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18 And to rule over the day and over the living creature that moveth, which the waters night, and to divide the light from the darkness: brought forth abundantly after their kind, and and God saw that it was good.

every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw 19 And the evening and the morning were the that it was good. fourth day.

22 And God blessed them, saying, & Be fruitful, 20 | And God said, Let the waters bring forth and multiply, and till the waters in the seas, and abundantly the moving creature that hath life, let fowl multiply in the earth. and dfowl that may fly above the earth in the 23 And the evening and the morning were the @open firmament of heaven.

fifth day. 21 And 'God created great whales, and every 24 | And God said, Let the earth bring forth Jer. 31. 35.- Or, creeping - Heb soul. - Heb. let fowl ny.-e Heb. face of

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OF THE SUN.

Verse 20. Let the waters bring forth abundantly) On the nature of the sun there have been various conjec- There is a meaning in these words which is seldom noticed. tures. It was long thought that he was a vast globe of Innumerable millions of animalcula are found in water. fire, 1,334,462 times larger than the earth; and that he Eminent naturalists have discovered not less than 30,000 was continually emitting from his body innumerable mil in a single drop! How inconceivably small must each be, lions of fiery particles, which being extremely divided, and yet each a perfect animal, furnished with the whole answered for the purpose of light and heat, without occa- apparatus of bones, muscles, nerves, heart, arteries, veins, sioning any ignition or burning, except when collected lungs, viscera in general, animal spirits, &c. &c. What in the focus of a convex lens or burning-glass. Against a proof is this of the manifold wisdom of God! But the this opinion, however, many serious and weighty objections fecundity of fishes is another point intended in the text: have been made; and it has been so pressed with difficul no creatures are so prolific as these. A TENCH lays 1000 ties, that philosophers have been obliged to look for a theory eggs a CARP 20,000, and Leuwenhoek counted in a midless repugnant 10 nature and probability. Dr. Herschel's dling-sized cod, nine million, 384,000! Thus, according discoveries, by means of his immensely magnifying tele- to the purpose of God, the waters bring forth abundantly. scopes, have, by the general consent of philosophers, And what a merciful provision is this for the necessities of added a new habitable world to our system, which is the man! Many hundreds of thousands of the earth's inhabisuy. Without stopping to enter into detail

, which would tants live, for a great part of the year, on fish only. Fish be improper here, it is sufficient to say, that these discove- afford not only a wholesome, but a very nutritive diet: ries tend to prove, that what we call the sun is only the they are liable to few diseases, and generally come in atmosphere of that luminary; "that this atmosphere vast quantities to our shores, when in their greatest perfecconsists of various elastic fluids, that are more or less tion. In this also ve may see that the kind providence of lucid and transparent; that as the clouds belonging to our God goes hand in hand with his creating energy. While earth are probably decompositions of some of the elastiche manifests hja wisdom and his power, he is making a fluids belonging to the atmosphere itself

, so we may suppose permanent provision for the sustenance of man through that in the vast atmosphere of the sun, similar decomposi- all his generations. tions may take place, but with this difference, thai the Verse 21. And God created great whales, D157097 Onn decompositions of the elastic fluids of the sun are of a ha-tanneenim ha-gedoleem.] Though this is generally phosphoric nature, and are attended by lucid appearances, understood by the different versions as signifying whales, by giving out light." The body of the sun he considers yet the original must be understood rather as a general as hidden generally from us, by means of this luminous than a particular term, comprising all the great aquatic atmosphere; but what are called the maculæ or spots on animals, such as the various species of whales, the porpoise, the sun, ure real openings in this atmosphere, through the dolphin, the monoceros or narwal, and the shark. God which the opaque body of the sun becomes visible; that delights to show himself in litlle as well as great things: this atmosphere itself is not fiery nor hot, but is the instru- hence he forms animals so minute, that 30,000 can be conment which God designed to act on the caloric or latent tained in one drop of water; and others so great, that heat; and that heat is only produced by the solar light they seem to require almost a whole sca to float in. acting upon and combining with the caloric or matter of fire Verse 22. Lei fowl multiply in the earth.] It is truly contained in the air, and other substances which are heated astonishing with what care, wisdom, and minute skill God by it. This ingenious theory is supported by many plau-has formed the different genera and species of birds, sible reasons and illustrations, which may be seen in the whether intended to live chiefly on land or in water. The paper he read before the Royal Society. On this subject, structure of a single feather affords a world of wonders ; Bee the note on verse 3.

and as God made the fowls that they might fly in the

firmament of heaven, ver. 20. so he has adapted the form There is scarcely any doubt now remaining in the philo- of their bodies, and the structure and disposition of their sophical world, that the moon is a habitable globe. The plumage, for that very purpose. The head and neck in most accurate observations that have been made with the flying, are drawn principally within the breast-bone, 80 most powerful telescopes, have confirmed the opinion. that the whole under-part exhibits the appearance of a The moon seems, in almost every respect, to be a body ship's hull. The wings are made use of as sails, or rather similar to our earth, to have its surface diversified by hill oars, and the tail as a helm or rudder. By means of these, and dale, mountains and valleys, rivers, lakes, and sens. the creature is not only able to preserve the centre of And there is the fullest evidence that our earth serves as a gravity, but also to go with vast speed through the air, moon to the moon herself, differing only in this, that as either straight forward, circularly, in any kind of angles, the earth's surface is thirteen times larger than the moon's, upwards or downwards. In these also God has shown 80 the moon receives from the earth a light thirteen times is skill and his power in the great and in the littlegreater in splendour than that which she imparts to us : in the vast ostrich and cassovary, and in the beautiful and by a very correct analogy, we are led to infer, that all humming-bird, which in plumage excels the splendour the planets and their satellites, or attendant moons, are of the peacock, and in size is almost on a level with the bee. inhabited: for matier seems only to exist for the sake of Verse 24. Let the earth bring forth the living creature, intelligent beings.

&c.) rn vda nephesh chaiyali, a general term to express

all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely The stars, in general, are considered to be suns, similar | varied gradations, from the half-reasoning elephant down to that in our system; each having an appropriate number to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which of planets moving round it: and that, as these stars are seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life. The innumerable, consequently there are innumerable worlds, word vin chaiyeto, in the latter part of the verse, seems to all dependent on the power, protection, and providence of signify all wild animals, as lions, tigers, &c. and especially God. Where the stars are in great abundance, Dr. Herschel such as are carnirorous, or live on flesh, in contradistincsupposes they form primaries and secondaries; i. e. suns tion from domestic animals, such as are graminivorous, or revolving about suns, as planets revolve about the sun in live on grass and other vegetables; and are capable of our system. He considers that this must be the case in being tamed, and applied to domestic purposes.

These latwhat is called the milky way; the stars being there in ter are probably meant by non, behemah, in the text; prodigious quantity: Orihis he gives the following proof: which we translate catlle, such as horses, king sheep dogs, on August 22, 1792, he found that in 41 minutes of time, &c. Creeping thing, vom remes, all the different genera not less than 258,000 stars had passed through the fieid of of serpents, worms, and such animals as have no feet. In view in his telescope. What must God be, who has made, beasts also God has shown his wondrous skill and power; governs, and supports so many worlds !- For the magni: in the vast clephant, or still more colossal mammoth, or tudes, distances, rerolutions, foc. of the sun, moon, megalonyr, the whole race of which appears to be extinch planets, and their salellites, see the preceding TADIES, a few skeletons only remaining. This animal, an astonish

VOL. 1.-5

OF THE MOON.

OF THE STARS.

33

the living creature after his kind, cattle, and the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of kind: and it was so.

the air, and over every living thing that moveth 25 And God made the beast of the earth after upon the earth. his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every 29 | And God said, Behold, I have given you thing that creepeth upon the earth after his every herb & bearing seed, which is upon the kind: and God saw that it was good.

face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which 26 | And God said, . Let us make man in our is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you i* image, after our likeness: and blet them have shall be for meat. dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the 30 And to ievery beast of the earth, and to fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all | every kfowl of the air, and to every thing that the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, creepeth upon the earth.

I have given every green herb for meat: and it 27 So God created man in his own image, in was so. the image of God created he him; d inale and 31 And m God saw every thing that he had female created he them.

made, and, behold, it was very good. And 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto the evening and the morning were the sixth them, o Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish day. a Ch. 5. 1. & 9. 6. Ps 100.3. Eccles. 7. 29. Acts 17. 20, 2, 2. 1 Cor. 11. 7. Eph. 4. Heb. creepeth. --- Heb seeding seed - Ch.9.3 Job 26. 31. Pa 104. 14, 15. &

136. 5. & 146. 7. Acts 14. 17.-i Ps. 145. 15, 16. & 147. 9.-k Job. 38. 41.-1 Heb. Matt 19. 4. Mark 10.6.-e Ch. 9. 1, 7. Lev, 26. 9. Ps 127. 3. & 128. 3, 4.

24. Col. 3. 10. James 3. 9. - Ch.9.2 Pa.6.-cl Cor. 11.1.- Ch. 5.2 Mal. 2. 15.

hving soul--m Ps 101. 24. Lanı. 3. 38. 1 Tim. 4. 4.

ing effect of God's power, He seems to have produced merely image of God; and that image, St. Paul tells us, consisted to show what he could do; and, after suffering a few of them in righteousness, true holiness, and knowledge, Eph. iv. to propagate, he extinguished the race by a merciful provi- 24. Coloss. iii. 10. Hence man was wise in his mind, holy dence, that they might not destroy both man and beast. in his heart, and righteous in his actions. Were even the The mammoth, or megalonyx, is a carnivorous animal, as word of God silent on this subject, we could not infer less the structure of the teeth proves; and of an immense size; from the lights held out to us by reason and common sense. from a considerable part of a skeleton which I have seen, it The text tells us, he was the work of ELOHEEM, the Divine is computed that the animal to which it belonged must have Plurality marked here more distinctly by the plural probeen nearly twenty-five feet high, and sixty in length! The nouns US and OUR; and to show that he was the masterbones of one toe are entire; the toe upwards of three feet in piece of God's creation, all the persons in the Godhead are length. Few elephants have ever been found to exceed represented as united in counsel and effort to produce this eleven feet in height. How wondrous are the works of asionishing creature. God! But his skill and power are not less seen in the And let them have dominion] Hence we see that the beautiful chevrolin, or tragulus, a creature of the antelope dominion was not the image. God created man capable kind, the smallest of all bifid or cloven-footed animals, of governing the world; and when fitted for the office, he whose delicate limbs are scarcely su large as an ordinary fixed him in it. We see God's tender care and parental sogoose-quill; and also in the shrew mouse, perhaps the licitude for the comfort and well-being of this master-piece smallest of the many-toed quadrupeds. In the reptile kind of his workmanship, in creating the world previous to the we see also the same skill and power, not only in the im creation of man. He prepared every thing for his subsistmense snake called Boa constrictor, the mortal foe and ence, convenience, and pleasure, before he brought him conqueror of the royal tiger; but also in the Cobra de Ma- into being : so that comparing little with great things, the nille, a venomous serpent only a little larger than a com house was builded, furnished, and amply stored, by the mon sewing needle.

time the destined tenant was ready to occupy it. Verse 25. And God made the beast of the earth after his It has been supposed by some that God speaks here to kind, &c.] Every thing, both in the animal and vegetable the angels, when he says, Let us make man: but to make world was made so according to its kind, both in genus and this a likely interpretation, these persons must prove, 1. species, as to produce its own kind through endless genera- That angels were then created. 2. That angels could assist tions. Thus the several races of animals and plants have in a work of creation. 3. That angels were themselves been kept distinct from the foundation of the world to the made in the image and likeness of God. If they were present day. This is a proof that all future generations of not, it could not be said in our image; and it does not plants and animals, have been seminally included in those appear from any part in the Sacred Writings, that any which God formed in the beginning.

creature but man was made in the image of God.-See Verse 26. And God said, Let us make man] It is evi- | the note on Psalm viii. 5. dent that God intends to impress the mind of man with a Verse 28. And God blessed them] Marked them as sense of something extraordinary in the formation of his being under his especial protection, and gave

them

power body and soul, when he introduces the account of his crea to propagate and multiply their own kind on the earth. A tion thus : Let US make man. The word DIN Adam, large volume would be insufficient to contain what we which we translate man, is intended to designate the species know of the excellence and perfection of man, even in his of animal, as ini chaielo, marks the wild beasts, that live present degraded fallen state. Both his body and soul are in general a solitary life; nona behemah, domestic or gre- adapted with astonishing wisdom to their residence and garious animals; and vor remes, all kinds of reptiles, occupations; and also the place of their residence, as well from the largest snake to the microscopic eel. Though the as the surrounding objects, in their diversity, color, and same kind of organization may be found in man, as appears mutual relations, to the mind and body of this lord of in the lower animals, yet there is a variety and complica- the creation. The contrivance, arrangement, action, and tion in the parts, a delicacy of structure, a nice arra ge- reaction of the different parts of the body, show the admiment, a judicious adaptation of the different members to rable skill of the wondrous Creator ; while the various their great offices and functions, a dignity of mien, and a powers and faculties of the mind acting on, and by, the perfection of the whole, which are soughi for in vain in all different organs of this body, proclaim the soul's divine other creatures. See ch. iii. 22.

origin, and demonstrate, that he who was made in the In our image, after our likeness] What is said above image and likeness of God, was a transcript of his own refers only to the body of man; what is here said refers to excellency, destined to know, love, and dwell with his his soul. This was made in the image and likeness of Maker throughout eternity. God. Now, as the Divine Being is infinite, he is neither Verse 30. I have given every green herb for meat] It limited by parts, nor definable by passions ; therefore he can seems from this, says an eminent philosopher, that man have no corporeal image after which he made the body of was originally intended to live upon vegetables only; and man. The image and likeness must necessarily be intel as no change was made in the structure of men's bodies lectual: his mind, his soul, must have been formed after the after the flood, it is not probable that any change was made nature and perfections of his God. The human mind is in the articles of their food. It may also be inferred from still endowed with most extraordinary capacities : it was this passage, that no animal whatever was originally more so when issuing out of the hands of its Creator, designed to prey on others; for nothing is here said to be God was now producing a spirit, and a spirit too, formed given to any beast of the earth, besides green herbs. Dr. after the perfections of his own nature. God is the fount-Priestley. - Before sin entered into the world, there could ain whence this spirit issued; hence the stream must resem- be, at least, no violent deaths, if any death at a!). ble the Spring which produced it. God is holy, just, wise, Verse 31. And beholıl, it was very good] IND 10 lobh good, and perfect; 90 must be the soul that sprang from meod. Superlatively, or only good: as good as they him: there could be in it nothing impure, unjust, ignorant, could be. The plan wise, the work well executed, the evil, low, base, mean, or vile. It was created after the different parts properly arranged, their nature, limite, mode

CHAPTER II.

seventh day from all his work which he had

made. The seventh day is consecrated for a sabbath, and the reasona assignal, 1-3. A recapitulation of the six days work of creation, 1-7. The ganten of Ellen 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and plantel, les uren, 9. Ils rivers, and the countrica watereul by them, 10-11 sanctified it: because that in it he had reeted Alam placed in the garden, and the comman given not to eat of the tree of knowledge on pain of death, 15-17. God purposes to form a companion for the from

all his work which God d created and made. man, 13." The diferent animals brought to Adam, that he mighe assign them their names, 19, 2) "The creation of the woman, 21, 22. The insituciou of marriage, 4 1 . These are the generations of the heav23, 24. The purity and innocence of our first parents, 25.

ens and of the earth when they were created, Thuhethemeaxenbandsthe earth, were fin- imahen day that the Lord God made the earth

2 And on the seventh day God ended his 5 And every plant of the field before it was work which he had made; and he rested on the in the earth, and every herb of the field before

Ps 33.6.- Exod. 2. 11. & 31. 17. Deut. 5. 14. Hebr. 4.4.- Neh. 9. 14. Isai. 58. 13.

d Heb. created to make-- Ch. 1, 1. Ps. 90. 1, 2-1 Ch. 1. 12. Pe 104. 14.

of existence, manner of propagation, habits, mode of wisdom and mercy. Read so as to understand, for these sustenance, &c. &c. properly and permanently established things were writien for thy learning : therefore mark and secured; for every thing was formed to the utmost what thou readest, and inwardly digest, deeply and seriperfection of its nature, so that nothing could be added or ously meditate on what thou hast marked, and pray to the diminished without encumbering the operations of matter Father of lights that he may open thy understanding, that and spirit on the one hand, or rendering them ineflicient 10 thou mayesi know these Holy Scriptures, which are able the end proposed, on the other; and God has so done all to make thee wise unto salvation. these marvellous works, as to be glorified in all, by all, God made thee and the universe, and governs all things and through all.

according to the counsel of his will: that will is infinite And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.] goodness, that counsel is unerring wisdom. While under The song ereb, which we translate evening, comes from the direction of this counsel, thou canst not err; while the root sny árab to mingle, and properly signifies that under the influence of this will, thou canst not be wretched. state in which neither absolute darkness nor full light Give thyself up to his teaching, and submit to his authority; prevails. It has nearly the same grammatical significa- and after guiding thee here by his counsel, he will at fast tion with our twilight, the time that elapses from the bring thee to his giory. Every object that meets thy eye, setting of the sun iill he is eighteen degrees below the should teach thee reverence, submission, and gratitude. horizon, and eighteen degrees before he arises.

Thus we

The earth and its productions were made for thee ; and have the morning and evening twilight, or mixture of the providence of thy heavenly Father, infinitely diverlight and darkness, in which neither prevails ; because, sified in its operations, watches over and provides for while the sun is within eighteen degrees of the horizon, thee. Behold the firmament of his power, the sun, moon, either after his setting, or before his rising, the atmosphere planets, and stars, which he has formed, not for himself, has power to refract the rays of light and send them back for he needs none of these things, but for his intelligent on the earth. The Hebrews extended the meaning of this offspring. What endless gratification has he designed thee, term to the whole duration of nighs, because it was ever a in placing within thy reach these astonishing effects of his mingled state, the moon, the planets, or the stars, tem- wisdom and power, and in rendering thee capable of pering the darkness with some rays of light. From the searching out their wonderful relations and connexions ; ereb of Moses came the Eps@os Erebus, of Hesiod, Aris- and of knowing himself the source of all perfection, by tophanes, and other heathens, which they deified, and having made thee in his own image, and in his own likemade, with No.r, or night, the parent of all things. ness! It is true, thou art fallen: but he has found out a

The morning) pa boquer, from pa baquar, he Ransom. God so loved thee, in conjunction with the looked out-a beautiful figure, which represents the morn world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever ing as looking out at the east, and illuminating the whole believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting of the upper hemisphere.

life. Believe on him, through him alone cometh salvation ; Thus ends a chapter containing the most extensive, most and the fair and holy image of God, in which thou wert profound, and most sublime truths, that can possibly come created, shall be again restored; he will build thee up as within the reach of the human intellect. How unspeakably at the first

, restore thy judges and counsellors as at the begin. are we indebted to God for giving us a revelation of his ning, and in thy second creation, as in thy first, will WILL and of his WORKS! Is it possible to know the mind pronounce thee to be very good, and thou shalt show forth of God but from himself? It is impossible. Can those the virtues of Him, by whom thou art created anew in things and services which are worthy of

, and pleasing to, Christ Jesus. Amen. an infinitely pure, perfect, and holy Spirit, be ever found

NOTES ON CHAPTER II. out by reasoning and conjecture? Never! for the Spirit Verse 1. And all the host of them.) The word host of God alone can know the mind of God; and by this signifies literally an army, composed of a number of comSpirit he has revealed himself to man: and in this revela- panies of soldiers under their respective leaders; and tion has taught him not only to know the glories and seems here elegantly applied to the various celestial bodies perfections of the Creator, but also his own origin, duty, in our system, placed by the Divine Wisdom under the inand interest. Thus far it was essentially necessary that fluence of the sun. From the original word way tsaba, a God should reveal his will; but if he had not given a host, some suppose the Sabeans had their name, because revelation of his works, the origin, constitution, and of their paying divine honours to the heavenly bodies, nature of the universe, could never have been adequately From the Septuagint version of this place, as 0 105MOS known. · The world by wisdom knew not God : this is HUTwv, all their ornaments, we learn the true meaning of demonstrated by the writings of the most learned and the word xorp25, commonly translated world, which signiintelligent heathens. They had no just, no rational notion fies a decorated or adorned whole or system. And this of the origin and design of the universe. Moses alone, of refers to the beautiful order, harmony, and regularity, all ancient writers, gives a consistent and rational account which subsist among the various parts of the creation. of the creation ; an account which has been confirmed by This translation must impress the reader with a very the investigations of the most accurate philosophers. But favourable opinion of these ancient Greek translators: where did he learn this? “In Egypt. That is impos- had they not examined the works of God with a philosible: for the Egyptians themselves were destitute of this sophic eye, they never could have given this turn to the knowledge. The remains we have of their old historians, original. all posterior to the time of Moses, are egregious for their Verse 2. On the SEVENTH day God ended, &c.] It is contradictions and absurdity: and the most learned of the the general voice of Scripture, that God finished the whole Greeks, who borrowed from them, have not been able to of the creation in six days, and rested the seventh ; giving make out, from their conjoint stock, any consistent and us an example that we might labour six days, and rest the credible account. Moses has revealed the mystery that lay seventh from all manual exercises. It is worthy of notice, hid from all preceding ages, because he was taught it by that the Septuagint, the Syriac, and the Samaritan, read the inspiration of the Almighty.

the sixth day instead of the seventh ; and this should be Reader, thou hast now before thee the most ancient and considered the genuine reading, which appears from these most authentic history in the world, a history that contains versions, to have been originally that of the Hebrew text. the first written discovery that God has made of himself to How the word sixth became changed into seventh, may mankind. A discovery of his own Being in his wisdom, be easily conceived from this circumstance. It is very power, and goodness, in which thou and the whole buman likely that, in ancient times, all numerals were signified race are so intimately concerned. How much thou art by letters, and not by words at full length. This is the indebted to Him for this discovery, He alone can teach case in the most ancient Greek and Latin MSS. and in thee; and, cause thy heart to fecl its obligations to his I almost all the rabbinical writinge. When these nu:neral

d

it grew: for the LORD God had not a caused it ng And the LORD God formed man of the to rain

upon

the earth, and there was not a man e dust of the ground, and í breathed into his to till the ground.

& nostrils the breath of life; and "man became 6 But there went up a mist from the earth, a living soul. and watered the whole face of the ground. 8 T And the Lord God planted ia garden

a Job 33. 25, 27, 28.- Ch 3. 23.-c Or, a mist schich went up from, &c.

d Heb. dust of the ground. Ch. 3. 19, 23. Ps. 103. 14. Ecel 12 7. Isaj, 64.8. I Cor. 15. 47.- Job 3. 4. Acts 17. 25.-g Ch. 7. 22. s. 2 22.-h1 Cor. 15. 15.i Ch. 13. 10. Isa. 51. 3. Ezek. 28. 13. Joel 23.

lctters became changed for words at full length, two letters, There are about three of the ancient nobility who still nearly similar, might be mistaken for each other : " rau keep up this honourable custom, from which the very name stands for six, i zain for seven : how easy to mistake of their nobility is derived. We have already seen, ch. i. 1. these letters for each other, when writing the words al with what judgment our Saxon ancestors expressed Deus, full length, and so give birth to the reading in question ! the Supreme Being, by the term God; and we see the

Verse 3. And God blessed the seronth day) The same judgment consulted by their use of the term Lord, original word 793 barac, which is generally rendered to to express the word Dominus, by which terms the Vula bless, has a very extensive meaning: It is frequently used gate version, which they used, expresses Elohim and Jein Scripture in the sense of speaking good of or to a horah, which we translate Lord God. God is the good person; and hence literally and properly rendered by the Being, and Lord, is the dispenser of breud, the Giver of Septuagint sunggyory from ou, good or 'well

, and new, I every good and perfect gift, who liberally affords the speak. So God has spoken well of the sabbath, and good bread that perisheth to every man; and has amply proto them who conscientiously observe it. Blessing is vided the bread that endures unto eternal life for every applied both to God and man; but when God is sail to human soul. With what propriety then does this word bless, we generally understand by the expression that he apply to the Lord Jesus, who is emphatically called the communicates some good : but when man is said to bless Bread of Life, the Bread of God, which cometh down God, we surely cannot imagine that he bestows any gift or from heaven, and which is given for the life of the world! confers any benefit on his Maker. The truth is, that when John vi. 13. 48. 51. What a pity that this most impres. God is said to bless, either in the old or New Testament, sive and instructive meaning of a word in such general it signifies his speaking good to man ; and this comprises use, were not more extensively known, and more particuthe whole of his exceeding great and precious promises. larly regarded ! And when man is said to bless God, it ever implies that he Verse 5. Every plant of the field before it was in the speaks good of him, for the giving and fulfilment of his earth] It appears that God created every thing, not only promises. This observation will be of general use in con perfect as it respects its nature, but also in a state of masidering the various places where the word occurs in the turity; so thai every vegetable production appeared at Sacred Writings. Reader, God blesses thee, when, by his once in full growth; and this was necessary, that man, promises, he speaks good to thee ; and thou dost bless when he came into being, might find every thing ready for him, when, from a consciousness of his kindness to thy his use. body and soul, thou art thankful unto him, and speakest Verse 6. There went up a mist] This passage appears good of his name.

to have greatly embarrassed many commentators.

The Because that in it he had rested] nav shebath, from plain meaning seems to be this: that the aqueous vapours shabath, he rested ; and hence, sabbath, the name of the ascending from the earth, and becoming condensed in the seventh day, signifying a day of rest-Rest to the body colder regions of the atmosphere, fell back upon the earth from labour and toil; and rest to the soul from all worldly in the form of ders, and by this means an equal portion care and anxieties. He who labours with his mind hy of moisture was distributed to the roots of plants, &c.worldly schemes and plans on the sabbath-day, is as cul As Moses has said, verse 5. that the Lord had not caused pable as he who labours with his hands in his accustomed it to rain upon the earth, he probably designed to teach calling. It is by the authority of God that the sabbath is us in verse 6. how rain is produced, viz. by the condensaset apart for rest and religious purposes, as the six days of tion of the aqueous vapours, which are generally, through the week are appointed for labour. How wise is this pro the heat of the sun and other causes, raised to a consideravision! It is essentially necessary, not only to the body ble height in the atmosphere, where, meeting with cold of man, but to all the animals employed in his service. air, the watery particles, which were hefore so small and Take this away, and the labour is too great ; both man light that they could float in the air, becoming condensed, and beast would fail under it. Without this consecrated i. e. many drops being driven into one, become too heavy day, religion itself would fail, and the human mind, be to be any longer suspended, and then, through their own coming sensualized, would soon forget its origin and end. gravity, fall down in the form which we term rain. Even as a political regulation, it is one of the wisest and Verse 7. God formed man of the dust) In the most most beneficent in its effects of any ever instituted. Those distinct manner God shows us ihat man is a compound who habitually disregard its moral obligation, are to man

being, having a body and a soul, distinctly and separately not only good for nothing, but are wretched in themselves, created; the body out of the dust of the earth, the soul a curse to society, and often end their lives miserably. See immediately breathed from God himself. Does not this the notes on Exod. xx. 8. xxi. 12. xxiv. 16. and xxxi. strongly mark, that the soul and body are not the same 13. to which the reader is particularly desired to refer. thing? The body derives its origin from the earth, or, as

As God formed both the mind and body of man on noy ấpher implies, the dust: hence, because it is earthy, principles of activity, so he assigned him proper employ- it is decomposable, and perishable. 'Of the soul it is said, ment; and it is his decree, that the mind shall improve God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life: OMAN by exercise, and the body find increase of vigour and ruach chayam, the breath of LIVES; i. e. animal and intelhealth, in honest labour. He who idles away his time in lectual. While this breath of God expanded the lungs, the si: days, is equally culpable in the sight of God, as he and set them in play, his inspiration gave both spirit and who works on the seventh. The idle person is ordinarily understanding. clothed with rags; and the sabbath breakers frequently Verse 3. A garden easticard in Eden] Though the come to an ignominious death.--Reader, beware! word ivy Eden signifies pleasure, or delight, it is certainly

Verse 4. In the day that the Lord God made, &c.] the name of a place. See ch. iv. 16. 2 Kings xix. 12. Isa. The word ni Yehovah, iş for the first time mentioned xxxvii. 12. Ezek. xxvii. 23. Amos i. 5. And such places here. What it signifies, see on Exod. xxxiv. 5, 6.- probably received their name from their fertility, pleasant Wherever this word occurs in the Sacred Writings we situation, &c. In this light the Septuagint have viewed translate it LORD, which word is, through respect and it, as they render the passage thus : CUTIUSIVO 8895 **preverence, always printed in capitals. Though our Eng: adicov sv Esox, God planted a paradise in Eden. Hence lish term Lord does not give the particular meaning of the word paradise has been introduced into the New the original word, yet it conveys a strong and noble sense. Testament, and is generally used to signify a place of Lord is a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon hlayond, hla- exquisite pleasure and delight. From this the ancient ford, afterward written Lovend, loverd, and lastly Lord; heathens borrowed their ideas of the gardens of the Hesfrom hlaf, hlaf, bread: hence our word loaf: and fono, perides, where the trees bore golden fruit; the gardens of ford, to supply, to give out. The word, therefore, implies Adonis, a word which is evidently derived from the Hethe girer of bread: i. e. he who deals out all the necessa brew 17y Aden; and hence the origin of sacred gardens, ries of life. Our ancient English noblemen were accus or enclosures, dedicated to purposes of devotion, some tomed to keep a continual open house, where all their comparatively innocent, others impure. The word paradise vassals, and all strangers, had full liberty to enter, and eat is not Greek; in Arabic and Persian it signifies a garden, as much as they would; and hence those noblemen had a vineyard, and also the place of the blessed. The Mothe honourable name of lords, i.e. the dispensers of bread. I hammedans say, that God created the cosa si ais

* eastward in Eden; and there he put the man the garden; and from thence it was parted, and whom he had formed.

became into four heads. 9 And out of the ground made the Lord God 11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it to grow d every tree that is pleasant to the which compasseth & the whole land of Havilah, sight, and good for food; e the tree of life also where there is gold; in the midst of the garden, and the tree of 12. And the gold of that land is good : b there knowledge of good and evil.

is bdellium and the onyx stone. 10 | And a river went out of Eden to water 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon:

a Ch. 391.-hCh. 4. 16. 2 Kings 19. 12 Ezek. 27. 23.-c Ver. 15. Ezek. 31. 8.

e Ch 3. 22 Prov. 3 18. & 11. 30. Rev. 27. & 22 2, 14.- Ver. 17.

g Ch. 25. 18. 1 Sam. 15. 7.- Num. 11. 7. Exod. 16. 81.

Jennet al Ferdoos, the garden of paradise, from light, and of the moon, others in the moon itself; some in the midthe prophets and wise men ascended thither. Wilmet dle regions of the air, or beyond the earth's attraction; places it after the root or farada, to separate, especially some on the earth, others under the earth, and others a person or place, for the purposes of devotion, but sup within the earth; some have fixed it at the north pole, poses it to be originally a Persian word, vox originis others at the south; some in Tartary, some in China; Persicæ quam in suâ linguâ conscrrarum Armeni. As some on the borders of the Ganges, some in the island of it is a word of doubtful origin, its etymology is uncertain. Ceylon; some in Armenia, others in Africa, under the

Verse 9. Every tree that is pleasant to the sight, &c.] equator; some in Mesopotamia, others in Syria, Persia, If we take up these expressions literally, they may bear Arabia, Babylon, Assyria, and in Palestine ; some have the following interpretation: the tree pleasant to the sight condescended to place it in Europe, and others have conmay mean every beautiful tree or plant, which for shape, tended, it either exists not, or is invisible, or is merely of colour, or fragrance, delights the senses; such as flower a spiritual nature, and that the whole account is to be ing shrubs, &c.

spiritually understood! That there was such a place The tree that is good for food] All fruit-bearing trees, once, there is no reason to doubt; the description given by whether of the pulpy fruits, as apples, &c. or of the kernel Moses is too particular and circumstantial to be capable or nut kind, such as dates, and nuts of different sorts, of being understood in any spiritual or allegorical way; together with all esculent vegetables.

As well might we contend, that the persons of Adam and The tree of life] sun chaiyim, of lives, or life-giving Eve were allegorical, as that the place of their residence tree, every medicinal tree, herb, and plant, whose healing was such. virtues are of great consequence to man in his present The most probable account of its situation is that given state, when, through sin, diseases of various kinds have by Hadrian Reland. He supposes it to have been in seized on the human frame, and have commenced that Armenia, near the sources of the great rivers Euphrates, process of dissolution which is to reduce them to their Tigris, Phasis, and Arares. He thinks Pison was the primitive dust. Yet, by the use of these trees of life, Phasis, a river of Cholchis; emptying itself into the Euxine those different vegetable medicines, the health of the body sea, where there is a city called Chabala, the pronunciation may be preserved for a time, and death kept at a distance of which is nearly the same with that of Havilah, or again Though the exposition given here may be a general mean-Charilah, according to the Hebrew, the dau being ing for these general terms, yet it is likely that this tree of changed in Greek to beta . This country was famous life, which was placed in the midst of the garden, was for gold, whence the fable of the Golden Fleece, attempted intended as an emblem of that life which man should ever to be carried away from that country by the heroes of live, provided he continued in obedience to his Maker. Greece. The Gihon he thinks to be the Araxcs, which And probably the use of this tree was intended as the runs into the Caspian sea, both the words having the same means of preserving the body of man in a state of con- signification, viz. a rapid motion. The land of Cush, tinual vital energy, and an antidote against death. This washed by this river, he supposes to be the country of the seems strongly indicated from ch. iii. 22.

Cussæi of the ancients. The Hiddekel all agree to be And the tree of knowledge of good and evil) Con- the Tigris; and the other river, Phrat, or no Perath, sidering this also in a merely literal point of view, it may to be the Euphrates. All these rivers rise in the same mean any tree or plant which possessed the property of tract of mountainous country, though they do not arise increasing the knowledge of what was in nature, as the from one head. esculent vegetables had of increasing bodily vigour ; and Verse 12. There is bdellium (157 bedolach) and the that there are some aliments which, from their physical onyx stone, DOWN ON Eben ha-shoham. Bochart thinks influence, have a tendency to strengthen the understanding that the bedolach, or bdellium, means the pearl-oyster ; and invigorate the rational faculty, more than others, has and shoham is generally understood to mean the onyx, a been supposed by the wisest and best of men: yet here precious stone, which has its name from ovuč, a man's nail, much more seems intended; but what, is very difficult to io the colour of which it nearly approaches. It is imposbe ascertained. Some very eminent men have contended, sible to say what is the precise meaning of the original that the passage should be understood allegorically; and words; and at this distance of time and place it is of little that the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, means consequence. simply that prudence, which is a mixture of knowledge, Verse 15. Put him into the garden to dress and to care, caution, and judgment, which was prescribed to keep it.] Horticulture, or gardening, is the first kind of regulate the whole of man's conduct. And it is certain, employment on record; and that in which man was that to know good and evil, in different parts of Scripture, engaged, while in a state of perfection and innocence. means such knowledge and discretion as leads a man to Though the garden may be supposed to produce all things understand what is fil and unfit; what is not proper to be spontaneously, as the whole vegetable surface of the earth done, and what should be performed. But how could the certainly did at the creation; yet dressing and tilling were acquisition of such a faculty be a sin? Or can we sup- afterward necessary, to maintain the different kinds of pose that such a faculty could be wanting when man was plants and vegetables in their perfection, and to repress in a state of perfection? To this it may be answered, the luxuriance. Even in a state of innocence, we cannot conprohibition was intended to exercise this faculty in man,ceive it possible that man could have been happy if inactire. that it should constantly teach him this moral lesson, that God gave him work to do, and his employment contributed there were some things fit and others unfit to be done ; to his happiness: for the structure of his body, as well as and that, in reference to this point, the tree itself should be of his mind, plainly proves that he was never intended for both a constant teacher and monitor. The eating of its a merely contemplative life. fruit would not have increased this moral faculty, but the Verse 17. Of the tree of knowledge-thou shalt not prohibition was intended to exercise the faculty he already cat] This is the first precept God gave to man, and it was possessed. There is certainly nothing unreasonable in given as a test of obedience, and a proof of his being in a this explanation : and, viewed in this light, the passage dependent, probationary state. It was necessary, that loses much of its obscurity. Vitringa, in his Dissertation while constituted lord of this lower world, he should know De Arbore prudentia in paradiso, ejusque myslerio, that he was only God's vicegerent, and must be accountstrongly contends for this interpretation.-See more on able to him for the use of his mental and corporeal powers, chap. in. 3.

and for the use he made of the different creatures put under Verse 10. A river went out of Eden, &c.] It would his care. The man, from whose mind the strong impresastonish an ordinary reader, who should be obliged to con- sion of this dependence and responsibility is erased, necessult different commentators and critics on the situation sarily loses sight of his origin and end, and is capable of of the terrestrial paradise, to see the vast variety of any species of wickedness. As God is sovereign, he has opinions by which they are divided. Some place it in the a right to give to his creatures what commands he thinks third heaven; others in the fourth; some within the orbit proper. An intelligent creature, without a law to regulate

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