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escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto way of Lashan: and Og the king of Bashan Sihon king of the Amorites.

went out igainst thein, he, and all his people, to 30 We have shot at thein: Heshbon is per- the battle at Edrei. ished even unto Dibon, and we have laid them 31 And the Lord said unto Moses, h Fear him wilste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto not: for I have delivered him into thy hand, and d Medeba.

all his people, and his land; and ithou shalt do 31 Thus Israeldwelt in the land of the Amorites. to him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the

32 And Moses sent to spy out Jaazer, and Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon. they took the villages thereof, and drove out the 35 So they smote him, and his sons, and all Amiorites that were there.

his people, until there was none left him alive: 33 1 'And they turned, and went up by the and they possessed his land.

e Jer. 43 18, 2d Isai. 15. 2. Ch. 32 1. Jer. 13. 32 -- Deut. 3. 1. & 29. 7.

& Josh. 13. 12-h Deut. 3. 2 - Ver. 24. Psa 135. 10, 11, & 136. 20.--- Deut. 3.3, 4, &c.

1. Part

III. Part.

the whole country of Sihon, from Heshbon to Dibon, and fiery serpents-after which they marched to Oboth, and from Nuphah even to Medebah.-See Isai. xv. 1, 2. thence to ije-abarim, in the wilderness east of Moab.

The whole poem, divided into its proper hemistichs, as The encampments of the Israelites amounting to forty-tico, it stands in Kennicott's Hebrew Bible, is as follows: are recorded all together, in historical succession, in chap.

xxxiii. where lje-abarim is the 38th-Dibongad, 39Vene 27. Come ye to Meshbon, let it he relailt: The city of Sihon, let it be establishal

Almon-Diblathaim, 40-mountains of Abarim, 41-and Verse 23. Forfrou lleshton the fire went out,

the plains of Moab by Jordan, 42. This regular detail And a flame from the city of Sihon: Ti hath consumed the city of Moab,

in chap. xxxii. has occasioned great perplexity, as to With the lords of the heights of Arnon.

chap. xxi. where, after the stations at Oboth and lje-abaII. Part

Tim, in verses 10 and 11, we have, in verses 19 and 20, the
Verse 2 Alas for thee, O Moab!
Thun ham perishel, Opeople of Chemnoski

words Mattanah, Nahaliel, and Bamoth; which are He hath given up his figitive sons

usually considered as the proper names of three places, but Aid his daughters into captivity, To the king of the Amoriles, Silon.

widely different from the three proper names after lje-aba

rim, in the catalogue at chap. xxxii. Verse 30. But on them have WE lifted destruction,

"But there is, in reality, no inconsistency here. In the From Hexhalon even to Dilon: We have destroynd even to Nophah,

plain and historical catalogue (chap. xxxiii.) the words The fire did reach to Medebah.

are strictly the proper names of the three places; but See Konnicoll's Remarks.

here the words Mattanah, Nahaliel, and Bamoth, follow Verse 35. So they smote him (Og) and all his sons) some lines of poetry, and seem to form a continuation of There is a curious note of Dr. Lightfoot here, of which I the song. They evidently express figurative and poetical should think it wrong to deprive the reader.

ideas. The verbs journeyed from, and pitched in, are “Sihon and Og conquered, A. M. 2553. of the life of not found here, though necessary to prose narration; see Moses 120, from the Exodus 40. It is now six and twenty verses 10 and 11 here, and chap. xxxiii. Lastly, verse the generations from the creation; or from Adam to Moses; 20th, (in this 21st chapter) usually supposed to express the and accordingly doth Psalın cxxxvi. rehearse the durable- last er.campment, does not. Pisgah signifies a hill; and ness of God's mercy sir and twenty times over, beginning the Israelites could not encamp on the top of any single the story with the creation : and ending it in the conquest hill, such as this is described. Balak took Balom, to the of Sihon and Og. The numerals of the name on Jehovuh, top of Peor, which looketh toward Jeshimon, (xxiii. 28.) amount to the sum of six and twenty.

which Peor undoubtedly was in Moab. He took him to On some difficulties in this chapter, Dr. Kennicott makes another hill in Moab; when he took him (xxiii. 14.) to the following observations:

the top of Pisgah, in the field of Zophim. And if the “ This one chapter has several very considerable diffi- Pisgah, or hill, in xxi. 20. was in the country of Balak, culties, and some verses as now translated, are remarkably it could not point out the last encampment, which was not unintelligible. A true state of this chapter is not, how- in Balak's country, but north of Arnon. ever, to be despaired of; and it has in it some circunstances * The word Mattanah probably alludes to a place diswhich merit more than common attention. It contains the tinguished by some gift or blessing from God. Fagius history of the last part of the travels of the Israelites in says--Nomen loci, ab erentu aquarum quas Dominus ibi their way to the promised land: beginning with them at dedit, sic uppellati, nang nam significat donum-'The mount Hor, the thirty-fourth encampment, and concluding name of the place was so called, from the circumstance of with them, as in their forty-second and last encampment, the waters which the Lord gave there: for Mattanah, signear Jordan, in the country which they had acquired by nifies a gift.' 5x95Nahaliel, is torrentes Dei: i. e. conquest over Sihon, king of the Amorites.

great streams, particularly seasonable or salutary. And “İt begins with saying--that king Arad the Canaanite, nipa Bamoth, (ver. 28.) may point out any high places, of toho diell in the South, (in the land of Canaan, Numb. signal benefit, in the country of Moab: or it may answer xxxiii. 40.) attacked Israel, and was defeated, and that Is to the last station but one, which was the mountains of rael destroyed their cities, and that, after destroying these Abarim. If, therefore, these words were meant to exCanaanite cities, and consequently after being in a part press poetically some eminent blessing, what blessing was of Canaan, a part of the very country they were going to so likely to be then celebrated as copious strcams of on the wesi of the Dead sea, they returned toward the Red water ? And after they had wandered near forty years sea, and near the eastern tongue or gulf of the Red sea, through many a barren desert, and after (compare Deut. on the south of Edom, marched round Edom to the east viii. 15.) having passed through that great and terrible of the Dead sea, in order to enter Canaan from the east wilderness, wherein were fiery scrpents and drought, side of Jordan!

where there was no water: it is no wonder they should “This surprising representation of so vast and danger- shout for joy at finding water in plenty, and finding it alous a march, quite unnecessarily performed, is owing to most on the banks of Arnon, the last river they were to two circumstances. The first is, (xxi. 1.) the Canaanites pass in the way to their last station east of Jordan. No heard that Israel was coming by the way of the spies-- | wonder they should sing, in poctio rapture--that after the roeaning, by the way the spies went from Kadesh-barnea wilderness was (Mattanah) ihe Gift of God; meaning the into Canaan. But this being impossible, because Israel | great well in Moab, dug by public authority-and no won. had now marched from Mleribah-kadesh to mount Hor, der, that, after such a gift, there were (Nahaliel) blessed beyond Ezion-geber, and were turning round Edom to streams, by which they passed, till they came to (Bamoth) the southeast; it is happy that the word rendered spics, in the high places, from which, perhaps, these streams deour version, is in the Greek a proper name (Atharim) scended. And the thanksgiving ends, where the blessing which removes that difficulty. And the other difliculty, was no longer wanted, on their coming down into the ral. (verses 2, 3.) is removed by the Greek version likewise ; ley, along the banks of Arnon, which was then the north according to which the vow made, with the fact subse- boundary of Moab. quent, does not signify destroying the Canaanite cities, “The Israelites had spent no less than thirty-eight years but devoting them to destruction at some future time. - in coming from Kadesh-barnea to their encampment north See Wall's Crit. Notes.

of Zared. Here, at this fortieth station, they were com"It proceeds with saying, that after defeating the Ca- | manded to pass through Moab, by ny Ar, the chief city; naanites at mount Hor, they journeyed from mount Hor but were not to stop till they caine to the ralley on the by the way of the Red sea (in the road from Ammon, south of Arnon. At this last station but one, they probably Midian, &c. to the eastern gulf of the Red sea) to com- continued no longer than was necesary for sending mespass the land of Edom-that on their murmuring for sengers to Sihon, king of the Amoriles, at Heshben, and want both of bread and of water, they were punished by I receiving his answer. They then crossed the Arnon: and

4 And Moab said unto the elders of Midian, CHAPTER XXII.

Now shall this company lick up all that are The Israelites pitch in the plains of Moah, 1. Balak, king of Moab, is greatly terrified, 2- A ments to Balaam, a diviner, to come and cure them, 5, 6. The

round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass elders of Moah take a reward, and carry it to Balaam,? He inquires of the Lord of the field. And Balak, the son of Zippor, was and is pacitively ordered not to go with them, 8-12. He communicates this to the elders of Moab, 13. They return to Paluk with this inforination, 11. He se'ns king of the Moabites at that time. Bonne of his princes to Balaam with promises of great honour, 15-17. He crosults God, and is permitted to go on certain conditions, 15--20. Balam sela ofl-is op

5 + He sent messengers therefore unto Baposed by an angel at the house negeri cand pero hay trong 3 cho tlaan, the son of Beor, to 9 Pethor, which is by rues to reprove him, 21--3. Balam sees the angel, and is reproved by him, 31-33. He humblea him, and offers to go lack, 31, but is orderolio pructtu on the same the river of the land of the children of his people, conditions as before, 35. The king of Moab goes out to meet hin, 36 llis aderens to him, 37, Balaan's fira answer, 3. Balak sacrifices, aind takes Balan to the to call him, saying, Behold, there is a people high places of Baal, that he may see the whole of the Israelitish can.p. 39-1. come out from Egypt; behold, they cover the An. Exod. Isr.

ward, and pitched the plains of me: Moab, on this side Jordan, by Jericho.

6 Come now, therefore, I pray thee, curse 2 | And in Balak, the son of Zippor, saw all me this people ; for they are too mighty for me: that Israel had done to the Amorites.

peradventure I shall prevail, that we may smite 3 And Moab was sore afraid of the people, them, and that I may drive them out of the because they were many: and Moab was dis- land: for I wot that he whom thou blessest is tressed because of the children of Israel. blessed, and he whom thou cursest is cursed.


A Nardhand placed in sneebsite for face of the earth, and they abide over against

! Ch 33. 18.-.n Judg. 11. 25.---n Exod. 15. 15.-- Ch. 31. 8. Josh. 13. 21.-p Deut. 2 4. Josh. 13. 22 & 21. 9. Neh. 13. 1, 2. Mic. 6. 5. 2 Pet. 2. 15. Jude 11. Rev. 2 14.

See Ch. 2.7. Deut. 23. 4.--. Hebr. eye.-- Ch. 2. 7.

having vanquished Sihon and Og, took possession of the See Dr. KENNICOTT's Remarks upon Select Passages forty-second, and last encampment.

in the Old Testament. “I'his one chapter has three pieces of poetry, either

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII. fragments or complete: and poetry, seldom found in an his Verse 1. They pitched in the plains of Moab] They torical narrative, may be here accounted for from the ex- had taken no part of the country that at present appertainuberance of joy which must have affected these wearied ed to the Moabites—they had taken only that part which travellers, when arriving thus happily near their journey's had formerly belonged to this people, but had been taken end. What occurs first, is in verse 14; and has often been from them by Sihon, king of the Amorites. called the fragment of an old Amorite song. But it On this side Jordan] On the east side. By Jericho may have been Amorite or Moabite, or either or neither, That is, over against it. for the subject matter of it, as it is generally understood, Verse 5. To Pethor, which is by the rirer of the land if indeed it can be said to be understood at all. The words of the children of his people) Dr. Kennicott justly reWOSTO DAY ADID 29. nn, usually supposed to contain marks, that "the description now given of Balaam's resithis fragment, do not signify, as in our English version-dence, instead of being particular, agrees with any place, What he did in the Red sea, and in the brooks of Arnon. in any country, where there is a river-for he lived by Without enumerating the many interpretations given by Pethor, which is by the riter of the land of the children others, I shall offer a new one, which seems to make good of his people. But was Pethor_then, near the Nile in sense, and a sense very pertinent.

Egypt? Or in Canaan, near Jordan? Or in Mesopo“Observe first, that there must have been a place called tamia, near the Euphrates, and belonging to the AmSuph, near the conflux of the Arnon and Jordan: be- moniles? This last was in fact the case : and therefore it cause Moses whilst in that last station, begins Deuteronomy is well that twelve Hebrew MSS. (with two of De Roswith saying-he was on this side, (i. e. east) of Jordan, si's) confirm the Samaritan text here, in reading, instead over against Suph. By this word is not here meant the of py âmo, his people, poy Ammon, with the Syriao and Red sea; partly, because that has every where else the Vulgate Versions.”' Houbigant properly contends for this word for sea before it, and partly, because of the great dis- reading; and necessity urges the propriety of adopting it

. tance of the Red sea now from Moses. The single word, It should therefore stand thus: by the river of the land of therefore, signifies here some place, in itself obscure, be, the children of Ammon; and thus it agrees with Deut. cause nowhere mentioned but in these two passages. And xxiii. 4. yet we cannot wonder that Moses should mention it twice, Verse 6. Come now, therefore, I pray thee, curec me as the word Suph, introduced in speaking of the two last this people] Balaam, once a prophet of the true God, apencampments, recalled to mind the Sea of Suph, so glo-pears to have been one of the Meshelim, see chap. xi. rious to Israel, near the beginning of their march towards 27. who had added to his poetic gift, that of sorcery or diCanaan.

vination. It was supposed that prophets and sorcerers had "Moses had now led Israel from the Red sea to the a power to curse persons and places, so as to confound all river Arnon, through many dreadful dangers, partly from their designs, frustrate their counsels, enervate their hostile nations, partly from themselves; such dangers as strength, and fill them with fear, terror, and dismay. See no other people ever experienced, and such as no people Gen. ix. 25. Psal. cix. 6, 20. Josh. vi. 26. Jer. xvi. 5, 6. could have surmounted, without the signal favour of the Macrobius has a whole chapter, De carmine, quo croAlmighty. And here, just before the battles with Sihon cari solebant dii tutelares, et aut urbes, aut exercitus and Og, he reminds them of Pharoah, &c. and he asserts, devoveri. “Of the incantations which were used to inthat in the history of the wars it shall be recorded, that duce the tutelary gods to forsake the cities, &c. over JEHOVAH, who had triumphantly brought Israel through which they presided, and to devote cities and whole arthe sea of Suph, near Egypt at first, had now conducted mies to destruction." See Saturnal. lib. iii. cap. ix. He him to Suph, near Arnon; that

gives us two of the ancient forms, used in reference to the Jehovah went with him to Suph,

destruction of Carthage; the first to call over the proAnd he came to the streams of Arnon.

tecting deities, was pronounced by the dictator or general, "This version removes the difficulties urged by Hobbes, and none other, when they began the siege. It is as folpage 266. fol. 1750; by Spinoza, page 109. 410. 1670; and lows, literatim et punctatim: retailed in a deistical pamphlet called The Doubts of the Si. Deus. si. Dea. est. cui. popolus. civitas. que. Car Infidels, page 4. Svo. 1781.

thaginiensis. est. in. tutela. le. que. marime. ille, qui. " The general meaning of the next piece of poetry seems urbis. hujus. popoli. que. tutelam. recepisti. precor. veneto be this: that at some distance from the city of Ar, byror. que. veniam. que. a. vobis. peto. ut. dos. popoluer. which the Israelites were to pass (Deut. ii. 18.) they came civitatem. que. Carthaginiensem. deseratis. loca. tcmpla. to A WELL, of uncommon size and magnificence, which sacra. urbem. que. corum. relinquatis. Absque. kis. seems to have been sought out, built up, and adorned, for abeatis. ei. que. popolo. civitati. que. metum. formidinem. the public, by the rulers of Moab. And it is no wonder, oblivionem. injiciatis. prodili. que. Romam. ad. ne. that on their arrival, at such a well, they should look upon mcos. que. veniatis. nostra. que. robis. loca. templa. it as a blessing from hearen, and speak of it as a new sacra. urbs. acceptior. probatior. que. sit. mihi. que. pomiracle in their favour.“

polo. que. Romano. militibus. que. meis. prapositi sitis.

ut. sciamus. intelligamus. que. Si. ata. fuerilis. TODc0. Spring np, 0 well! Sing ye thrreto! 18. The we!! princessearchel it out;

robis. templa. ludos. que. facturum. The nobles of the people have digged it;

“Whether it be god or goddess, under whose protection By their decree, by their act of government. So, after the sildernesa, was Maturnah!

the people and city of Carthage are placed: and thee, especially, who hast undertaken to defend this city and

people, I pray, beseech, and earnestly entreat that you Where, in the cowlry of Moab,

would forsake the people and city of Carihage, and leave Appeareth the top of Pisah, Which is over against Jeshimon."

their places, temples, sacred things, and city, and depart

17. Then Israe! sang this song.

19. Au after Mattanah were Narodiell

Anxl After Vahalic were Bamoth! 20. Annur Banoth wis the polley:

hy And the elders of Moab and the elders of said unto the princes of Balak, Get you into Midian departed with the rewards of divina- your land : for the Lord retuseth to give me tion in their hand; and they came unto Balaam, leave to go with you. and spake unto him the words of Balak.

14 And the princes of Moab rose up, and they 8 And he said onto them, “ Lodge here this went unto Balak, and said, Balaam refuseth to night, and I will bring you word again, as the come with us. LORD shall speak unto me: and the princes of 15 | And Balak sent yet again princes, more, Moab abode with Balaam.

and more honourable than they. 9 And God came unto Balaam, and said, 16 And they came to Balaam, and said to What men are these with thee?

him, Thus saith Balak the son of Zippor, Let 10 And Balaam said unto God, Balak the son nothing, I pray thce, hinder thee from coming of Zippor, king of Moab, hath sent unto me, unto me: saying,

17 For I will promote thee unto very great il Behold, there is a people come out of honour, and I will do whatsoever thou sayest Egypt, which covereth the face of the earth: unto me: 'come therefore, I pray thee, curse come now, curse me them; peradventure # Ime this people. shall be able to overcome them, and drive them 18 And Balaam answered and said unto the out.

servants of Balak, alf Balak would give me his 12 And God said unto Balaam, Thou shalt house full of silver and gold, I cannot go benot go with them; thou shalt not curse the peo- yond the word of the Lord my God, to do less or ple: for å they are blessed.

13 And Balaam rose up in the morning and 19 Now therefore, I pray you e tarry ye also


tl Sam. 9. 7, 8.-- Ver. 19.-Gen9. 3. Ver: 20.-w Heb. I shall prevail in

fighting against hin.

x Ch. 2. 20. Rom. 11. 29.-y Heb. Be not thou letter from, &C.-* Ver. 6.-a Ch.

21. 13.-b Kinga 22. 14. 2 Curou. 1 13.-. Ver, &

En l. 11. v. 351

from them; and that you would inspire this people and endeavoured to persuadle the gods of their enemies to come city with fear, terror, and forgetfulness: and that coming over to their party. Firgil intimates, that Troy was deout from them, you would pass over to Rome, to me, and stroyed only because the tutelary gods hul forsaken it. to mine; and that our places, temples, sacred things, and

Errexsere 0. Alytis, ariq're relictis

Dri, quibus imperium hoc stateral. city, may be more agreeable and more acceptable to you: and that you would preside over me, the Roman people, "All the gods, hy whose assistance the empire had and my soldiers ; that we may know and perceive it. If hitherto been preserved, forsook their altars and their ye will do this, I promise to consecrate to your honour temples." And it was on this account that the Greeks both temple and games.”

employed all their artifice to steal away the Palladium, The second, to devote the city to destruction, which it on which they believed the safety of Troy depended. was supposed the tutelary gods had abandoned, is the fol Tacitus observes, that when Suetonius Paulinus had lowing:

prepared his army to cross over into Mona (Anglesea) Dis. Pater. Vejoris. Manes. sive. ros. quo. alio. nomi where the Britons and Druids made their last stand : the ne. fas. est. nominare. ut. omnes. illam. urbem. Cartha. priestesses, with disbeveller hair, white vestments, and ginein. ereroitum. que. quem. ego. me. sentio. dicere. torches in their hands, ran about like furies, deroting their fugâ. formidine. terrore. que. complealis. qui. que. ad- enemies to destruction ; and he farther adds, that the versum. legiones. exercitum. que, nostrum. arma, tela. sight, the altituile, and horrible imprecations of these que. ferent. Uti. ros. cum. ercrcitum. eos. hostes. cos. priestesses

, had such effect on the Roman soldiers, that que. homines, urbes. agros. que. corum. et. qui. in his. for a while they stood still, and suffered themselves to be locis. regionibus. que. agris. urbibus. ve. habitant. abdu- pierced with the darts of the Britons, without inak ing any çatis. lumine. supero. priretis. exercitum. que. hostium. resistance. Tacit. Ann. I. xiv. c. 29. urbes. agros. que. eorum. quos. me. sentio. dicere, uti. The Jews also had a most horrible form of execration, 003. eas. urbes. agros. que. cupita. ætates. que. corum. as may be seen in Buxtorf's Talmudical Lexicon, under devotas, consecratas. que. habeatis. illis. legibus. quibus. the word on. These observations and anthorities, drawn quando. que. sunt. maxime, hostes. devoti. cos. que. ego. out in so much detail, are necessary to cast light on the vicarios. pro. me. fide. magistratu. que. meo. pro. popolo. strange and curious history related in this and the two Romano. erercitibus. legionibus. que. nostris. do. devoveo. following chapters. ut. me. meam. que. fidem. imperium. que. legiones, erer Verse 7. The rewards of dirination] Who ever went citum. que. nostrum. qui. in. his. rebus. gerundis. sunt. to congult a prophet, took with him a present--as it was bcne. salvos. siritis. esse, Si. hæc. ita. faxitis. ut. ego. on such gratuitous offerings the prophets lived--but here, sciam. sentiam. intelligam. que. tunc. quis. quis. hoc. more than a mere preseni is intended; perhaps every thing rotum. farit. ubi. ubi. farit. rectè. factum. esto. ovibus. necessary to provide materials for the incantation. The atris. tribus. Tellus. mater. te. que. Juppiter. obtestor. drugs, &c. used on such occasions, were often very exs

Dis, Pater, Vejovis, Manes, or by whatsoever name pensive. It appears that Balaam was very coretous, and you wish to be invoked, I pray you to fill this city of that he loved this wages of unrighteousness, and probably Carthage with fear and terror, and to put that army to lived by it; see 2 Pet. ii. 15. flight which I mention, and which bears arms or darts Verse 3. I will bring you word again, as the Lord against our legions and armies. And that ye may take shall speak] So it appears, he knew the true God, and away, this army, those enemies, those men, their cities

, had been in the habit of consulting him, and receiving and their country, and all who dwell in those places, oracles from his mouth. regions, countries, or cities, and deprive them of the light Verse 12. Thou shall not go with them; thou shall not: above. And let all their armies, cities, country, chiefs, curse the people) i. e. Thou shalt not go with them to and people, be held by you consecrated and devoted, ac curse the people--With them he might go, as we find he cording to those laws by which, and at what time, enemies afterward did, by God's own command; but not to curse can be most effectually devoted. I also give, and devote the people; this was wholly forbidden. Probably the them as vicarious sacrifices for myself and my magistra- command, Thou shall not go, refers here to that time, cy; for the Roman people, and for all our arinies and le- viz. the first invitation : and in this sense it was most gions : and for the whole empire, and that all the armies punctually obeyed hy Balaam ; see ver. 13. and legions which are employed in these countries, may Verse 14. Balaain refuscth to come with us.) “Obbe preserved in safety. If, therefore, ye will do these serve,” says Mr. Ainsworth, “Satan's practice against things, as I know, conceive, and intend, then he who God's word, seeking to lessen the same, and that from makes this vow, wheresoever and whensoever he shall hand to hand, till he bring it to nought. Balaam told the make it, I engage shall sacrifice three black sheep to thee, princes less than God told him, and they relate to Balak O mother earth, and to thee, O Jupiter."--"When the less than Balaam told them : so that when the answer execrator mentions the earth, he stoops down and places came to the king of Moah, it was not the word of God, both his hands on it: and when he names Jupiter, he lifts but the word of man: it was simply, Balaam refuseth up both his hands to heaven : and when he mentions his to come, without ever intimating that God had forbidden vor, he places his hands upon his breast." Among the him.” But in this Balaam is not to blame, he told the ancient records, Macrobius gays, he found many cities and messengers in the most positive manner, Jehorah refuseth people devoied in this way. The Romans held, that no to give me teave to go with you, ver. 13. and more explicit city could be taken till its tutelary god had forsaken it, or he could not be, if it could be taken, it would be unlawful, as it would be Verse 18. I cannot go beyond the word of the Lord my sacrilegious to have the gods in captivity. They, therefore, ! God] Balaam knew Cod ioo well to suppose he could Vol. 1.-54


here this night, that I may know what the Lord / since I was thine unto this day? was I ever wont will say unto me more.

to do so unto thee? And he said, Nay. 20 «And God came unto Balaam at night, and 31 Then the Lord " opened the eyes of Balaam, said unto him, If the men come to call thee, rise and he saw the angel of the Lord standing in up, and go with them; but yet the word which the way, and his sword drawn in his hand : and he I shall say unto thee, that shalt thou do.

obowed down his head, and pfell flat on his face. 21 And Balaam rose up in the morning, and 32 And the angel of the LORD said unto him, saddled his ass, and went with the princes of Wherefore hast thou smitten thine ass these Moab.

three times ? behold, I went out to withstand 22 | And God's anger was kindled because thee, because thy way is 'perverse before me: he went : f and the angel of the LORD stood in the 33 And the ass saw me, and turned from me way for an adversary against him. Now he was these three times : unless she had turned from riding upon his ass, and his two servants were me, surely now also I had slain thee, and saved with him.

her alive. 23 And & the ass saw the angel of the LORD 34 And Balaam said unto the angel of the standing in the way, and his sword drawn in his LORD, I have sinned; for I knew not that thou hand; and the ass turned aside out of the way, stoodest in the way against me: now therefore, and went into the field : and Balaam smote the if it displease thee, I will get me back again. ass, to turn her into the way.

35 And the angel of the LORD said unto Ba24 But the angel of the LORD stood in a path laam, Go with the men: u but only the word that of the vineyards, a wall being on this side, and a I shall speak unto thee, that thou shalt speak. wall on that side.

So Balaam went with the princes of Balak. 25 And when the ass saw the angel of the 36 | And when Balak heard that Balaam was Lord, she thrust herselfunto the wall, and crush-come, he went out to meet him unto a city of ed Balaam's foot against the wall: and he smote Moab, w which is in the border of Arnon, which her again.

is in the utmost coast. 26 And the angel of the Lord went further, 37 And Balak said unto Balaam, Did I not and stood in a narrow place, where was no way earnestly send unto thee to call thee? whereto turn either to the right hand or to the left. fore camest thou not unto me? am I not able

27 And when the ass saw the angel of the indeed * to promote thee to honour? LORD, she fell down under Balaam: and Balaam's 38 And Balaam said unto Balak, Lo, I am anger was kindled, and he smote the ass with a come unto thee: have I now any power at all to staff.

say any thing ? the word that God putteth in 28 And the LORD b opened the mouth of the my mouth, that shall I speak. ass, and she said unto Balaam, What have I 39 And Balaam went with Balak, and they done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me these came unto 2 Kirjath-huzoth. three times ?

40 And Balak offered oxen and sheep, and sent 29 And Balaam said unto the ass, Because to Balaam, and to the princes that were with him. thou hast mocked me: I would there were a 41 And it came to pass on the morrow, that sword in nine hand, i for now would I kill thee. Balak took Balaam, and brought him up into the

30 k And the ass said unto Balaam, Am not I a high places of Baal, that thence he might see thine ass, 'upon which thou hast ridden mever the utmost part of the people.

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d Ver. 9- Ver. 35. Ch. 23. 12, 26. & 2.13- Food 4.21.- See 2 Kings 6. 17. Dan. 10. 7. Acts 22 9. 2 Pet 2. 16. Jude 11-h ? Pet. 2 16.-i Prov. 12 10.-K 2 Pet. 2. 16.-1 Heb. who hast rid len spanne.- Or, erer since thou want, &c.-n See Gen 21. 18. 2 Kings 6. 17. Luke 24. 16, 31-o Exod. 31.8.-p Or, bowed himself.

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and he respected him too much where is the wonder of all this? If the ass had opened her to attempt to do any thing without his permission. Though oun mouth, and reproved the rash prophet, we might well he was covetous, yet he dared not, even when strongly be astonished! but when God opens the mouth, an ass can tempted both by riches and honours, to go contrary to the speak as well as a man. It is worthy of remark here, that command of his God. Many make all the professions of Balaam testifies no surprise at this miracle, because he saw Balaam, without justifying them by their conduct. “They it was the Lord's doings. Of animate and inanimate pretend,” says one, “they would not do anything against things receiving, for a short time, the gift of speech, the the word of God for a house full of gold, and yet will do it heathen mythology furnishes many fictitious examples, for a handful!!"

with which I do not deem it proper to occupy the reader's Verse 19. What the Lord will say unto me more.) He time. did not know but God might make a farther discovery of Verse 33. Surely now also I had slain thee) How often his will to him, and therefore he might very innocently seek are the meanest animals, and the most trivial occurrences, farther information.

instruments of the preservation of our lives, and of the Verse 20. If the men come-go with them! This is a salvation of our souls! The messenger of justice would confirmation of what was observed on the twelfth verse. have killed Balaam, had not the mercy of God prevented Though we find that his going was marked with the divine the ass from proceeding. displeasure, because he wished, for the sake of the honours Verse 34. If it displease thee, I will get me back again.] and rewards, to fulfil, as far as possible, the will of the king Here is a proof, that though he loved the wages of unof Moab. How many are restrained from sinning, mere righteousness, yet he still feared God; and he is now villy through the fear of God !--they would gladly do the ling to drop the enterprise, if God be displeased with his evil--but it is forbidden, on awful penalties,—they wish proceeding. The piety of many called Christians, does not the thing were not prohibited, for they have a strong de extend thus far-ihey see that the thing displeases God, sire to do it.

and yet they proceed. --Reader, is this thy case ? Verse 23. And the ass sau the angel] When God Verse 39. The word that God putteth in my mouth, that granted visions, those alone, who were particularly inter- shall I speak] Here was a noble resolution-and he was ested, saw them; while others in the same company saw certainly faithful to it: though he wished to please the king; nothing. Dan. x. 7. Acts ix. 7.

and get wealth and honour, yet he would not displease God Verse 26. And the angel-stood in a narroio place] In to realize even these bright prospects. Many who slander this carriage of the angel, says Mr. Ainsworth, the Lord this poor semi-antinomian prophet, have not half his piety. shows us the proceedings of his judgments against sinners : Verse 40. And Balak offered oren, &c.) This was to First, He mildly shakes his rod at them, but lets them go gain the favour of his gods, and perhaps to propitiate Jeuntouched. Secondly, He comes ncarer, and touches them hovah, that the end for which he had sent for Balaam might with an easy correction, as it were wringing their foot be accomplished. against the wall. Thirdly, When all this is ineffectual, Verse 41. That he might see the utmost part of the peohe brings them into such straits, that they can neither turn ple.) As he thought Balaam must have them all in his to the right hand, nor to the left, but must fall before his eye, when he pronounced his curse, lest it might not extend judgments, if they do not fully turn to him.

to those who were not in sight. On this account, he took Verse 28. The Lord opened the mouth of the ass) And him up into the high places of Baal. See on chap. xxiii. 41.

ANB Balaam haid sunto Balak, bakeinheed to speak that which the Lord hath


die the death of the righteous, and let my last Being arrival at the high places of Baal, (Ch. xxii. 41.) Balaam onders Balak to

end be like his! built seven alun, ai prepare oxen and rams for sacrifice, 1, 2 Balaam inquires of the Lord, receives an answer, with which he returns to Balak, 3-10. Balak 11 And Balak said unto Balaam, What hast finding that this was a prediction of the prosperity of the Israelites, is greatly troublel, 11. Balaun excuses himself, 12 le brings him to another place, where he

thou done unto me? . I took thee to curse mine might see only a part of Israel, and repeats his eacnfice, 13, 14 Balaan again.com: enemies, and, behold thou hast blessed them

the , Israel, 18-21 Balak is angry, 35, and Balaam again excuses himself. Balak altogether. proposes another trial, takes him to another place, and repeat the same sacrifices,

12 And he answered and said, Must I not An. Exod. Lar. 10.

seven altarsput in my and prepare me here seven oxen and seven rams. 13 And Balak said unto him, Come, I pray

2 And Balak did as Balaam had spoken; and thee, with me unto another place, from whence Balak and Balaam offered on every altar a bul- thou mayest see them : thou shalt see but the lock and a ram.

utmost part of them, and shalt not see them all : 3 And Balaam said unto Balak, a Stand by thy and curse me them from thence. burnt-offering, and I will go, peradventure the 14 | And he brought him into the field of ZoLord will come e to meet me: and whatsoever phim to the top of "Pisgah,' and built geven altars, he showeth me I will tell thee. And he went to and offered a bullock and a ram on every altar. a high place.

15 And he said unto Balak, Stand here by thy 4 6 And God met Balaam: and he said unto burnt-offering, while I meet the LORD yonder. him, I have prepared seven altars, and I have 16 And the LORD met Balaam, and put a offered upon erery altar a bullock and a ram. word in his mouth, and said, Go again unto Ba

5 And the LORD "put a word in Balaam's lak, and say thus. mouth, and said, Return unto Balak, and thus 17 And when he came to him, behold, he stood thou shalt speak.

by his burnt-offering, and the princes of Moab 6. And he returned unto him, and, lo, he stood with him. And Balak said unto him, What hath by his burnt-sacrifice, he, and all the princes of the LORD spoken? Moab.

18 | And he took up his parable, and said, 7 ? And he i took up his parable, and said, "Rise" up, Balak, and hear; hearken unto me, Balak, the king of Moab, hath brought

me from thou son of Zippor: Aram, out of the mountains of the east, saying, 19 God is not a man, that he should lie; *Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel. neither the son of man, that he should repent?

9 m How shall I curse, whom God hath not hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he cursed ? or how shall I defy whom the LORD hath spoken, and shall he not make it good ? not defied ?

20 Behold, I have received commandment to 9 For from the top of the rocks I see him, and bless : and : he hath blessed; and I cannot refrom the hills I behold him: lo," the people shall verse it. dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among 21 · He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neithe nations.

ther hath he seen perversenees in Israel: "the 10 p Who can count the dust of Jacob, and the Lord his God is with him, and the shout of a number of the fourth part of Israel ? Let 9 me king is among them.

b Ver. 23- Ver. 14. 30.-- Ver. 15.- Ch. 21. I.-- Or, he toon! solitary r Pe. 116. 15.-. Oh. 22. 11, 17. & 24. 10.- Ch. 22. 38.--u Or, the hill.- Ver. & Ver. 16. - Ver. 16. Ch. 22 36 Deut. 18. 18. Jer. 1. 9. - Ver. 18. Ch. 213, 15, 1, 2-w Ver. 5. Ch. 22. 35.- Judg. 3. 3.- I Sun. 15. 2. Mal. 3. 6. Rom. 11.

1 & P 4. . . ; 29. James 1. 17. TIL. 1. 2-z Cren. 12 2 & 22. 17. Nurnb. 2. 12.- Rom. 4. 7, 8. 17.- 1 Sam. 17. 10. - Isai. 17. 12, 13.-n Deut. 32. 2.- Exod. 3. 16. Eura 9.2 b Exod 13. 2. & 29. 45, 16. & 33. 14.- Pwe. 89. 15. Eph 2 14.-- Gen. 13. 16. & 22. 17.-9 Heb. my coul, or, my life. NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII.

erally fulfilled, through a period of 3,300 years, to the Verse 1. Build me here seden altars, &c.] The oren present day! This is truly astonishing! and the rams were such as the Mosaic law had ordered to Verse 10. Let me die the death of the righteous) Probe offered to God in sacrifice--the building of seven altars bably Balaam had some presentiment that he should be was not commanded. Some think that these seven altars taken off by a premature death; and therefore he lodges were built to the seven planets-this is most gratuitously this petition against it. The death of the righteous in those said-of it there is no proof whatever—it is mere trifling, times, implied being gathered to one's fathers in a good even with conjecture. As seven was a number of perfec- old agc-having seen his children and children's children: tion, Balaam chose it on this occasion, because he intended and to this, probably, the latter part of this petition applies, to offer a grand sacrifice, and to offer a bullock and a ram And let my last end be like his, vos ning vani utehi upon each of the altars; the whole to be male a burni-achariti cemohu, And let my POSTERITY be like his. It offering at the same time. And as he intended to offer has been generally supposed, that Balaam is here praying seven bullocks and seven rams at the same time, it could for a happy death, such as true Christians die, who die in not be conveniently done on one altar, therefore he ordered the Lord; and in this way his words are generally applied: seven to be built; 'and we need go no farther to find out his but I am satisfied this is not their meaning. The prayer,

however, understood in the common way, is a good one, Verse 3. Stand by thy burnt-offering) We have already and may be offered to God profitably. A righteous man, seen that blessing and cursing in this way were considered is one who is saved from his sins-who is justified and as religious rites, and therefore must be always preceded sanctified through the blood of the covenant; and who by sacrifice. See this exemplified in the case of Isaac | lives, not only an innocent, but also a holy and useful life. before he blessed Jacob and Esau, Gen. xxvii. and the notes He who would die well should live well: for a bad death there. The venison that was brought to Isaac, of which must be the issue of a bad life. he did eat, was properly the preparatory sacrifice.

Verse 13. Thou shalt sce but the utmost part of them) Verse 7. And he took up his parable soo Meshalo, see Balak thought that the sight of such an immense camp on chap. xxi. 27. All these oracular speeches of Balaam had intimidated Balanm; and this he might gather from are in hemistich metre in the original.' They are highly what he said in the 10th verse, Who can count the dust of dignified, and may be considered as immediate poetic pro- Jacob, &c. he thought therefore that he might get Balaam ductions of the Spirit of God; for it is expressly said, ver. to curse them in detached partiis: till the whole camp 5. that God put the word in Balaam's mouth, and that the should be devoted to destruction by successive execrations. Spirit of God came upon him, xxiv. 2.

Verse 17. What hath the Lord spoken] Balak himself Verse 8. How shall I curse whom God hath not curs now understood, that Balaam was wholly under the influed?) It was granted on all hands, that no incantations, ence of Jehovah ; and would say nothing but what God nor imprecations could avail, unless God concurred and commanded him; but not knowing Jehovah as Balaam ratified them. From God's communicalion to Balaam, he did, he hoped that he might be induced to change his mind, saw, that God was determined to bless and defend Israel; and curse a people whom he had hitherto determined to bless. and therefore all endeavours to injure them must be in vain. Verse 19. God is not a mun, that he should lie) This

Verse 9. From the lop of the rocks I see him? That is, seems to be spoken to correct the foregoing supposition of from the high places of Baal, where he went, chap. xxi. Balak, that God could change his mind. 41. that he might the more advantageously see the whole Verse 21. He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither camp of Israel.

hath he seen perrerseness in Israel] This is a difficult The people shall dwell alone] They shall ever be pre- passage ; for if we take the words as spoken of the people served as a distinct nation. This prophecy has been lit- | Ísrael, as their iniquity and their perverseness were almost


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