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5 To the end that the children of Israel may strangers which sojourn among you, " that ofbring their sacrifices, which they offer in the fereth a burnt-offering or sacrifice, open field, even that they may bring them unto 9 And bringeth it not unto the door of the the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto congregation, unto the priest, and offer them the LORD; even that man shall be cut off from for peace-offerings unto ihe LORD.

among his people. 6 And the priest 9 shall sprinkle the blood upon 10 1 w And whatsoever man there be of the the altar of the Lord at the door of the taber-house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn nacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for among you, that eateth any manner of blood; a sweet savour unto the LORD.

* I will even set my face against that soul that 7 And they shall no more offer their sacrifices eateth blood, and will cut him off from among unto devils, after whom they have gone a his people. whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto 11 y For the life of the flesh is in the blood : them throughout their generations.

and I have given it to you upon the altar, " to 8 And thou shalt say unto them, Whatsoever make an atonement for your souls: for a it is the man there be of the house of Israel, or of the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.

p Gen. 21. 33. & 2. 2 & 31.51. Deut. 12 2 1 Kings 11. 23. 2 Kings 16. 4. & 17. 20 2 Chron: 24. Ezek. 20. 2. & 2.9.-9 Ch. 3. 2-r Exod. 29. 18 Ch. 3. 5, 11, 16. & 4. 31. Nomb. 18. 17.- Deut. 32. 17. 2 Chron. 11. 15. Pea. 106. 37. 1 Cor 10 2 Rev, 9. 20.- Exod. 34. 15. Ch. 2. 5. Deut. 31. 16. Ezek. 23. 8. u Ch 1. 2, 3.

v Ver. 1.- Gen. 9. 4. Ch. 3. 17. & 7. 26, 27. & 18. 26 Deut. 12. 16, 23. & 15. 23. I Sam. 14. 33. Ezek. 41. 7.- (h. 20. 3, 5, 6. & 26. 17. Jer. 41 Il. Ezek. 14. 8. & 15. 7.-y Ver. 14.-, Matt 26. 3. Mark 14. 24. kom 3. 35. &. 5. 9. Eph. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14, 20. Heb. 13. 12. 1 Pet. 1. 2. 1 John 1. 7. Rev. 1.5.- Heb. 9. 22

Becure the great purpose of its institution. God alone ble kind that took place in Egypt while he was in that could show how this should be done so as to be pleasing country. See also many examples in Bochart, vol. ija in his sight: and therefore he has given the most plain and col. 641. and see the note on ch, xx. 16. particular directions concerning it. The Israelites, from Verse 11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood] This their long residence in Egypt, an idolatrous country, had sentence, which contains a most important truth, had exdoubtless adopted many of their usages; and many por- isted in the Mosaic writings for 3600 years, before the tions of the Pentateuch seem to have been written merely attention of any philosopher was drawn to the subject: to correct and bring them back to the purity of the divine This is the more surprising, as the nations in which phis worship.

losophy flourished, were those which especially enjoyed That no blood should be offered to idols, God commands the divine oracles in their respective languages. That the every animal used for food or sacrifice, to be slain at the blood actually possesses a living principle, and that the door of the tabernacle. While every animal was slain in life of the whole body is derived from it, is a doctrine of this sacrificial way, even the daily food of the people must divine revelation, and a doctrine which the observations put them in mind of the necessity of a sacrifice for sin. and experiments of the most accurate anatomists have Perhaps St. Paul had this circumstance in view when he served strongly to confirm. The proper circulation of this said, Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye important fluid through the whole human system, was first do, do all to the glory of God, I Cor. x. 31. and, whatso taught by Solomon in figurative language, Eccles. xii. 6. eoer ye do, in word or deed, do all in the name of the and discovered, as it is called, and demonstrated by Dr. Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. Harvey in 1628; though some Italian philosophers had

While the Israelites were encamped in the wilderness, the same notion a little before. This accurate anatomist it was comparatively easy to prevent all abuses of this di- was the first who fully revived the Mosaic notion of the vine institution, and therefore they were all commanded to vitality of the blood; which notion was afterward adopted bring the oren, sheep, and goats, to the door of the taber- by the justly celebrated Dr. John Hunter, professor of anatnacle of the congregation, that they might be slain there, omy in London; and established by him, by a great vaand their blood sprinkled upon the altar of the Lord. riety of strong reasoning and accurate experiments. To. But when they became settled in the promised land, and support this opinion, Dr. Humter proves, the distance, in many cases, rendered it impossible for them 1. That the blood unites living parts in some circumto bring the animals to be slain for domestic uses, to the stances, as certainly as the yet recent juices of the branch temple, they were permitted to pour out the blood in a sa of one tree unite with that of another: and he thinks that crificial way unto God, at their respective dwellings, and if either of these fluids were dead matter, they would act to cover it with the dust; see verse 13. and see Deut. xii. as slimuli, and no union would take place in the animal 20, 21.

or vegetable kingdom: and he shows that in the nature Blood shall be imputed unto that man) Having poured of things, there is not a more intimate connexion between out the blood improperly, he shall be considered as guilty life and a solid, than between life and a fluid. of murder, because that blood, had it been properly and 2. He shows that the blood becomes vascular, like other sacrificially employed, might have made atonement for living parts of the body; and he demonstrated this by a the life of a man.

preparation, in which vessels were clearly seen to arise, Verse 7. They shall no more offer their sacrifices unto from what had been a coagulum of blood; for those vesderils! They shall not sacrifice Onyes la-shairim, to sels opened into the stream of the circulating blood, which the hairy ones, to goats. The famous heathen god, Pan, was in contiguity with this coagulated mass. was represented as having the posteriors, horns, and ears 3. He proved, that if blood be taken from the armi in of a goat; and the Mendesians, a people of Egypt, had a the most intense cold that the human body can suffer, it deity which they worshipped under this form. Herodotus will raise the thermometer to the same height, as blood says, that all goals were worshipped in Egypt, but the he- taken in the most sultry heat. This is a very powerful argoal particularly. It appears also, that the different ape gument of the vitality of the blood, as it is well known, and monkey species were objects of superstitious worship; that living bodies alone have the power of resisting great and from these sprang, not only Mendes and Jupiter Am- | degrees of heat and cold, and of maintaining in almost mon, who was worshipped under the figure of a ram, but every situation, while in health, that temperature which alsc Pan and the Sileni, with the innumerable herd of we distinguish by the name of animal heai. those imaginary beings, satyrs, dryads, hamydryads, &c. 4. He proves that blood is capable of being acted upon &c. all woodland gods, and held in veneration among wie by a stimulus, as it coagulates on exposure to the air, as Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans.

certainly as the cavities of the abdomen and thorax beAfter whom they have gone a whoring.] Though this come inflamed from the same cause. The more the blood term is frequently used to express idolatry, yet we are not is alive, i. e, the more the animal is in health, the sooner to suppose, that it is not to be taken in a literal sense in the blood cougulates on exposure: and the more it has lost many places in Scripture, even where it is used in connex of the living principle, as in cases of violent inflammation, ion with idolatrous acts of worship. It is well known the less sensible it is to the stimulus produced by being exthat Baal Peor, and Ashtaroth, were worshipped with posed, and coagulates more slowly. unclean rites; and that public prostitution formed a grand 5. He proves that the blood preserves life in different part of the worship of many deities among the Egyptians, parts of the body. When the nerves going to any part are Moabites, Canaanites, Greeks, and Romans. The great lied or cut, the part becomes paralytic, and loses all power god of the two latter nations, Jupiter, was represented as of motion, but it does not mortify. But let the artery be the general corrupter of women: and of Venus, Flora, cut, and then the part dies, and mortification ensues. It Priapus, and others, it is needless to speak. That there must therefore be the vital principle of the blood, that was public prostitution in the patriarchal times, see the note keeps the part alite; nor docs it appear that this fact can on Gen. xxxvii. 21. And that there was public prostitu- be accounted for on any other principle. Lion of women to goats in Egypt, see Herodotus, lib. ii. c. 6. He thinks this vitality farther proved, from the case 46. p. 108. edit. Gale, who gives a case of this abomina- 1 of a person who was brought to St. George's Hospital, VOL. I.-15

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A saying

12 Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any

CHAPTER XVIII. stranger that sojourneth among you, eat blood. The poeple are commanded to avoid the doings of the Erypuana and tbe Coniap

ites, 1-3. They are to do God's judgments, and to keep his or linance, that they 13 And whatsoever man there be of the chil may live, 4, 5. Marriages with those who are near of kia are prohibited, 6.

None to marry with his mother or step mother, 7, 8 with his sister or syns ia. dren of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn ter, 9. with his grand-daughter, 10. nor with the daughter of his sleppother. II.

nor with his aurit by tather or mother, 12, 13 nor with his uncle's wife, 11. nor among you, which chunteth and catcheth any

with his daughter in law, 15, for sister-in-lain, 16 nor with a soman and her beast or fowl that may be eaten; he shall even daughter, son's deighler, or draghter', daughter, 17. nor with tico sistere a che

mume lime, ! Seren minations probintei, 19-23 of which the Canaanira, pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with

&c. were guilty; and for sluch they were cast out of the laru), 21, 3. The people dust.

are exhorte to avoid the ed aloninations, leet they be treatel as the ancient inhabit.

ants of the land were treated, and so can exul, 3-2. Threatenings against the 14 i For it is the life of all flesh: the blood of disobedient, 29. and promises to the obedient, 30. it is for the life thereof; therefore I said unto ND the LORD spake unto Moses, Exod. 157. 2

Abb Visan the children of Israel, Yé shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be unto them, mI am the LORD your God. cut off.

3 " After the doings of the land of Egypt, 15 1 & And every soul that eateth b that which wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after died of itself, or that which was torn with beasts, the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I whether it be one of your own country, or a bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk stranger, i he shall both wash his clothes, * and in their ordinances. bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the 4. Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine even: then shall he be clean.

ordinances, to walk therein: I am the LORD 16 But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh: your God. then lhe shall bear his iniquity.

5 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my Heh..tha! hunteth any hunting: --- Ch. 7. 25. Dent. 12, 16, 24. & 15, 23. I Ch 5. 1. & 7. 18. & 19. 8. Numah. 19. 20.-m Ver. 4. Exod. 6. 7. Ch. 11. 44. & 19. e Ezek. 24.7.-- Ver. 11. 12 Geo9.1. Deut. 12. 23.- Exod. 22. 31. Ch. 22.8. 1, 10, 31. & 20. 7. Ezek. 2. 5, 7, 19, 20.-- Eack. 20. 7, 8. & 13 S-o Exod. 24. Deut. 14. 21. Ezek. 4. 14. & 44. 31.-h Heb. a carcas.- Ch 11. 5.-k Ch. 15. 5. Ob. 2. 3. Deut. 12. 4, 30, 31.-p Deut. 4. 1, 2 & 6. 1. Ezek. 20. 19. for a simple fracture of the Os humeri, and who died | bowed his head, and gave up the ghost, but his side was about a month after. As the bones had not united, he in- opened, the pericardium and the heart evidently pierced, that jected the arm, and thus found that the coagulated blood, the vital fiuid might be poured out from the very seat of which filled the cavity between the extremities of the life, and that thus the blood, which is the life, should be fractured bones, was become vascular, and in some places poured out to make an atonement for the life of the soul. very much so, which vessels, had it been dead matter, it The doctrine of Moses and St. Paul proves the truth of never could have produced.

the doctrine of Harvey and Hunter: and the reasonings This system has been opposed, and arguments have been and experiments of Harrey and Hunter illustrate and conadduced to prove, that the principle of vitality exists not firm the doctrine of Moses and Paul. Here, then, is a in the blood, but in the nervous system. But every ar farther proof of the truth and authority of Divine revelagument on this ground, appears to be done away by the tion. See the note on Gen. ix. 4. Dr. J. Corrie's Essay simple consideration, that the whole nervous system, as on the Vitality of the Blood, and the article Blood in the well as every other part of the body, is originally derived Encyclopædias. from the blood; for is it not from the blood of the mother, Verse 14. Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh) that the fætus has its being and nourishment in the womb? | Independently of the moral reasons given above, we may Do not all the nerves, as well as the brain, &c. originate add, 1. That blood being highly alkalescent, especially in from that alone? And if it be not vital, can it give the hot climates, is subject to speedy putrefaction. 2. That it principle of vitality to something else, which then exclu- | affords a gross nutriment, being very difficult of digestion, sively (though the effect of a cause) becomes the principle insomuch so, that bull's blood was used in ancient times as of vitality to all the solids and fluids of the body? This poison, "its extreme viscidity rendering it totally indigestseems absurd. That the human being proceeded originally ible by the powers of the human stomach." 3. It is alfrom the blood, admits of no doubt: and it is natural and lowed that when blood was used in this country in great reasonable to suppose, that as it was the cause under God, quantities, the scurvy was more frequent than at other which generated all the other parts of the body, so it still times. 4. It appears from history, that those nations who continues to be the principle of life, and by it alone, all the lived most on it, were very fierce, savage, and barbarous, wastes of the system are repaired. Two points relative to such as the Scythians, Tartars, Arabs of the desert, the this subject are strongly asserted in Divine revelation, one Scandinarians, &c. &c. some of whom drank the blood by Moses, the other by St. Paul.

of their enemies, making cups of their sculls ! 1. Moses says, The Life of the flesh is in the BLOOD, Verse 15. That which died of itself, or that which was Levit. xvii

. 11. This has been proved by the most indis- torn) Because in both cases the blood was retained in the putable facts.

body; hence, the council at Jerusalem forbad things stran2. St. Paul says, God hath made of ONE BLOOD all na- gled, as well as blood; because in such beasts, the blood tions of men, Acis xvii. 26. And this is demonstrated not was coagulated in the veins and arteries.-See Acts xv. 28. only from there being only one pair, from whom all the Every thing considered, surely there is as little propriety nations of men have been derived, but also from the fact, in eating of blood as there is necessity to do it. They who that every human being, from the first born of Eve to the will do otherwise, must bear their iniquity. If blood-eatpresent hour, has been formed out of, and supported by, the ing be no offence, then they have no sin to answer for. The mother's blood: and that from the agency of this fluid, the principal subjects of this chapter, have been already so amhuman body, after being born into the world, has its incre-ply handled in the notes, that there is no need to add any ment and support. The reason given by God, for the law thing by way of reflections or improvements. against eating blood, is perfectly conclusive-I will set my face against that soul that eateth blood-for the LIFE, U DO

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVIII. nephesh, of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it Verse 3. The doings of the land of Egypt-and the to you upon the altar, to make an atonement for your land of Canaan.] The worshipping of demons, beasts, &e. souls, Danud naphsholeycem, your Lives: for it is the as mentioned in the preceding chapter, ver, 7. and the blood (because it is the LIFE, UDI nephesh) that maketh an abominations mentioned in this chapter, from ver. 21. to 23. atonement for the soul; (vdia ba-nephesh, for the life, for Verse 6. Any that is near of kin) 90210 5 col shaar the word is the same in all these cases.) By transgression basro, any remnant of his flesh: i. e. to any particularly a man forfeits his life to divine justice, and he must die, allied to his own family, the prohibited degrees in which dfd not mercy provide him a substitute—the life of a beasi are specified from the 7th to the 17th verse inclusive. Notis appointed and accepted by God, as a substitute for the withstanding the prohibitions here, it must be evident that sinner's life; (in reference to the life of Christ, which was in the infancy of the world, persons very near of kin must to be given for the life of the world:) but as this life is in have been joined in matrimonial alliances; and that even the blood, and as the blood is the grand principle of vitali- brothers must have matched with their own sisters. This ty, therefore the blood is to be poured out upon the altar; must have been the case in the family of Adam. In these and thus the life of the beast becomes a substitute for the first instances, necessity required this : when this necessity life of the man.

no longer existed, the thing became inexpedient and imAnd it is well worthy of being remarked, that Christ proper, for two reasons: 1. That the duties owing by nanot only died for sinners, but our redemption is every ture to rclatives, might not be con founded with those of a where attributed to his blood, and the shedding of that social or political kind : for could

a man be a brother and a blood; and, that on the altar of the cross, this might make husband, a son and a husband; at the same time, and fulfil an atonement for the lives and souls of men, he not only I the duties of both? Impossible. 2. That by intermarry

judgments: ?which if a man do, he shall live in 18 Neither shalt thou take ba wife to her them: 'I am the Lord.

sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, 6 | None of you shall approach to any that is beside the other in her life time. near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness: 19 | Also thou shalt not approach unto a I am the Lord.

woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she 7 · The nakedness of thy father, or the naked- is put apart for her uncleanness. ness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she 20 Moreover e thou shalt not lie carnally with is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her. nakedness.

21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed 'pass 8 The nakedness of thy father's wise shalt through the fire to 5 Molech, neither shalt thou thou not uncover: it is thy father's nakedness. " profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

9 The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter 22 i Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with of thy father, or daughter of thy mother, wheth-womankind: it is abomination. er she be born at home, or born abroad, even 23 kNeither shalt thou lie with any beast to their nakedness thou shalt not uncover.

defile thyself therewith: neither shall any wo10 The nakedness of thy son's daughter, or man stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it of thy daughter's daughter, even their naked- is I confusion. ness thou shalt not uncover: for their's is thine 24 m Defile not ye yourselves in any of these own nakedness.

things: " for in all these the nations are defiled 11 The nakedness of thy father's wife's daugh- which I cast out before you: ter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, 25 And • the land is defiled: therefore I do thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.

p visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land 12 w Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of itself a vomiteth out her inhabitants. thy father's sister: she is thy father's near 26 - Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and kinswoman.

my judgments, and shall not commit any of these 13 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of abominations : neither any of your own nation, thy mother's sister : for she is thy mother's near nor any stranger that sojourneth among you: kinswoman.

27 (For all these abominations have the men 14 - Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of of the land done, which were before you, and thy father's brother, thou shalt not approach to the land is defiled :) his wife: she is thine aunt.

28 That “the land spue not you out also, 15 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son's wife; thou were before you. shalt not uncover her nakedness.

29 For whosoever shall commit any of these 16 - Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of abominations, even the souls that commit them, thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness. shall be cut off from among their people.

17 a Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of 30 Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou that ye commit not any one of these abominable take her son's daughter, or her daughter's customs, which were committed before you, and daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they that ye " defile not yourselves therein: "Í am are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness. the LORD your God.

q Ezek. 30, 11, 13, 21. Luke 10 2 Rom. 10. 5. Gal. 3. 12.- Exou. 6. 2, 6, 2, Mal 36 Hel remainder of his Rexh - Ch. 20. 11.-a Gen. 49. 4. Ch. 20. 11. Dent. 22 30 & 11. 20. Ezrk. 22 10. "Amos 2. 7. I Cor. 5. 1.--Ch 20. 17. 2 Sam. 13. 12

Ezek. 22. 11.- Ca 20. 19.- Ch. 20. 2.-y Gen. 34. 19, 26. Ch. 2. 12 Ek 22 11 - Ch 20. 21. Matt 11 1. See Deut. 23. 5. Matt. 22. 21. Mark 12 19. a Ch. 2014-5 Or, one wife to another. Exod. 35. 3-e I Sam. 1. 6,8-1 Ch. 2. 18. Ezak. 18. 6. & 22 10. Ch. 20. 10. Exol 20. 11. Deut. 5. 19. & 22.22. Pros. 6. 23, 32 Mal 3. 5. Matt. 5. 27. Rom. 2 22. 1 Cor. 6. 9. Heb. 13. 4- Ch. 21. 2. 2

Kings 16.3. & 21. 6. & 23. 10. Jer. 19. 5. Ezek. 20 31. & 3. 37, 39.- 1 kinge 11. 7, 33. Callal, Act 7. 13. Moloch.-h Ch. 19. 12. & 20. 3. & 21. 6. & 22.2, P. Ezek! 35. 20, &c. Mal. 1.12-i Ch 2. 13. Rom. 1. 27. 1 Cor. 6. 9. I Tim. 1. 10.-k Ch. 20). 15, 16. Exo-L 22 19. Ch. 20. 12-m Ver. 30. Matt. 15. 18.-20. Mark 7. 21-23. I Cor. 3. 17.--1 Ch. 29. 23. Deut. 18. 12-o Nomb. 35. 34. Jer. 27 & 16. 18. Ezek. 36 17.-- Pea. 99. 32 laaj. 2. 21. Jer. 5.9, 29. & 9. 9. & 11. 10. & 2 2 Hos 2 13. & 8.13.& 9.9.- Ver. 2.-r Ver. 5, 30. Ch. 20. 22, 23 - Ch. 3. 22. Jer. 9. 19. Exod. 36. 13, 17. - Ver. 3, 286. Ch. 20. 23. Deut. 18. 9.- Ver. 24.- Ver. 2, 4.

ing with other families, the bonds of social compact might | 38. Jerem. vii. 31. and Ezek. xxii. 37–39. That others be strengthened and extended, so that the love of our neigh- were only consecrated to his service by passing between bour, &c. might at once be felt to be not only a maxim of tuo fires, the rabbins strongly assert; and if Ahaz had but sound policy, but also a very practicable and easy duty; one son, Hezekiah, (though it is probable he had others, and thus fpuds, divisions, and wars be prevented.

see 2 Chron. xxviii. 3.) he is said to have passed through Verse 16. Thy brother's wife] This was an illegal the fire to Molech, 2 Kings xvi. 3. yet he succeeded his famarriage, unless the brother died childless. In that case ther in the kingdom, chap. xviii. 1. therefore this could only it was not only lawful for her to marry her brother-in-law, be a consecration ; his idolatrous father intending thereby but he was obliged by the law, Deut. xxv. 5. to take her lo to initiate him early into the service of this demon. See wife.

the note on chap. xx. 2. Verge 18. A wife to her sister] Thou shalt not marry Verse 22. With znankind) This abominable crime, two sisters at the same time, as Jacob did Rachel and Leah: | frequent among the Greeks and Romans, as well as the but there is nothing in this law that rendered it illegal to Canaanites, may be punished with death in this country: marry a sister-in-law, when her sister was dead; therefore, Verse 23. Wilh any beast] This abomination is also the text says, Thou shalt not take her in her life time to punishable with death, by the laws of this country. ter her, alluding, probably, to the case of the jealousies A woman stand before a beast] That this was often and vexations which subsisied between Leah and Rachel ; done in Egypt, there can be no doubt: and we have already and by which the family peace was so often disturbed. Some seen from the testimony of Herodotus, that a fact of this think that the text may be so understood as also to forbid kind actually took place while he was in Egypt. See the polygamy,

note on chap. xvii. ver. 7. and xx. 16. Verse 19. As long as she is put apart] See the note Verse 25. The land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants] on chap. xv. ver. 24.

This is a very nervous prosopopeia, or personification ; a Verse 20. Thy neighbour's wife] See the note on figure, by which any part of inanimate nature may be reExod. xx. 14.

presented as possessing the passions and reason of man. Verse 21. Pass through the fire to Molech] The name Here the land is represented as an intelligent being, with a of this idol is mentioned for the first time in this place. As deep and refined sense of moral good and evil; information the word 750 molec, or melec, signifies king or gorernor, concerning the abominations of the people, is brought to it is very likely that this idol represented the sun ; and more this personified land, with which it is so deeply affected, particularly as the fire appears to have been so much em that a nausea is produced, and it vomits out its abominable ployed in his worship. There are several opinions con and accursed inhabitants. It was natural for the inspired cerning the meaning of passing through the fire to Molech. penman to make use of such a figure, as the description he 1. Some think that the semen humanum, was offered on was obliged to give of so many and enormous abominations, the fire to this idol. 2. Others think that the children were must have affected him nearly in the same way, in which actually made a burnt-offering to him. 3. But others sup- he represents the land to be affected. pose the children were not burnt, but only passed through Verse 30. Ye shall keep mine ordinance] The only way the fire, or between tuo fires, by way of consecration to to be preserved from all false worship, is seriously to conhim. That some were actually burnt alive to this idol, sider ‘and devoutly to observe the ordinances of the true several scriptures, according to the opinion of commenta- religion He who in the things of God, goes no farther than tors, seem strongly to intimate, see among others, Psal. cvi. he can say, thus il is written, and thus it behooves me to do,

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sion, 37.

AN

b Ch. 7. 16.- Ch. 23. 22 Deut. 24. 19, 20, 21. Ruth 2 15, 16.-Exol. 20. 15. &

1 Thess. 4.6.- Deut. 21. 14, 15. Mal. 3. 5. Tob. 4. 14. Jamea 5. 4.- Dent. 27. 18

thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleanings CHAPTER XIX.

of thy harvest. Exhortations to holiness, and a repetition of various laws, 1, 2 Duty to parenta,

10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, and observation of the sabbath, 3 against ilolatry, 4. concerning perirefferings, 5. The elenning of the harvest and sintage to be bele for the poor, 9, 10 neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy ting, la Laws in Bebali of the long aur! the blind, 11. Against fenpied or per vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor

and stranger: I am the LORD your God. ners, 17' against revenge, 18. against unlawful misturea in cattle, seeds, and garments, 19. Laws relative to the bondmaid that is betrothed, 2---22. The 11 Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, fruit of the trees of the lux not to be eaten for the first three years, 23 but this 19 lawful in the fourth and Anth years, 21, 25. Against eating of blood, and using e neither lie one to another. incantations, 25 against superstitious cutting of the hair, n. ani cutting of the

12 And ye shall .not 'swear by my name Nesh in the times of mourning, Against prostitution, 2. Sabbaths to be rever. enco, 30. Against consulting those who are vizards, and have familiar spurta falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of 32, 33, they shall keep just measures, weights, and balances, 36, 36. Concluthy God: I am the LORD.

13 - Thou shalt not defraud thy neighbour, An. Exod. Isr. 2

ND the LORD spake unto Moses, neither rob him: the wages of him that is Abib or Nisan. saying,

hired, shall not abide with thee all night until 2 Speak unto all the congregation of the chil- the morning, dren of Israel, and say unto them, w Ye shall 14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy. stumblingblock before the blind, but shalt i fear

3 Ye shall fear every man his mother, and thy God: I am the Lord. his father, and y keep my sabbaths: I am the 15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgLORD your God.

ment: thou shalt not respect the person of the 4 2 Turn ye not unto idols, a nor make to your-poor, nor honour the person of the mighty; but selves molten gods: I am the LORD your God. in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.

5 And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offer 16 • Thou shalt not go up and down as a taleings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it at your own bearer among thy people: neither shalt thou will.

stand against the blood of thy neighbour: I am 6 It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, the Lord. and on the morrow; and if ought remain until 17 p Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire, heart: 9 thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neigh

any And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it bous, and not suffer sin upon him. is abominable; it shall not be accepted.

18':

Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any 8 Therefore everyone that eateth it shall bear grudge against the children of thy people, but his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hal-thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am lowed thing of the Lord: and that soul shall be the LORD, cut off from among his people.

19. Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt 9 And “when ye reap the harvest of your not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind: land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of u thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed :

w Ch. ll. 44. & 20.7, 25. 1 Pet. 1. 16.- Exod. 20. 12-y Exod. 20. 8. & 31. 13. n Exod. 23. 1. Ps. 15. 3. & 50.20. Prov. IL. 13. & 2. 19. Ezek. 22. 9.- Exod 2 • Exod. 20. 4. Ch. 261. I Cor. 10. 14. I John 5. 21.- Exod. 31. 17. Deut. 27. 15. 1, 7. 1 Kings 21. 13. Matt. 60, 61. & 27.1-P1 John 2. 9, 11. & 3 15.- Fechis

19. 13. Matt. 18. 15. Luke 17.3 Gal. 6. 1. Ephes. 5. 11. 1 Tim. 5. 20. tm 1.2 22 1, 7, 10. Deut. 5. 19.-- Ch. 6.2. Eph. 1. 3. Col. 3. 9.- Exol. 7. Ch. 6.3. Tit. I. 13. & 2. 15.- Or, that thou bear not sin for him: Sve Rom. 1. 32. I Cor. 5 Deut. 3. 11. Muut 5 33. James 5. 12- Ch. 18. 2.-h Eecles. 10. 6. Mark 10 19. 2 1 Tin 5. 22. 2 John 11.- Sam. 13. 22. Prov. 2. 22. Rom 12 17, 19. Galá

20. Eph 4. 31. I Pet. 21, James 5.9.-1 Matt. 5. 13. & 22. 39. Rom. 13. 9. Gal. 5. Rom. 14. 13.- Ver. 32. Ch. 25. 17. Gen. 42 18 Eccles. 5. 7. 1 Pet. 2. 17.-m Exod. 14. James 2 8. Deut. 22. 9, 10.

Prov. 21. 23. Jaumes 29. is never likely to receive a false creed, nor perform a super- gleanings from the corn-fields and vineyards. To the stitious act of worship,

honour of the public and charitable spirit of the English, 1. How true is that word, The law of the Lord is per this merciful law is, in general, as much attended to, as if FECT; in a small compass, and yet in a most minute detail, it had been incorporated with the Gospel. it comprises every thing that is calculated to instruct, Verse 11. Ye' shall not steal, &c.] See the notes on direct, convince, correct, and fortify the mind of man. Exod. xx. Whatever has a tendency to corrupt, or injure man, that, it Verse 13. The wages shall not abide with thee all forbids; whatever is calculated to comfort him, promote night) For this plain reason, it is the support of the man's and secure his best interests, that, it commands. It takes life and family; and they need to expend it as fast as it is him in all possible states, views him in all connexions, and earned. provides for his present and eternal happiness.

Verse 14. Thou shall not curse the deaf] Or speak eril 2. As the human soul is polluted, and tends to pollution, of him, because he cannot hear, and so cannot vindicate the great doctrine of the law is holiness to the Lord: this his own character. it keeps invariabıy in view, in all its commands, precepts, Nor put a stumbling-block before the blind] He wlio ordinances, rites, and ceremonies, And how forcibly in all is capable of doing this, must have a heart cased with these does it say, thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all crueliy. The spirit and design of these precepts are, that thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, no man shall, in any case, take advantage of the ignoand with all thy strength; and thy neighbour as thyself. rance, simplicity, or inexperience of his neighbour ; but This is the prominent doctrine of the preceding chapter ; | in all things, do to his neighbour, as he would, on a change and this shall be fulfilled in all them who believe; for of circumstances, that his neighbour should do to him. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness, to them Verse 16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talethat believe, Reader

, magnify God for his lare, for by it is bearer) bag racil, signifies a trader, a pedlar, and is here the knowledge of sin: and magnify him for his Gospel

, applied to the person who travels about dealing in scandal for by this is the cure of sin. Let the law be thy schools and calumny, getting the secrets of every person and master to bring thee to Christ, that thou mayest be justified family, and retailing them wherever he goes. A more by faith; and that the righteousness of the law may be despicable character exists not: such a person is a pest to fulfilled in thee, and that thou mayest walk, not after the society, and should be exiled from the habitations of men. Aesh, but after the Spirit.

Neither shalt thou stand against the blood, &c.) Thou NOTES ON CHAPTER XIX.

shalt not be a false witness; because by such testimony Verse 3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, &c.) Ye the blood, the life of an innocent man may be endangered. shall have the profoundest reverence and respect for them. Verse 17. Thou shalt not hate thy brviher] Thou shalt See the notes on Gen. xlviii. 12. and on Exod. xx. 8. and 12. not only not do him any kind of evil, but thou shalt hare

Verse 4. Turn ye not unto idols) buyn elilim, literally bour no hatred in thy heart towards him. On the connothings; and to this St. Paul seems to allude, 1 Cor. trary, thou shalt love him as thyself, ver. 18. Many perviii. 4. where he says, we know that an idol is NOTHING sons suppose, from misunderstanding our Lord's words, in the world.

John xiii. 34. a new commandment gire I unto you, that Verse 5. Peace-offerings] See the notes at the conclu- ye love one another, &c. that loving our neighbour as oursion of ch. vii.

selves, was first instituted under the Gospel. This verse Verse 7. If it be caten on the third day] See the note, shows the opinion to be unfounded, but to love another as chap. vii. 15.

Christ has loved us, i. e. to lay down our lires for each Verse 9. When ye reap the hardest] Liberty for the poor other, is certainly a new commandment: we have it simply to glean both the corn-fields and vineyards, was a divine on the authority of Jesus Christ alone. institution among the Jews; for the whole of the Mosaic And not suffer sin upon him] If thou see him sin, or dispensation breathed, like the Christian, love to God, and know him to be addicted to any thing by which the safety benevolence to man. The poor in Judea were to live by 1 of his soul is endangered, thou shalt mildly and affection

356

23. 2, 3. Deut. 1. 17. & 16. 19. & 27. 19.

Psa. 32. 2

neither shall a garment mingled of linen and 23 And when ye shall come into the land, and woollen, come upon thee.

shall have planted all manner of trees for food, 20 And whosover lieth carnally with a wo- then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncirman, that is a bondmaid, w betrothed to a hus- cumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumband, x and not at all redeemed, nor freedom cised unto you: it shall not be eaten of: given her; y she shall be scourged; 2 they shall 24 But in the fourth year, all the fruit thereof not be put to death, because she was not free. shall be holy, to praise the LORD withal.

21 And he shall bring his trespass-offering 25 And in the filth year shall ye eat of the unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you the inof the congregation, even a ram for a trespass- crease thereof: I am the LORD your God. offering.

26 - Ye shall not eat any thing with the 22 And the priest shall make an atonement blood: neither shall ye use "enchantment, nor for him, with the ram of the trespass-offering, observe times. before the LORD, for his sin which he hath done; 27 [ Ye shall not round the corners of your and the sin which he hath done shall be forgiven heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy him.

beard.

Dart 22 11.-w Or, abused by any.-x Heb. reproached by, or, for man. y Or, they.-. Heb. there shall be a scourging-a Chi 5. 15. & 6. 6.- Heb. holiness of praises to the LORD.

c Deut. 12. 17, 18. Prov. 3. 9.- Ch. 17. 10, &c. Deut. 12. 2.-e Deut. 18. 10 11, 14. 1 Sam. 16. 23. 2 Kings 17. 17. & 21. 6. 2 Chron. 33. 6. Mal. 3. 5.- Ch. 21. 5. Jer. 9. 36. & 48. 37. Isi. 16. 2.

נחש

ately reprove him, and by no means permit him to go on white, the other half black, or blue; a long beard, a silk without counsel and advice, in a way that is leading him hood, buttoned under his chin, embroidered with grotesque to perdition. In a multitude of cases, timely reproof has figures of animals, dancing men, &c. and sometimes ornabeen the means of saving the soul. Speak to him pri- mented with gold and precious stones.". This dress was pately if possible ; if not, write to him in such a way, that the height of the mode in the reign of King Edward III. himself alone shall see it.

Something of the same kind seems to have existed in Verse 19. Gender with a diverse kind] These precepts, the patriarchal times, witness the coat of many colours, taken literally, seem to imply that they should not permit made by Jacob for his son Joseph. See the note on Gen. the horse and the she-ass, nor the he-ass and the cow, (as xxxvii. 3. Concerning these different mixtures, much they do in the east) to couple together; nor sow different may be seen in the Mishna, Tract. Kilaim, and in Ainskinds of seeds in the same field or garden: nor have gar: worth and Calmet on this place. ments of silk and woollen ; cotton and silk; linen and Verse 20. A woman that is a bondmaid] Had she been roo0l, &c. And if all these were forbidden, there must free, the law required that she should be put to death, see have been some moral reason for the prohibitions, because, Deut. xxii. 24. but as she was a slave, she is supposed to domestic economy required several of these mixtures; have less self-command, and therefore less guilt--but as it especially those which relate to seeds and clothing. With is taken for granted, she did not make resistance, or did respect to heterogeneous mixtures among catlle, there consent, she is to be scourged, and the man is to bring a is something very unnatural in it: and it was probably ram for a trespass-offering. forbidden, to prevent excitements to such unnatural lusts, Verse 23. Three years shall it be as uncircumcised] as those condemned in the preceding chapter, ver. 22, 23. I see no great reason to seek for mystical meanings in this As to seeds, in many cases it would be very improper to prohibition. The fruit of a young tree cannot be good; sow different kinds in the same plot of ground. It would for not having arrived at a state of maturity, the juices be improvident to sow oats and wheat together; the latter cannot be sufficiently elaborated, to produce fruit excellent would be injured, the former ruined. The turnip and in its kind. The Israelites are commanded not to eat of carrot would not succeed conjointly, where either of them the fruit of a tree till the fifth year after its planting-in separately would prosper, and yield a good crop; so we the three first years, the fruit is unwholesome; in the may say of many other kinds of seeds ; and if this be all fourth year the fruit is holy, it belongs to God, and should that is intended, the counsels are prudential, agricultural be consecrated to him, ver. 24. And in the fifth, and maxims. As to different kinds of garments, such as the afterward, the fruit may be employed for common use, linsey woolsey, the prohibition here might be intended

ver. 25. as much against pride and vanity, as any thing else : for Verse 26. Neither shall ye use enchantment] »nin NS it is certain that both these articles may be so manufactured lo tenacheshu. Conjecture itself can do little towards a in conjunction, as to minister to pride, though in general, proper explanation of the terms used in this verse. the linsey woolsey, or druggel, is the clothing of the poor. Nachash, in Gen. iii. 1. we translate serpent, and with But we really do not know what the original word iroyu very little propriety—but though the word may not signify shâatnez, which we translate linen and woollen, means; a serpent in that place, it has that signification in others, it is true that in Deut. xxii. 11. where it is again used, it possibly, therefore, the superstition here prohibited, may seems to be explained by the words immediately follow- be what the Greeks called Ophiomanteiả, or divination ing, Thou shall not wear a garment of divers sorts, as by serpents. of linen and woollen together ; but this may as well refer Nor observe times] wyn by e'lo teônenu, ye shall to a garment made up of a sort of patch-work, differently not divine by clouds, which was also a superstition much coloured and arranged, for pride and for show. A folly in practice among the heathens; as well as divination by of this kind prevailed anciently in this very land ; and I the flight of birds. What these prohibitions may parshall give a proof of it, taken from a sermon against ticularly refer to, we know not. See the notes on Gen. lurury in dress, composed in the fourteenth century. xli. 8.

"As to the first sinne in superfíuitie of clothing, soche Verse 27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads] that maketh it so dere, to the harme of the peple, not This, and the following verse, evidently refer to customs only the cost of enbraudering, the disguised endenting, or which must have existed among the Egyptians, when the barring, ounding, paling, winding or bending and sem Israelites sojourned in Egypt; and what they were, it is blable wast of clothe in vanitie. But there is also the now difficul, even with any probability, to conjecture. costlewe furring in ther gounes, so moche pounsing of Herodotus observes, that the Arabs shave, or cut their hair chesel, to make holes; so moche dagging with sheres round, in honour of Bacchus, who, they say, had his hair foorth; with the superfluitie in length of the forsaied cut in this way, lib. iii. chap. 8. He says also, that the gounes, --to grete dammage of pore folke.- And more Macians, a people of Lybia, cut their hair round, so as to ouer--they shewe throughe disguising, in departing of ther leave a tuft on the top of the head, lib. iv. chap. 175. In hosen in white and red, semeth that halfe ther members this manner the Chinese cut their hair to the present day. were slain. They departe ther hosen into other colours, This might have been in honour of some idol, and, thereas is white and blewe, or white and blacke, or blacke and fore, forbidden to the Israelites. red, and so forth; than semeth it as by variaunce of colour, The hair was much used in divination among the anthat the halfe part of ther members ben corrupt by the cients; and for purposes of religious superstitions, among fire of saint Anthony, or by canker, or other suche mis- the reeks; and particularly about the time of the giving chaunce." The Parson's Tale in Chaucer, p. 198. Urry's of this law, as this is supposed to have been the era of the edition. The reader will pardon the antiquated spelling. Trojan war. We learn from Homer, that it was customary

"What could exhibit," says Dr. Henry, "a more fan- for parents to dedicate the hair of their children to some tastical appearance than an English beau of the 14th cen- god; which, when they came to manhood, they cut off and tury? He wore long pointed shoes, fastened to his knees consecrated to the deity. Achilles, at the funeral of Paby gold or silver chains; hose of one colour on the one leg, trocles, cut off his golden locks, which his father had dediand of another colour on the other : short breeches, which cated to the river-god Sperchius, and threw them into the did reach to the middle of his thighs-a coat, the one half food.

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