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28 Ye shall not make any cuttings in your and honour the face of the old man, and fear flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon thy God: I am the LORD. you: I am the LORD.

33 And Pif a stranger sojourn with thee in 29 h Do not i prostitute thy daughter, to cause your land, ye shall not a vex him. her to be a whore; lest the land fall to whore 34 But the stranger that dwelleth with you, dom, and the land become full of wickedness. shall be unto you as one born among you, and

30'k Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and rever 8 thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were ence my sanctuary; I am the LORD.

strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord 31 m Regard not them that have familiar spir- your God. its, neither seek after wizards to be defiled by 35 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgthem: I am the LORD your God.

ment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure. 32 - Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, 36 Just Balances, justWeights, a just g Ch. 21. 5. Deut. 14. 1. Jer. 16. 6. & 48. 37.-- Deut. 23. 7.-- Heb profane. n Prov. 20. 20. 1 Tim. 5.1.- Ver. 14.-p Exod. 22. 21. & 21.9.- Or, oppres. k Ver. 3. Ch. 25. 2 - Eccles. 5. 1.- Exod. 22. 18. Ch. 26. 6, 27. Deut. 18. 10. r Exod. 12. 48, 49. --- Deut. 10. 19.- Ver. 15.- Deut. 25. 13, 15. Prov. 11. 1. &

1 Sam. 28. 7. I Chron. 10. 13. Isai. 8. 19. Acte 15. 16.

16. 11. & 2. 10.--Y Heb. atones.

Στας απαν ευθι πυρης ξανθην απεκερατο χαίτην,

Justin, gained that portion which their husbands received Την ρα Σπερχειό ποταμτρεφε τηλεβο ωσαν:

with them at marriage, by previous public prostitution. 0,5η σας δ' αρα ειπεν ιδον ιπι οινοπα ποντον,

And the Phænicians, according to Augustin, made a gift Σπερχει, αλλος σοι γε πατηρ κρασατο Πηλεύς. κ. τ. λ. Iliad. 1. xxiii. v. 142, &c.

to Venus of the gain acquired by the public prostitution of

their daughters, previously to their marriage. Veneri doBut great Achilles standa apart in prayer, And from his head divider the yellow hair,

num dabant, ct prostitutiones filiarum antequam junThor curling locks which from his youth he rou'd

gerent eas viris. De Civit. Dei, lib. xviii. c. 5. And see
And sacred grew to Sperchius' honoured food.
Then sigling, to the deep his look cast,

Calmet.
And roll'l his eyes around the watery waste.

Verse 31. Regard not them that harc familiar spirits)
Sperchius! whose waves in mazy errors lost,
Delightful roll along my native coast !

The Hebrew word nie oboth, probably signifies

a kind of To whom we vainly roi'r, at our return, These locks to fall, and helacoms to burn

engastromythi, or ventriloquisis ; or such as the Pythoness So vou'd my father, but he rou'd in vain,

mentioned Acts xvi. 16, 18. persons who, while under the No more Achilles mees his native plain; In that vain hp, these hairs no longer grou,

influence of their demon, became greatly inflated, as the Patroclus bears them to the shades below.

Pope. Hebrew word implies, and gave answers in a sort of From Virgil we learn, that the topmost lock of hair phrenzy. See a case of this kind in Virgil, Æneid. l. was dedicated to the infernal gods: see his account of the vi. v. 46, &c. death of Dido.

Deus ecce, Deus! ad lalia fandi
Nondron illi flamim Proserpina vertice eriner

Ante fores, subito non vultue, non color unus,
Abstulerat, Stygioque caput darnaverat orco-

Non compte mansereromat; sed pectus anhelun
Hunc ego Diti

Et abie fera conda tumeut; majoryne videri,
Sacrum jussa fero; trque isto corpore solpo.

Nec mortale sonans: afflata est numine quando
Sic ail, a dezt a crinem secat.
Æncid. I. iv. v. 608.

Jam propiore Dei.
The sistery had not cut the topmoat hair,

-invoke the skies,
Which Proserpine and they can poly know,

I feel the God, the rushing Gol, she cries,
Nor made ber sacred to the shades below

While yet she wpoke, cnlarg d her features grow,
This offering to the infernal gods I bear,

Her colour chang'u, berlocku dishevelle tiew,
Thus while she spoke, she cut the fatal hair. Dryden.

The heavenly tumult reigns in every part,

Pants in her breat, amells ler ricing heart; If the hair was rounded, and dedicated for purposes of

Still surelling to the righ, the primates glow'd, this kind, it will at once account for the prohibition in this

And heard impatient of the incumbeni Gox.

Pitt.

Neither seek after wizards] Dyr yideônim, the verse.

The corners of thy board] Probably meaning the hair wise, or knorring ones, from yr yada, to know or underof the cheek that connects the hair of the head with the stand ; called wizard, in Scotland, noise or cunning man beard. This was no doubt cut in some peculiar manner for in England; and hence also the wise woman, the white the superstitious purposes mentioned above; several of our witch. Not only all real dealers with familiar spirits, or own countrymen wear this said hair, in a curious form ; necromantic or magical superstitions, are here forbidden; for what purposes they know best. We cannot say precise but also all pretenders to the knowledge of futurity, forly, that it is the ancient Egyptian custom revived." From tune-tellers, astrologers, &c. &c. To attempt to know the images and paintings which remain of the ancient Egyp- what God has not thought proper to reveal, is a sin tiang, we find that they were accustomed to shave the against his wisdom, providence, and goodness. In mercy, whole hair off their face, except merely that upon the chin; great mercy, God has hidden the knowledge of futurity which last they cut off only in times of mourning, from man, and given him hope, the erpectation of future

Verse 28. Any cuttings in your flesh for the dead) That good, in its place. See the note on Exod. xxi. 18. the ancients were very violent in their grief, tearing the Verse 32. Before the houry head] See the note on hair and face, beating the breast, &c. is well known: Vir- Gen. xlviii. 12. gil represents the sister of Dido, “tearing her face with Verse 33. If a stranger sojourn] This law to protect her nails, and beating her breasts with her fists."

and comfort the stranger, was at once humane and politic. Unguibus ora soror foedans, et pectora pugnie.

None is so desolate as the stranger, and none needs the Æa'liv. . 672.

offices of benevolence and charity more: and we may Nor print any marks upon you] It was a very ancient, add, that he who is not affected by the desolate state of the and a very general custom, to carry marks on the body in stranger, has neither benevolence nor charity. It was pohonour of the object of their worship. All the castes of Jitic to encourage strangers, as, in consequence, many the Hindoos, bear on their foreheads, or elsewhere, what came not ortly to sojourn, but to settle among the Jews; are called the sectarian marks, which not only distinguish and thus their political strength became increased; and them in a civil, but also in a religious point of view, from many of these settlers became at least proselytes of the each other.

gate, if not proselytes of the covenant, and thus got their Most of the barbarous nations lately discovered, have souls saved." Hence humanity, sound policy, and religion, their faces, arms, breasts, &c. curiously carved, or tatooed, said, rex not the stranger; thou shalt lore him as thyself. probably for superstitious purposes. Ancient writers abound The apostle makes use of a strong argument to induce with accounts of marks made on the face, arms, &c. in men to hospitality toward strangers. Be not forgetful to honour of different idols--and to this the inspired penman entertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained alludes, Rev. xii. 16, 17. xiv. 9, 11. xv. 2. xvi. 2. 'xix. 20. angels unavares, Heb. xiii. 2. Moses also uses a powxx. 4. where false worshippers are represented as receiving erful motive; ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. in their hands, and in their forehead, the marks of the The spirit of the precept here laid down, may be well es. beast. These were called orig utta, stigmata, among the pressed in our Lord's words : Do unto all men as ye Greeks, and to these St. Paul refers, when he says, I bear would they should do unto you. about in my body the marks (stig mata) of the Lord Jesus, Verse 35. Ye shall do no unrighteousness] Ye shall Gal. vi. 17. I have seen several cases where persons have not act contrary to the strictest justice in any case: and got the figure of the cross, the Virgin Mary, &c, made on especially in the four following, which, properly undertheir arms, breasts, &c. the skin being first punctured, and stood, comprise all that can occur between a man and his. then a blue colouring matter rubbed in, which is never af- fellow. 1. JUDGMENT in all cases that come before the terward effaced. All these were done for superstitious civil magistrate-he is to judge and decide according to purposes; and to such things probably, the prohibition in the law. 2. METE-YARD, 17pa bamiddah, in measures of this verse refers. Calmet on this verse gives several ex-length and surface, such as the reed, cubit, foot, span, amples.

hand's-breadth, among the Jews ; or ell, yard, fool, and Verse 29. Do not prostitute thy daughter) This was inch, among us. 3. Weight, Spvpa ba-mishekal, in any a very frequent custom, and with examples of it, writers thing that is weighed; the weights being all according to the of antiquity abound. The Cyprian women, according to I standards kept for the purpose of trying the rest, in the

An Exod. Isr. 2
Abib or Nisan.

Asaying

Ephah, and a just Hin, shall ye have: I am the 6 1 And the soul that turneth after such as LORD your God, which brought you out of the have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a land of Egypt.

whoring after them, I will even set my face 37 w Therefore shall ye observe all my sta- against that soul, and will cut him off from tutes, and all my judgments, and do them: I am among his people. the LORD.

7 Sanctily yourselves therefore, and be ye

holy: for I am the LORD your God. CHAPTER XX.

8 i And ye shall keep my statutes, and do Or giving seel to Molech, and the punishment of this crime, 1-5. or consulting them: "I am the Lord which sanctify you.

toizards, &c. 6. Of disrespect to parents, 9. Of alullery, 10. Ofiuecs. tuus mixtures, 11, 12 Bastiality, 14-16. Different cases of incest and un 9 T For every one that curseth his father or ciernnexo, 17– Extortations and pror isen, 22:-* The difference between his mother shall be surely put to death: he hath e from other nativos, that they may be hely, 25. A repetition of the law against cursed his father or his mother; his blood

, 27.

shall be upon him. ND the LORD spake unto Moses, 10 And n the man that committeth adultery

with another man's wife, even he that commit2 [ * Again thou shalt say to the children of teth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the Israel, » Whosoever he be of the children of adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, to death. that giveth any of his seed unto Molech; he 11 | •And the man that lieth with his father's shall surely be put to death; the people of the wife, hath uncovered his father's nakedness; both land shall stone him with stones.

of them shall surely be put to death; their blood 3 And - I will set my face against that man, shall be upon them. and will cut him off from among his people; be 12 P And if a man lie with his daughter-in-law, cause he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to both of them shall surely be put to death: 9 they a defile my sanctuary, and b to profane my holy have wrought confusion: their blood shall be name.

upon them. 4 | And if the people of the land do any ways 13 1 - If a man also lie with mankind, as he hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth lieth with a woman, both of them have commitof his seed unto Molech, and · kill him not ; ted an abomination: they shall surely be put to

5 Then I will set my face against that man, death; their blood shall be upon them. and against his family, and will cut him off', 14 1. And if a man take a wife and her mother, (and all that 'go a whoring after him, to com- it is wickedness: they shall be burnt with fire, mit whoredom with Molech,) from among their both he and they; that there be no wickedness people.

among you.

w Ch. 18. 4, 5. Deut. 4. 5. 6. & 5. 1. & 6.5.-Ch. 18. 21.-y Ch 18. 21 Deu 12 31. & 13.10.2 Kings 17. 17. & 23. 10. 2 Chron. 33. 6. Jer. 7. 31. & 32. 3. Ezek. 21.5, 31.-2. Ch. 17. 10.–a Ezek. 5. 11. & 2. 38, 39.- Ch. 18. 21.-e Deut. 17. 2, 3,5.- Ch. 17. 10.- Exod. 215.- Ch. 17. 7.-8 Ch 19.31.- Ch. 11. 41. & 19. 2 1 Pet. 1. 16.

i Ch. 19. 37.-k Exod. 31 13 Ch. 21. 8. Ezek. 37. 28.-) Exod. 21. 17. Deut. 27. 16. Proy. 20 20 Matt. 15. 1.- Ver. 11, 12, 13, 16, 27. 2 Sam. 1. 16.-n Ch. 18 20. Deut. 22. 22. John 8. 4, 5.- Ch. 18. 8. Deut. 27. 2.-p Ch 18. 15. 9 Ch. 18. 23 - Ch 18. 2. Deut. 23. 17. See Gen. 19. 5. Judges 19. 22 - Ch. 18. 17. Deut. 27. 23

sanctuary, as appears from Exod. xxx. 13. 1 Chron. xxiii. solar influence) as made of brass, in the form of a man, 29. these weights were the talent, shekel, barley-corn, &c. with the head of an ox; that a fire was kindled in the 4. MEASURE, Na ba-mesurah, from which we derive inside, and the child to be sacrificed to him, was put in his our term. This refers to all measures of capacity, such arms and roasted to death. Others say, that the idol, as the homer, ephah, seah, hin, omer, kab, and log. See which was hollow, was divided into seven compurtments all these explained, Exod. xvi. 16.

within; in one of which they put flour, in the second Verse 36. Just balances] Scales, steelyard, &c. turtle-dores, in the third an ewe, in the fourth a ram, in Weights, DYN abenim, stones, as the weights appear to the fifth a calf, in the sixth an ox, and in the seventh a have been originally formed out of stones.-Ephah, hin, child, which (by heating the statne on the outside) were &c. see before.

all burnt alive together. I question the whole truth of Verse 37. Ye shall observe all my statutes) po chukaï, these statements, whether from Jewish or Christian rabfrom pn chak, to describe, mark, or trace out--the right- bing. There is no evidence of all this in the Sacred eousness which I have described, and the path of duty Writings. And there is but presumptive proof, and that which I have traced out. Judgments, 'ubwo mishpataï not very strong, that human sacrifices were at all offered from yow shaphat, to discern, determine, direct, &c. that to Molech by the Jews. The passing through the fire, so which Divine wisdom has discerned to be best for man, frequently spoken of, might mean no more than a simple that he has determined shall promote his best interests; rite of consecration to the service of this idol. Probably and that he has directed him conscientiously to use. See a kind of ordeal was meant, the persons passing suddenly the note on chap. xxvi. 15.

through the flame of a large fire, by which, though they 1. Many difficulties occur in this very important chap- might be burnt or scorched, yet they were neither killed or ter; but they are such only to us ; for there can be no doubt consumed. Or they might have passed between two large of their having been perfectly well known to the Israelites, fires, as a sort of purification. See the note on ver. 14. to whom the precepts contained in this chapter were given. and on chap. xviii. 21. Considerable pains however have been taken to make Verse 6. Familiar spirits) See the note on chap. xix. them plain, and no serious mind can read them without 31. and Exod. xxii. 18. profit.

Verse 9. Curseth his father or his mother] See the 2. The precepts against injustice, fraud, slander, enmity, notes on Gen. xlviii. 12. Exod. xx. 12. He who consci&c. &c. are well worth the notice of every Christian; and entiously keeps the fifth commandment, can be in no those against superstitious usages, are not less so ; and danger of this judgment. The term Sp' yekulel

, signifies by these last we learn, that having recourse to astrologers, not only to curse but to speak of a person contemptuously fortune-tellers, &c. to get intelligence of lost or stolen and disrespectfully; to make light of : so that all speeches goods; or to know the future events of our own lives, or which have a tendency to lessen our parents in the eyes those of others, is highly criminal in the sight of God. of others, or to render their judgment, piety, &c. suspected Those who have recourse to such persons, renounce their and contemptible, may be here included : though the act baptism, and in effect rénounce the providence, as well as of cursing, or of treating the parent with injurious and the word of God.

opprobrious language, is that which is particularly in3. The precepts of humanity and mercy, relative to the tended. poor, the hireling, and the stranger, are worthy of our Verse 10. Committcth adultery] To what has been most serious regard. Nor are those which concern said in the note on Exod. xx. 14. we may add, that the weights and measures, traffic, and the whole system of word adultery comes from the Latin adulterium, which commutative justice, less necessary to be observed for is compounded of ad, to or with, and alter, another, or acthe comfort and benefit

of the individual, and the safety cording to Minshieu, of ad alterius thorum, he that and prosperity of the state.

approaches to another man's bod. NOTES ON CHAPTER XX.

Verse 12. They have wrought confusion) See ch. xviii. Verse 2. That giveth any of his seed unto Molech] To and especially the note on ver. 6. what has been said in the note on chap. xviii. 21. we may Verse 14. "They shall be burnt with fire] As there are add, that the rabbins describe this idol (who was probably worse crimes mentioned here, see verses 11. and 17. where a representative or emblematical personification of the I the delinquent is ordered simply to be put to death; or to

359

15 T · And if a man lie with a beast, he shall | rit their land, and I will give it unto you to possurely be put to death: and ye shall slay the sess it, a land that floweth with milk and honey: beast.

I am the LORD your God, h which have sepa16 And if a woman approach unto any beast, rated you from other people. and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill the woman, 25 Ye shall therefore put difference between and the beast: they shall surely be put to death; clean beasts and unclean, and between unclean their blood shall be upon them.

fowls and clean: and ye shall not make your 17 | And if a man shall take his sister, his souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any father's daughter, or his mother's daughter, and manner of living thing that creepeth on he see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness: ground, which I have separated from you as unit is a wicked thing; and they shall be cut off in clean. the sight of their people: he hath uncovered his 26 And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the sister's nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity. LORD am holy, and have severed you from other

18 1 And if a man shall lie with a woman people, that ye should be mine. having her sickness, and shall uncover her na 27 To A man also, or woman that hath a fakedness; he hath w discovered her fountain, and miliar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood : put to death: they shall stone them with stones: and both of them shall be cut off from among p their blood shall be upon them. their people. 19 And thou shalt not uncover the naked- The priests shall not mouro for the dead, except for near relatives, such as mother,

CHAPTER XXI. ness of thy mother's sister, nor of thy father's father, son, daughter, and sister, it a virgin, 14. They shall not have the

heads nor beanla, nor make any cuttings in the fesh, because they are bey anta sister: for he uncovereth' his near kin: they

A pries shall not marry a woman who is a whore, protams, o avered shall bear their iniquity.

of the priest's daughter who profanes terself, 9.

high priest shall not uncover his head, or renl bis clothes, 10. tor go in uoto a 20 · And if a man shall lie with his uncle's dead boy, 11. nor go out of the sanctuary, 12. Or his marriage and oft

13.-15. No person shall be made a priest that has any blemish, nor shall any pere wife, he hath uncovered his uncle's nakedness: son with any of the blemishes menúoned here, be permitted to officiale in the war they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless. ship of God, 16–2.

21 - And if a man shall take his brother's wife, AND Abella it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his Speak unto the priests the sons brother's nakedness; they shall be childless. of Aaron, and say unto them, . There shall none

22 | Ye shall therefore keep all my eetatutes, be defiled for the dead among his people: and all my judgments, and do them: that the 2 But for his kin, that is near unto him, that is, land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, "spue for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, you not out.

and for his daughter, and for his brother, 23. And ye shall not walk in the manners of 3 And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh unto the nations which I cast out before you: for they him, which hath had no husband; for her may committed all these things, and therefore I he be defiled. abhorred them.

4 But " he shall not defile himself, being a 24 But I have said unto you, Ye shall inhe- chief man among his people, to profane himself. t Ch. 18. 2. Deut. 27. 21.- Ch. 18. 9. Dent. 27. 2. See Gen 20. 12. --v Ch. 18. i Ch. 11. 47. Deut. 14. 4.-k Ch. 11. 43 – 1 Or, moreth.-m Ver. 1. C. 19 : 19. See Ch. 15. 24.-w Heb. made nakert.-x Ch 19 12, 13-y Ch 18 6.-- Ch.

1 Pet. I. 16.-n Ver. 21. Tit. 2.14,-o Ch. 19. 31. Exol. 2. 18. Deut. 18 10, IL 19. 14.-a Ch. 18. 16-b Heb. a separation,-e Ch. 18 2019.37.- Ch. 18.35, I Sam2.7.-p Ver. 9-9 Ch 10.6,7. Euk 41.5 Thess. 4.13, 11.15.-Or, 2. Ch. 18. 3, 94, 30-1 Ch. 18. Deut. 9.5.-, Exod. 3. 17. & 6.8.-h Ver. leing an husband among his people, he shall not defile kimeell for his wife, &c Deut. 7. 6. & 14. 2. 1 Kings & 53

See Ezek. 24. 16, 17.

God, 5, 6.
from her husban l, 7, 8.

The

1. Exoi 19. 5. & 33. 16.

be cut off, it is very likely that the crime mentioned in this those strange prohibitions which we find in the Mosaic verse, was not punished by burning alive; but hy some law: others, the reasons of which are not so plain, we kind of branding, by which they were ever after rendered should see the propriety of, equally, had we ampler historic infamous. need not add, that the original 100 UND records of the customs that existed in that country. ba-esh yishrephu, may, without violence to its grammati Verse 22. The land whither I bring you to duell cal meaning, he understood as above, though in other therein, spue you not out] See this energetic prosopopeia places, it is certainly used to signify a consuming by fire. explained in the note on chap. xviji. 25. From this we But the case in question requires some explanation; it is learn, that the cup of the iniquities of the Cananitish nathis, a man marries a wife, and afterward takes his mother- tions was full; and that consistently with the divine jusin-law, or wife's mother, to wife also: now for this offence, tice, they could be no longer spared. the text says, all three shall be burnt with fire; and this Verse 24. A land that floweth with milk and honey) is understood as signifying, that they shall be burnt alive. See this explained, Exod. 11. 8. Now the first wife, we may safely presume, was com Verse 25. Between clean beasts and unclean] See the pletely innocent, and was legally married : for a man may notes on chap. xi. take io wife the daughter, if single; or the mother, if a Verse 27. A familiar spirit] A spirit or demon which widow: and in neither of these cases, can any blame by magical rites, is supposed to be bound to appear at the attach to the man or the party he marries; the crime call of his employer. See the notes on Gen. xli. 8. Exod. therefore lies in taking both. Either, therefore, they were vii. 11, 22, and 25. and on chap. xix. 31. all branded as infamous persons, and this certainly was From the accounts we have of the abominations both severe enough, in the case of the first wife; or the man of Egypt and Canaan, we may blush for human nature; and the woman taken last, were burnt; but the text says, for wherever it is without cultivation, and without the reboth he and they, therefore we should seek for another in velation of God, it is every thing that is vile in principle terpretation of they shall be burnt with fire, than that and detestable in practice. Nor would any part of the hawhich is commonly given.-Branding with a hot iron, bitable globe materially differ from Egypt and Canaan, had would certainly accomplish every desirable end, both for they not that rule of righteousness, the revealed Law of God; punishment and prevention of the crime; and because the and life and immortality been brought to light by the Mosaic laws are so generally distinguished by humanity, Gospex among them. From these accounts, for which we it seems to be necessary to limit the meaning of the words could easily find parallels in ancient Greece and Italy, we as above.

may see the absolute need of a divine revelation, without Verse 16. If a woman approach unto any beast) We which, man, even in his best estate, differs little from the have the authority of one of the most eminent historians brute. in the world, Herodotus, to say, that this was a crime not

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI. unknown in Egypt; yea, that a case of this nature actu Verse 1. There shall none be defiled for the dead) No tually took place while he was there. Εγενετο δ' εν τω priest shall assist in laying out a dead body; or preparing Νομα τουτω επ' εμου τούτο το τερας, Γυναικι Τραγος 1μισγετο it for interment. Any contact with the dead was supposed αναφενδον. Τουτο ες επιδειξιν ανθρωπων απιαετο.

Herod. in to be of a defiling natı probably because putrefaction Euterp. p. 108. Edit. Gale. Lond. 1679. “In this district, had then taken place; and animal putrefaction was ever within my own recollection, this portentous business took held in detestation by all men. place; a goat coupled so publicly with a woman that every Verse 4. A chief man among his people] The word person knew it, &c." After this, need we wonder that byə baal signifies a master, chief, husband, &c. and is as God should have made laws of this nature, when it ap- variously translated here. 1. He being a chief among the pears, these abominations were not only practised among people, it would be improper to see him in such a state of the Egyptians, but were parts of a superstitious religious humiliation as mourning for the dead necessarily implies. system. This one observation will account for many of 2. Though a husband, he shall not defile himself even for

5. They shall not make baldness upon their 12 Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, head, neither shall they shave off the corner of nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for e the their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh, crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon

6 | They shall be holy unto their God and him: I am the Lord. i not profane the name of their God : for the 13 | And he shall take a wife in her virofferings of the Lord made by fire, and a the ginity bread of their God, they do offer; therefore 14 A widow, or a divorced woman, or profane, they shall be holy.

or a harlot, these shall he not take: but he shall 7 T They shall not take a wife that is a take a virgin of his own people to wife. whore, or profane; neither shall they take a 15 Neither shall he profane his seed among woman w put away from her husband : for he is his people: for & I the LORD do sanctify him, holy unto his God.

16 | And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 8 Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he 17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever he offereth the bread of thy God: he shall be holy be of thy seed in their generations, that hath unto thee: * for I the LORD, which sanctify you, any blemish, let him not approach to offer the am holy.

i bread of his God. 9 T And the daughter of any priest, if she 18 For whatsoever man he be that hath a profane herself by playing the whore, she pro- blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, or faneth her father: she shall be burnt with fire. a lame, or he that hath a flat nose, or any thing

10 1 And he that is the high priest among * superfluous; his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil 19 Or a man that is broken-footed, or brokenwas poured, and that is consecrated to put on handed; the garments, 6 shall not uncover his head nor 20 Or crooked-backed, or la dwarf, or that rend his clothes;

hath a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scab11 Neither shall he go in to any dead body, bed, or mhath his stones broken: nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother; 21 No man that hath a blemish, of the seed

& Ch. 19. 27, 28. Deut. 14. 1. Ezek. 44. 20.-- Ch. 18. 21. & 19. 12.- Ch. 3. 11.

Ezek. 11. 22-See Deut. 21. 1. 2-X Ch. 20. 7, 8.-y Gen. 38. 24.-2 Exod. 29. 2, 30. Ch 8. 12. & 16. 32. Numb. 36. 2.- Exod. 28.2 Ch. 16. 32-6 Ch 10.6.

o Numb. 19. 14. See Ver. 1, 24 Ch. 10. 7.-e Exod. 22. 36. Ch. 8. 9, 12, 30. ( Ver. 7. Ezek 11. 2.- Ver. 8.-h Ch. 10. 3. Nomb. 16. 5. Psa. 61. 4.-i 'Or, food. Ch. 3. 11.- Ch. 22. 23.-1 Or, too slender.-m Deut. 23. 1.

the death of a wife, because the anointing of his God is persecution, or otherwise, his scars are honourable, and upon him. But the first sense appears to be the best. will add to his respectability. But if he be received into

Verse 5. They shaù not make baldness] See the note the ministry with any of the blemishes specified here, he on chap. xix. 27. It is supposed that these things were never will, and never can, have that respect which is esparticularly prohibited; because used superstitiously by sentially necessary to secure his usefulness. Let no man the Egyptian priests, who, according to Herodotus, shaved say this is a part of the Mosaic lau, and we are not bound the whole body every third day, that there might be no by it. It is an eternal law, founded on reason, propriety, uncleanness about them when they ministered in their common sense, and absolute necessity. The priest, the temples. This appears to have been a general custom prophet, the Christian minister, is the representative of among the heathen. In the book of Baruch, chap. vi. ver. Jesus Christ-let nothing in his person, carriage, or doc31. the priests of Babylon are represented sitting in their trine, be unworthy of the personage he represents. A detemples, with their clothes rent, and their heads and beards formed person, though consummate in diplomatic wigshaten, and having nothing upon their heads. Every dom, would never be employed as an ambassador, by any person knows the tonsure of the Catholic priests. Should enlightened court, if any fit person, unblemished, could not this be avoided as an approach to a heathenish custom ? possibly be procured.

Verse 7. That is a whore] A prostitute ;-though even Verse 18. A blind man) i. e. in one eye; for he that was reclaimed.

utterly blind could not possibly be employed in such a Profane) A heathen, or one who is not a cordial believer service. A flat nose, like that of an ape; so the best verin the true God.

sions ; -any thing superfluous ; such as six fingers, six Put away from her husband] Because this very cir

toes, &c. cumstance might lead to suspicion that the priest and the Verse 19. Broken-footcd, or broken-hunded] Club-footdivorced woman might have been improperly connected ed, bandy-legged, &c. or having the ankle, wrist, or fingars, before.

dislocated. Verse 9. She shall be burnt with fire] Probably not Verse 20. Crooked-backed] Hunch-backed or gibbous ; burnt alive; but strangled first, and then burnt afterward. a dwarf, po dak, a person too short or too thin, so as to

Though it is barely possible that some kind of branding be either particularly observable, or ridiculous in his apmay be intended.

pearance. Verse 10. He that is the high priest] This is the first A blemish in his cye! A protuberance on the eye, obplace where this title is introduced : the title is very servable spots or suffusions. emphatic, 57720 yoon ha-cohen ha-gadol, that priest the Scurvy or scabbed] A bad habit of body, evidenced by great one. For the meaning of in cohen, see the note on scorbutic or scrofulous affections. Gen. xiv. 18. As the chief or high priest was a repre Slones broken) Is ruptured ?-an infirmity which would sentative of our blessed Lord, therefore he was required to render him incapable of fulfilling the duties of his office, be especially holy; and he is represented as God's king which might be often very fatiguing. among the people.

In the above list of blemishes, tve meet with some that Verse 12. The crown of the anointing oilis upon might render the priest contemptible in the eyes of men, him.) By his office the priest represented Christ in his and be the means of leading them not only to despise the sacrificial character. By his anointing, the prophetic man, but to despise the ministry itself: and we meet influence; and by the crown, the regal dignity of our with others that would be a very great impediment in the Lord.

discharge of his ministerial duties, and therefore any perVerse 13. He shall take a wife in her virginity.) byna son thus blemished, is by this law precluded from the bethuliyah. This is a full proof that asina bethulah, is ministry. the proper Hebrew term for å virgin; from the emphatic The blemishes here enumerated, have been considered root Sna bathal, to separate ; because such a person was by some in an allegorical point of view, as if only referin her separate state, and had never been in any way ring to the necessity of moral purity; but although holiunited to man.

ness of heart, and righteousness of life, be essentially Verse 17. Whosoeder-hath any blemish, let him not ap- necessary in a minister of God, yet an absence of the deproach to offer the bread of his God.] Never was a wiser, fects mentioned above, is, I fully believe, what God intends a more rational, and a more expedient law enacted relative here; and for the reasons too, which have been already to sacred matters. The man who ministers in holy things, advanced. It must however he granted, that there have who professes to be the interpreter of the will of God, been some eminent divines who have been deformed; and should have nothing in his person, nor in his manner, some with certain blemishes have been employed in the which cannot contribute to render him respectable in the Christian ministry, and have been useful. The Mosaic eyes of those to whom he ministers. If, on the contrary, rule, however, will admit of but few exceptions, when he has any personal defect, any thing that may render even examined according to the more exiended interprehim contemptible or despicable, his usefulness will be tation of the Christian system. greatly injured, if not entirely prevented. If, however, "The Hebrews say there are in all 140 blemishes which a man have received any damage in the work of God, by I disable the priest-eight in the head; two in the neck; VOL. I.-46

361

of Aaron the priest, shall come nigh to " offer ? whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the offerings of the Lord made by fire: he hath the dead, or a a man whose seed goeth from him; a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the 5 Or whosoever toucheth any creeping thing, bread of his God:

whereby he may be made unclean, or <a man 22 He shall eat the bread of his God, both of of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever the ° most holy, and the P holy.

uneleanness he hath; 23 Only he shall not go in unto the veil, nor 6 The soul which hath touched any such shall come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a be unclean until even, and shall not eat of the blemish; that he profane not my sanctuaries; holy things, unless he wash his flesh with for I the LORD do sanctify them.

water. 24 And Moses told it unto Aaron, and to his 7 And when the sun is down, he shall be sons, and unto all the children of Israel.

clean, and shall afterward eat of the holy things;

because it is his food. CHAPTER XXII.

That which dieth of itself, or is torn with of the uncleanness of the priesto, by which they were presented from ministering beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself thereof any animal that had dies] of its IP, or was torn by will beasts, buit mat kep Gal's with: I am the LORD. ordinances, 8, 9. No stranger, sojourner, nor hiral serviurt shall eat of the holy things, 10. A bersaut bought with money, may eat of them, 11. Who of the

9 They shall therefore keep mine ordinance, priest's family may not cat of them, 12, 13 of improper persons who partake of the holy things unknowingly, 11-16. Free-will offeringa, un sacrifices in general

& lest they bear sin for it, and die therefore, if* must be with one blemish, 12-35. The age at which différent animals were to be they profane it: I the LORD do sanctify them. offered to Gol, 26, 27. Noaninal and ils young shall be offered on the same day, 22 How the sacrifice of thanksgiving was to be offerul, 2), 30. All God's testimo

10 T h There shall no stranger eat of the holy nies to be observed, and the reason, 31, 33.

thing: a sojourner of the priest, or a hired serAn. Exod. Iar. 2. saying,

11 But if the priest buy any soul with his 2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born in separate themselves from the holy things of the his house: k they shall eat of his meat. children of Israel, and that they profane not 12 If the priest's daughter also be married my holy name in those things which they uhal- unto la stranger, she may not eat of an offering low unto me: I am the Lord.

of the holy things. 3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your 13 But if the priest's daughter be a widow, or seed among your generations, that goeth unto divorced, and have no child, and is returned the holy things, which the children of Israel hal- unto her father's house, as in her youth, she low unto the Lord, having his uncleanness shall eat of her father's meat: but there shall upon him, that soul shall be cut off from my no stranger eat thereof. presence: I am the Lord.

14 1. • And if a man eat of the holy thing un4 What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a wittingly, then he shall put the fifth part thereof leper, or hath wa 'running issue; he shall not unto it, and shall give it unto the priest with the eat of the holy things, y until he be clean. And holy thing.

Abib or Nisan

AND the Lord spake unto Moses, vant

, shall noteatrite the holynth internet

V

n Ver. 6.- Ch. 2. 3, 10. & 6. 17, 29. & 7. 1. & 21. 9. Numb. 18. 9. -p Ch. 22. 10, 11,

12. Numb18. 19.- Ver. 12. & Ch. 15. 21. Ezek 419-11.-r Mal 2 1-7. Col 4. 17. 2 Tiin. 2. 2- Nomb. 6. 3.- Ch. 13. 21.-u Exod. 2. 38. Numb. 18. 32. Deut. 15. 19.--~ Ch. 7. 2). -w Ch. 15.2-1 Heb. running of the reins.-y Ch. 14. 2 & 15. 13.-2 Numb. 19. 11, 22.

A Ch. 15 16-5 Ch. 11, 2, 43, 4-c Ch. 15 7, 194 Ch 15 5 Ho 10 2 e Ch. 21. 22. Numb. 18. 11, 13 - Exod. 22. 31. Ch 17. 15. Ezek 41.31.- Exod. 28 43. Numb. 18. 22, 32-h See 1 Sam. 21. 6.- Heb. trith the purchaee of his money.- Numb' 18. 11, 13.-1 Heb. a man a stranger,-m Gen 3 n Ch. 10. 11. Numb. 18. 11, 19.- Ch. 5. 15, 16.

nine in the ears ; five in the brows ; seven in the eyelids ; holiness, without which thou canst not see the kingdom nineteen in the eyes; nine in the nose; nine in the mouth; of heaven? three in the belly; three in the back; seven in the hands;

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII. sixteen in the secrets ; eight in any part of the body; eight Verse 2. Speak unto Aaron and his sons, that they sein the skin; and seven in the strength and in the breath.parate themselres] The same subject is continued in this Ainsworth. In ancient times, even among heathens, per- chapter, as in the preceding; with the addition, that besides sons of the most respectable appearance were appointed to the perfection of the priests, it was indispensably necessary, the priesthood ; and the emperor, both among the ancient that the sacrifices also should be perfect. In the service of Greeks and Romans, was both king and pricst. It is re- God, according to the law, neither an imperfect offering, nor ported of Metellus, that having lost an eye in endeavour an imperfect offerer could be admitted. What need then of a ing to save the Palladium from the flames, when the mediator between a holy God and sinful men! And can temple of Vesta was on fire, that he was denied the priest we expect that any of our services, howsoever sincere and hood, though he had rendered such an excellent piece of well-intentioned, can be accepted, unless offered on that service to the public; yet the public opinion was, that a living Altar that sanctifies the gift? priest who was defective in any member, was to be avoid Verse 4. Is a leper, or hath a running issue] See the ed as ominous.-See Dodd. At Elis, in Greece, the case of the leper treated at large in the notes on chapters judges chose the finest looking man to carry the sacred xiii. and xiv. and for other unclcannesses, see the notes on vessels of the deity; he that was next him in beauty and chap xv. elegance, led the or: and the third in personal beauty, Verse 10. There shall no stranger eat of the holy thing) &c. carried the garlands, ribands, wine, and the other for the meaning of the word stranger, see the note on matters used for the sacrifice. Athen. Dedinosoph. I. Exod. xii. 43. The Jews suppose, that stranger here, xiii. c. 2.

means one who has had his ear pierced, see the note on Verse 23. He shall not go in unto the reil] The priest Exod. xxi. 6. and that sojourner means a servant who is with a blemish was not permitted to enter into the Holy to go free on the sabbatical year. Neither of these was of Holies-nor to burn incense-nor to offer the show- permitted to eat of the holy things, because they were not bread-nor to light the golden candlestick, &c. In short, properly members of the priest's family; and might go out he was not permitted to perform any essential function of and defile themselves even with the abominations of the the priesthood.

heathen; but the servant, or slave that was bought with 1. The great perfection required in the Jewish high money, ver. 10. might eat of these things, because he was priest was intended principally to point out the perfection the

property of the master

for ever. of that priesthood of which the Jewish was only the type. We see that it was lawful, under the Mosaic economy, And yet that law made nothing perfect, but pointed out to have slaves under certain restrictions; but these were that most perfect priesthool and sacrifice, by which we draw taken from among the heathen, and instructed in the true ncar to God.

religion: bence we find, as in the above case, that they were 2. As none who had a blemish could enter into the IIoly reckoned as a part of the priest's own family, and treated of Holies, and this Holy of Holics, was a type of the king- as such. They certainly had privileges which did not exdom of God, so nothing that is defiled can enter into tend either to sojourners or to hired servants; therefore, heaven: for he gave himself for his church, that he might their situation was incomparably better than the situation purify it to himself, and present it at last before the pre- of the slaves under different European governments, of sence of the divine glory, having neither spot, nor wrinkle, whose souls their pitiless possessors, in general, take no nor any such thing, Eph. v. 27. a passage which evidently care, while they themselves venture to profess the Christian refers to the directions in the preceding verse. Reader, religion, and quote the Mosaic law in vindication of their art thou become a king and priest unto God and the Lambị system of slavery. How preposterous is such conduct ! and hast thou obtained, or art thou earnestly seeking that I and how intolerable !

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