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his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his un 16 And bif any man's seed of copulation go cleanness.
out from him, then he shall wash all his flesh in 4 Every bed whereon he lieth that hath the water, and be unclean until the even. issue, is unclean: and every "thing, whereon 17 And every garment, and every skin wherehe sitteth, shall be unclean.
on is the seed of copulation, shall be washed 5 And wliosoever toucheth his bed shall wash with water, and be unclean until the even. his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and 18 The woman also with whom man shall lie be unclean until the even.
with seed of copulation, they shall both bathe 6 And he that sitteti on any thing whereon themselves in water, and be unclean until the he sat that hath the issue, shall wash his even. clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be un 19 || And if a woman have an issue, and her clean until even.
issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be put 7 And he that toucheth the flesh of him that apart seven days: and whosoever toucheth her hath the issue, shall wash his clothes, and bathe shall be unclean until the even. himself in water, and be unclean until the even. 20 And every thing that she lieth upon in her
8 And if he that hath the issue spit upon him separation, shall be unclean: every thing also that is clean; then he shall wash his clothes, that she sitteth upon shall be unclean. and bathe himself in water, and be unclean 21 And whosoever toucheth her bed shall until the even.
wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, 9 And what saddle soever he rideth upon that and be unclean until the even. hath the issue, shall be unclean.
22 And whosoever toucheth any thing that 10 And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sat upon, shall wash his clothes, and bathe was under him shall be unclean til the even: himself in water, and be unclean until the even, and he that beareth any of those things shall 23 And it it be on her bed, or on any thing wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he and be unclean until the even.
shall be unclean until the even. 11 And whomsoever he toucheth that hath 24 And 'il any man lie with her at all, and the issue, and hath not rinsed his hands in wa- | her flowers be upon him, he shall be unclean ter, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself seven days; and all the bed whereon he Lieth in water, and be unclean until the even.
shall be unclean. 12 And the * vessel of earth that he toucheth 25 And if a woman have an issue of her which hath the issue, shall be broken: and every blood many days, out of the time of her separavessel of wood shall be rinsed in water.
tion, or if it run beyond the time of her separa13 And when he that hath an issue is cleansed tion; all the days of the issue of her uncleanof his issue; then she shall number to himself nees shall be as the days of her separation: she seven days for his cleansing, and wash his shall be unclean. clothes, and bathe his flesh in running water, 26 Every bed whereon she lieth all the days and shall be clean.
of her issue, shall be unto her as the bed of her 14 And on the eighth day he shall take to separation: and whatsoever she sitteth upon him Y two turtle doves, or two young pigeons, shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her sepaand come before the LORD, unto the door of the ration. tabernacle of the congregation, and give them 27 And whosoever toucheth those things shall unto the priest:
be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe 15 And the priest shall offer them, 2 the one himself in water, and be unclean until the even. for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt 28 But h if she be cleansed of her issue, then offering; 4 and the priest shall make an atone- she shall number to herself seven days, and ment for him before the LORD, for his issue. after that she shall be clean.
u Heb. perelamy Cu 11. 3. & 17. 15.-- Ch. 6. & 11. 32, 33. --X Ver. 20. Ch.
14.8 -yh. 11. 22, 2.-- Ch. 14. 30, 31.-a Ch. 11. 19, 31.
bh. 24. Deut. 23. 10.-e I Sam. 21. 1.- Ch 12. 2-e llet in her sepert
10.- See Ch. 2. 18. - Watt. 9. 20 Mark 5. 25. Luke $3 -- Ver 12
extravagant intercourse between the sexes. The dis- that the saliva, sitting on the same scat, lying on the same graceful disorder referred to here, is a foul blot, which the bed, riding on the saine saldle, or simple contact, were justice of God, in the course of providence, has made in sufficient to render the person unclean, meaning, possibly, general the inseparable consequent of these criminal in in certain cases, to coinmunicate the disorder ; and it is dulgences; and serves in some measure to correct and well known, that in all these ways, the contagion of this restrain the vice itself. In countries where public prosti- disorder may be communicated--is it not even possible that tution was perinitted, where it was even a religious the effluvia from the body of an infected person, may be the ceremony, among those who were idolaters, this disease means of communicating the disease? Sydenham ex must necessarily have been frequent and prevalent. When pressly says, that it may be communicated by lactation, the pollutions and libertinism of former times are con- | bundling, the saliva, sweat, and by the breath itself, as sidered, it seems rather strange that inedical men should well as by those grosser means, of which there is no ques. have adopted the opinion, and consumed so much time in tion. But the term unclean, in this and the following endeavouring to prove it, viz. that the disease is modern. cases, is generally understood in a mere legal sense, the It must have existed, in certain measures, ever since pros- rendering a person unfit for sacred ordinances. And 48 titution prevailed in the world ; and this has been in every there was a mild kind of gonorrhea that was brought on nation of the earth, from its earliest era. That the Israel- by excessive fatigue and the like, it may be that kind ites might have received it from the Egyptians, and that only, which the law has in view in the above ordiit must, through the Ball-poor and Ashieroth abominations, which they learned and practiseil, bave prevailed Verse 18. They shall both bathe themselves] What ! among the Moabites, &c. there can be little reason to wonderful tendency had these ordinances to prevent all doubt. Supposing this disease to be at all hinted at here, excesses! The pains which such persons must take, the the laws and ordinances enjoined were at once wisely and separations which they must observe, and the priralions graciously calculated to remove and prevent it. By con- which, in consequence, they must be exposed to in the way tact, contagion of every kind is readily communicated ; of commerce, traffic, &c. would prevent them from making and to keep the whole from the diseasul, must be essential an unlawful use of lawful things. to the check and eradication of a contagious disorder. Verse 24. The common sense of all mankind has led This was the wise and grand object of this most enlight them to avoid the gross impropriety referred to in this ened legislator, in the ordinances which he lays down in verse: and it has been a general opinion, that offspring this ebapter. I grant, however, that it was probably of a obtained in this way, has been infected with leprous, scromilder kind in ancient times; that it has gained strength fulous, and other deeply radicated diseases, from which and virulence by continuance; and that, associated with they and their posterity have been scarcely ever freed. In some foreign causes, it became greatly exacerbated in chap. xx. 18. persons guilty of this are condemned to Europe about 1493, the time in which soine have supposed death : here only to a seren days' separation, because in it first began to exist, though there are strong evidences of the former case, Moses speaks of the act when both the it in this country, ever since the eleventh century. man and women were acquainted with the situation: in Verse 11. And whomsoever he louchelh] Here we find the latter, he speaks of a case, where the circumstance
29 And on the eighth day, she shall take unto of Aaron, when they offered before the LORD, her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring and died : them unto the priest, to the door of the taber 2 And the LORD said unto Moses, speak unto nacle of the congregation.
Aaron thy brother, that her come not at all 30 And the priest shall offer the one for a sin- times into the holy place within the yeil before offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the mercy-scat, which is upon the ark; that he the priest shall make an atonement for her be- die not: for •I will appear in the cloud upon the fore the LORD, for the issue of her uncleanness. mercy-seat.
31 Thus shall ye i separate the children of 3 Thus shall Aaroni come into the holy place; Israel from their uncleanness, that they die not u with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a in their uncleanness, when they k defile my tab- ram for a burnt-offering. ernacle that is among them.
4 He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he 32 1 This is the law of him that hath an issue, shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and mand of him whose seed goeth from him, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the is defiled therewith;
linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy 33 " And of her that is sick of her flowers, and garments; therefore "shall he wash his flesh of him that hath an issue, of the man, "and the in water, and so put them on. woman; Þand of him that lieth with her that is 5 And he shall take of the congregation of unclean.
the children of Israel two kids of the goats for CHAPTER XVI.
a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering.
6 And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sinThe expiation for high priest, not all into
se hrdy place, 1,2" His inut take a tonerek for a sin-atering and a ram fer aburnt offering, which is for himself, and y make an oftrine hathe temmeli an! he feet in his sacer lutal rites, 3. 4. He shall take
atonement for himself, and for his house. *** pats, one of which is to be leterinine l by lot, to be a sacrifice; the other to be a arap..!! 10. He shall offer a bullock for hims'll an! for bis family, 11--14. 7 And he shall take the two goats, and preAnd all kill the mat as a sinofilering for the people, sprinkle its blood tipon the Fueres seat, ani hallus the aluar or burnt-offering 15--19. The sapo-goat shall
sent them before the LORD at the door of the bu thun tur igit. On the healof which to shunil tay his hands, and contine the iniquis tabernacle of the congregation. ties of the children lend: after wluch, the goat shall be permittent to scape to the wildernes, 2) 22. After this, Aaron shall bathe half, an make a burnt 8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two offering for his fan for the people, 3-- This is to be an everlasting statate, anl the lay in which the atonement is to be made, shall be a satinath, or day oj rest goats; one lot for the LORD, and the other lot all their .
for the è scape-goat. ND the Lor) spake unto Moses 9 And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the
fell, and offer him for a sin-offering.
An Ecod. Isr: 2
i Ch. 11. 47. Dent. H. 9. Ezek. H. 23.-- Numb. 5. 3. & 19. 13, 20. Ezek. 5. 11. &
3-1 Ver. 2. - le 16-n Ver. 19.— Ver. 5.-p Ver. 21. - Ch. 10. 1, 2. r Erl. 30. 10. Ch. 3. 2. Beb. 9. 7. & 10. 19.- Exod. 25. 22 & 40. 31. I Kings 8. 10-12
t Heb. 9. 7, 12, 24, 3.- Ch. 1 3.--v Exod. 28. 39, 42, 43. & Ch. 6. 10. Erck. 44.17, 15.-w Exod. 30. 20. Ch.6, 7.-* Nee Ch 4. 11. Numb 29.11. 2 Chron. 29. 21. Ezra 6. 17. Ezek. 45. 22, 23.-—y Ch. 9. 7. Heb. 5. 2.& 7. 27, 28. & 9. 7. * Heb. Azazel.- Heb. sent up.
was not known till afterward: at least, so it appears these two places should be understood, so as to be reconciled.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI. Verse 29. Tuo turtles, or two young pigcons] In all Verse 1. After the death of the tuo sons of Aaron] It these cases, moral pollution was ever considered as being appears from this verse, that the natural place of this chapless or more present, as even such infirmities sprang from ter is immediately after the tenth, where probably it origithe original defection of man. On these accounts sac- nally stood; bui the transposition, if it did take place, rifices must be offered; and in the case of the woman, one must be very ancient, as all the versions acknowledge this of the birds above mentioned must be sacrificed as a sin- chapter, in the place in which it now stands. offering, the other as a burnt-offering, ver. 30.
Verse 2. That he come not at all times into the holy Verse 31. Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel place) By the holy place we are to understand here, what from their uncleanness) By this separation, the cause ig ordinarily called the Holy of Holics, or most holy place; became less frequent, and the contagion, if it did exist, that place within the veil, where the ark of the covenant, was prevented from spreading. So, pest-houses and fever- &c. were laid up; and where God manifested his presence wards are constructed for the purpose of separating the between the cherubim. In ordinary cases, the high priest infected from the sound; and thus contagion is lessened, could enter this place only once in the year, that is, on the and its diffusion prevented.
day of annual atonement; but in extraordinary cases, he That they die not] That life may be prolonged by these might enter more frequently, viz. while in the wilderness, prudential cares; and that he who is morally and legally in decamping and encamping, he must enter to take down unclean, may not presume to enter into the tabernacle of or adjust the things; and on solemn pressing public occaGod till purified; lest he provoke Divine Justice to con- sions, he was obliged to enter in order to consult the Lord : sume him, while attempting to worship with a polluted but he never entered without the deepest reverence and mind, and impure hands.
due preparation. 1. How unpromising and how forbidding, at the first That it may appear that the grand subject of this chapview, was this chanter! and yet how full of wise, humane, ter, the ordinance of the scupe-goat, typified the death and and moral regulations, manifesting, at once, the wisdom resurrection of Christ, and the atonement thereby made, and kindness of the great Legislator! Every word of God I beg leave to refer to Heb. ix. 7–12. and 24--26. which is pure in itself, and of greai importance to us. He who I shall here transcribe, because it is a key to the whole of cannot derive instruction from the chapter before him, and this chapter. Into the second (tabernacle) went the high be led by a proper consideration of its contents, to adore priest alone once erery year, not without blood, which he the wisdom and goodness of God, inust have either a very fered for himself, and for the errors of the people, Tho stupid or a very vitiated mind.
Poly Ghost this signifying, that the ray into the holiest 2. In all these ordinances we may plainly see, that God of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabhas purity of heart continually in view-that the soul ernacle was yet standing: which was a figure for the may be holy, he cuts of the occasions of sin; and that time then present, in which were oj'ered both gifts and men may be obliged to keep in due bounds, and possess sacrifices that could not make hiin that did the service their vessels in sanctification and honour, he hedges up perfect, as pertaining to tre con seitnce; which stood only their way with briars and thorns, and remlers transgres- l in meats and drinks, and divers uushings, and carnal sion painful, shameful, anul expensire.
ordinances imposed on th in till the time of reformation. 3. Prerenting grace is not less necessary than that | But Christ being come, a high priest of good things to which sarcs, and which preserres. These three chapters, come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made avoided and neglected by most, contain lessons of instruc- with hands, that is to say, not of this building, neither by tion for all: and though many things contained in them, the blood of goats and calves; but by his own BLOOD belong exclusively to the Jewish people, as to the letter, he entered into the holy place, haring oblained elernal yet in the spirit and gracious design, they form a part of redemption for us.- For Christ is not entered into the those revealed things which are for us and for our chil- holy places made with hands, which are The figures of the dren; and although they cannot be made the subjects of true, but into hearen itself, now to appear in the presence public oral instruction, yet they are highly necessary to be of God for us; nor yet that he should offer himself often, known; and hence the advantage of reading the Scrip as the high priest eniereth into the holy place erery year tures in regular order in private. May we read so as to with the blood of others; (for then must he often have understand, and practise what we know, that being wise suffered since the foundation of the corld, but now, once unto salvation, we may walk as children of the light and of in the end of the world, hath he appeared TO PUT AWAY the day, in whom there shall be no occasion of stumbling. I SIN BY THE SACRIFICE OF AIMSELF.
10 But the goat, on which the lot fell to be and to let him go for a scape-goat into the wilthe scape-goat, shall be presented alive before derness. the Lord, to make an atonement with him, 11 | And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the
b1 John 2 2
Verse 3. With a young bullock for a sin-offering] The alone was to select and point out the person by whom this bullock was presented as a sin-offering, for himself, his great atonement was to be made: hence he says, Behold, family, the whole priesthood, and probably the Levites. I lay in Zion a stone elect (that is, chosen by himself)
The ram was for a burnt-offering, to signify that he and and precious, of infinite value. bis associates were wholly consecrated, and to be wholly em Verse 10. To be the scape-goat] Siniy Azazel, from ry ployed in this work of the ministry. The ceremonies with âz, a goat, and Sin azal, to dismiss, i. e. the dismissed, or which these two sacrifices were accompanied, are detailed sent-away goal, to distinguish it from the goat that was to in the following verses.
be offered in sacrifice. Most ancient nations had ricarious Verse 4. He shall put on the holy linen coal] He was sacrifices, to which they transferred, by certain rites and not to dress in his pontifical garments, but in the simple ceremonies, the guilt of the community at large, in the sacerdotal vestments, or those of the Levites, because it same manner in which the scape-goat was used by the was a day of humiliation, and as he was to offer sacrifices Jews. The while bull that was sacrificed by the Egypfor his oron sins, it was necessary that he should appear tians to their god Apis was of this kind, they cut off the in habits suited to the occasion. Hence he has neither the head of the victim, which they had sacrificed, and after robe, the ephod, the breastplate, the mitra, &c. these con- having loaded it with execrations, that, "if there be any stituted his dress of dignity, as the high priest of God, evil hanging over them or the land of Egypt, it may be ministering for others, and the representative of Christ; poured out upon that head;" they either sold it to the hut now be appears before God as a sinner, offering an Greeks or threw it into the Nile.-See Herod. Euterp. atonement for his transgressions, and his garments are p. 104. edit. Gale. those of humiliation.
Petronius Arbiter says, that it was a custom among the Verse 7. And he shall take the two goats) It is allowed ancient inhabitants of Marseilles, whenever they were on all hands that this ceremony, taken in all its parts, afflicted by any pestilence, to take one of the poorer citipointed out the Lord Jesus dying for our sins, and rising zens, who offered himself for the purpose, and having red again for our justification; being put to death in the flesh, him a whole year with the purest and best food, adorned but quickened by the Spirit. Two goats are brought, one him with vervain, and having clothed him with sacred to be slain as a sacrifice for sin, the other to have the vestments, they then led him round their city, loading him transgressions of the people confessed over his head, and with execrations; and having prayed that all the evils to then to he sent away into the wilderness. This animal, by which the city was exposed, might fall upon him, they this act was represented as bearing away, or carrying off, then precipitaied him from the top of a rock. Satiricon, the sins of the people. The two goats made only one
in fine. sacrifice; yet only one of them was slain. One animal Suidas, under the word serumps, observes, that it was could not point out both the divine and human nature of a custom to devote a man annually to death, for the safety Christ, nor show both his death and resurrection, for the of the people, with these words, miguumgese mere v gorov. Be goat that was killed, could not be made alire. The divine thou our purifier: and having said so, they threw him and human natures of Christ were essential to the grand into the sea, as a sacrifice to Neptune.' It was probably expiation: yet the human nature alone suffered: for the to this custom that Virgil alludes, when speaking of the divine nature could not suffer; but its presence in the pilate Palinurus, who fell into the sea and was drowned, human nature, while agonizing unto death, stamped those he says, agonies, and the consequent death, with infinite merit.
Umen pro multis dabitur caput. Æn. lib. v. t. $15. The goat, therefore, that was slain, prefigured his human
"One lite is given for the preservation of many." nature, and its death: the goat that escaped, pointed out But the nearest resemblance to the scape-goat of the his resurrection. The one shows the atonement for sin, Hebreus, is found in the Ashummeed Jugg of the Hinas the ground of justification; the other Christ's victory, doos, where a horse is used instead of a goat, the descripand the total removal of sin in the sanctification of the tion of which I shall here introduce from Mr. Halhed's soul.-Concerning these ceremonies, we shall see farther code of Gentoo Laws; Introduction, p. xix. particulars as we proceed.
“That the curious,” says he, "may form some idea of According to Maimonides, fifteen beasts were offered on this Gentoo sacrifice when reduced to a symbol, as well as this day. * The daily, or morning and evening sacrifice, from the subsequent plain account given of it in a chapter was offered as usual :- besides a bullock, a ram, and seven of the code, sect. ix. p. 127, an explanation of it is here inlambs, all burnt-offerings; a goat for a sin-offering, which serted from Darul Sheküh's famous Persian translation of was eaten in the evening. Then a bullock for a sin-offer some commentaries upon the four Beids, or original scriping, and this they burnt, and a ram for a burnt-offering; tures of Hindostan: the work itself is extremely scarce, these both for the high priest. Then the ram, for the con and it was by mere accident that this little specimen was secration; see ver. 5. which is called the people's ram. procured. They brought also, for the congregation, two he-goats; "The Ashummeed Jugg does not merely consist in the the one for a sin-offering, the other for a scape-goat. Thus performance of that ceremony which is open to the inspec. all the beasts offered on this great and solemn day were tion of the world, namely, in bringing a horse and sacrificing FIFTEEN; the tico daily sacrifices, one bullock, tuo rams, him; but Ashummeed is to be taken in a mystic significaand seren lambs; all of these burnt-offerings. Tuco goals tion, as implying, that the sacrificer must look upon himfor sin-offerings; one offered without, and eaten on the self to be typified in that horse, such as he shall be evening; the other offered within, and burnt: and one described ; because the religious duty of the Ashummerd bullock for a sin-offering for the high priest. The service Jugg comprehends all those other religious duties, to the of all these fifteen beasts, is performed on this day by the performance of which all the wise and holy direct all their high priest only." See Maiinonides and Ainsworth on actions; and by which all the sincere professors of every the place.
different faith, aim at perfection. The mystic signification Verse 8. Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats] The thereof is as follows: 'the head of that unblemished horse, Jews inform us that there were two lots, made either of is the symbol of the morning; his eyes are the sun ; his wood, stone, or any kind of metal. On one was written breath the wind; his wide-opening mouth is the bishDu) LASHEM, for the name, i. c. 1 JEHOVAH, which the cancr, or that innate warmth which invigorates all the Jews will neither write nor pronounce :--on the other was world; his body typifies one entire year; his back, parawritten biriys la-Azazel, for the SCAPE-GOAT: then they dise; his belly, the plains ; his hoof, this earth ; his sides, put the two lots into a vessel which was called o5p kalpcy; the four quarters of the heavens ; the bones thereof, the the goats standing with their faces towards the west. intermediate spaces between the four quarters ; the rest of Then the priest come, and the goats stood before him, one his limbs represent all distinct matter; the places where on the right hand and the other on the left; the kalpcy was those limbs mect, or his joints, imply the months, and then shaken, and the priest put in both his hands, and holres of the months, which are called pěchě (or fort. brought out a lot in each; that which was in his right nights;) his feet signify night and day; and night and hand, he laid on the goat that was on his right; and that day are of four kinds: 1. The night and day of Brihmà ; in his left hand, he laid on the goat that was on his left; 2. The night and day of angels ; 3. The night and day of and according to what was written on the lots, the scape the world of the spirits of deceased ancestors ; 4. The goat, and the goat for sacrifice, were ascertained.See night and day of mortals. These four kinds are typified the Mishna, in Tract. Yoma.
in his four feet. The rest of his bones are the constella. The determining this solemn business by lot, the disposal tions of the fixed stars, which are the twenty-cight stages of which is with the Lord, Prov. xvi. 33. shows that God l of the moon's course, called the lunar year; his fish is
sin-offering, which is for himself, and shall make 17 - And there shall be no man in the tabernaan atonement for himself, and for his house, and cle of the congregation, when he goeth in to shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering which is make an atonement in the holy place, until he for himself:
come out, and have made an atonement for him12 And he shall take a censer full of burning self, and for his household, and for all the concoals of fire, from off the altar before the LORD, gregation of Israel. and his hands full of a sweet incense beaten small, 18 And he shall go out unto the altar that is and bring it within the veil:
before the LORD, and make an atonement for it; 13 . And he shall put the incense upon the fire and shall take the blood of the bullock, and of before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns may cover the mercy-seat, that is upon the of the altar round about. testimony, that he die not:
19 And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it 14 And: he shall take of the blood of the bul with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and lock, and hsprinkle it with his finger upon the p hallow it from the uncleanness of the children mercy-seat eastward; and before the mercy-seat of Israel. shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger 20 | And when he hath made an end of reseven times.
conciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of 15 i Then shall he kill the goat of the sin- the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring offering, that is for the people, and bring his the live goat: blood within the veil, and do with that blood 21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon as he did with the blood of the bullock, and the head of the live goat, and confess over him sprinkle it upon the mercy-seat, and before the all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and mercy-seat :
all their transgressions in all their sins, ' putting 16 And he shall make an atonement for the them upon the head of the goat, and shall send holy place, because of the uncleanness of the him away by the hand of a fit man into the children of Israel, and because of their trans- wilderness: gressions in all their sins, and so shall ye do for 22 And the goat shall bear upon him all their the tabernacle of the congregation, that m re- iniquities, unto a land not inhabited: and he maineth among them in the midst of their un- shall let go the goat in the wilderness. cleanness.
23 And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle
c Ch. 10 L Nunb 16. 18, 46. Rev. &. 5. Exod. 30. 31.- Exod. 30. 1. 7, 8. Numb. 16. 7, 18, 46. Rev. 8.3, 4 - Exod. 3. 21.- Ch. 1.5. Heb. 9. 13, 3. & 10. 4-5 Ch 4.6.-i Heb. 2. 17. & 5.2 & 9.7, B.-- Per. 2 Heb. 6. 19. & 9.3, 7, 12.
See Exod. 29. 36. Ezek. 45. 18 Heb. 9. 22, 23.
m Heb. declleth. -- See Exod 31. 3 Luke 1. 10.-o Exod. 30. 10. Ch. 4. 7, 18
Heb. 9. 22, 23. - p Ezek. 3. 20.-9 Ver. 16. Ezek 15. 20.- Isai. 53 6. 3 Heb. a man of opportunity.- Isai. 53. 11, 12 John 1. 2. Heb. 9. 28. 1 Pet. 2. 24.--u Web. of separation.
the clouds ; his food, the sand; his tendons, the rivers ; This is a most curious circumstance, and the coincidence his spleen and liver, the mountains; the hair of his body between the religious rites of two people, who probably the regetables, and his long hair, the trees ; the forepart never had any intercourse with each other, is very remarkof his body typifies the first half of the day, and the hinder able. I would not however say, that the Hindoo ceremony part the latter half; his yawning is the flash of the could not have been borrowed from the Jews, (though it is lightning; and his turning himself is the thunder of the very unlikely) no more than I should say, as some have cloud; his urine represents the rain; and his mental re done, that the Jewish rite was borrowed from the Egyptian Nection is his only speech. The golden vessels which are sacrifice to Apis, mentioned above, which is still more unprepared, before the horse is let loose, are the light of the likely. See particularly the note on Lev. i. 4. day, and the place where those vessels are kept, is a type Verse 21. Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head, of the ocean of the east ; the silver vessels which are pre- &c.] What this imposition of hands meani, see in the pared after the horse is let loose, are the light of the night, notes on Exod. xxix. 10. and Levit. i. 4. and the place where those vessels are kept, is a type of the And confess over him all the iniquities--transgresocean of the west. These two sorts of vessels are always sions and sins.) The three terms used here, INIQUITIES, before and after the horse.- The Arabian horse, which, no âronoth, from my ârah, to perrert, distort, or turn on account of his swiftness is called Hy, is the performer aside-TRANSGRESSions, Dywo peshêim, from yod pashâ, of the journeys of angels; the Tājee, which is of the race to pass, to step forwards, or step orer--and sins, non of Persian horses, is the performer of the journeys of the chataoth, from nön chatah, to miss the mark-are supposed Kundherps (or good spirits; the Wāzbā, which is of the by the Jews to comprise every thing that implies a breach race of the deformed Tāzee horses, is the performer of the of the Divine law, or an offence against God. See the journeys of the Jins (or demons ;) and the Ashor, which note on Gen. xiii. 13. Maimonides gives us the confession is of the race of Turkish horses, is the performer of the in the following words : journeys of mankind: this one horse, which performs "O Lord, thy people, the house of Israel, have sinned these several services, on account of his four different sorts and done iniquity, and trespassed before thee. O Lord, of riders, obtains the four different appellations. The make atonement now for the iniquities and transgressions place where this horse remains is the great occan, which and sins, that thy people, the house of Israel, have sinned signifies the great spirit of Perm-Atmă, or the universal and transgressed against thee: as it is written in the law soul, which proceeds also from that Perm-Atmā, and is of Moses thy servant, saying, That in this day he shall comprehended in the same Perm-Almā. The intent of make atonement for you, to cleanse you from all your this sacrifice is, that a man should consider himself to be sins before the Lord, and ye shall be clean." See the in the place of that horse, and look upon all these articles Mishna, vol. ii. P.
239. as typified in himself; and conceiving the Almā (or divine When this confession was finished, the goat was sent by soul) to be an ocean, should let all thought of self be ab a proper hand to the wilderness, and there let loose; and sorbed in that Atmā.”
nothing farther was ever heard of it. Did not all this sigThis sacrifice is explained in Section IX. p. 127. of the nify, that Christ has so carried and borne away our sins, Code of Hindoo Laws thus,
that against them who receive him as the only true atoning “An Ashummeed Jugg is when a person, having com- sacrifice, they should never more be brought to rememmenced a Jugg, (i. e. religious ceremony) writes various brance ? articles upon a scroll of paper, on a horse's neck, and dis On the head of the scape-goat, a piece of scarlet cloth misses the horse, sending along with the horse a stout and was tied, and the tradition of the Jews states, that if God valiant person, equipped with the best necessaries and ac- accepted the sacrifice, the scarlet cloth turned white, while coutrements to accompany the horse day and night, whith-the goat was leading to the desert; but if God had not acersoever he shall choose to go; and if any creature, either cepted this expiation, the redness continued, and the rest man, genius, or dragon, should seize the horse, that man of the year was spent in mourning. opposes such attempt, and having gained the victory upon From the foundation of the church of God, it was ever a battle, again gives the horse his freedom. If any one in believed by his followers, that there were certain infallible this world, or in heaven, or beneath the earth, would seize tokens by which he discovered to genuine believers his acthis horse, and the horse of himself comes to the house of ceptance of them and their services. This was sometimes the celebrator of the Jugg, upon killing that horse, he done by a fire from heaven consuming the sacrificemust throw the flesh of him upon the fire of the Juk, and sometimes by an oracular communication to the priest or ulter the prayers of his deity: such a Jugg is called a prophet; and at other times, according to the Jewish acJugg Ashummced, and the merit of it, as a religious count, by changing the fillet or cloth on the head of the work, is infinite."
scape-goat, from scarlet to white; but most commonly,
toutler sacrifices to devila, 7.
of the congregation, and shall put off the linen make the atonement, and & shall put on the linen garinents, which he put on when he went into clothes, eren the holy garments: the holy place, and shall leave them there: 33 And " he shall make an atonement for the
21 And he shall wash his fesh with water in holy sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement the holy place, and put on his garments, and for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for come forth, "and offer his burnt-otleringand the altar, and he shall make an atonement for the burnt-offering of the people, and make an the priests, and for all the people of the congreatonement for himself, and for the people.
gation. 25 And the fat of the sin-offering shall he 34 i And this shall be an everlasting statute burn upon the altar.
unto you, to make an atonement for the children 26 And he that let go the goat for the scape- of Israel, for all their sins konce a year. And goat, shall wash his clothes, y and bathe his he did as the Lord commanded Moses. flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp. 27 2 And the bullock for the sin-offering, and
CHAPTER XVII. the goat for the sin-offering, whose blood was
The people are commanded to bring all the cattle they intend to kill to the door of the brought in to make atonement in the holy place, untemacle, where they are tole made
" run utd ning luue Lond, and we distry.
are to be cut off, I--5 The priest is to sprinkle the blod, 6. They are forvadden shall one carry forth without the camp: and they
The mjunction to bring their offerings to the shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh,
the tabernacle, is repealed, 8, 9. The cating of blood is solemniy fastaden, 10 lt
is the life of the least; and is given to make an Atonement for the site, 11, 12 V and their dur.
a bind on kast be taken in liunting, its loud must be pai vat, ani covered with
dust, for the Yeasons before comigned, 13, 14, one shall rat an animal wat dies of 28 And he that burneth them shall wash his
itself, or ia tom by beats; it any act ouberwise, kes musi bath his colors and is finally clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and after
or bear his inuquity, 15, 16. ward he shall come into the camp.
ND the LORD spake unto Moses, in Exod. . 2 29 | And this shall be a statute for ever unto saying, you: that a in the seventh month, on the tenth 2 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and day of the month, ye shall afllict your souls, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto do no work at all, whether it be one of your own them: This is the thing which the Lord hath country, or a stranger that sojourneth among commanded, saying, you:
3 What man soever there be of the house of 30 For on that day shall the priest make an Israel, Ithat killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in atonement for you, to cleanse you, thai ye may the camp,or that killeth it out of the camp, be clean from all your sins before the LORD. 4 m And bringeth it not unto the door of the
31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offerye shall atllict your souls by a statute for ever. ing unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the
32 4 And the priest, whom he shall anoint, Lord, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he and whom he shall e consecrate ito minister in hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off the priest's office in his father's stead, shall from among his people :
Ezek. 42. 11. & H. 19.-W Ver. 3,5.- Ch. 4. 10. ---y Ch. 15. 5.-Ch 4. 12, 21 d Ch 4. 3, 5, 16-e Hebr. nul his hand.- Exod. 29, 30. Numrl. & 6. 3. Heb 13 11-a Exot. 30. 10. Ch. 3. 27 Ah 22.7. Tsai, 58 3-5. Dan 26-28-g Ver. 4.--h Ver. 6, 16, 18, 19, 21-i Ch. 3. 31. Numb. 9. 7.- Esed 10. 3-12.- Pra. 51. 2. Jer. 33. 8. Eph. 5. 6. İleb. 9. 13, 14. & 10. 1,2 1 John 1. 7-9. 30. 10. Web. 9. 7-9.-- See Deut. 125, 15, 2-m Deut. 12. 5, 6, 13, li- but c Ch. 3. 3
5. 13.20 Gen. 17. 11.
and especially under the Gospel dispensation, be gives of Christ! Who, with the Jers, and the Bible before his this assurance to true believers, by the testimony of liis eyes, can doubt the truth of that Bible as a divine RevelaSpirit in their consciences, that he has forgiven iheir in- tion! Had this people been extinct, we might have doubted iquities, transgressions, and sins, for His sake, who has whether there were ever a people on the earth that accarried their griefs, and borne their sorrows.
knowledged such a law, or observed such ordinances; but Verse 26. He that let go the goat-shall wash, &c.] the people, their law, and their prophets, are still in being, Not only the person who led him away, but the priest who and all proclaim what God has wrought, and that he has consecrated him, were reputed unclean, because the goat now ceased to work among them, because they have rehimself was unclean, being considered as bearing the sins fused to receive and profit by the great atonement; and of the whole congregation. On this account both the yet he preserves them alive, and in a state of complete se. priest and the person who led him to the wilderness, were paration from all the people of the earth, in all places of obliged to wash their clothes, and bathe themselves, before iheir dispersion! How powerfully does the preservation they could come into the camp.
of the Jews, as a distinct people, bear testimony at once to Verse 29. The seventh month, on the tenth day of the the truth of their own law which they acknoidledge, and month.) The commandment of fasting, and sanctifying the Gospel of Christ, which they reject ! this tenth day, is aguin repeated, Levit. xxiii. 27—32. : 2. But while the Jew's sit in thick darkness, berause of but in the latter verse it is called the ninth day at eren, be the veil that is on their hearts, though the light of the glory cause the Jewish day began with the evening. The sacri of God is shining all around them, but not inlo thein, befices which the day of atonement should have more than cause of their unbelief; in what state are those who proother days, are mentioned, Numb. xxix. 7–11. And the fess to see their unbelief and obstinacy, acknowledge the jubilee, which was celebrated every 30th year, was solemn- truth of the New Testament, and yet are living without ly proclaimed by sound of trumpet on this tenth day, Lev. an atonement applied to their souls for the removal of their xxv. 8, 9. A shadow, says Mr. Ainsworth, of that ac- iniquities, transerressions, and sins ? These are also in the ceptable year of the Lord, the year of freedom which gall of bitterness, and bond of iniquiry. An all-sufficient Christ has proclaimed by the trumpet of his Gospel, Luke Saviour held out in the New Testanient, can do them no iv. 18—21. 2 Cor. vi. 2. –This seventh month was Tisri, more good than a scape.goat and day of atonement, deand answers 10 a part of our September and October. It scribed in the lau, can do ihe Jous. As well may a man was the seventh of the sacred, and the first month of the imagine that the word bread can nourish his body, as the
name Christ can save his soul. Both must be recirdd The great day of atonement, and the sacrifices, rites, and applied, in order that the man may live. and ceremonies prescribed for it, were commanded to be 3. The Jews prepared themscives to get benefit from solemnized by the Jews through the whole of their dis- this most solemn ordinance, by the deepest humiliations. pensation; and as long as God should acknowledge them According to their canons, they were obliged to abstain for his people; yet, in the present day, scarcely a shadow from all meat and drink-from the bath—from anointins of these things remains: there is no longer a scape-goat themselves to go barefoot-and be in a state of perfect nor a goat for sacrifice, provided by thein in any place. continency. He who is likely to get benefit for his soul They are sinners, and they are without an atonement through the redemption that is in Christ, must humble How strange it is that they do not see that the essence of himself under the inighty hand of God, confess his initheir religion is gone, and that consequently God has thrown quity, abstain from every appearance of evil, and believe them entirely out of the covenant with himself. The true on him who died for his offences, and rose again for his expiation, the Christ crucified, they refuse to receive, and justification. The soul that seeks no, shall not find, even are consequently without temple, altar, scape-goat, atone- under the Gospel of Christ. ment, or any means of salvation! The state of the Gentile world is bad: but that of the Jews is doubly deplorable.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XVII. Their total excision excepted, wrath is come upon them to Verse 4. And bringith it not unto the door] As sacrithe uttermost. What a proof is this of the truth of the fice was ever deemed essential to true religion it was nepredictions in their own law-and of those in the Gospel Icessary that it should be performed in such a way as to