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15 And P they shall not profane the holy 25 Neither from a stranger's hand shall ye things of the children of Israel, which they offer offer d the bread of your God, of any of these; unto the LORD;

because their e corruption is in them, and blem16 Or suffer them to bear the iniquity of ishes be in them: they shall not be accepted for trespass, when they eat their holy things: for I you. the Lord do sanctify them.

26 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 17 | And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 27 "When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is

18 Speak unto Aaron, and to his sons, and brought forth, then it shall be seven days under unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them, the dam; and from the eighth day and thence• Whatsoever he be of the house of Israel, or of forth, it shall be accepted for an offering made the strangers in Israel, that will offer his obla- by fire unto the Lord. tion for all his vows, and for all his free-will 28 And whether it be cow or <ewe, ye shall offerings, which they will offer unto the LORD not kill it " and her young both in one day. for a burnt-offering;

29 | And when ye will offer a sacrifice of 19 Ye shall offer, at your own will, a male thanksgiving unto the LORD, offer it at your own without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or will. of the goats.

30 On the same day it shall be eaten up; ye 20 " But whatsoever hath a blemish, that shall shall leave & none of it until the morrow: l'am ye not offer: for it shall not be acceptable for the LORD. you.

31 1 Therefore shall ye keep my command21 And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of ments, and do them: I am the LORD. peace-offerings unto the LORD w to accomplish 32 ni Neither shall ye profane my holy name i his vow, or a free-will-offering in beeves or but I will be hallowed among the children of * sheep, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there Israel: I am the LORD which hallow you, shall be no blemish therein.

33 ? That brought you out of the land of 22 Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having a Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD. wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, ye shall not offer

CHAPTER XXIII. these unto the LORD, nor make : an offering by The feasts of the Lord, 1, 2 The sabbath, 3. The passover and unleavened bread, fire of them upon the altar, unto the LORD.

The feast of Arrlfruits, 11. The feast of Pentecost, 15-21. Gleanings

to be left for the poor, 22 The fenst of trumpets, 2-5. The great day of atone 23 Either a bullock, or a · lamb that hath any ment, 26–22 the least of labernacles, 33–44.

ND mayest thou offer a free-will-offering; but saying, for a vow it shall not be accepted.

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say 24 Ye shall not offer unto the LORD that which unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, is bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut; neither which ye shall " proclaim to be holy convocations, shall ye make any offering thereof in your land. even these are my feasts.

tharest in performers for lacking in hoftenints, that AND the Lord spake unto Moses, fulgt

Alib or Nisan.

p Yamt 18 32 -- Or, lade themselves with the iniziaty of trespass in their eating.- Ver. 9.- Ch 1.2, 3, 10. Numb. 15. 14.- Ch 13. Deut. 15. 21 & 17. 1. Mal 1.8,14 Eph 5. 27.' Heb. 9.11. 1 Pet 1. 19.--v Ch.3. 1, 6.-* Ch. 7. 16 Numb. 15. 3, & Deul 221, 23. Psa. 61.8.& 65. 1. Eccles. 5. 4. 5.- Or, goats.-y Ver. 20. Mal. 1.8-2 Ch. 1. 9, 13. & 3. 3, 5.- Or, kid. - Ch. 21. 18.

e Numb. 15. 15, 16.- Ch. 21. 6, 17.-e Mal. 1. 14.- Exod. 22. 30.- Or, she goal.-h Deut. 26.-i Ch. 7. 12. Psa 107. 22 & 116. 17. Amos 4. 5.- Ch. 7. 15. I Ch. 19. 37. Numb. 15. 40. Deut. 4. 10.-m Ch. 18. 21.-n Ch. 10. 3. Matt. 6. 9. Luke 11. 2-0 Ch. 0.8-p Exod. 6. 7. Ch. 11. 45. & 19.36. & 35. 38. Numb. 15. 41. q Ver. 4, 37, 44.-Exod. 22. 5. 2 Kings 10. 20. Psa. 81.3

Verse 14. Then he shall pul the fifth part thereof unto it) priety of this precept, it may be justly asserted, that the The holy thing of which he has unknowingly eaten, shall Aesh of very young animals is comparatively innutritivebe fairly valued, and to this value he shall add one fifth and that animal food is not sufficiently nourishing and more, and give the whole to the priest.

wholesome, till the animal has arrived at a certain growth; Verse 20. Whatsoever hath a blemish] The same per or acquired the perfection of its nature. There is somefection is required in the sacrifice, that was required in the thing brutish in eating the young of beast, or fowl, before priest, see on ver. 2. and the notes on the preceding chapter, the hair and hoofs are perfect in the one; and the feathers

Verse 23. That hath any thing superfluous or lacking) and claws in the other. Before this period, their flesh is The term yn saruâ, signifies any thing extended beyond | not good for food. ---See the note on chap. ix. 1. the usual size : and the term onbp kalut, signifies any thing Verse 28. Ye shall not kill it and her young-in one unusually contracted: and both mean any monstrosity, day] This precept was certainly intended to inculcate whether in redundance or defect. Such things, it seems, mercy and tenderness of heart; and so the Jews undermight be offered for a free-will-offering, because that was stood it. When it is necessary to take away the lives of not prescribed by the law; God left it to a man's piety and innocent animals for the support of our own, we should do gratitude to offer such additional gifts as he could- what it in such a way as not to blunt our moral feelings; and the law required was in dispensably necessary, because it deplore the necessity, while we feel and express gratitude pointed out the Gospel economy ;-but he that made a role, to God for the permission to do it. to offer such a sacrifice as the law had not required, could Verse 30. Leare none of it until the morrow] See the of course bring an imperfect offering. Some contend that note on chap. vii. 18. the last clause of this verse should be thus read: If thou Verse 32. Neither shall ye profane my holy name] offer it cither for a free-will-offering, or for a cono, it God's name is profaned or rendered common, when we shall not be accepted. It was the opinion of the Jews, and treat his commands, as we often do those of our fellows, it appears to be correct

, that none of these imperfect ani- when they do not appear to have self-interest to recommals was ever offered on the altar: but the person who mend them. He therefore profanes God's holy name, who made the free-will-offering of such things as he had, sold does not both implicitly beliere, and conscientiously obey the animal, and gave its price for the support of the sanc all his words, and all his precepts. tuary.

I will be halloved among the children of Israel] The Verse 24. Bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut] That words children of Israel, *

1942 beney Yishrael, which is, no bullock or lamb that is injured in any of the above so frequently occur, should be translated either the deways, shall be offered unto the Lord.

scendants or posterity of Israel, or the people of Israel. Verse 25. Their corruption is in them) viz. they are The word children has a tendency to beget a false notion, bruised, crushed, broken, &c.

especially in the minds of young people, and lead them to Verse 27. When a bullock-is brought forth] This is think, that children, in the proper sense of the word, i. e. a most unfortunate, as well as absurd, translation. The little ones, are meant. creature called an or, is a bull castrated ; surely then a Verse 33. Brought you out of the land of Egypt) By bullock was never yet brought forth ! the original word such a series of miraculous interferences--to be your Godnyv shor, signifies a bull, or bullock, or indeed any thing to save you from all idolatry, false and superstitious worof the neat kind :-here, even common sense required that ship, teach you the right way, lead and support you in it, it should be translated calf. And did I not hold myself and preserve you to my eternal kingdom and glory: God, sacredly bound to print the text of the common rersion infinite in his own perfections, has no need of his creawith scrupulous exactness, I should translate the former tures; but they need him; and as a source of endless feliclause of this verse thus, and so enter it in the text. When city, he opens himself to all his intelligent offspring. a CALF, or a LAMB, or a kid is brought forth--instead of when a bullock, a sheep, or a goat is brought forth—the

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII. absurdity of which is glaring.

Verse 2. These are my feasts] The original word wyro Seven days under the dam] In vindication of the pro- 1 moâd, is properly applied to any solemn anniversary, by

3 1. Six days shall work be done: but the offering, and their drink-offerings, even an offerseventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy con- ing made by fire, of sweet savour unto the LORD. vocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the . 19 Then ye shall sacrifice & one kid of the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings. goats for a sin-offering, and two lambs of the

4 T. These are the feasts of the LORD, even first year, for a sacrifice of peace-offerings. holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in 20 And the priest shall wave them with the their seasons.

bread of the first-fruits for a wave-offering be5 u In the fourteenth day of the first month at fore the LORD, with the two lambs: i they shall even is the LORD's passover.

be holy to the Lord for the priest. 6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month 21 And ye shall proclaim on the self-same day, is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. shall do no servile work therein : it shall be a

7 In the first day ye shall have a holy convo- statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout cation: ye shall do no servile work therein. your generations.

8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire 22 | And when ye reap the harvest of your unto the LORD seven days: in the seventh day land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the is a holy convocation: ye shall do no servile corners of thy field when thou reapest,, neither work therein.

shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest : 9 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the

10 "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say stranger: I am the LORD your God. unto them, w When ye be come into the land 23 T And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest 24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, thereof, then ye shall bring a *sheaf of the In the m seventh month, in the first day of the first-fruits of your harvest upto the priest : month, shall ye have a sabbath, "a memorial of

11 And he shall - wave the sheal before the blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation. LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow 25 Ye shall do no servile work therein; but after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the

12 And ye shall offer that day, when ye wave | LORD. the sheaf, a he-lamb without blemish, of the first 26 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, year, for a burnt-offering unto the LORD.

27 • Aleo on the tenth day of this seventh 13' • And the meat-offering thereof, shall be month there shall be a day of atonement; it two tenth deals of fine four iningled with oil, an shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye offering made by fire unto the Lord for a sweet shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made savour: and the drink-offering thereof shall be by fire unto the LORD. of wine, the fourth part of a hin.

28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: 14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parch- for it is a day of atonement, to make an atoneed corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day ment for you, before the LORD your God. that ye have brought an offering unto your God: 29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be it shall be a statute for ever throughout your afflicted in that same day, Phe shall be cut off generations, in all your dwellings.

from among his people. 15 | And ye shall count unto you from the 30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye work in that same day, the same soul will í brought the sheaf of the wave-offering ; seven destroy from among his people. sabbaths shall be complete:

31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall 16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh be a statute for ever throughout your generasabbath shall ye number a fifty days; and ye shall tions, in all your dwellings. offer a new meat-offering unto the Lord. 32 'It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and

17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of wave-loaves of two tenth-deals: they shall be the month at even, from even unto even, shall of fine four; they shall be baken with leaven; ye ' celebrate your sabbath. they are the first-fruits unto the LORD.

33 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven 34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, lambs without blemish of the first year, and one The fifteenth day of this seventh month, shall young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for be the feast of tabernacles, for seven days unto a burnt-offering unto the Lord, with their meat- the Lord.

Deut. 16. 9. -—d Acts 2. 1.- Numb. 23.25.- Exod. 2. 16, 19. & 2 23. & 342

Exod. 20. 9. & 23. 12. & 31. 15. & 31. 21. Ch. 19. 3. Deut. 5. 13. Luke 13. 14. Ver. 2, 37. Exod. 3. 14.- Exod. 126, 14, 18. & 13. 3, 10 & 23. 15. & 31. 18 Numb. 9. 2, 3. & 2. 16, 17. Deut. 16. 1-6. Joah' 5. 10.-v Exod. 12 16. Numb. 28. 18, 25. -W Exod. 23. 16, 19. & 31. 22, 26. Numb. 15. 2, 18. & 36. Deut. 16. 9. Josh. 3. 15.-x Or, handful-y Heb. oner.--2 Rom. 11. 16. I Cor. 15. 20. James 1. 18. Rev. 14. 4.-a Exod. 23. 24.-Ch.2 14, 15, 16.-c Ch. 25. 8. Exod. 31. 22.

26. Numb. 15. 17. & 2. 2. Deat. 2. 1.- Ch. 4. 23, 28 Numb. *. 30 - Ch. 21 i Numb. 18. 12. Deut. 18. 4.-k Ch. 19.9.- Deut. 24. 19.-m Numh 21- Ch 25. 9.-o Ch. 16. 30. Numh. 29. 7.-p Gen. 17. 14-9 Ch 20. 3, 5, 6.-r Hebe rest * Exod. 23. 16. Numb. 29. 12 Deat. 16. 13. Ezra 3'4. Nch. 8. 14. Zech. 14. 16 1 Ex, 5. 51. John 7. 2.

which great and important ecclesiastical, political, or pro- xxii. 29. Parched ears of corn and green ears, fried, stil! yidential facts were recorded; see on Gen. i. 14. Anni-constitute a part, and not a disagreeable one, of the food of versaries of this kind were observed in all nations: and the Arabs, now resident in the Holy Land. See Hasselsome of them, in consequence of scrupulously regular ob- quist. servation, became chronological epochs of the greatest Verse 15. Yc shall count unto you-seren sabbaths) importance in history. The Olympiads, for example. That is, from the sixteenth of the first month to the sirth

Verse 3. The scventh day is the sabbath] This, be- of the third month. These seven weeks, called here sabcause the first and greatest solemnity, is first mentioned. baths, were to be complete, 1. e. the forty-nine days must He who kept not this, in the most religious manner, was be finished ; and the next day, the fiftieth, is what, from not capable of keeping any of the others. The religious the Septuagint, we call Pentecost. See the note on Luke observation of the sabbath, stands at the very threshold of vi. l. all religion. See the note on Gen. ii. 3.

Verse 22. Neither shalt thou gather any gleaning] Verse.5. The Lord's passover) See this largely ex See the note on chap. xix. 9. plained in the notes on Exod. xii. 21–27.

Verse 24. A memorial of blowing of trumpets) Thia Verse 11. He shall ware the shcaf] He shall move it is generally called the feast of trumpets: and as it took to and fro before the people, and thereby call their atten- place on the first day of the seventh month, Tisri; which tion to the work of divine providence, and excite their answers to September, which month was the commencegratitude to God, for preserving to them the kindly fruits ment of what is called the civil year; the feast, probably, of the earth. See the notes on Exod. xxix. 27. and Levit. had no other design than to celebrate the commencement vii. at the end.

of that year, if, indeed, such a distinction obtained among Verse 14. Ye shall cat neither bread, nor parched corn, the ancient Jews. See the note on Exod. xii. 2. Some nor green cars] It is right that God, the dispenser of think creation began at this time. every blessing, should be acknowledged as such and the Verse 28. A day of atonement) See the note on chap. first-fruits of the field, &c. dedicated to him. Concern- | xvi. 3, &c. where this subject is largely explained. ing the dedication of the first-fruits, see the note on Exod. Verse 34. The feast of tubernacles)' In this solemnity,

364

is to be made and orderal, 548

Hle is cominanded to be stoned to death, 13, 14. The ordinance concerning cursing and

37 w These are the feasts of the LORD, which Asaying,

35 On the first day shall be a holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

CHAPTER XXIV. 36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made Pure olive oil mast be provided for the lampe, 1, 2. Aaron is to take care that the by fire unto the LORD: 'on the eighth day shall

Aaron and his sons shall eat this bread in the holy be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall

place, 9

of the son of Shelomith, an leraclitish woman, who blaspbemed the

name, 10, 1!. He is imprisonel ull the mind of the lord should be known, 12. offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD; it

blaspheming the Lord, 15, 16. The law agninst murder, 17. The les lalionin, or is a " solemn assembly; and ye shall do no ser law of like for like, repeated, 18-21. This law to be equally binding both on vile therein.

themselves and op strangers, 2 The blasphemer is stoned, 23.

ND the LORD spake unto Moses, An Exod. Ir. ?. ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, a 2 < Command the children of Israel, that they burnt-offering, and a meat-offering, a sacrifice, bring unto thee pure oil-olive beaten, for the and drink-offerings, every thing upon his day: light, h to cause the lamps to burn continually,

38 *Besides the sabbaths of the LOŘd, and 3 Without the veil of the testimony, in the besides your gifts, and besides all your vows, tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron orand besides all your free-will-offerings, which ye der it from the evening unto the morning, before give unto the LORD.

the LORD continually: it shall be a statute for 39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh ever in your generations, month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of 4 He shall order the lamps upon the pure the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD candlestick, before the LORD continually. seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, 5 | And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath. twelve k cakes thereof: two tenth-deals shall be

40 And ye shall take you on the first day the in one cake. boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, 6 And thou shalt set them in two rows, six on and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of a row, upon the pure table before the LORD. the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the 7 And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon LORD your God, seven days.

each row, that it may be on the bread for a me41 . And ye shall keep it a feast unto the morial, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a LORD. statute for ever in your generations : ye shall 8 m Every sabbath he shall set it in order celebrate it in the seventh month.

before the LORD, continually, being taken from 42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all the children of Israel, by an everlasting covethat are Israelites born, shall dwell in booths : nant.

43 • That your generations may know that I 9 And it shall be Aaron's and his son's; made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: most holy unto him, of the offerings of the LORD I am the LORD your God.

made by fire by a perpetual statute. 44 And Moses' declared unto the children of 10 | And the son of an Israelitish woman, Israel the feasts of the LORD.

whose father was an Egyptian, went out among

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t Numb 29. 35. Neh. & 18. John 7. 31.--. Heb. day of restraint-Deut. 16. &. 2 Chron. 7. 9. Xeb. 8. 18 Joel 1, 14. & 2 15.- Ver. 2, 4.-* Numb. 2. 39. y Exod. 2 16. Deut. 16. 13 - Neh. 8. 15.-a Heb fruit-b Deut. 16. 14, 15.

Numb. 2. 12 Neh. 8. 18. Neh. 8. 14, 15, 16.-e Deut 31. 13. Psa. 78. 5, 6.

f Ver. 2-5 Exod. 27. 20, 21,-h Heb. to cause to ascend. Exod. 31. 8. & 39. 37. k Exod. 25. 30.- 1 Kings 7. 48. 2 Chron. 4. 19. & 13. 11. Heb. 9. 2.-In Numb. 4. 7. 1 Chron. 9. 32. 2 Chron 24-n1 Sam. 21. 6. Matt. 12. 4. Mark 2. 2 Luke 6. 4. o Exod. 29. 33. Ch. 8. 3. & 21. 22.

the people left their houses, and dwelt in booths or tents, the debt of gratitude is all the debt we can pay, in it we made of the branches of goodly trees, and thick trees, (of should be cheerful, fervent, and frequent. An ungrateful what kind the text does not specify) together with palm- heart is an unfeeling, unloving, unbelieving, and disobetroes, and willows of the brook, ver. 40. And in these they dient heart. Reader, pray to God that he may deliver thee dwelt seven days, in commemoration of their forty years from its influence and its curse. sojourning and dwelling in tents in the wilderness, while destitute of any fixed habitation. In imitation of this

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIV. feast among the people of God, the Gentiles had their feasts Verse 2. Pure olive-oil) See every thing relative to of tents. Plutarch_speaks particularly of feasts of this this ordinance explained in the notes on Exod. xxvii. 20, 21. kind, in honour of Bacchus; and thinks, from the custom

Verse 5. Bake twelve cakes) See the whole account of of the Jews, in celebrating the feast of tabernacles, that the show-bread, in the notes on Exod. xxv. 30. and relative they worship the god Bacchus,“ because he had a feast ex to the table on which they stood, the golden candlestick actly of the same kind, called the feast of tabernacles, and silver trumpets carried in triumph to Rome; See the Exxvn; which they celebrated in the time of vintage, bring note on Exod. xxv. 31. ing tables into the open air, furnished with all kinds of Verse 10. The son of an Israelitish woman, whose fruit, and sitting under tents made of vine-branches and father was an Egyptian, &c.) This is a very obscure ivy.” Plut. Symp. lib. iv. Q. 6. According to Ovid, the account, and is encumbered with many difficulties. 1. It feast of Anna Perenna was celebrated much in the same seems strange that a person proceeding from such an illeway. Some remained in the open air, others formed to gal mixture, should have been incorporated with the themselves tents and booths made of branches of trees, Israelites. 2. What the cause of the strife between this over which they spread garments, and kept the festival mongrel person and the Israelitish man was, is not even with great rejoicings.

hinted at.-The rabbins, it is true, supply, in their way, Sub Jore pare durat; pauci tentoria ponunt;

this deficiency: they say he was the son of the Egyptian Sunt, quibus e ramia fronden farla casa ert.

whom Moses slew, and that attempting to pitch his tent Pers sibi pro rigidia calamos statuere columnis Desuper extentas imposuere logas.

among those of the tribe of Dan, io which he belonged

by his mother's side, ver. 11. he was prevented by a perConcerning this feast of tabernacles, see the note on John son of that tribe, as having no right to a station among vij. 37, 38. And for the various feasts among the Jews, them who were true Israelites, both by father and mother. see the note on Exod. xxiii. 14.

In consequence of this, they say, he blasphemed the name Verse 40. Boughs of goodly trees) The Jews and of the Lord. But, 3. The sacred text does not tell us many critics imagine the citron-tree to be intended, and by what name he blasphemed : it is simply said oun nap boughs of thick trees-the myrtle.

vayikkob et ha-shem: he pierced through, distinguished, Verse 43. That your generations may know, &c.] explained, or crpressed ihe name. (See below, article By the institution of this feast

, God had two great

objects 10.) As the Jews hold it impious to pronounce the name in view: 1. To perpetuate the wonderful display of his mot Jehovah, they always put either *Adonay, Lord, providence and grace in bringing them out of Egypt, and or bun ha-shem, THE NAME, in the place of it: but in in preserving them in the wilderness. 2. To excite and this sense, ha-shem was never used, prior to the days of maintain in them a spirit of gratitude and obedience, by rabbinical superstition; and therefore it cannot be put leading them to consider deeply, the greatness of the favours here for the word Jehorah. 4. Blaspheming the name of which they had received from his most merciful hands, the Lord is mentioned in ver. 16. and there the proper Signal displays of the mercy, kindness,

and providential Hebrew term is used 1999 Ov Shem Jehovah, and not the care of God should be particularly remembered. When rabbinical Dun ha-shem, as in ver. 11. 6. Of all the we recollect, that we deserve nothing at his hands, and that / MSS. collated both by Kennicott and De Rossi not one,

Ovid. Fast. lib. iji.

the children of Israel: and this son of the Israel- when he blasphemeth the name of the LORD, įtish woman, and a man of Israel strove together shall be put to death. in the camp;

17 T. And he that 2 killeth any man shall 11 And the Israelitish woman's son p blas- surely be put to death, phemed the name of the LORD, and 9cursed. 18 T a And he that killeth a beast shall make And they ' brought him unto Moses: (and his it good; beast for beast. mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of 19 And if a man cause a blemish in his neighDibri, of the tribe of Dan :)

bour: as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; 12 And they put him in ward, ! that the 20 Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for mind of the Lord might be showed them. tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so

13 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, shall it be done to him again.

14 Bring forth him that hath cursed without 21 . And he that killeth a beast, he shall rethe camp; and let all that heard him, "lay their store it: eand he that killeth a man, he shall be hands upon his head, and let all the congrega- put to death. tion stone him.

22 Ye shall have fone manner of law, as 15 And thou shalt speak unto the children of well for the stranger, as for one of your own Israel, saying, Whosoever curseth his God, country : for I am the LORD your God. w shall bear his sin.

23 And Moses spake to the children of Israel, 16 And he that blasphemeth the name of the 6 that they should bring forth him that had LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all cursed out of the camp, and stone him with the congregation shall certainly stone him: as stones. And the children of Israel did as the well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, LORD commanded Moses. p Ver. 16.- Job 1. 5, 11, 22 & 2 5, 9, 10. Isai. 7. 21.-r Exod. 18. 22, 26. 31. Mark 3. 8. James 2.7.-y Exod. 21. 12 Numb 35. 31. Deut. 19 11, 12 Numb. 15. 31 - Heb. to crpound unto them according to the mouth of the 1 Heb. sinileth the life of a man. -a Ver. 21.-b Heb hfe for life.--. Exod a LORD.- Exod. 18. 15, 18.' Numb. 27. 5. & 36. 5, 6.-v Deut. 13. 9. & 17. 7. 24. Dent. 19. 21. Matt. 5. 39.& 7.2- Exol. 21. 33. Ver. 18.-e fer. 17.- End w Ch. 5 1. & 20. 17. Numb. 9. 13.-x 1 Kings 21. 10, 13. Psa. 74. 10, 18. Matt 12. 12. 49. Ch. 19. 31. Numb. 15. 16.-g Ver. 14. either of the Hebrero or Samaritan, has the word Jeho Verse 17. He that killeth any man] Blasphemy against pah in this place. 6. Not one of the ancient VERSIONS, God, i. e. speaking injuriously of his name, his attributes, Targum of' Onkelos, Hebreo-Samaritan, Samaritan his government, and his revelation, together with murder, Version, Syriac, Arabic, Septuagint, or Vulgate Latin, are to be punished with death: he that blasphemes God is has even attempted to supply the sacred name. 7. Hou- a curse in society: and he who takes away wilfully, and bigant supposes that the Egyptio-Israelitish man did not by malicious intent, the life of any man, should certainly use the name of the true God at all, but had been swearing be put to death. In this respect God has absolutely reby one of his country gods; and if this was the case, the quired that life shall go for life. mention of the name of a strange god in the camp of Verse 20. Breach for breach] This is a repetition of Israel, would constitute a very high crime, and certainly the lex talionis, which see explained Exod. xxi. 24. expose to the punishment mentioned in ver. 14. 8. Pro Verse 22. Yé shall have one manner of law, as well bably the word ovn ha-shem was the proper name of for the stranger, as for one of your own country] Equal somé Egyptian deity. 9. The fifteenth' verse seems to laws, where each individual receives the same protection, .countenance the supposition, that the god whose name was and the same privileges, are the boast only of a sound poproduced on this occasion was not the true God, for it is litical constitution. He who respects and obeys the laws, there said, whosoever curseth his God, wob elohaid, shall has a right to protection and support : and his person and bear his sin-shall have the punishment due to him as an property are as sacred in the sight of justice, as the person idolater, but he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, and property of the prince. He who does not obey the 07179 DV shem Jehovah, shall surely bc put to death laws of his country, forfeits all right and title to prowhen he blasphemelh the name (o sheni) he shall die. tection and privilege ; his own actions condemn him ; and ver. 16. 10. The verb apa nakab, which we translate blas- justice takes him up on the evidence of his own transpheme, signifies to pierce, bore, make hollow; also to gressions. He who does what is right, need not fear the EXPRESS or DISTINGUISH by NAME ; see Isai. Ixii. 2. Numb. power of the civil magistrate, for he holds the sword only i. 17. 1 Chron. xii. 31. xvi. 41. xxviii. 15. or as the Per to punish transgressors. Universal obedience to the laws, sian translator has it, pl w l wszlü sherah kerd, is the duty of every citizen: none can do more ; none mir ân nam, he expounded or interpreted the name. should do less; therefore each individual in a well-reguHence all that we term blasphemy here, may only signify lated state, must have equal rights and privileges in every the particularizing some false god, i. e. naming him by thing that relates to the safety of his person, and the sehis name; or imploring his aid as a helper; and when curity of his property. Reader, such was the Mosaic spoken of the true God, it may signify using that sacred code :-Such is the British Constitution. name as the idolaters did the names of their idols. On Verse 23. And stone him with stones] We are not to blaspheming God, and the nature of blasphemy, see the suppose that the culprit was exposed to the unbridled fury notes on Matt. ix. 3.

of the thousands of Israel : this would be brutality, not In whatever point of view we consider the relation justice ; for the very worst of tempers and passions which has been the subject of this long note, one thing is might be produced and fostered by such a procedure. The sufficiently plain, that he who speaks irreverently of God, Jews themselves tell us, that their manner of stoning was of his works, his perfections, hís providence, &c. is desti- this: they brought the condemned person without the tute of every moral feeling, and every religious principle; camp, because his crime had rendered him unelean, and and consequently, is so dangerous to society, thai it would whatever was unclean must be put without the camp. be criminal to suffer him to be at large, though the long- When they came within four cubits of the place of exeeusuffering of God may lead him to repentance, and therefore tion, they stripped the criminal, if a man, leaving him it may be consistent with mercy to preserve his life. nothing but a cloth about the waist. The place on which

Verse 14. Lay their hands upon his head] It was by he was to be executed was elevated, and the witnesses this ceremony, that the people who heard him curse, bore went up with him to it, and laid their hands upon him, for their public testimony, in order to his being fully convicted; the purposes mentioned ver. 14. Then one of the wiifor without this, his punishment would not have been law nesses struck him with a stone upon the loins : if he was ful. By this ceremony also, they in effect said to the man, not killed with that blow, then the witnesses took up a thy blood be upon thy own head.

great stone, as much as two men could lift, and thret it Verse 15. Whosoever curseth his God] Wabe Sbp ye- upon his breast. This was the coup de grace, and finished kalel Elohair, he who makes light of him-who does not the tragedy. When a man was stoned by the mob, then treat him and sacred things with due reverence-shall bear brutal rage armed every man ; justice was set aside, and his sin, shall have the guilt of this transgression imputed the will and fury of the people were law, judge, jury, and to him, and may expect the punishment.

executioner. Such disgraceful stonings as these were, no Verse 16. Biasphemeth the name of the Lord] bv ap3 doubt, frequent among the Jews.-See Calmet's Dict. arti1 venokeb shem Jehorah-he who pierces, transfixes, or cle STONING; and Ainsworth on this place. as some translate it, expounds the name of Jehovah; see the What the crime of Shelomith's son was, we cannot disnote on the tenth verse. This being the name by which tinctly say; doubtless it was some species of blasphemy: especially the Divine Essence was pointed out, it should however, we find it was a new and unprecedented case; be held peculiarly sacred. We have already seen that the and as there was no law by which the quantum of guilt Jews never pronounce this name ; and so long has it been could

be ascertained, nor consequently the degree of punishdisused among them, that the true pronunciation is now ment, it was necessary to consult the great Lawgiver on the totally lost: see on the word JEHOVAH, Exod. vi. 3. occasion. The man was therefore secured, till the mind

CHAPTER XXV.

6 And the sabbath of the land shall be meat The law concerning the sabbatical or seventh year, repeated 1, _The law relative for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for of the Jubilee, every on to return unto his parterapia, 13. None to compreas another thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy to the number of years unexpired, 15-17. Promes a wellence, stranger that sojourneth with thee, misas relative to the ribbatical year, 20-22 No inheritance must be finally alien

7 And for thy cattle, and for the beast that ale), 23, 21. No advantage to be taken of a inan's poverty in buying this land, 25-B Ordinances relative to the seiling a house in a walled city, 2.30); in a are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be village, 31. Houses of the Levites may be rekemed at any time, 32, 33. The fields of the leviles, in the aiburti, mut not be sli, 31. Notreury to be taken from a

meat. poor brother, 35-38. If an Israelite be sold to an Israelite, he must not be obliged] 8 | And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of of publice, 40, when he and tu family shall have litærey to depart, 'al. Became years unto thee, seven times seven years; and Egyp, 12, 13. The Israelites are permited to have troublement and Cond-temen of the space of the seven sabbaths of years,'shall Une hunthen who decine di mate with their money de las comme de rendah their parent be unto thee forty and nine years. rich, he may be releemne by one of his relatives, an uncle or uncle's son, 47-49. 9 Then shalt thou cause the trumpet mof In the intering between the Jubiless, he may be redeemed; but if not redeemed, be shall go free in the jubilee, 50–51. Obedience enforced by God's right over then

the jubilee to sound, on the tenth day of the as his servants, 55.

seventh month, "in the day of atonement, shall An. Exod. I. 2.

ND the Lord spake unto Moses ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your Abb or Nisan. in mount Sinai, saying,

land. 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say 10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and unto them, When ye come into the land which o proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto I give you, then shall the land - keep i a sabbath all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto the LORD.

unto you; P and ye shall return every man unto 3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six his possession, and ye shall return every man years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather unto his family. in the fruit thereof:

11 A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto 4 But in the seventh year, shall be a sabbath you: 'ye shall not sow, neither reap that which of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the Lord: groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy in it, of thy vine undressed. vineyard.

12 For it is the jubilee; it shall be holy unto 5 That which groweth of its own accord of you: 'ye shall eat the increase thereof out of thy harvest, thou shalt not reap, neither gather the field. the grapes 1 of thy vine undressed: for it is a 13 . In the year of this jubilee ye shall return year of rest unto the land.

every man unto his possession.

AN

Heb. rel. - Exod. 21. 10. See Ch. 2. 31, 35. 2 Chron. 36. 21.-k 2 Kings 19.

2.-1 Heb. of tky separation.--In Heb. loud of sound.-a Ch. 23. 21, 71.

o Isaí. 61. 2 & 63. 4. Jer. 34. 8, 15, 17. Luke 1. 19.--p Ver. 13. Xumb. 36. 4.

q Ver. 5.-r Ver. 6, 7.-- Ver. 10. Ch. 27. 21. Numb. 36. 4.

of the Lord should be known. Moses, no doubt, had re year, as is stated in ver. 8. and this prevented the sabbacourse to the tabernacle, and received the directions after-tical year, or seventh year of rest, from being confounded ward mentioned, from him who dwelt between the cheru- with the jubilee, which it must otherwise have been, had bim. In what way the answer of the Lord was commu the celebration of this great solemnity taken place on the nicated we know not; (probably by Urim and Thum- fiftieth year; but it is most likely that the fiftieth was the mim) but it came in such a manner, as to preclude all real jubilee. doubt upon the subject. The man was declared to be guilty, Verse 11. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year bel The and was sentenced to be stoned to death. And on this oc literal meaning of the word jubilee, 52 yobel, in Hebrew, casion, a law is made relative to blasphemy in general. and Syan yobil in the Samaritan, has not been well ascerHowever sinful the Jews might have been at this time, we tained. Josephus and the rabbins have caused many to have reason to believe that they did not take the name of err : the former says the word signifies liberly; Envudupoxv the Lord in vain; and blasphemy was not known among δε σημαινει τουνομα. Antiq. 1. 3. cap. 12. Edit. Haverc. vol. them. But what shall we say of Christians, so called, 1. p. 184; but the word liberty signifies rather the intenwhose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness? Were tion of the institution, than the meaning of the Hebrew every blasphemer among us to be stoned to death, how term. The rabbins say, it signifies a ram's horn, because many of the people would fall in every corner of the land! the trumpets which were used in proclaiming this solemGod is long-suffering: may this lead them to repentance! nity, were made out of rams' horns. This meaning is We have excellent laws against all profaneness; but alas adopted in a few places in our translation, but none of for our country! they are not enforced; and he who at the ancient versions acknowledge this sense of the term, tempts to put the laws in force against profane swearers, the Chaldee excepted. Some derive it from 5a' yabal, to sabbath-breakers, &c. is considered a litigious man, and á bring, carry away, because the Israelites, at this time, disturber of the peace of society! Will not God visit for carried away, the right of repossessing their inheritances these things? This is not only contempt of God's holy which had been forfeited or alienated. The most natural word and commandments, but rebellion against the laws. derivation is from 5un hobil, to cause to bring back or

recall, because estates, &c. which had been alienated, were NOTES ON CHAPTER XXV.

then brought back to their primitive owners. This was a Verse 2. The land shall keep a sabbath] See this or wise and excellent institution, but appears to have been dinance explained in the note on Exod. xxiii. 11. It may little regarded by the Jews after the Babylonish captivity, be asked here, if it required all the annual produce of the Indeed it is not mentioned under the second temple, and field to support the inhabitants, how could the people be the observance must have ceased among the Jews, when nourished the seventh year, when no produce was received they were brought under a foreign yoke. from the fields? To this it may be answered, that God sent The jubilee seems to have been iypical, 1st. of the great his blessing in an especial manner on the sixth year, see time of release, the Gospel dispensation, when all who beverses 21, 22. and it brought forth fruit for three years

. How lieve in Christ Jesus, are redeemed from the bondage of astonishing and convincing was this miracle! Could there sin--repossess the favour and image of God, the only infor itself, proves the divine authenticity of the law, and takes and the right of inheritance restored. To this the propossibly be any deception here ? NO! The miracle speaks heritance of the human

soul, having all

debts cancelled, every prop and stay from the system that wishes to con- phet seems to allude, see Isai. xxvi. 13. and particularly vict the Mosaic ordinances of imposture. See Exod. xxiii. chap. Ixi. 11. It is evident from this, that the Mosaic law must have 2dly. To the general resurrection-"It is,” says Mr. had a divine origin, as no man in his senses, without God's Parkhurst, "a lively prefiguration of the grand consumanthority, could have made such an ordinance as this; for mation of time, which will be introduced, în like manner, the sixth year, from its promulgation, would have amply by the trump of God, 1 Cor. xv. 52. when the children refuted his pretensions to a divine mission.

and heirs of God shall be delivered from all their forfeitVerse 6. Thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years) ures and restored to the eternal inheritance allotted to This seems to state that the jubilee was to be celebrated on them by their Father : and thenceforth rest from their lathe forty-ninth year; but in ver. 10. and 11. it is said, Ye bours, and be supported in life and happiness by what the shaủ hailow the fiftieth year; and a jubilee shall this fif- field of God shall supply." tieth year be. Probably in this verse, Moses either includes It is worthy of remark, that the jubilee was not prothe preceding jubilee, and thus with the forty-ninth, claimed till the 10th day of the seventh month, on the very makes up the number fifty; or he speaks of proclaming day when the great annual atonement was made for the the jubilee on the 49th, and celebrating it on the 50th year, sins of the people: and does not this prove that the great current. Some think it was celebrated on the forty-ninth I liberty, or redemption from thraldom, published under the

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