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14 | And if thou sell ought unto thy neigh-| gold away some of his possession, and if any of bour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, his kin come to redeem it, then shall be redeen ! ye shall not oppress one another:

that which his brother sold. 15 u According to the number of years after 28 And if the man have none to redeem it, the jubilee, thou shalt buy of thy neighbour; and " himself be able to redeem it; and according unto the number of years of the 27 Then " let him count the years of the sale fruits, he shall sell unto thee:

thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man 16 According to the multitude of years, thou to whom he sold it, that he may return unto his shalt increase the price thereof; and according possession. to the fewness of years, thou shalt diminish the 28 But if he be not able to restore it to him, price of it: for according to the number of the then that which is sold, shall remain in the hand years of the fruits, doth he sell unto thee. of him that hath bought it, until the year of ju

17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one an- bilee: ° and in the jubilee it shall go out, and he other; w but thou shalt fear thy God: for I am shall return unto his possession. the LORD your God.

29 T And if a man sell a dwelling-house in a 18 T * Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and walled city, then he may redeem it within a keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall whole year after it is sold; within a full year,

may he redeem it. vel and the land shall yield her fruit, and ye of a fal year, then the house that is in the

wall

:

30 And if it be not redeemed within the space shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety.

20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat ed city, shall be established for ever to him that the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, bought it, throughout his generations: it shall nor gather in our increase:

not go out in the jubilee. 21° Then I will command my blessing upon 31 But the houses of the villages, which have you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth no wall round about them, shall be counted as fruit for three years.

the fields of the country, P they may be redeem22 . And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat | ed, and they shall go out in the jubilee. yet of old fruit, until the ninth year; until her 32 Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, fruits come in, ye shall eat of the old store. and the houses of the cities of their possession,

23 | The land shall not be sold 'for & ever; may the Levites redeem at any time. for the land is mine; for ye are i strangers and 33 And if ra man purchase of the Levites, sojourners with me.

then the house that was sold, and the city of his 24 And in all the land of your possession, ye possession shall go out in the year of jubilee: shall grant a redemption for the land.

for the houses of the cities of the Levites are 25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath their possession among the children of Israel. tVer. 17. Ch. 19. 13 1San. 12, 3, 4, Mic 9 2. 1 Cor. 6.8.-u Ch. 27. 18. 23. Psa. 85. 1. Joel 2. 18. & 3. 2.-i 1 Chron. 29. 15. Pra 39. 12. & 119. 19. 1 Pet 2 IL Ver. 14.-w Ver. 43. Ch. 19. 14, 32-x Ch. 19. 37.-y Ch. 26. 5. Deut. 12. 10. k Ruth 2 20. & 4. 4,6.- See Ruth 2 2, 9, 12. Jer. 327,&-m Heb. his hand sach Psa. 4. 8. Prov. 1. 3. Jer. 23.6.- Ch. 26. 5. Ezek. 34. 2, 27, 28-a Matt. 6. 25, 31. attained and found sufficiency. Ch. 5. 7.-n Ver. 50, 51, 72 Ver. 13.-p Het b Ver. 4, 5.- Deut. 28. 8. See Exod. 16. 29. - 2 Kings 19. 29.-e Josh. 5. 11, 12. redemption belongeth unto itSee Numb. 35.2 Josh. 21.2, &c. Or, one of

Or, to be quite cut off-g Heb. for cutting off-h Deut. 32 43 S Chron. 7. 20. the Levites redeem them.Ver. 28. Gospel, could not take place till the great atonement, the Verse 29. Sell a dwelling-house in a valled city) A sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, had been offered up ?-See very proper difference is put between houses in a city, and verse 9.

houses in the country. "If a man sold his house in the Verse 14. Ye shall not oppress one another] Ye shall city, he might redeem it any time in the course of a year; take no advantage of each other's ignorance either in but if it were not redeemed within that time, it could no buying or selling; for he that buys an article at less than more be redeemed; nor did it go out even in the jubilee. it is worth, or sells one for more than it is worth, taking It was not so with a house in the country; such a house advantage, in both cases, of the ignorance of the vender might be redeemed during any part of the interim; and if or buyer, is no better than a thief, as he actually robs his not redeemed, must go out at the jubilee. The reason in neighbour of as much property as he has bought the article both cases is sufficiently evident: the house in the city at below, or sold it above its current value.

might be builded for purposes of trade or traffic merelyVerse 15. According to the number of years] The the house in the country was builded on, or attached to, purchases that were to be made of lands were to be requ- the inheritance which God had divided to the respective lated by the number of years unelapsed of the current ju- families. It was, therefore, absolutely necessary that tire bilee. This was something like buying the unexpired same law should apply to the house, as to the inheritance: term of a lease among us; the purchase is always regu- but the same necessity did not hold good with respect to lated by the number of years beiween the time of purchase the house in the city. And as we may presume the house and the expiration of the term.

in the city was merely for the purpose of trade; when a Verse 20. What shall we eat the seventh year ?] A very man bought such a house, and got his business established natural question, which could only be laid at rest by the there, it would have been very inconvenient for him to sovereign promise in the next verse. I will coMMAND My have removed ; but as it was possible that the former owner BLESSING upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring might have sold the house rashly, or through the pressure forth fruit for THREE YEARS.-See on ver. 2.

of some very urgent necessity, a year was allowed him, Verse 23. The land shall not be sold for everthe land that during that time, he might have leisure to reconsider is mine] As God, in a miraculous manner, gave them his rash act-or so to get through his present necessity, possession of this land, they were therefore to consider as to be able to get back his dwelling. This time was themselves merely as tenants to him; and on this ground, sufficiently long in either of the above cases; and as such he, as the great landholder, or lord of the soil, prescribes occurrences might have been the cause of his selling his to them all the conditions on which they shall hold it. house, it was necessary that he might have the opporta

This one circumstance was peculiarly favourable to their nity of redeeming his pledge. Again, as the purchaser, advancement in religion, in righteousness, and true holi- having bought the house merely for the purpose of trade, ness: for feeling that they had nothing which they could manufacture, &c. must have been at great pains and ex call their own upon earth, they must frequently, by this, pense to fit the place for his work, and establish his busibe put in mind of the necessity of having a permanent ness, in which himself and his children, and his children's dwelling in the heavenly inheritance : and of that prepa- children, were to labour and get their bread; hence it was ration, without which it could not be possessed.

necessary, that he should have some certainty of permanent Verse 25. Any of his kin come to redeem it) The land possession : without which, we may naturally conjecture, that was sold, might be redeemed in the interim between no such purchases ever would be made. This seems to jubilee and jubilee, by the former owner, or by one of his be the simple reason of the law in both cases. kinsmen or relatives. This kinsman is called in the text Verse 32. The cities of the Levites] The law in this sxs goel, or redeemer : and was not this a lively emblem and the following verges, was also a very wise one. A of the redemption of man by Christ Jesus? That he Levite could not ultimately sell his house—if sold, he might have a right to redeem man he took upon him hu- could redeem it at any time in the interim betwecn the two man nature, and thus became a kinsman of the great jubilees : but if not redeemed, it must go out at the followfamily of the human race, and thereby possessed the right ing jubilee. And why? "because Moses framed his laws of redeeming that fallen nature, of which he took part, Bo much in favour of the priesthood, that they had peculiar and of buying back to man that inheritance which had privileges,” &c.-just the reverse they were so far from been forfeited by transgression.

being peculiarly favoured, that they had no inheritance in

34 But the fields of the suburbs of their cities for your children after you, to inherit them for may not be sold; for it is their perpetual posses a possession; m they shall be your bondmen for sion.

ever ; but over your brethren the children of 35 | And if thy brother be waxen poor, and Israel, " ye shall not rule one over another with u fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt "re- rigour. lieve him: w yea, though he be a stranger, or a 47 | And if a sojourner or stranger wax sojourner; that he may live with thee.

rich by thee, and p thy brother that dwelleth by 36 - Take thou no usury of him, or increase: him wax poor, and sell himsell unto the stranbut y fear thy God; that thy brother may live ger or sojourner by thee, or to the stock of the with thee.

stranger's family: 37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon 48 After that he is sold he may be redeemed usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase. again: one of his brethren ? may redeem him:

38 I am the LORD your God, which brought 49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give to redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin unto you the land of Canaan, and to be your God. him, or of his family, may redeem him: or if

39 || And a if thy brother that dwelleth by he be able he may redeem himself. thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou 50 And he shall reckon with him that bought shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant: him, from the year that he was sold to him unto

40 But as a hired servant, and as a sojourner, the year of jubilee: and the price of his sale he shall be with thee, and shall serve thee unto shall be according unto the number of years, the year of jubilee:

• according to the time of a hired servant shall 41 And then shall he depart from thee, both it be with him. he and his children with him, and shall return

51 If there be yet many years behind, accordunto his own family, and d unto the possession ing unto them, he shall give again the price of of his fathers shall he return.

his redemption, out of the money that he was 42 For they are my servants, which I bought for. brought forth out of the land of Egypt: they 52 And if there remain but few years unto shall not be sold fas bondmen.

the year of jubilee, then he shall count with 43 Thou shalt not rule over him b with him, and according unto his years, shall he give rigour; but shalt fear thy God.

him again the price of his redemption. 44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, 53 And as a yearly hired servant shall he be which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen with him: and the other shall not rule with that are round about you; of them shall ye buy rigour over him in thy sight. bondmen and bondmaids.

54 And if he be not redeemed in these years, 45 Moreover of the children of the strangers then u he shall go out in the year of jubilee, both that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye he, and his children with him. buy, and of their families that are with you, 55 For vunto me the children of Israel are which they begat in your land: and they shall servants; they are my servants whom I brought be your possession.

forth out of the land of Egypt; I am the LORD 46 And 1 ye shall take them as an inheritance your God.

+ See Aets 1. 36, 37.-Heb his hand faileth - Heb. strengthen. - Deut. 15. 7,8 Ps. 37. & 41 1. & 112 5,9. Prov. 14. 31. Luke 6. 35. Acts 11. 29. Rom. 12 is 1 John 2 17.- Exod. N 25. Deut. 2. 19. Neh. 5. 7. Px. 15. 5. Prov. 28. 8. Ezek. 18 , 13, 17. & 22 12-y Ver. 17. Neh. 5. 9.-2 Ch. 22 32, 33.-1 Exod. 21. 2. Deat 15 12 i Kings 9.22 2 Kings 4.1. Nch. 5.5. Jer. 34. 14. --b Heb. serve thyself with his with the serpice, &c. Ver. 46. Exod. 1. 14. Jer. 25. 14. & n. 7. & 30. &

• Exod. 21. 3 - Ver. 2.- Ver. 53. Rom. 6. 22. 1 Cor. 7. 23. Hebwith the
sale of a bondman.-g Ephes. 6. 9. Col. 4. 1.-h Ver. 46. Exod. 1. 13.-i Ver. 17.
Exol. 1.:7, 21. Deut. 25. 18. Mal. 3. 5.-k Isaj. 56. 3, 6.- Isai. 14. 2-m Heb, ye
ahall serve yourselocs with them. Ver. 39.- Ver 13. - Hleb, his hand obtain
&c. Ver. 2.--. Ver. 35, 35.-- Neh. 5.5.- Ver. 25 - Job 7. 1. Isaí. 16. 14. &
A. 16.- Or, by these means.-u Ver. 41. Exod. 21. 2, 3.-Ver. 12.

Israel, only their cities to dwell in; and because their therefore to reckon the years he must have served, from houses in these cities were the whole that they could call that time, till the jubilee; and then taking the current their own, therefore these houses could not be ultimately wages of a servant, per year, at that time, multiply the alienated. All that they had to live on besides, was from remaining years by that sum, and the aggregate was the that most precarious source of support, the free-will-offer- sum to be given to his master for his redemption. The ings of the people, which depended on the prevalence of Jews hold, that the kindred of such a person were bound, pure religion in the land.

if in their power, to redeem him, lest he should be swalVerse 36. Take thou no usury of him] Usury, at lowed up among the heathen: and we find from Neh. v. present, signifies unlawful interest for money. Properly, 8. that this was done by the Jews on their return from the it means the reward or compensation given for the use of Babylonish captivity-We, after our ability, hate rea thing, but is principally spoken of money. See the defi- deemed our brethren the Jeis, who were sold unto the nition of the original term in the note on Exod. xxii. 25. heathen.

Verse 42. For they are my servants) As God redeem Verse 55. For unto me the children of Israel are sered every Israelite out of Egyptian bondage, they were rants] The reason of this law we have already seen, see therefore to consider themselves as his property; and that on ver. 42. but we must look farther to see the great end consequently, they should not alienate themselves from of it. The Israelites were a typical people, they reprehim. "It was in being his servants, and devoted to his sented those under the Gospel dispensation, who are chilwork, that both their religious and political service consist-dren of God, by faith in Christ Jesus. But ihese last have ed. And although their political liberty might be lost, a peculiarity of blessing--they are not merely servants, they knew that their spiritual liberty never could be for- bui they are sons; though they also serve God, yet it is feited, except by an utter alienation from God. God there in the newness of the Spirit

, and not in the oldness of the fore claims the same right to their persons, which he does letter. And to this difierence of state the apostle seems to their lands. See the note on ver. 23.

evidently to allude, Galat. iv. 1, &c. And because ye are Verse 43. Thou shall not rule over him with rigour] sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into What is rigorous service? “Service which is not deter- your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art mined, and service whereof there is no need." This is no more a SERVANT, but a son; and if a son, then an the definition given by the Jews: but much more is im HEIR of God through Christ : genuine believers in Christ, plied in this command than is expressed here. Lahour not being heirs of an earthly inheritance, nor merely of g beyond the person's strength-or labour too long contin- hearenly one, for they are heirs of God. God himself, ued or in unhealthy or uncomfortable places and circum- therefore, is their portion, without whom, even header stances, or without sufficient food, &c. is labour exacted itself would not be a state of consummate blessedness to with rigour—and consequently inhuman: and this law is an immortal spirit. made, not for the Mosaic dispensation, and the Jewish The jubilee was a wonderful institution, and was of very people; but for every dispensation, and for every people great service to the religion, freedom, and independence under heaven.

of the Jewish people. "The motive of this law,” says Verse 50. The price of his sale shall be, &c.) This Calmet," was to prevent the rich from oppressing the poor, was a very equitable law, both for the sojourner to whom and reducing them to perpeltal slavery; and that they should the man was sold, and to the Israelite who had been thus not get possession of all the lands hy way of purchase, sold. The Israelite might redeem himself, or one of his mortgage, or lastly, usurpation. That debts should not be kindred might redeem him but this must not be done to multiplied too much, lest thereby the poor should be enthe prejudice of his master, the sojourner. They were I tirely ruined ; and that slares should not continue always,

369

VOL. I.-17

6 And " I will give peace in the land, and iye CHAPTER XXVI

shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid: Idolatry forbilden, 1. The sabbath to be sanctified, 2, 3. Promises to ohmdience, and I will ridi evil beasts out of the land, neither Discomfire or wear enemies,

7-9 of abundance. 10. or the Divine presence, shall m the sword go through your land. 11-13. Threatening against the disobedient, 14, 15. Of terror and dismay, 16. 7 And ye shall chase your enemies, and they Their enemies shall prevail against them, 17, 18 Of barrenness, 19, 2). O dese lauen hy wild tests, 21, 22. And if not humble and reformed, worwevila shati shall fall before you by the sword. be inflicted upon them, 23, 21. Their eneniica shall prevail, and they shall be wasted by the prstilner, 25, 23. If they should still continue refractory, ihty shall be yet

3 And five of you shall chase an hundred, more sorely punistol, 27, 28. The funine shall so increas, that they adiall lie obliger and an hundred of you shall put ten thousand to hoisir sols, su Tle ir citiem slund the wastul, and the sanctuary des later), 31; the flight; and your enemies shall fall before you by

the sword. utter contusion and distres, 33–33. Ifloder these julgments they conless their sin, and return to God, he will remember them in mervy, 10-13 ; visit then even 9 For I will have respect unto you, and in the land of their enemies, 11; and remember his covenant with their fathers, 15. The conclusion, stating there to be the hudgments and laws which the Lord monde P make you fruitful, and multiply you, and estab

lish my covenant with you.

10 And ye shall eat old store, and bring forth Abib or Nisan.

graven images, neither rear you the old because of the new. up a 'standing image, neither shall ye set up 11 ' And I will set my tabernacle among you: any y image 2 of stone in your land, to bow down and my soul shall not abhor you. unto it: for I am the LORD.

12 And I will walk among you, and will be 2 * Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence your God, and ye shall be my people. my sanctuary: I am the LORD.

13 I am the LORD your God, which brought 3 T " If ye walk in my statutes, and keep my you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should commandments, and do them;

not be their bondmen; wand I have broken the 4 • Then will' I give you rain in due season, bands of your yoke, and made you go upright. d and the land shall yield her increase, and the 14 || * But if ye will not hearken unto me, trees of the field shall yield their fruit.

and will not do all these commandments; 5 And your threshing shall reach unto the 15 And if ye shall y despise my statutes, or if vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the your soul abhor my judgments, so that ye will sowing-time: and ' ye shall eat your bread to not do all my commandments, but that ye break the full, and & dwell in your land safely.

my covenant:

between himself and the children of Israel in mount Sinai, 46. An. Exod. Is. 2.

YE shall make youno idols nor

w Exol 20. 4,5. Deut. 5. 8. & 16. 22. & 27. 15. Pua. 97. 7.- Or, pillar.-- Or, figured stone. Heb. a stone of picture.-a Ch. 19. 30.-- Deut. 11. 13, 14, 15. & 2 1-14.-c Isai. 30. 23. Ezek. 31. 26. Joel 2 23, 21.- Pel. 67. 6. & 85. 12. Ezek. 34. 27. & 36. 30. Zech. 8. 12e Amos 9. 13.- Ch. 25. 19. Deut. 11. 15. Joel 2. 19, 26.-- Ch. 25. 18. Joh 11. 18. Ezek. 31. 35, 27, 28-hl Chron. 22. 9. Psa. 29. 11. & 147. 14. Isaj. 45. 7. Hag. 2.9.-i Job 11. 19. Psa. 3. 5. & 4. 8. Isaj. 35. 9. Jer. 80. 10. Ezek. 31. 25. Hos. 2 13. Zeph. 3. 13.

k Heb. cause to cease.--I 2 Kings 17. 25. Ezek. 5. 17. & 14. 15.-m Ezek 14. 17.-n Deut. 32. 30. Josh. 2. 10.-o Exod 25.2 Kings 13. 2- Gen, 17. 6, 7. Neh. 9. 23. Psa. 107. 38.-9 Ch 25. 22.-r Exod. 5 8 & 29. 45. Joel. 22 12 Paa. 76. 2. Ezek. 37. 26, 27, 28. Rev. 21. 3.- Ch. 20. 23. Deut. 32. 19-9 Co. 6. 16,- Exod. 6. 7. Jer. 1.2. & 11. 4. & 30. 22 Ezek. 11. 20. &&- Ch 25. 39, 12, 55.-w Jer. 2. 20. Ezek. 34. 27.- Deut. 28. 15. Lam. 2 17. Mai 2 2.-y Ver. 2. 2 Kings 17. 15.

they, their wives and children, in servitude. Besides, tians reaped their barley six months, and their oats seven Moses intended to preserve, as much as possible, personal months, after seed-time; for they sowed all their grain liberty, an equality of property, and the regular order of about the end of summer, when the overflowings of the families among the Hebrews. Lastly, he designed that the Nile had ceased. It was nearly the same in Judea; they people should be strongly attached to their country, lands, sowed their corn and barley towards the end of autumn, and and inheritances : that they should have an affection for about the month of October; and they began their barleythem, and consider them as estates which descended to harvest after the Passoter, about the middle of March: them from their ancestors, which they were to leave to and in one month or six weeks after, about Pentecost, they their posterity without any fear of their going ultimately began that of their wheat. After their wheat-harvest, out of their families.”

their vintage commenced. Moses here leads the Hebrews But this institution especially pointed out the redemption to hope, if they continued faithful to God, that between of man by Christ Jesus: 1. Through him, he who was in their harvest and vintage, and between their vintage and debt to God's justice, had his debts discharged, and his sin seed-time, there should be no interval, so great should the forgiven. 2. He who sold himself for nought, who was abundance be'; and these promises would appear to them a bondslave of sin and Satan, regains his liberty, and be the more impressive, as they had just now come out of a comes a son of God, through faith in his blood. 3. He country where the inhabitants were obliged nain, for who by transgression had forfeited all right and title to nearly three months, shut up within their cities, because the the kingdom of God, becomes an heir of God, and a joint Nile had then inundated the whole country. See Calmet. heir with Christ. Heaven, his forfeited inheritance, is “This is a nervous and beautiful promise of such entire restored, for the kingdom of heaven is opened to all be- plenty of corn and wine, that before they could have reaped lievers : and thus redeemed from his debt, restored to his and threshed out their corn, the vintage should be ready; liberty, united to the heavenly family, and re-entitled to and before they could have pressed out their wine, it his inheritance, he goes on his way rejoicing, till he enters would be time to sow again. The prophet Amos, chap. the Paradise of his Maker, and is for ever with the Lord. ix. 13. expresses the same blessing in the same manner: Reader, hast thou applied for this redemption? Does not The ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treadthe trumpet of the jubilee, the glad tidings of salvation, er of grapes him who soweth seed.—Dodd. by Christ Jesus, sound in the land ? Surely it does. Why Verse 1l. I will set my tabernacle among you] This then continue a bond-slave of sin, a child of wrath, and and the following verse contain the grand promise of the an heir of hell, when such a salvation is offered unto thee Gospel dispensation, viz. the presence, manifestation, without money and without price? O, suffer not this pro- and induelling of God, in human nature: and his convision to be made ultimately in vain for thee! For what stant indwelling in the souls of his followers. So John art thou advantaged if thou gain the whole world, and i. 14. the WORD was made flesh, *** 0X9YxG17 or was, and lose thy soul!

MADE HIS TABERNACLE among us. And to this promise NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVI.

of the law, St. Paul evidently refers, 2 Cor. vi. 16–18. and Verse 1. Ye shall make you no idols] See the note on vii. 1. Exod. xx. 4. and see the note on Gen. xxviii. 18. and 19. Verse 15. If ye despise my statutes--abhor my judg. concerning consecrated stones. Not only idolatry in gen- ments] As these words, and others of a similar import, eral is forbidden here, but also the superstitious use of which point out different properties of the revelation of innocent and lawful things. Probably the slones or pil- God, are frequently occurring, I judge it best to take a genlars which were first set up, and anointed by holy men, eral view of them once for all in this place, and show how in commemoration of signal interpositions of God in their they differ among themselves, and what property of the behalf, were afterward abused to idolatrous and supersti- divine law each points out. tious purposes, and therefore prohibited. This we know 1. STATUTES, non chukkoth, from pn chak, to mark out, was the case with the brazen serpent, 2 Kings xviii. 4. define, &c. This term seems to signify the things which

Verse 3. If ye walk in my stATUTES] For the mean God has defined, marked, and traced out, that men might ing of this and similar words used in the law, see the note have a perfect copy of pure conduct always before their eyes, on ver. 15.

to teach them how they might walk so as to please him in Verse 4. Rain in due scason) What in Scripture is all things, which they could not do, without such instruc called the early and the latter rain. The first fell at the tion as God gives in his word; and the help which he affords commencement of spring in Palestine, and the latter in by his Spirit. autumn.-Calmet.

2. JUDGMENTS. BYUDV SHEPHATIM, from UDU shaphat, Verse 5. Your threshing shall reach unto the vintage] to distinguish, regulate, and determine; meaning ihose According to Pliny, Hist. Nal. 1. xvüi. c. 18. the Egyp-I things which God has determined that men shall pursue ;

16 I also will do this unto you; I will even will not hearken unto me; I will bring seven appoint over you " tersor: consumption, anu tines more plagues upon you, according to your the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes, sins. and cause sorrow of heart: and ye shall sow

22 pI will also send wild beasts among you, your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it. which shall rob you of your children, and destroy

17 And I will set my face against you, and your cattle, and make you few in number: and 'ye shall be slain before your enemies: & they your high ways shall he desolate. that hate you shall reign over you; and ye 23 And if yer will not be reformed by me by shall flee when none pursueth you.

these things, but will walk contrary unto me: 18 And it ye will not yet for all this hearken 24 - Then will I also walk contrary unto you, unto me, then I will punish you i seven times and will punish you get seven times for your more for your sins.

sins. 19 And I will k break the pride of your power;

25 And I will bring a sword upon you, that and I will make your heaven as iron, and your shall avenge the quarrel of my covenant: and earth as brass:

when ye are gathered together within your 20 And your "strength shall be spent in vain: cities, ú I will send the pestilence among you; for your land shall not yield her increase, and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the neither shall the trees of the land yield their enemy. fruits.

26 " And when I have broken the staff of your 21 And if ye walk contrary unto me, and bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one

. Hehe on you - Dent. 22 65, 6, 67. & 32.25 Jer. 15.8.-Dent. 23. 22. cl Sam. 2. 3. Dent. 33, 51. Job 31. 8. Jer. 5. 17. & 12. 13. Mic. 6. 15.-e Ch 17. 10. - Dertt. 24. 25. Julges 2.11 Jer. 19. 7. -g P. 106. 41.--h Ver. 36. Pen. 63 5. Prov. 29. 1.-i 1 Sam. 2 5. Pa 119. 161. Prov. 21. 16.- Isai. 25. 11. & 26. 5. Ezrk. 7. 21. & 30. 6.-1 Deut. 23. 23. --m Psa. 127. 1. Tnai. 19. 4.-n Deut. 11. 17. & & 13. Hag. 1. 10.

o Or, at all adventures rrith me, and so ver. 21.-p Dent. 32. 24. 2 Kings 17. 3. Erek. 5. 17. & 14. 15.-- Julges 5. 6. 2 Chron. 15.5. Isai. 3. 8. Lam. 1. 4. Zech. 7. 11. -r Jer. 2. 3. & 5. 3. Amos 4. 6-12. - 2 Siun. 22. 7. Psa. 19. 26. t Ezek. 5. 17. & 6. 3. & 11. 17. & 29. 8. & 33. 2.-- Num. 11. 12. Dent. 2. Jer. 14. 12. & 21. 10. 2. 17, 16. Amos 1. 10.- Ps. 105. 16. Isai. 3. 1. Ezek. 4. 16. & 5. 16. & 14. 13

by which their whole conduct shall be regulated, making man according to his state, circumstances, talents, graces, the proper distinction between virtue and vice, good and &c. to none too much ; to none too little ; to all cnough. evil, right and wrong, justice and injustice-in a woril, be 10. Word of JEHOVAH. 017 727 DABAR YEHOVAH, tween what is proper to be done, and what is proper to be from 37 dabar, to drire, lead, bring forward ; hence, to left undone.

bring forward, or utter one's sentiments : so the word of 3. COMMANDMENTS. 1959MITSEVOTH, from his tearah, God, is what God has brought forth to man, from his own to command, ordain, and appoint, ns a legislator. This mind and counsel; it is a perfect similitude of his own term is properly applied 10 those parts of the Law which righteousness, holiness, goodness, and truth. This divine contain the obligation the people are under, to act accord-law is sometimes expressed by ing to the statutes, judgments, &c. already established; 11. DION IMRETH, SPEECH or word, variously modified, and which prohibit them by penal sanctions, from acting from YON amar, to branch out, because of the interesting contrary to the laws.

details into which the word of God enters, in order to in 4. COVENANT. 6793 BERITH, from a bar, to clear, cleanse, struct man, and make him wise unto salvation; or, as the or purify; because the covenant, the whole system of apostle expresses it, “God, who at sundry times, and in revelation given to the Jewe, was intended to separate them divers manners, spake unto the fathers by the prophets," from all the people of the earth, and to make them holy. Furopws xar Tol UTPOTE5, in many distinct parcels, and Berith also signifies the covenant-sacrifice which pre- by various tropes or figures ; a curious and elegant defigured the atonement made by Christ for the sin of the scription of divine revelation. Heb. i. 1. world; by which he purifies believers unto himself, and 12. All these collectively, are termed the Law, 771 TOmakes them a peculiar people, zealous of good works. rah, or no TORATH YEHOVAH, the law of the Lord, Besides those four, we add the following from other places from 17 yarah, to direct, set straight and true, as stones of Scripture.

in a building, io teach and instruct–because this whole 5. TESTIMONIES. Any EDOTH, from no âd, beyond, fur- system of divine revelation is calculated to direct men to ther, besides; because the whole ritual law referred to the attainment of present and eternal felicity. To set them something further on, or beyond the Jewish dispensation : right in their notions concerning the supreme God. To even to that sacrifice, which in the fulness of time was to order and adjust them in the several departments of civil be offered for the sins of men. Thus all the sacrifices, &c. and religious society ; and thus to teach and instruct them of the Mosaic law referred to Christ, and bore testimony in the knowledge of themselves, and in the true knowledge to him who was to come.

of God. Thus those who receive the truth, become the 6. ORDINANCES. pinupur MISHEMEROTIM, from 103 city of the living God--the temple of the Most High, shamar, to guard, keep safe, watch over : Those parts of builded together, for a habitation of God through the Spirit. divine revelation, which exhorted men to watch their to complete this description of the word lav, see the note ways, keep their hearts, and promised them, in conse on Exod. xii. 49. where other properties of the law of God quence, the continual protection and blessing of God their are specified. Maker.

Verse 16. I will even appoint over you terror, &c.) 7, PRECEPTS. OUTPD PIKUDIM, from po pakad, to over- | How dreadful is this curse! A whole train of evils are look, take care, or notice of, toʻrisil-a very expressive here personified, and appointed to be the governors of a character of the divine testimonies, the orerseers of a man's disobedient people. Terror is to be one of their keepers: conduct, those who stand by and look on, to see whether how awful a state! to be continually under the influence of he acts according to the commands of his master; also, dismay; seeling indescribable evils, and fearing worse. the risiters, because God's precepts are suited to all the Consumption, nonu shachepheth, generally allowed to be circumstances of human life; some are applicable in ad some kind of atrophy or marasmus, by which the flesh versity, others in prosperity; some in times of temptation and was consumed, and the whole body dried up by raging sadness, others to seasons of spiritual joy and exultation, feer, through lack of sustenance. See the note on chap. &c. &c. Thus they may be said to orerlook and visit man xi. 16. How circumstantially were all these threateningg in all times, places, and circumstances.

fulfilled in this disobedient and rebellious people! Let a 8. TRUTH. NON EMETH, from On am, to support, sustain, Deist read over this chapter, and compare it with the state confirm: because God is immutable who has promised, of the Jews since the days of Vespasian, and then let him threatened, commanded; and therefore all his promises, doubt the authenticity of this word if he can. threatenings, commandments, &c. are unalterable and Verse 22. I will send wild beasts among you] God eternal. Error and falsity promise to direct and sustain, fulfilled these threatenings at different times. He sent but they fail. God's word is supported by his own faith- ficry SERPENTS among them, Numb. xxi. 6. Lions, ?

fulness, and it supports and confirms them who conscien- Kings xvii. 25. BEARS, 2 Kings ii. 24. and threatened tiously believe it.

them with total desolation, so that their land should be 9. RIGHTEOUSNESS. np7s TSIDEKATH, from pos tsadak, overrun with wild beasts, &c. see Ezek. v. 17. Spirituwhich, though not used as a verb in the Hebrew Bible, ally, says Mr. Ainsworth these are wicked rulers and seems to convey from its use as a noun, the idea of giring tyrants, that kill and spoil, Prov. xxviii. 15. Dan. vii. 3—6.

just weight, or good measure, see chap. xix. 36. This is Psal. lxxx. 13. And false prophets that devour souls, one of the characters which is attributed to the revelation Matt. vii. 15. Rev. xii. 1, &c. So the prophet, speaking God makes of himself in Psal.cxix. And by this the im- of their punishment hy tyrants, says, A lion out of the partiality of the divine testimonies is pointed out. God forest shall slay them; a wolf of the crening shall gives to all their due, and his word distributes to every 1 spoil them; a LEOPARD shall watch over their cities ;

oven, and they shall deliver you your bread again 38 And ye shall perish among the heathen, by weight: and wye shalleat, and not be satisfied. and the land of your enemies shall eat you up.

27 And if ye will not for all this hearken unto 39 And they that are left of you shall pine me, but walk contrary unto me;

away in their iniquity, in your enemies' lands; 28. Then I will walk contrary unto you also and also in the iniquities of their fathers, shall 5. in fury; and I, even I, will chastise you seven they pine away with them. times for your sins.

40 T'If they shall confess their iniquity, and 29 And ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, the iniquily of their fathers, with their trespass and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat. which they trespassed against me, and that also

30 And * I will destroy your high places, and they have walked contrary unto me; cut down your images, and cast your carcasses 41 And that I also have walked contrary unto upon the carcasses of your idols, and my soul them, and have brought them into the land of shall • abhor you.

their enemies; if then their uncircumcised 31 a And I will make your cities waste, and hearts be humbled, and they then accept of the e bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I punishment of their iniquity; will not smell the savour of your sweet odours. 42 Then will I remember my covenant with

32 'And I will bring the land into desolation: Jacob, and my covenant with Isaac, and also my and your enemies which dwell therein shall be covenant with Abraham will I remember; and I & astonished at it.

will remember the land. 33 And h I will scatter you among the heathen, 43 w The land also shall be left of them, and and will draw out a sword after you: and your shall enjoy her sabbaths, while she lieth desoland shall be desolate, and your cities waste. late without them: and they shall accept of the

34 i Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, punishment of their iniquity: because, even beas long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your cause they despised my judgments, and because enemies' land; even then shall the land 'rest, their soul abhorred my statutes. and enjoy her sabbaths.

44 And yet for all that, when they be in the 35 As long as it lieth desolate it shall rest; land of their enemies, I will not cast them because it did not rest in your * sabbaths, when away, neither will I abhor them, to destroy ye dwelt upon it,

them utterly, and to break my covenant with 36. And upon them that are left alive of you, them: for I am the LORD their God. I will send a faintness into their hearts in the 45 But I will <for their sakes, remember the lands of their enemies; and mthe sound of a covenant of their ancestors, « whom I brought shaken leaf shall chase them; and they shall forth out of the land of Egypt, in the sight of flee as fleeing from a sword; and they shall fall the heathen, that I might be their God: I am when none pursueth.

the LORD. 37 And they shall fall one upon another, as 46 - These are the statutes, and judgments, it were upon a sword, when none pursueth: and and laws, which the LORD made between him Pye shall have no power to stand before your and the children of Israel din mount Sinai, by enemies.

the hand of Moses.

w liai. 9. 20. Mic. 6. 14. Hag. 1.6.- Ver. 21, 24.-y Isai. 59. 18. & 61. 3. & 66 15. Jer. 21. 5. Ezek 5. 13, 15. & 8. 18. 2 Deut23. 5. 2 Kings 6. 9. Ezek. 5. 10. Lam. 4. 10. Bar. 2 -a 2 Chron. 31. 3, 4, 7. Isai. 27. 9. Ezek. 6. 3, 4, 5, 6, 13 6 2 Kingy 23 20. 2 Chron. 31. 5.- Ley. 20. 23. Psa. 78. 59. & 89. 39. Jer. 14. 19. d Neb. 2. 3. Jer. 4. 7. Ezek 6. 6.-e Pea 74. 7. Lam. I. 10. Ezek. 9. 6. & 21. 7.

Jer. 9. 11. & 25. 11, 18.-g Deat. 29. 37. 1 Kinge 9.8 Jer. 18. 16. & 19.8. Ezek 5. 15.-h Deut. 4. 27 & 20. 61. Pea. 41. 11. Jer. 9. 16. Ezek. 12. 15. & 20.2. & 22. 15. Zech. 7. 14-12 Chron. 36. 21.-k Ch. 25. 2-1 Ezek 21.7, 12, 15.-m Ver. 17. Job 15. 2. Prov. 23. 1.-u Heb. driven.- lsai, 10. 4. See Julges 7. 22. 1 Sam. 14. 15,

16.-p Josh. 7. 12, 13. Judges 2. 14.- Deut. 4. 27. & 28. 65. Neh. I. 9 Jer. 3. 3. & 29. 12. 13. Ezek 4. 17. & 6. 9. & 20. 43. & 24. 2 & 33. 10 & 36. 31. HoR 5 15. Zech. 10, 9.- Numb. 5. 7, 1 Kings 8. 33, 35, 47. Neb. 9. 2 Dan. 9.3, 4. Prov. N. 13. Luke 15. 18. 1 John 1. 9. - See Jer. 6. 10.& 9. 25, 26. Ezek 41. 7. Acta 7. 51. Rom 2. 29 Col. 2 11.-t 1 Kings 21. 29. 2 Chron. 12 6, 7, 12. & 2* & 33 12, B u Exod. 2. 21. & 6.5. Psa. 106. 45. Ezek. 16. 60.- Pra 136. 2-w Ver. 34, 36 X Ver. 15,-y Deut. 4. 31. 2 Kings 13. B. Rom. 11. 2-1 Rom. IL-a Ch 22 33. & 35. 38. - Psa. 96.2. Ezek. 20. 9, 14,2-c Ch. 27. 34. Deut. & 1. & 12 & 33. 4. John 1. 17.- Ch. 25. 1.

every one that goeth out thence shall be torn to pieces, be Verse 44, Neither will. I abhor them to destroy them cause their transgressions be many. And of their pro- utterly] Though God has literally fulfilled all his threat. phets, he says, O Israel, thy prophets are like roxes in enings upon this people, in dispossessing them of their the deserts, Ezek. xiii. 4.' Jer, viii, 17. xv. 3."

land, destroying their polity, overturning their city, deVerse 26. Ten women shall bake your bread in one molishing their temple, and scattering themselves over open) Though, in general, every family in the East bakes the face of the whole earth; yet he has in his providence its own bread, yet there are some public bake-houses strangely preserved them as a distinct people, and in very where the bread of several families is baked at a certain considerable numbers also! He still remeinhers the coreprice. Moses here foretells that the desolation should be nant of their ancestors, and in his providence and grace, so great, and the want so pressing, that there should be he has some very important design in their favour. All many idle hands to be employed, many mouths to be fed, Israel shall yet be saved: and with the Gentiles, they shall and very little for each. 'Ten women shall bake your all be restored to his favour, and under Christ Jesus, the bread in one open, &c.

great Shepherd, become with them, one grand everlasting Verse 29. Ye shall cut the flesh of your sons, &c.] This fold. was literally fulfilled at the siege of Jerusalem.' Josephus' Verse 46. These are the statutes and judgments, &c.) Wars of the Jews, Book vii. chap. 2. gives us a particular | See on ver. 15. This verse appears to be the proper coninstance in dreadful detail, of a woman named Mary, who cluding verse of the whole book : and I rather think that in the extremity of the famine, during the siege, killed her the 27th chapter originally followed the 25th. As the law sucking child, roasted, and had eaten part of it, when dis was anciently written on skins of parchment, sheep or covered by the soldiers! See this threatened, Jer, xix, 9. goat skins, pasted or stitched together, and all rolled up in

Verse 34. Then shall the land enjoy her Sabbaths] one roll, the matter being written in columns : one of these This, Houbigant observes to be a historical truth. "From columns might have been very easily displaced, and thus Saul to the Babylonish captivity are numbered about four whole chapters might have been readily interchanged. It hundred and ninety years, during which period, there is likely that this might have been the case in the present were seventy sabbaths of years; for 7, multiplied by 70, instance. Others endeavour to solve this difficulty, by make 490. Now the Babylonish captivity lasted seventy supposing that the 27th chapter was added after the hook years, and during that time, the land of Israel rested. had been finished; and therefore, there is apparently a Therefore the land rested just as many years, in the Baby- double conclusion, one at the end

of the 26th, and the other lonish captivity, as it should have rested sabbaths, if the at the end of the 27th chapter. However the above may Jews had observed the law relative to the sabbaths of the have been, all the ancient versions agree in concluding land." This is a most remarkable fact, and deserves to be both the chapters in nearly the same way; yet the 26th particularly noticed, as a most literal fulfilment of the pro- chapter must be allowed to be, by far, the most natura] phetic declaration in this verse- Then shall the land enjoy conclusion of the book. her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in The most important points in this chapter have already your enemics land.

been particularly noticed in the notes, and to those on the Verse 33. The land of your enemies shall eat you up] 15th, 34th, and the 44th verses the reader is especially reDoes this refer to the total loss of the len tribes ? These ferred. How unwilling is God to cast off his people! and are so completely swallowed up in some enemies' land, yet how sure is their rejection, if they refuse to obey and that nothing concerning their existence, or place of resi- live to him. No nation has ever been so signally elected dence remains, but mere conjecture,

as the Jews; and yet no nation has ever been so signally

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