 35.- Ver. 23. Ch. 25. 30. Lev. 21. 5, 6,- Heb. the order holinesses.-a Lev. &. 1-13.- Ch. 3. 41.-é Numb 25. 13 - Ver. 1. Namb 7. 1.
39. thereof.-u Ver. 24, 25.-v Ver. 26. The promptitude, cordiality, and despatch used in this
NOTES ON CHAPTER XL. business, cannot be too highly commended, and are worthy Verse 2. The first day of the first month] It is genof the imitation of all, who are employed in any way in erally supposed, that the Israelites began the work of the the service of God. The prospect of having God to dwell tabernacle about the sixth month after they had left among them, inflamed every heart, because they well Egypt; and as the work was finished about the end of the knew, that on this depended their prosperity and salvation. first year of their Exodus, for it was set up the first day They therefore hastened to build him a house; and they of the second year, that, therefore, they had spent about spared no expense or skill to make it, as far as a house sir months in making it; so that the tabernacle was erectmade with hands could be, worthy of that divine majesty ed one year, all but fifteen days, after they had left Egypt. who had promised to take up his residence in it. This Such a building, with suc a profusion of curious and tabernacle, like the temple, was a type of the human na- costly workmanship, was never got up in so short a time. ture of the Lord Jesus; chat was a shrine, not made with But it was the work of the Lord, and the people did serhands, formed by God himself, and worthy of that fulness vice as unto the Lord. For the people had a mind to work. of the Deity that dwelt in it.
Verse 4. Thou shalt bring in the table, and set in or It is scarcely possible to form an adequate opinion of der the things, &c.] That is, thou shalt place the twelve the riches, costly workmanship, and splendour of the tab- loaves upon the table, in the order before mentioned. Sce ernacle: and who can adequately conceive the glory and the note on chap. xxv. 30. excellence of that human nature, in which the fulness of Verse 15. For their anointing shall surely be an everthe godhead, bodily, dwelt? That this tabernacle typified lasting priesthood) By this anointing, a right was given the human nature of Christ; and the divine shekinah that to Aaron and his family to be high priests among the dwelled in it, the Deity that dwelt in the man Christ | Jews for ever; so that all who should be born of this faJesus, these words of si. John sufficiently prove. In the mily, should have a right to the priesthood, without the beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, repetition of this unction; as they should enjoy this hoand the WORD was God. And the WORD was made flesh, nour, in their father's right, who had it by a particular and dwell among us, irxxvWoov ev nerv, made his TABERNA grant from God. But it appears, that the high priest, on CLE among us, full of grace and truth:-i. e. possessing his consecration, did receive the holy unction ; see Lev. the true Urim and Thummim, all the lights and perfec-iv. 3. vi. 22. xxi. 10. And this continued till the destruc tions, the truth and the grace, typified by the Mosaiction of the first temple, and the Babylonish captivity; and economy., John i. 1, 14. And hence the evangelist adds, according to Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, and others, And we beheld his glory; as the Israelites beheld the this custom continued among the Jews to the advent of glory of God, resting on the tabernacle, so did the disciples our Lord, after which, there is no evidence it was ever of Christ see the divine glory resting on him, and showing practised. See Calmer's note on chap. xxix. 7: The itself forth in all his words, spirit, and works. And for Jewish high priest was a type of Him, who is called the what purpose was the tabernacle erected? That God high pricst over the house of God, Heb. x. 21. and when might dwell in it among the children of Israel. And for He came, the functions of the other necessarily ceased. what purpose was the human nature of Christ so miracu- This case is worthy of observation. The Jewish sacrifices lously produced? That the godhead might dwell in it; were never resumed after the destruction of their city and and that God and man might be reconciled, through this temple; for they hold it unlawful to sacrifice any ichere wonderful economy of divine grace; God being in Christ out of Jerusalem: and the unction of their high priests reconciling the world unto himself, 2 Cor. v. 19. And ceased from that period also: and why? because the true what was implied by this reconciliation? The union of priest and the true sacrifices were come, and the types, of the soul with God, and the indwelling of God in the soul. course, were no longer necessary after the manifestation Reader, has God yet filled thy tabernacle with his glory? of the antetype. Does Christ dwell in thy heart by faith, and dost thou Verse 19. He spread abroad the tent over the taberna. abide in him, bringing forth fruit unto holiness? Then, cle) By the tent, in this and several other places, we are thy end shall be eternal life. Why shouldst thou not go to understand the coverings made of rams' skins, goats' on thy way rejoicing, with Christ in thy heart, heaven in hair, &c. which were thrown over the building; for the thy eye, and the world, the devil, and the flesh, under thy feet? 1 tabernacle had no other kind of roof.
21 And he brought the ark into the taberna- of the congregation and the altar, and put water cle, and feet up the veil of the covering, and there, to wash withal. covered the ark of the testimony; as the LORD 31 And Moses, and Aaron, and his sons commanded Moses.
washed their hands and their feet thereat : 22 | 6 And he put the table in the tent of the 32 When they went into the tent of the congrecongregation, upon the side of the tabernacle gation, and when they came near unto the altar, northward, without the veil.
they washed; r as the LORD commanded Moses. 23 h And he set the bread in order upon it 33 1. And he reared up the court round about before the LORD; as the Lord had commanded the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the Moses.
hanging of the court gate. So Moses finished 24 11 And he put the candlestick in the tent the work. of the congregation, over against the table, on 34 · Then a cloud covered the tent of the the side of the tabernacle southward.
congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled 25 And he lighted the lamps before the the tabernacle. LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses.
35 And Moses u was not able to enter into the 26 And he put the golden altar in the tent tent of the congregation, because the cloud of the congregation before the veil:
abode thereon; and the glory of the LORD filled 27 m And he burnt sweet incense thereon; as the tabernacle. the LORD commanded Moses.
36 And when the cloud was taken up from 28 " And he set up the hanging at the door over the tabernacle, the children of Israel of the tabernacle.
w went onward in all their journeys: 29 And he put the altar of burnt-offering, by 37 But * if the cloud were not taken up, then the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up. congregation, and Poffered upon it the burnt 38 For s the cloud of the LORD was upon the offering and the meat-offering, as the LORD tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, commanded Moses.
in the sight of all the house of Israel, through30 | 9 And he set the laver between the tent out all their journeys.
Verse 20. He put the testimony in the ark] That is, residence upon the mercy seat, between the cherubim : and the two tables, on which the ten commandments had been in this place continued, till the first temple was destroyed ; written. See chap. xxv. 16. The ark, the golden table after which, it was no more seen in Israel, till God was with the show-bread, the golden candlestick, and the manifested in the flesh. golden altar of incense, were all in the tabernacle, within As in the book of GENESIS, we have God's own account the veil, or curtains, which served as a door, 22, 24, 26. of the commencement of the world, the origin of nations, And the altar of burnt-offerings was by the door, ver. 29. and the peopling of the earth : so in the book of EXODUS, And the brazen laver between the tent of the congregation we have an account, from the same source of infallible and the brazen altar, ver. 30. Still farther outward, that truth, of the commencement of the Jewish CHURCH, and it might be the first thing the priests met with, when en the means used by the endless mercy of God, to propagate tering into the court to minister ; as their hands and feet and continue his pure and undefiled religion in the earth ; must be washed before they could perform any part of the against which, neither human nor diabolic power or policy holy service, ver. 31, 32. When all these things were have ever been able to prevail! The preservation of this thus placed, then the court that surrounded the tabernacle, religion, which has ever been opposed by the great mass which consisted of posts and hangings, was set up, ver. 33. of mankind, is a standing proof of its divinity. As it has
Verse 34. Then a cloud covered the tent) Thug God ever been in hostility against the corrupt passions of men, gave his approbation of the work, and as this was visible, testifying against the world, that its deeds were evil, these so it was a sign to all the people that Jehovah was among passions have ever been in hostility to it. Cunning and them.
learned men have argued, to render its authority dubious, And the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle] How and its tendency suspicious; whole states and empires this was manifested we cannot tell : it was probably by have exerted themselves to the uttermost, to oppress and some light or brightness, which was insufferable to the destroy it; and its professed friends, by their conduct, have sight; for Moses himself could not enter in, because of often betrayed it; yet, librata ponderibus suis, supported the cloud, and of the glory, ver. 35. Precisely the same by the arm of God, and its own intrinsic excellence, it happened, when Solomon had dedicated his temple; for lives and flourishes, and the river that makes glad the it is said, that the cloud filled the house of the Lord; so city of God, has run down with the tide of time 5800 that the priests could not stand to minister because of the years, and is running on with a more copious and diffusive cloud; for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of current. the Lord. 1 Kings viii. 10, 11. Previously to this, the
Labitur, et labetur in omne volubilis apum. cloud of the divine glory had rested upon that tent, or ta
"Sull glides the river, and will ever glide." bernacle, which Moses had pilched without the camp,
We have seen how, by the miraculous cloud, all the after the transgression in the matter of the molten calf; movements of the Israelites were directed. They struck but now, the cloud removed from that tabernacle, and or pitched their tents, as it removed or became stationary. rested upon this one, which was made by the command, Every thing that concerned them, was under the direction and under the direction of God himself. And there is rea and management of God. But these things happened unto son to believe, that this tabernacle was pitched in the them for ensamples; and it is evident from Isai. iv. 5. that centre of the camp, all the twelve tribes pitching their all these things typified the presence and influence of God different tents in a certain order around it,
in his church, and in the souls of his followers. His Verse 36. When the cloud was taken up] The subject church can possess no sanctifying knowledge, no quickenof these three last verses has been very largely explained ing, power, but from the presence and influence of his in the notes on chap. xiii. 21. to which, as well as to the Spirit
. By this influence, all his followers are taught, engeneral remarks on that chapter, the reader is requested | lightened, led, quickened, purified, and built up on their immediately to refer.
most holy faith; and without the indwelling of his Spirit, Verse 38. For the cloud of the Lord was on the taber-light, life, and salvation, are impossible. These divine nacle by day] This daily and nightly appearance, was, at influences are necessary not only for a time, but through once, both a merciful providence, and a demonstrative all our journeys, ver. 38, through every changing scene proof of the divinity of their religion : and these tokens of providence, and through every step in life. And these continued with them throughout all their journeys: for, the followers of Christ are to possess, not by inference, or notwithstanding their frequently repeated disobedience inductive reasoning, but consciously. The influence is to and rebellion, God never withdrew these tokens of his be felt, and the fruits of it to appear as fully as the cloud presence from them, till they were brought into the pro- of the Lord by day, and the fire by night, appeared in mised land. When, therefore, the tabernacle became ine sight of all the house of Israel. Reader, hast thou this fized, because the Israelites had obtained their inherit- Spirit? are all thy goings and comings ordered by its conance; this mark of the divine presence was no longer tinual guidance ? Does Christ, who was represented by visible in the sight of all Israel, but appears to have been this tabernacle, and in whom dwell all the fulness of the confined to the Holy of Holies, where it had its fixed I Godhead bodily, dwell in thy heart by faith? If not, call
upon God for that blessing, which, for the sake of his Son, I he led them ABOUT through the way of the wilderness of he is ever disposed to impart; then shalt thou be glorious, the Red sea. There are accordingly two roads through and on all thy glory there shall be a defence. "Amen. which the Israelites might have been conducted from Cai
On the ancient division of the law into fifty-four sec ro to Pihahiroth, on the banks of the Red sea. One of tions, see the notes at the end of Genesis. of the fifty- them lies through the valleys, as they are now called, of four sections, Genesis contains troclve ; and the com- Jendily, Rumeleah, and Baideah, bounded on each side by mencement and ending of each, has been marked in the the mountains of the lower Thebais. The other lies highnote already referred to. of these sections, Exodus con er, having the northern range of these mountains, (ihe tains cleven, all denominated, as in the former case, by the mountains of Mocattee) running parallel with it on the words in the original, with which they commence. I shall right hand, and the desert of the Egyptian Arabia, which point these out, as in the former, carrying the enumeration lies all the way open to the land of the Philistines on the from Genesis.
left. About the middle of this range we may turn short The THIRTEENTH section, called nipo shemoth, begins upon our right hand into the valley of Baideah, through a Exod. chap. i. 1. and ends chap.vi. 1.
remarkable breach or discontinuation, in which we afterThe FOURTEENTH, called Noi vaera, begins chap. vi. 2. ward continued to the very bank of the Red sca. Suez, and ends chap. ix. 35.
a small city upon the northern point of it, at the distance The FIFTEENTH, called 'na bo, begins chap. x. 1. and of thirty hours, or ninety Roman miles from Cairo, lies a ends chap. xiii. 16.
little to the northward of the promontory that is formed by The sIXTEENTH, called mbwa beshallach, begins chap. this same range of mountains, called at present Atlackah, xiii. 17. and ends chap xvii. 16.
as that which bounds the valley of Baideah to the southThe SEVENTEENTH,
called on yithro, begins chap. xviii. ward is called Gewoubee. See the annexed map. 1. and ends chap. xx. 26.
“This road then, through the valley of Baideah, which The EIGHTEENTH, called Doduo mishpatim, begins is some hours longer than the other open road, which leads chap. xxi. 1. and ends chap. xxiv. 18.
up directly from Cairo to Suez, was, in all probability, the The NINETEENTH, called pun terumah, begins chap. very road which the Israelites look to Pihahiroth, on the xxv. 2. and ends chap xxvii. 19.
banks of the Red sea. Josephus, then, and other authors The TWENTIETH, called sn tetsaveh, begins chap. who copy after him, seem to be too hasty in making the xxvii. 20. and ends chap. xxx. 10.
Israelites perform this journey of ninety or one hundred The TWENTY-FIRST, called non tissa, begins chap xxx. Roman miles in three days: hy reckoning each of the sta11. and ends chap. xxxiv. 35.
tions that are recorded for one day. Whereas, the ScripThe TWENTY-SECOND, called Sapa vaiyakahel, begins tures are altogether silent with regard to the time or dischap. xxxv. 1. and ends chap. xxxviii. 20.
tance, recording the stations only. The fatigue, likewise, The TWENTY-THIRD, called Topo pekudcy, begins chap. would have been abundantly too great, for a nation on foot, xxxviii. 21. and ends chap. xl. 33.
encumbered with their dough, their kneading-troughs, It will at once appear to the reader, that these sections their little children and cattle, to walk at the raie of thirty have their technical names from some remarkable word, Roman miles a day. Another instance of the same kind either in the first, or second verse of their commencement. occurs, Exod. xxxiii. 9. where Elim is mentioned as the
next station after Marah, though Elim and Marah are farMASORETIC Notes on Exodus.
ther distant from each other than Cairo is from the Red Number of verses in V'elleh shemoth (Exodus) 1209. Several intermediate stations, therefore, as well here The symbol of this number is gonn; aleph ni denoting as in other places, were omitted, the holy penman con1000, resh200, and telh y 9.
tenting himself with laying down such only as were the The middle verse is ver. 28. of chap. xxii. Thou shalt most remarkable, or attended with some notable transacnot revile God, nor curse the ruler of thy people.
tion. Succoth, then, the first station from Rameses, signiIts parashioth, or larger sections, are 11. The symbol fying only a place of tents, may have no fixed situation, of this is the word "wei, Isa. lxvi. 1. Where is the house being probably nothing more than some considerable Douthat ye will build unto me? In which aleph N stands for war of the Ishmaelites or Arabs, such as we still meet 1, and yod · for 10.
with at fifteen or twenty miles distance from Cairo, in the Its sedarim are 29. The symbol of which is taken from road to the Red sea. The rendesrouz of the carPsalm xix. 3.717 yechaveh. Night unto night SHOWETH aran which conducted us to Suez was at one of these Dou. FORTH knowledge. In which word, yod · stands for 10, wars, at the same time we saw another at about six miles cheth n for 8, vau for 6, and he 7 for 5, amounting to 29. distance, under the mountains of Moc-catec, or in the very
Its pirkey, perakim, or present chapters, 40. The sym- same direction which the Israelites may be supposed to bol of which is 1a5a belibbo, taken from Psalm xxxvii. 31. have taken in their marches from Goshen toward the Red The law of God is IN HIS HEART. In this word, beth 2 stands for 2, lamed for 30, beth a for 2, and vau i for 6, "That the Israelites, before they turned toward Piha. amounting to 40.
hiroth, had travelled in an open ccuntry, (the same way, The open sections are 69.- The close sections are 95. perhaps, which their forefathers had taken in coming into Total 164. The symbol of which is yoyo' yisâdeca. | Egypt) appears to be farther illustrated from the following STRENGTHEN THEE out of Zion. In which numerical circumstance: that upon their being ordered to remove word, ain y stands for 70, samech o for 60, caph 7 for 20, from the edge of the wilderness, and to encamp before Piyod for 10, and daleth 7 for 4, making together 164. hahiroth, it immediately follows that Pharaoh should then
Number of words, 16513; of letters, 63467.
say, they are entangled in the land, the wilderness (be
twixt the mountains we may suppose of Gevoubee and At. others, see what is said in the concluding note on Genesis. tackah) has shut them in, Exod. xiv. 3. or, as it is in the
original, (o seggar) viam illis clausil, as that word is ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS
explained by Pagninus ; for in these circumstances the ON THE TRAVELS OF THE ISRAELITES THROUGH THE
Egyptians might well imagine that the Israelites could have no possible way to escape, inasmuch as the mountaina
of Gewoubee would stop their flight or progress to the In the preceding notes I have had frequent occasion to southward, as the mountains of Attackah would do the refer to Dr. Shaw's account of the different stations of the same, toward the land of the Philistines; the Red sea Israelites, of which I promised an abstract in this place. likewise lay before them to the east, whilst Pharaoh closed This will doubtless be acceptable to every reader who knows up the valley behind them with his chariots and horsemen. that Dr. Shaw travelled over the same ground; and care This valley ends at the sea, in a small bay made by the fully, in person, noted every spot to which reference is eastern extremities of the mountains which I have been made in the preceding chapters.
describing, and is called Tiah-Beni Israel, i e. the road of After having endeavoured to prove that Goshen was that the Israelites, by a tradition that is still kept up by the part of the Heliopolitan Nomos, or of the land of Rameses, Arabs, of their having passed throngh it; so it is also which lay in the neighbourhood of Cairo, Matta-rcah, and called Baideah, from the new and unheard-of miracle that Bishbesh, and that Cairo might be Rameses, the capital of was wrought near it, by dividing the Red sea, and dethe district of that name, where the Israelites had their stroying therein Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. rendezvous before they departed out of Egypt, he takes up The third notable encampment then of the Israelites was at the text, and proceeds thus:
this bay. It was to be before Pihahiroth, betwixt Migdol “Now, lest peradventure, (Exod. xiii. 17.) when the and the sea, over against Baal-tzephon, Exod. xiv. 2. and Hebreus saw war they should repent and return to Egypt, in Numb. xxxiii. 7. it was to be before Migdol, where the God did not lead them through the way of the land of the word "D) liphne, (before, as we render it,) being applied to Philistines, (viz. either by Heroopolis in the midland road, Pihahiroth and Migdol, may signify no more than that or by Bishbesh, Tinch, and so along the seacoast, toward they pitched within sight of or at a small distance from, the Gaza, and Ascalon,) although that was the nearest, but one and the other of those places. Whether Baal-tzephon
then may have relation to the northern situation of the room for the Egyptians to approach them, either on the place itself
, or to some watch-tower or idol temple that right hand or on the left. Besides, if this passage was at was erected upon it; we may probably take it for the east Ain Mousa, how can we account for that remarkable cirern extreinity of the mountains of Suez or Attackah, the cumstance, Exod. xv. 22. where it is said, that when most conspicuous of these deserts, inasmuch as it over Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, they went out looks a great part of the lower Thebais, as well as the into (or landed in) the wilderness of Shur. For Shur, wilderness that reaches toward, or which rather makes part a particular district of the wilderness of Etham, lies diof the land of the Philistines. Migdol then might lie to rectly fronting the valley, from which I suppose they dethe south, as Baal-tzephon did to the north of Pihahiroth; parted, but a great many miles to the southward of Ain for the marches of the Israelites from the edge of the wil-Mousa. If they landed likewise at Ain Mousa, where derness being to the seaward, that is, toward the S. E., there are several fountains, there would have been 'no occatheir encampments between Migdol and the sea, or before sion for the sacred historian to have observed, at the same Migdol, as it is otherwise noted, could not well have time, that the Israelites, after they went out from the sea another situation.
into the wilderness of Shur, went three days in the wilder“Pihahiroth, or Hhiroth, rather, without regarding the ness, always directing their marches toward Mount Sinai, prefired part of it, may have a more general signification, and found no water; for which reason Marah is recorded, and denote the valley, or that whole space of ground which ver. 23. to be the first place where they found water, as extended itself from the edge of the wilderness of Etham their wandering so far before they found it, seems to make to the Red sea; for that particular part only, where the Marah also their first station, after their passage through Israelites were ordered to encamp, appears to have been the Red sea. Moreover, the channel over against Ain called Pihahiroth, i. e. mouth of Hhiroth; for when Pha- Mousa is not above three miles over, whereas that betwixt raoh overtook them, it was in respect to his coming down Shur or Sedur and Jibbel Gewoubee and Attackah, is nine upon them, Exod. xiv. 9. on D by i. e. besides or at the or ten, and therefore capacious enough, as the other would mouth, or the most advanced part of Hhiroth to the east- have been too small, for covering or drowning therein, ward. Likewise in Numb. xxxiii. 7. where the Israelites Exod. xv. 28. the chariots and horsemen, and all the host are related to have encamped before Migdol, it follows, ver. of Pharaoh. And therefore by impartially weighing all 8. that they departed, muna yoo from before Ahiroth, and these arguments together, this important point in the sacred not from before Pihahiroth, as it is renuered in our trans- geography, may with more authority be fixed at Sedur, lation.
over against the valley of Baideah, than at Tor, Coron“There are likewise other circumstances to prove that del, Ain Mousa, or any other place. the Israelites took their departure from this valley in "Over againsi Jibbeh Attackah, and the valley of Baitheir passage through the Red sea, for it could not have deah, is the desert, as it is called, of Sdur, the same with been to the northward of the mountains of Attackah, or Shur, Exod. xv. 22. where the Israelites landed, after in the higher road, which I have taken notice of; because they had passed through the interjacent gulf of the Red as this lies for the most part upon a level, the Isruelites The situation of this gulf, which is the Jam suph could not have been here, as we find they were, shut in 70 the rocedy sea, or the tongue of the Egyptian sce, and entangled. Neither could it have been on the other in the Scripture language; the gulf of Heroopolis in the side, viz. to the south of the mountains of Gewoubee, for Greek and Latin geography; and the western arm, &s then, (besides the insuperable difficulties which the Israel the Arabian geographers call it, of the sea of Kolzum, ites would have met with in climbing over them, the same stretches itself nearly north and south, and therefore lies likewise that the Egyptians would have had in pursuing very properly situated, to be traversed by that strong eastthem) the opposite shore could not have been the desert of wind which was sent to divide it, Exod. xiv. 21. The Shur, where the Israelites landed, Exod. xv. 22. but it division that was thus made in the channel; the making the would have been the desert of Marah, that lay a great waters of it to stand on a heap, (Ps. lxxviii. 13.) their way beyond it. What is now called Corondel might pro- being a wall to the Israelites, on the right hand and on bably be the southern portion of the desert of Marah, the the lefl; Exod. xiv. 22. besides the twenty miles distance, shore of the Red sea, from Suez, hitherto having continued at least, of this passage, from the extremity of the gulf, to be low and sandy; but from Corondel to the port of are circumstances which sufficiently vouch for the mirucuTor, the shore is for the most part rocky and mountain- lousness of it, and no less contradict all such idle supposious, in the same manner with the Egyptian coast that tions as pretend to account for it, from the nature and lies opposite to it; neither the one nor the other of them quality of tides, or from any such extraordinary recess affording any convenient place, either for the departure of of the sea, as it seems to have been too rashly compared a multitude from the one shore, or the reception of upon to, by Josephus. the other. And besides, from Corondel to Tor, the chan "In travelling from Sdur towards mount Sinai, we nel of the Red sea, which from Suez to Sdur is not above come into the deserl, as it is still called, of Marah, where nine or ten miles broad, begins here to be so many leagues, the Israelites met with those bitter waters, or waters of too great a space certainly for the Israclites, in the manner Marah, (Exod. xv. 23.) And as this circumstance did not they were encumbered, to pass over in one night. At Tor happen till after they had wandered three days in the wilthe Arabian shore begins to wind itself round about Ptol- derness, we may probably fix these waters at Coronde, emy's promontory of Paran, toward the gulf of Eloth, where there is still a small rill, which, unless it be diluted while the Egyptian shore retires so far to the southwest by the dews and rain, still continues to be brackish. Near that it can scarce be perceived. As the Israelites then, for this place, the sea forms itself into a large bay, called Berk these reasons, could not, according to the opinion of some el Corondel, i. e. the lake of Corondel, which is remarkauthors, have landed either at Corondel or Tor, so neither able from a strong current, that sets into it from the northcould they have landed at Ain el Mousah, according to ward, particularly at the recess of the tide.. The Arabs, the conjectures of others. For if the passage of the agreeably to the interpretation of Kolzum (the name for Israelites had been so near the extremity of the Red sea, this sea) preserve a tradition, that a numerous host was it may be presumed that the very encampments of six hun formerly drowned at this place, occasioned, no doubt, by dred thousand men, besides children, and a mixed multi- what is related Exod. xiv. 30. that the Israelites saw the tude, which would amount to as many more, would have Egyptians dead upon the seashore, i. e. all along, as we spread themselves, even to the farther, or the Arabian side may presume, from Sdur to Corondel ; and at Corondd of this narrow isthmus, whereby the interposition of Prov- especially, from the assistance and termination of the curidence would not have been at all necessary : because, in rent, as it has been already mentioned. this case, and in this situation, there could not have been "There is nothing farther remarkable, till we see the room enough for the waters, after they were divided, to Israelites encamped at Elim, Exod. xv. 27. Numb. xxxiii. have stood on a heap, or to have been a wall unto them, 9. upon the northern skirts of the desert of Sin, two particularly on the left hand. This, moreover, would noi leagues from Tor, and near thirty from Corondel. I saw have been a division, but a recess only of the water to the no more than nine of the tucre wells that are mentioned southward. Pharaoh, likewise, by overtaking them as by Moses; the other three being filled up by those drifts they were encamped in this open situation by the sea, of sand, which are common in Arabia. 'Yet this loss is would have easily surrounded them on all sides. Whereas amply made up by the great increase of the palm-trees, the the contrary seems to be implied by the pillar of the cloud, sevenly having propagated themselves into more than two Exod. xiv. 19, 20. which (divided, or) 'came between the thousand. Under the shade of these trees is the Hammam camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel, and Mousa, or bath of Moses, particularly so called, which the thereby left the Israelites (provided this cloud should have inhabitants of Tor have in great esteem and veneration; been removed) in a situation only of being molested in the acquainting us that it was here, where the household of rear. For the narrow valley which I have described, and Moses was encamped. which we may presume was already occupied and filled “We have a distinct view of mount Sinai from Elim ; up behind by the host of Egypt, and before by the en the wilderness, as it is still called, of Sin, po lying between camprents of the Israelites, would not permit or leave I them. We traversed these plains in nine hours ; being all
the way diverted with the sight of a variety of lizards | Horites in their mount Seir unto El Paran, (i. e. unto and vipers, that are here in great numbers. We were the city, as I take it, of that name,) which is in, or by the afterward near twelve hours in passing the many windings wilderness. From the more advanced part of the wilderand ditficult ways, which lie between these deserts and ness of Paran, (the same that lay in the road between those of Sinai.' The latter consists of a beautiful plain, Midian and Egypt, 1 Kings xi. 18.) Moscs sent a man more than a league in breadth, and nearly three in length; out of every tribe to spy out the land of Canaan, Numb. lying open toward the northeast, where we enter it, but is xxiii. 3. who returned to him after forty days, unto the closed up to the southward, by some of the lower eminences same wilderness, to Kadesh Barnea, Numb. xxxii. 8. of mount Sinai. In this direction, likewise, the higher Deut. i. 10. and ix. 23. Josh. xiv. 7. This place or city, parts of this mountain make such encroachments upon the which in Gen. xiv. 7. is called Enmishpat (i. e. the founplain, that they divide it into two, each of them capacious tain of Mishpat) is (in Numb. xx. 1. xxvii. 14. xxxiii. 36.) enough to receive the whole encampment of the Israelites. called Tzin Kadesh, or simply Kadesh (as in Gen. xvi. That which lies to the eastward, may be the desert of 14. xx. 1.) and being equally ascribed to the desert of Tzin Sinai, properly so called, where Moses saw the angel of you and to the desert of Paran, we may presume that the the Lord in the burning bush, when he was guarding the desert of Tzin and Paran were one and the same, por flocks of Jethro, Exod. nii. 2. The convent of St. Catha- ou may be so called from the plants of divers palm rine is built over the place of this divine appearance. It grounds upon it. is near three hundred feet square, and more than forty in “A late ingenious author has situated Kadesh Barnea, height, being built partly with stone, partly with mud and a place of no small consequence in Scripture history, which mortar mixed together. The more immediate place of the we are now enquiring after, at eight hours or twenty miles shekinah is honoured with a little chapel, which this old distance only, from mount Sinai, which I presume cannot fraternity of St. Basil has in such esteem and venera be admitted for various reasons. Because several texts tion, that, in imitation of Moses, they put of their shoes of Scripture insinuate, that Kadesh lay at a much greater from off their feet, whenever they enter it. This, with distance. Thus in Deut. i. 9. it is said, they departed from several other chapels dedicated to particular saints, are Horeb through that great and terrible wilderness (which included within the church, as they call it, of the trans- supposes by far a much greater extent both of time and figuration ; which is a large beautiful structure covered space,) and came to Kadesh Barnea ; and in chap. ix. 23. with lead, and supported by two rows of marble columns. when the Lord sent you from Kadesh Barnca to possess The floor is very elegantly laid out in a variety of devices the land : which Numb. xx. 16. is described to be a city in Mosaic work. Of the same tesselated workmanship, in the utter most parts of the border of Edom; the borlikewise, are both the floor and the walls of the presby- der of the land of Edom and that of the land of promise terium, upon the latter whereof is represented the effigies being contiguous, and in fact
the very same. And farther, of the emperor Justinian, together with the history of the Deut. 1. 2. it is expressly said, there are eleren days transfiguration. Upon the partition which separates the journey from Horeb by the way of mount Seir to Kapresbyterium from the body of the church, there is placed desh Barnca: which, from the context, cannot be othera small marble shrine, wherein are preserved the skull wise understood, than of marching along the direct road. and one of the hands of St. Catharine ; the rest of the For Moses hereby intimates, how soon the Israelites sacred body having been bestowed at different times, upon might have entered upon the borders of the land of pro such Christian princes as have contributed to the support mise, if they had not been a stubborn and rebellious people. of this convent.
Whereas the number of their stations between Sinai and “Mount Sinai, which hangs over this convent, is called Kadesh, as they are particularly enumerated, Numb. by the Arabs, Jibbel Mousa, i. e. the mountain of Moses ; xxxiii. (each of which must have been at least one days' and sometimes only, by way of eminence, El Tor, i. e. journey,) appear to be near twice as many, or twenty-one, the mountain. The summit of mount Sinai is not very in which they are said with great truth and propriety (Ps. spacious; where the Mohammedans, the Latins, and the cvii. 4.) to have wandered in the wilderness out of the Greeks, have each of them a small chapel.
way; and in Deut. ii. 1. to have compassed mount Seir, “After we had descended, with no small difficulty, down rather than to have travelled directly through it. If then the other, or western side of this mount, we come into the we allow ten miles for each of these eleven days' journey plain or wilderness of Rephidim, Exod. xvii. 1. where we (and fewer I presume cannot well be insisted upon) the see that extraordinary antiquity, the rock of Meribah, distance of Kadesh from mount Sinai will be about me Exod. xvii. 6. which has continued down to this day with hundred and ten miles. That ten miles a day (I mean out the least injury from time or accidents. This is rightly in a direct line, as laid down in the map, without considercalled, from its hardness, Deut. viii. 15. a rock of fint, ing the deviations, which are every where, more or less)
were cquivalent to one day's journey, may be farther proved it, it may be rather rendered the rock of Osnor nos non from the history of the spies, who searched the land amethyst, or the amethystine, or granite rock. It is about (Numb. xiii. 21.) from Kadesh to Rehob as men come to six yards square, lying tottering, as it were, and loose, near Hamath, and returned in forty days. Rehob then, the the middle of the valley, and seems to have been formerly farthest point of this expedition to the northward, may a part or cliff of mount Sinai, which hangs in a variety well be conceived to have been twenty days' journey from of precipices all over this plain. The waters which gushed Kadesh; and therefore to know the true position of Rehob, out, and the stream which flowed withal, Psal. Ixxviii. will be a material point in this disquisition. Now it ap20. have hollowed across one corner of this rock, a channel pears from Josh. xix. 29, 30. and Judg. i. 31. that Rehob about two inches deep, and twenty wide, all over incrustat was one of the maritime cities of the tribe of Asher; and ed like the inside of a tea-kettle that has been long used. lay (in travelling, as we may suppose, by the common or Besides several mossy productions, that are still preserved nearest way along the seacoast) non nas Numb. xiii. 21. by the dew, we see all over this channel a great number (not, as we render it, as men come to Hamath, but) as of holes, some of them four or five inches deep, and one men go toward Hamath, in going to Hamath, or in the or two in diameter : the lively and demonstrative tokens way, or road to Hamath. For to have searched the land of their having been formerly so many fountains. Neither as far as Hamath, and to have returned to Kadesh in forty could art or chance be concerned in the contrivance; inas- days, would have been altogether impossible. Moreover, much as every circumstance points out to us a miracle: as the tribe of Asher did not reach beyond Sidon (for that and in the same manner, with the rent in the rock of mount was its northern boundary, Josh. xix. 28.) Rehob must Calvary in Jerusalem, never fails to produce the greatest have been situated to the southward of Sidon, upon, or seriousness and devotion in all who see it.
(being a derivative perhaps from 200 latum csse) below in "From mount Sinai, the Israelites directed their the plain, under a long chain of mountains, that runs east marches northward, toward the land of Canaan. The and west, through the midst of that tribe. And as these next remarkable encampments, therefore, were in the desert mountains, called by some the mountains of Saran, are of Paran, which seems to have commenced immediately all along, except in the narrow road, which I have menupon their departing from Hazaroth, three stations, or tioned, near the sea, very rugged, and difficult to pass over, days' journey, i. e. thirty miles, as we will only compute the spies, who could not well take another way, might them, from Sinai, Numb. x. 33. and xii. 16. And as tra- imagine they would run too great a risk of being discoverdition has continued down to us the names of Shur, Marah, ed, in attempting to pass through it. For in these eastern and Sin; so it has also that of Paran; the ruins of the countries a watchful eye was always, as it is still
, kept late convent of Paran, built upon the ruins of an ancient upon strangers, as we may collect from the history of the city of that name, (which might give denomination to the two angels at Sodom, Gen. xix. 5. and of the spies at whole of that desert,) being about the half-way between Jericho, Josh. ii. 2. and from other instances. If then, we Sinai and Corondel, which lie at forty leagues distance. fix Rehob upon the skirts of the plains of Acre, a little to This situation of Paran, so far to the south of Kadesh, the south of this narrow road, (the Scala Tyriorum, as will illustrate Gen. xix. 5, 6. where Chederlaomer, and it was afterwards named) somewhere near Egdippa, the the kings that were with him, are said to have smote the distance between Kadesh and Rehob will be about troo