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9 T. These shall ye eat of all that are in the 13 T. And these are they which ye shall have waters; whatsoever hath fins and scales in the in abomination among the fowls; they shall not waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and

the ossifrage, and the ospray, 10 And all that have not fins and scales in the 14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind ; seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the 15 Every raven after his kind : waters, and of any living thing which is in the 16 And the owl, and the knight hawk, and the waters, they shall be an o abomination unto cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind, you.

17 And the little d owl, and the cormorant, 11 They shall be even an abomination unto and the great owl, you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall 18 And the swan, and the ' pelican, and the have their carcasses in abomination.

gier eagle, 12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the 19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, waters, that shall be an abomination unto you. and the lapwing, and the bat.

d Isai. 34. 11.- Deut. 14. 16. - Psa. 102, 6. Deut. 14. 17. Deut. 14. 18. Par. 101

a Deut. 14. 9.-- Ch. 7. 18. Deat. 11.3.- Deut. 14.12. Job 39. 27-30. Matl 21. 15.

Luke 16. 15. Rev. 21. 27.

17. Jer. 8. 7. Zech. 5.9.

ciently abounded, Bochart supposes that the Phænicians ter of vociferation, the female ostrich, probably so called might have given it the name of 7930 spaniah, from the from the noise they make. "In the lonesome part of the multitude of Dvov shaphanim, (or spanim, as others pro- night," says Dr. Shaw, " the ostriches frequently make a nounce it) which were found there. Hence the emblem of very doleful and hideous noise, sometimes resembling the Spain is a woman sitting with a rabbit at her feet. See a roar of the lion; and at other times the hoarser voice of coin of Hadrian in Scheuchzer.

the bull or oz." He adds, “I

have heard them groan as Verse 6. The HARE] 1337 arncbeth, as Bochart and if in the deepest agonies. Travels, 4to edition, p. 455. others suppose; from arah, to crop, and aw nib, the The ostrich is a very unclean animal, and eats its own orproduce of the ground; these animals being remarkable dure as soon as it voids it, and of this, Dr. Shaw observes, for destroying the fruits of the earth. That they are noto- | (see above) it is remarkably fond ! This is a sufficient rious for destroying the tender blade of the young corn is reason, were others wanting, why such a fowl should be well known. It is very likely that different species of these reputed to be unclean, and its use as an article of diet proanimals are included under the general terms Dv shaphan, hibited. and nann arnebeth, for some travellers have observed that The NIGHT-HAWK) donn tachmas, from son chamas, to there are four or five sorts of these animals, which are force away, act violently, and unjustly; supposed by Boused for food in the present day, in those countries. See chart and Scheuchzer to signify the male ostrich from its Harmer, vol iii. p. 331. edit. 1803. Some think the moun- cruelty towards its young, see Job xxxix. 17—19. but tain rat, marmoi, squirrel, and hedgchog, may be intended others, with more reason, suppose it to be the bird described under the word shaphan.

by Hasselquist, which he calls the strix Orientalis, or Verse 7. And the swINE] in chazir, one of the most glut- Oriental owl. "It is of the size of the common owl, living tonous, libidinous, and filthy quadrupeds in the universe; in the ruins and old deserted houses of Egypt and Syria, and because of these qualities sacred to the Venus of the and sometimes in inhabited houses. The Arabs in Egyps Greeks and Romans; and the Friga of our Saxon ances call it Massasa, the Syrians, Bana. It is very ravenous tors : and perhaps on these accounts forbidden; as well as in Syria, and in the evenings, if the windows be left open, on account of its flesh being strong and difficult to digest, it flies into houses, and kills infants, unless they are careaffording a very gross kind of aliment, apt to produce cu- fully watched; wherefore the women are much afraid of taneous, scorbutic, and scrofulous disorders, especially in it." Travels, p. 196. hot climates.

If this be the fowl intended, this is a sufficient reason why Verse 9. Whatsocrer hath fins and scalcs] Because these, it should be considered an abomination. of all the fish tribe. are the most nourishing; the others, The CUCKO0] 970 shachaph, supposed rather to mean which are without scales, being in general very difficult of the sea incid; called shachaph, from norv shachepheth, a digestion.

wasting distemper, or atrophy, (mentioned Levit. xxvi. Verse 13. And these--among the forelsthe eagle] 103 16. Deut. xxviii: 22.) because its body is the leanest, in pronesher, from nashar, to lacerato, cut, or tear to pieces ; portion to its bones and feathers, of most other birds; alhence the eagle, a most rapacious bird of prey, from its ways appearing as if under the influence of a wasting distearing the flesh of the animals it feeds on; and for this temper. A fowl which, from its natural constitution, or purpose, birds of prey have, in general, strong, crooked manner of life, is incapable of becoming plump or fleshy, talong, and a hooked beak. The eagle is a cruel bird, ex must always be unwholesome: and this is reason sufficient ceedingly ravenous, and almost insatiable.

why such should be prohibited. The ossifrage) Or, bone-breaker, from os, a bone, and And the HawK) ya ncts, from the root ng naisah, to frango, I break, because it not only strips of the flesh, but shoot forth, or spring forward, because of the rapidity breaks the bone, in order to extract the marrow. In He- and length of its flight, the hawk being remarkable for brew, it is called on peres, from paras, to break, or diride both. As this is a bird of prey, it is forbidden, and all in two, and probably signifies that species of cagle ancient- others of its kind. ly known by the name of ossifraga, and which we render Verse 17. The Little OWL) 01 cos, the bittern, nightossifragc.

raren, or night-owl, according to most interpreters. Some Öspray] y âzaniah, from py azan, to be strong, think the onocrotalus or pelican may be intended; for as vigorous, generally supposed to mean the black caglo; such the word di cos, signifies a cup, in Hebrew, and the pelias that described by Homer, Iliad xxi. ver 252.

can is remarkable for a pouch or bag under the lower jaw, Αιο του οιμαι ? εχων μελανος, του 5ηρητηρος,

it might have had its Hebrew name from this circumΟς δ' αμα χαρτιστος τε και ωκιστος πετεινων.

stance; but the kaath, in the following verse, is rather sup“Having the rapidity of the black eagle, that bird of prey, posed to mean this fowl, and that the cos means some at once the swiftest and strongest of the feathered race.' species of the bubo or owl. See Bochart, vol. ii. col. 272.

Among the Greeks and Romans, the Eagle was held The CORMORANT] 750 shalac, from the root which sig. sacred, and is represented as carrying the thunderbolts of nifies to cast down; hence the Septuagint **r*e*2Tas, Jupiter. This occurs so frequently, and is so well known, the cataract, or bird which falls precipitutely down upon that references are almost needless. See Scheuchzer. its prey. It probably signifies the plungcon or diver, a

Verse 14. The vuLTURE) INT daah, from the root to fly, sea-fowl, which I have seen, at sea, dart down as swift as and, therefore, more probably the kite or glede, from its re an arrow into the water, and seize the fish which it had markable property of gliding, or sailing with expanded discovered while even flying, or rather soaring, at a very wings through the air. The ann daah, is a different bird great height. from the man daiyah, which signifies the vulture. See Bo The Great OWL) qo yansuph, according to the Sep. chart, vol. iii. col. 195.

tuagint and the Vulgate, signifies the ibis, a bird well The KITE) w aiyah, thought by some to be the vulture, known, and held sacred in Egypt. Some critics, with our by others the merlin. Parkhurst thinks it has its name translation, think it means a species of orl or night bird, from the root in avah, to covet, because of its rapacious- because the word may be derived from qua nesheph, which ness; some contend that the kite is meant. That it is a signifies the twilighi, the time in which ouls chiefly fly species of the hawk, most learned men allow. See Bo-about. See Bochart, vol. iii. col. 281. chart, vol. iii. col. 192.

Verse 18. The swan) novin tinshometh. The SepVerse 15. Every RAVEN) Sny öreb, a general term com tuagint translate the word by worqueowwe, the porphyrion, prehending the raven, crow, rook, jackdaw, and magpie. purple, or scarlet bird : could we depend on this translaVerse 16. The owijnsya na baih haiyaanah, the daugh. I tion, we might suppose the flamingo, or some such bird to


20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, 25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carshall be an abomination unto you.

case of them, shall wash his clothes, and be 21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creep- unclean until the even. ing thing that goeth upon all four, which have 26 The carcasses of every beast which dividlegs above their feet, to leap withal upon the eth the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor chewearth;

eth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one 22 Even these of them ye may eat: the lo- that toucheth them shall be unclean. cust after his kind, and the bald locust after his 27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, . kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grass- among all manner of beasts that go on all four, hopper after his kind.

those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth 23 But all other flying

creeping things, which their carcass shall be unclean until the even. have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you. 28 And he that beareth the carcass of them

24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whoso-shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the ever toucheth the carcass of them shall be un even: they are unclean unto you. clean until the even.

29 | These also shall be unclean unto you

h Matt. 3. 4. Mark 1. 6.

i Ch. 14. && 15. 5 Numb. 19. 10. 22 & 31. 24.

the sun.

be intended. Some suppose the goose to be meant, but Verse 21. That have legs abore their feet] This apthis is by no means likely, as it cannot be classed either pears to refer to the different kinds of locusts and grassamong ravenous or unclean fowls. Bochart thinks the hoppers, which have very remarkable hind legs, long and olol is meant. See on ver. 30.

with high joints, projecting above their backs, by which The PELICAN) nap kaath. As and kauh signifies to they are enabled to spring up from the ground, and leap vomit up, the name is supposed to be very descriptive of high and far. the pelican, who receives its food into the pouch under its Verse 22. The LOCUST] nang arabeh, either from a jaw, and by pressing it on its breast with its bill, throws it arab, to lie in wait, or in ambush, because often immense up for the nourishment of its young. Hence the fable flights of them suddenly alight upon the fields, vineyards, which represents the pelican wounding her breast with her &c. and destroy all the produce of the earth: or from na bill, that she might feed her young with her own blood : a rabah, he multiplied, because of their prodigious swarms. ficuion which has no foundation but in the above circum- See a particular account of these insects in the notes on stance. Bochart thinks the bittern is meant, vol. iii. col. Exod. x. 4. 292.

The BALD LOCUST] Dybo saleâm, compounded, says The GIER EAGLE) on racham... As the root of this Mr. Parkhurst

, from yo salâ, to cut, break, and by âm, word signifies tenderness and affection, it is supposed to contiguity, a kind of locust, probably so called from the refer to some bird remarkable for its attachment to ils rugged, craggy form. See the first of Scheuchzer's plates, young; hence some have thought that the pelican is to be vol. iii. p. 100. understood. Bochart endeavours to prove that it means The BEETLE] Soon chargol. "The Hebrew name seems the culture: probably that species called the golden rul a derivative from oon charag, to shake, and som regel, the ture. Bochart, vol. i. col. 303.

foot; and so to denote the nimbleness of its motions. Thus Verse 19. The stORK) oron chasidah, from yon chasad, in English, we call an animal of the locust kind, a grasswhich signifies to be abundant in kindness, or exuberant hopper; the French name of which is sauterelle, from in acts of beneficence; hence applied to the stork, because the verb sauter, to leap.”Parkurst. This word occurs of its affection to its young, and its kindness in tending only in this place. The beetle never can be intended here, and feeding its parents when old; facts attested by the as that insect never was eaten by man, perhaps in any best informed and most judicious of the Greek and Latin country of the universe. natural historians. See Bochart, Scheuchzer, and Park The GRASSHOPPER) an chagab. Bochart supposes that hurst, under the word on chasad. It is remarkable for this species of locust has its name from the Arabic verb destroying and eating, of serpents; and on this account ya hajaba, to veil ; because, when they fly, as they might be reckoned by Moses among unclean birds. often do, in great swarms, they eclipse even the light of The HERON) -Dox anaphuh. This word has been vari

See the notes on Exod. x. 4. and the description ously understood; some have rendered it the kite, others of ten kinds of locusts in Bochart, vol. iii. col. 441. And the woodcock, others the curlew, some the peacock, others see the figures in Schcuchzer, in whose plates 20 different the parrot, and others the crane. The root qon anaph, species are represented, vol. iii

. p. 100. And see Dr. Shaw signifies to breathe short through the nostrils, to snuff, as on the animals mentioned in this chapter, Travels, p. 419, in anger; hence to be angry: and it is supposed that the &c. 4to edition; and when all these are consulted, the word is sufficiently descriptive of the heron, from its very reader will see how little dependence can be placed on the irritable disposition. It will attack even a man in defence most learned conjectures relative to these and the other of its nest : and I have known a case where a man was animals mentioned in Scripture. One thing, however, is in danger of losing his life, by a stroke of a heron's bill, fully evident, viz. that the locust was eaten, not only in near the eye, who had climbed up into a high tree to take those ancient times, in the time of John Baptist, Matt. iii. its nest. Bochart supposes a species of the eagle to be 4. but also in the present day. Dr. Shaw ate of them in meant, vol. iii. col. 335.

Barbary, "fried and salted," and tells us that "they tasted The LAPWING) no'n dukiphath, the upupa, hoopoe, or very like crayfish.” They have been eaten in Africa, hoop, a created bird, with beautiful plumage, but very un- Greece, Syria, Persia, and throughout Asia; and whole clean. See Bochart and Scheuchzer. Concerning the tribes seem to have lived on them, and were hence called genuine meaning of the original, there is little agreement acridophagoi, or locust-eaters, by the Greeks. See Slrabo, among interpreters.

lib. xvi. and Pliny, Hist. Nat. 1. xvii. c. 30. The BAT) Troy âlalaph, so called, according to Park Verse 27. Whatsoever goeth upon his pares) *DƏ ca. hursh, from wat, to fly; and aby ålaph, darkness or ob- phaid, his palms, or hands, probably referring to those aniscurity, because it flies about in the dusk of the evening mals whose feet resemble the hands and feet of the human and in the night; so the Septuagint vuxtigos from vož, the being, such as apes, monkeys, and all creatures of that niglu, and the Vulgate, despertilio, from vesper, the eren genus; together with bears, frogs, &c. ing. This being a sort of monster, partaking of the Verse 29. The WEASEL) 95 choled, from chalad, Syr. nature of both a bird and beast, it might well be classed to creep in. Bochart conjectures, with great propriety, among unclean animals, or animals, the use of which, in that the mole, not the weasel, is intended by the Hebrew food, should be avoided.

word; its property of digging into the earth, and creepVerse 20. All fowls that creep] Such as the bat, already ing or burrowing under the surface, is well known. mentioned, which has claws attached to its leathern wings, The MOUSE) 12ay âcbor. Probably the large field rat, and which serve in place of feet, to crawl by; the feet and or what is called by the Germans, the hamster, though legs not being distinct : but this may also include all the every species of the mus genus may be here prohibited. different kinds of insects, with the exceptions in the fol The TORTOISE) 35 tsab. Most critics allow that the lowing verse.

tortoise is not intended here, but rather the crocodile, the Going on all four) May signify no more than walking frog, or the toad. The frog is most probably the animal regularly or progressively, foot after foot, as quadrupeds meant, and all other creatures of its kind. do; for it cannot be applied to insccts, literally, as they Verse 30. The FERRET) mpk anakah, from p»x anak, to have in general six feet, many of them more, some repu- groan, to cry out: a species of lizard which derives its name led to have a hundred, hence called centipedes; and some from its piercing doleful cry. See Bochart, v. ii.col. 1066. a thousand, hence called millipedes ; words which often The CHAMELEON) na coach. Bochart contends that this signify no more than that such insects have a great num- is the Ju waril, or guaril, another species of lizard, ber of sect.

which derives its name from its remarkable strength and

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among the creeping things that creep upon the 37 And if any part of their carcass fall upon earth; the weasel and k the mouse, and the tor- any sowing seed, which is to be sown, it shal be toise after his kind,

clean. 30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the 38 But if any water be put upon the seed, lizard, and the isnail, and the mole.

and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it 31 These are unclean to you among all that shall be unclean unto you. creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they 39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, be dead, shall be unclean until the even. die; he that toucheth the carcass thereof shall

32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when be unclean until the even. they are dead doth fall, it shall be unclean; whe 40 And p he that eateth of the carcass of it ther it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall any work is done, mit must be put into water, wash' his clothes, and be unclean until the even. and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall 41 And every creeping thing that creepeth be cleansed.

upon the earth, shall be an abomination; it 33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any shall not be eaten. of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be un 42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and clean: and ye shall break it.

whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever 84 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on 9 hath more feet among all creeping things that which such water cometh, shall be unclean: and creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel they are an abomination. shall be unclean.

43 "Ye shall not make yourselves abomina35 And every, thing, whereupon any part of ble with any creeping thing that creepeth, their carcass talleth shall be unclean; whether it neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken them, that ye should be defiled thereby. down: for they are unclean, and shall be un 44 For Yam the Lord your God: ye shall clean unto you,

therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be 36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, ° wherein holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that yourselves with any manner of creeping thing which toucheth their carcass shall be unclean. that creepeth upon the earth.

k Ini. 66. 17.-1 Pe. 53. 8.-m Ch. 15. 12.-n Ch. 6. 2. & 15. 12o Heb. a gathering together of waters.-p Ch. 17. 15. & 22. 8. Deut. 14. 21. Euck. 4. 14. & 41.31.

9 Heb. doth multiply fect.-r Ch. 20. 25. Heb. soule.- Exod. 19. 6. Ch. 19. 2

& 20. 7. 26 1 Thess. 4.7. 1 Pet 1. 15, 16.

vigour in destroying serpents; the Hebrew no cach, sig- put to the seed to prepare it for being sown, shall be nifying to be strong, firm, vigorous ; it is probably the touched by such pure carcasses, the seed shall be same with the mongoose, a creature still well known in considered as unclean, ver. 39. Probably this may be the India, where it is often domesticated, in order to keep the meaning of these passages. houses free from snakes, rats, mice, &c.

Verse 42. Whatsorer goeth upon the belly) In the The LIZARD) anys letaah. Bochart contends, that this word 1973 gah On, the vau holem, in most Hebrew Bibles, also is a species of lizard, called by the Arabs 80, wa is much larger than the other letters: and as a Masoretic hara, which erceps close to the ground, and is poisonous. note is added in the margin, which, states, that this is the

The snail) bon chomet, another species of lizard, ac middle letter of the law : and consequently this verse is cording to Bochart, called to huluka, by the Arabians, the middle rerse of the Pentateuch. which lives chiefly in the sand. Vol. ii. col. 1075.

Whatsoever hath more feet] Than four ; that is, all The MOLE) novin tinshameth, from Dei nasham, to many-footed reptiles, as well as those which go upon the breathe. Bochart seems to have proved, that this is the belly, having no feet, such as serpents: besides the fourchameleon, which has its Hebrew name from its wide footed smaller animals, mentioned above. gaping mouth, very large lungs, and its deriving its nour Verse 44. Ye shall sanctify yourselves) Ye shall keep ishment from small animals which float in the air, so that yourselves separalc from all the people of the earth, that it has been conjectured by some, to feed on the air itself. ye may be holy; for I am holy; And this was the grand Vol. ii. col. 1078. A bird of the same name is mentioned, design of God in all these prohibitions and commands; ver. 13. which Bochart supposes to be the night-oul. Vol. for these external sanctifications were only the emblems iii. col. 286.

of that internal purity which the holiness of God requires Verse 32. Any vessel of wood] Such as the wooden here, and without which none can dwell with him in glory bowls still in use among the Arabs--or raiment, or skin, hereafter.- See at the conclusion of this chapter. any trunks or baskets covered with skins, another part of The contents of this chapter must furnish many profitthe furniture of an Arab tent-and the goal-skins, in which able reflections to a pious mind. they churn their milk, may be also intended. Or sack-any 1. From the great difficulty of ascertaining what hair-cloth used for the purpose of transporting goods from animals are meant in this part of the law, we may at once place to place,

see, that the law itself must be considered as abrogated : Verse 33. And every earthen vessel] Such pitchers as for there is not a Jew in the universe who knows what are commonly used for drinking out of, and for holding the animals are, a very few excepted, which are intended liquids. M. De la Roque observes, that hair-sacks, trunks by these Hebrew words : and therefore he may be repeatand baskets, covered with skin, are used among ths trav- edly breaking this law, by touching and being touched elling Arabs to carry their household utensils in, which either by the animals themselves or their produce, such as are kettles or pots, great wooden bowls, handmills, and hair, wool, fur, skin, intestines, differently manufactured, pitchers. It is very likely that these are nearly the same &c. &c. 'It therefore appears that this people have as with those used by the Israelites in their journeyings in the little Law as they have Gospel

. wilderness; for the customs of these people do not change. 2. While God keeps the eternal interests of man stea

Verse 35. Ranges for pots) To understand this we dily in view, he does not forget his carthly comfort ; he is muist observe, that the Arabs dig a hole in their tent, about at once solicitous both for the health of his body and his a foot and a half deep: three-fourths of this, says Rau soul. He has not forbidden certain aliments, because he wolff, they lay aboue with stones, and the fourth part is is a Sovercign, but because he knew they would be injuleft open, for the purpose of throwing in their fuel. This rious to the health and morals of his people. The close little temporary building, is probably what is here designed connexion that subsists between the body and the soul, we by, ranges for pots : and this was to be broken down, cannot fully comprehend; and as little can we comprewhen any unclean thing had fallen upon it.-See Har- hend the influence they have on each other. Many mer, Vol. 1.


moral alterations take place in the mind in consequence Verse 36. A fountain or pit, &c.] This must either of the influence of the bodily organs; and these latrefer to running water, the stream of which soon carries ter are greatly influenced by the kind of aliment which off all impurities; or to large reservoirs, where the water the body receives. God knows what is in man, and soon purifies itself: the water in either, which touched he knows what is in all creatures; he has therefore the unclean thing, being considered as impure, the rest of graciously forbidden what would injure both body and the water being elean.

mind, and commanded what is best calculated to be useful Verse 37. Any sowing seed). If any part of an impure to both. Solid-footed animals, such as the horse, and carcass fall accidentally on seed about to be sown, it shall many-toed animals, such as the cat, &c. are here prolunog on that account, be deemed unclean: but if the water bited. Beasts which have bifid or cloven hoofs, such as

45 . For I am the Lord that bringeth you up days; ? according to the days of the separation out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: 'ye for her infirmity, shall she be unclean. shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.

3 And in the á eighth day the flesh of his fore46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the skin shall be circumcised. fowl, and of every living creature that moveth 4 And she shall then continue in the blood of in the waters, and of every creature that creep- her purifying three and thirty days; she shall eth upon the earth;

touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanc47 To make a difference between the un- tuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled. clean and the clean, and between the beast that 5 But if she bear a maid child, then she shall may be eaten, and the beast that may not be be unclean two weeks, as in her separation: and

she shall continue in the blood of her purifying, CHAPTER XII.

threescore and six days.

6. And when the days of her purifying are of a son, 2. Who is to be circumcised the cighth day, 3. The mother to be consis: fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall When the days of her purifying were endled, she was to bring a lamb for a burnt bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offernot able to bring a lamb, she was to bring either two turtle doves, or two young pining, and a young pigeon, or a turtle dove, for a

sin-offering, unto the door of the tabernacle of AN ND the LORD spake unto Moses, the congregation, unto the priest: saying,

7 Who shall offer it before the LORD, and 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, make an atonement for her, and she shall be If a woman have conceived seed, and borne a cleansed from the issue of her blood. This is the man child : then she shall be unclean seven law for her that hath borne a male or a female.


Onlinances concerning the purification of women after childbirth, 1; after the birth

geons, & An. Exod. Igr. 2 Abib or Nisan.

u Exod. & 7.- Ver. H-w Ch 10. 10.- Ch. 15. 19.-y Luke 2 22.—Ch. 15. 19.

a Gen. 17. 12 Luke 1, 59. & 2. 21. John 7. 22, 23.

b Luke 2 22- Heb. a son of his year.

the ox, are considered as proper for food, and therefore as far as they related to the Jews, could afford but little commanded. The former are unclean, i. e. unwholesome, edification ; and to make such a subject sufficiently plain, affording a gross nutriment, often the parent of scorbutic would require such minute examination and circumstantial and scrophulous disorders; the latter clean, i. e. affording detail, as could scarcely be proper for general readers. All a copious and wholesome nutriment, and not laying the that is necessary to be said, the reader will find on ver. 1. foundation of any disease. Ruminating animals, i. e. Verse 3. And in the cighth day] Before this time the those which chero the cud, concoct their food better than child could scarcely be considered as having strength sufthe others, which swallow it with little mastication, and ficient to bear the operation; after this time it was not netherefore their flesh contains more of the nutritious juices, cessary to delay it, as the child was not considered to be in and is more easy of digestion, and consequently of assimi covenant with God, and consequently not under the espelation to the solids and fluids of the human body; on this cial protection of the Divine Providence and grace, till account they are termed clean, i. e. peculiarly wholesome this rite had been performed. On circumcision, see the and fit for food. The animals which do not ruminate, do note on Gen. xvii. 10. Circumcision was to every man a not concoct their food so well, and hence they abound constant, evident sign of the covenant, into which he had with gross animal juices, which yield a comparatively un entered with God; and of the moral obligations under wholesome nutriment to the human system. Even the which he was thereby laid. It was also a means of puanimals which have bifid hoofs, but do not chew the cud, rity; and was especially necessary among a people natusuch as the swine; and those who chew the cud, but are rally incontinent, and in a climate, not peculiarly favourable not bifid, such as the hare and rabbit, are by Him who to chastity. This is a light in which this subject should knows all things, forbidden, because he knew them to be ever be viewed; and in which we see the reasonableness, comparatively innutritive. In all this God shows himself propricty, expediency, and moral tendency of the ceremony. as the tender Father of a numerous family, pointing out Verse 4. The blood of her purifying). A few words to his inexperienced, froward and ignorant children, those will make this subject sufficiently plain. 1. God designs kinds of aliments which he knows will be injurious to that the human female should bring forth children. 2. their health and domestic happiness; and prohibiting them That children should derive, under his providence, their on pain of his highest displeasure. On the same ground, being, all their solids and all their fluids, in a word, the he forbad all fish, that have not both fins and scales, such whole mass of their bodies, from the substance of the as the conger, eel, &c. which abound in gross juices and mother. 3. For this purpose he has given to the body of fat, which very few stomachs are able to digest. Who, the female an extra quantity of blood and nutricious juices. for instance, that lives solely on swine's flesh, has pure 4. Before pregnancy, this superabundance is evacuated at blood and healthy juices ? And is it not evident in many periodical times. 5. In pregnancy that which was forcases that the man partakes considerably of the nature of merly evacuated, is retained for the formation and growth the brute on which he exclusively feeds?–I could pursue of the fætus. 6. After the birth of the child, for seven or this inquiry much farther, and bring many proofs, founded fourteen days, more or less according to certain circumon indisputable facts, but I forbear-for he who might stances, that superabundance, no longer necessary for the stand most in need of caution, would be the first to take growth of the child, as before, continues to be evacuated; offence.

this was called the time of the female's purification, 3. As the body exists only for the sake of the soul, and among the Jews. 7. When the lacerated vessels are reGod feeds and nourishes it through the day of probation, joined, this superfluity of blood is returned into the general that the soul may here be prepared for the kingdom of circulation, and by a wise law of the Creator, becomes heaven; therefore, he shows in the conclusion of these principally determined to the breasts, where it is changed ordinances, that the grand scope and design of all was, into milk, for the nourishment of the new-born infant. that they might be a holy people: and that they might re- 8. And thus it continues, till the weaning of the child, or semble him who is a holy God.-GOD IS HOLY, and this is renewed pregnancy takes place. Here is a series of merthe eternal reason why all his people should be holy ;- cies and wise providential regulations, which cannot be should be purified from all filthiness of the flesh and known without being admired; and which should be spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. No faith in known, that the great Creator and Preserver may have any particular creed-no religious observance-no acts of that praise from his creatures, which his wonderful workbenevolence and charity-no mortification, attrition, or ing demands. contrition, can be a substitute for this. We must be The term purifying here, does not imply that there is made partakers of the Divine Nature.-We must be saved any thing impure in the blood at this, or the other times from our sins-from the corruption that is in the world, referred to above; on the contrary, the blood is pure, perand be made holy within and righteous without, or never fectly so, as to its quality, but is excessive in quantity, for see God. For this very purpose Jesus Christ lived, died, the reasons above assigned. The idle tales found in cer. and revived, that he might purify us unto himself that, tain works relative to the infectious nature of this fluid, through faith in his blood, our sins might be blotted out, and of the female in such times, are as impious as they are and our souls restored to the image of God. Reader, art irrational and absurd. thou hungering and thirsting after righteousness ?—Then Verse 6. When the days of her purifying). It is not blessed art thou, for thou shalt be filled.

easy to account for the difference in the times of purificaNOTES ON CHAPTER XII.

tion, after the birth of a male and female child. After the Verse 2. If a woman have conceived] In the extent birth of a boy, the mother was considered unclean for forty mentioned here, the ordinances of this chapter have little days; after the birth of a girl fourscore days. There is relation to us : and to inquire into their physical

reasons, probably no physical reason for this difference, and it is

8 d And if she be not able to bring a lamb, \ in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprothen she shall bring two turtles, or two young sy; i then he shall be brought unto Aaron the pigeons; the one for the burnt-offering, and the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests: other for a sin-offering :' and the priest shall make 3 And the priest shall look on the plague in the an atonement for her, and she shall be clean. skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague

is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper CHAPTER XIII.

than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leproLaws relative to the leprosy h It is to be known by a rising in the nechce abesy: and the priest shall look on him, and proman anclean, infected with the leprosy, and unfit for society, 3. Dubious or nounce him unclean. equivocal signs of this disorder, and how the person is to be treated in whom they appear, In what state of this disorder the priest may pronounce a 4 If the bright spot be white in the skin of his man cku or uncloen 13. On the vers le has the sign up Log unclean apron flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, the leprosy which succeeds a bile, 1800. Equivocal marks relative to this kind and the hair thereof be not turned white; then of leprosy, A1, 22 01 the burning bile, 13. Of the leprosy arising out of the bauning bile, 24, 3. Equivocal marks relative to this loud of leprosy, 2-2

the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague

seven days: to be treated, 30-37. Of the plagne of the bright thite spots, 39, 39 bald head, 40, 41. Of the skite reddiah sore in the ball bead, 12-H. 5 And the priest shall look on him the seventh be shall be obliged to avoid aciery, and live by" without he relep, 16 day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight

be Of the garments insectod by the leprosy, and the signs of this infection, 47--52. at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; ed, by walling, or by burning, 33–33. Conclusion relative to Use foregoing then the priest shall shut him up seven days particulars, 59.

more: An. Exod. Isr. 2. ND the LORD spake unto Moses 6 And the priest shall look on him again the

seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be some2 When a man shall have in the skin of his what dark, and the plague spread not in the flesh a & rising, “a scab, or bright spot, and it be skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is

of the plague on the head, or in the beard, 29.

Of the scall, and how it is

Of the


Abib or Nisan.

A and Aaron saying

d Ch. 5. 7. Luke 2. 24.- Heb. her hand find not mufficiency of.- Ch. 4. 26.

g Or, swelling.-- Deut. 28. 27. Isai. 3. 17.-1 Deut. 17. 8, 9. & 21. 8. Luke 17.1%

difficult to assign a political one. Some of the ancient presence a leper, as white as snow.–See the note on physicians assert, that a woman is, in the order of nature, Exod. iv. 6. much longer in completely recovering after the birth of a In Hebrew, this disease is termed nyas tsarôath, from female, than after the birth of a male child. This assertion ya tsarâ, to smite or strike; but the root in Arabic sigpiis not justified either by observation, or matter of fact. fies to cast down or prostrate; and in Ethiopie, to cause Others think that the difference of the time of purification to cease, because, says Stockius, "it prostrates the strength after the birth of a male or female, is intended to mark the of man, and obliges him to cease from all work and la. inferiority of the female sex. This is a miserable reason, bour. and pitifully supported.

There were three signs by which the leprosy was She shall bring-a burnt-offering and a sin-offering) known. 1. A bright spot. 2. A rising (enamnelling) of It is likely that all these ordinances were intended to show the surface. 3. A scab; the enamelled place producing a man's natural impurity, or original defilement by sin, variety of layers or stratum super-stratum of these scales. and the necessity of an atonement to cleanse the soul from The account given by Mr. Maundrel of the appearance of unrighteousness.

several persons whom he saw infected with this disorder Verse 8. And if she be not able to bring a lamb, then in Palestine, will serve to show, in the clearest light, its she shall bring two turtles, or two young pigeons] As horrible nature and tendency. the Virgin Mary brought only the latter, hence it is evi “When I was in the Holy Land," says he, in his letter dent that she was not able, i. e. she was not rich enough to the Rev. Mr. Osborn, Fellow of Exeter College, “I to provide the former; for such a holy woman would not saw several that laboured under Gehazi's distemper; parhave brought the less offering, had she been capable of ticularly at Sichem, (now Naplosun) there were no less bringing the grcater. How astonishing is this ! the only than ten, that came begging to us at one time. Their heir to the throne of David was not able to bring a lamb manner is to come with small buckets in their hands, to to offer in sacrifice to God! How abominable must sin receive the alms of the charitable; their touch being still be, when it required Him who was in the form of God, held infectious, or at least unclean. The distemper, as I thus to empty and to humble himself, yea, even to the saw it on them, was quite different from what I have seen death of the cross, in order to make an atonement for it, it in England; for it not only defiles the whole surface of and to purify the soul from all defilement.

the body with a foul scurf, but also deforms the joints of The priest shall make an atonement for her] Every the body, particularly those of the wrists and ankles, act of man is sinful, but such as proceed from the influ- making them swell with a gouty scrofulous substance, ence of the grace and mercy of God. Her sorrow in con- very loathsome to look on. I thought their legs like those ception, and her pain in bringing forth children, reminded of old battered horses, such as are often seen in drays in the woman of her original offence: an offence which de- England. The whole distemper indeed, as it there apserved death, an offence which she could not expiate, and peared, was so noisome, that it might well pass for the for which a sacrifice must be offered : and, in reference to utmost corruption of the human body on this side the better things, the life of an animal must be offered as a ran grave. And certainly the inspired penmen could not have Bom for her life. And being saved in childbed, though found out a fitter emblem, whereby to express the uncleanshe deserved to die, she is required, as soon as the days of ness and odiousness of 'vice." "Maundrel's Travels her separation were ended, to bring a sacrifice, according Letters at the end. The reader will do well to collate this to her ability, to the priest, that he might offer it to God account with that given from Dr. Mead, in the noie on As an atonement for her. Thus, wherever God keeps up Exod. iv. 6. the remembrance of sin, he keeps up also the memorial Verse 3. The priest-shall pronounce him unclean.) of sacrifice, to show that the state of a sinner, howsoever DN NDoi ve-timme otho; literally shall pollute him, i. e. deplorable,' is not hopeless; for that he himself has found in the Hebrew idiom, shall declare or pronounce him pol. out a ransom. Every where, in the Law and in the Gos-luted; and in ver. 23. it is said; the priest shall pronounce pel, in every ordinance, and in every ceremony, we may him clean, 1929 19701 re-liharó ha-cohen ; the pricst shail see both the justice and the mercy of God. Hence, while cleansc him, i. e. declare him clean. In this phrase we we have the knowledge of our sin, we have also the have the proper meaning of Matt. xvi. 19. uhatsoerer ve knowledge of our cure.

bind on earth shall be bound in hearcn; and whatsoever Reader, whilst thou art confessing thy own miscry, do ye loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. By which not forget the Lord's mercy: and remember, he saves to our Lord intimates, that the disciples from having the the uttermost all that come through Christ unto him. keys. i. e. the true knowledge of the doctrine of the king

dom of heaven, should, from particular evidences, be at NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII.

all times able to distinguish between the clean and the unVerse 2. The plague of leprosy) This dreadful disor- clean, the sincere and the hypocrite; and pronounce a der has its name leprosy from the Greek Λεπρα, from λιπις, judgment as infallible as the priest did in the case of the a scale, because in this disease the body was often covered leprosy, from the tokens already specified. And as this with thin white scales, so as to give it the appearance of binding and loosing, or pronouncing fit or unfit for fel.

Hence it is said of the hand of Moses, Exod. iv. lowship with the members of Christ, must, in the case of 6. that it was leprous as snow; and of Miriam, Numb. the disciples, be always according to the doctrine of the xii.

10. that she became leprous, as white as snow; and kingdom of heaven, the sentence should be considered as of Gehazi, 2 Kings v. 27. that being judicially struck proceeding immediately from thence, and consequently as with the disease of Naaman, he went out from Elisha's I divinely ratified. The priest polluted or cleansed, i. e.

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