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Balasun virklicales hie conduct, 12, 13.



1 Kings 22. 14.- Ver. 13.

22 « God brought them out of Egypt; he hath 30 And Balak did as Balaam had said, and as it were the strength of a unicorn.

offered a bullock and a ram on every altar. 23 Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any divination against

CHAPTER XXIV. Israel: according to this time it shall be said of Balanm incling that Coul was determined to bless Lonel, seeks no longer for enchant

ments, l. The Spirit of Crtcoming upon hin, he delivers a most important pro Jacob and of Israel, & What hath God wrought ! phetic parable, 2---9. Baluk's anger is killed ngainst him, anl te comments A

io depart to his own country, 10, 11. 24 Behold, the people shall rise up has a

ani clivers a prophess relative to the future destruction of Moab by the larzel great lion, and lift up himself as a young lion: item, 17, also of Edoro, 18, 19, of the Amalekies, 20, and of the Keratos, 21,

22' Prelicts alw) the destruction of Ash and Eler, by wie man power of i he shall not lie down until he eat of the prey, Chuttim, which should afterward be insell destroyed, 23, 2. Balaam and Balas and drink the blood of the slain.

25. 1 And Balak said unto Balaam, Neither AND when Balaam saw that it pleas- en fin de la

26 But Balaam answered and said unto Ba- went not, as at other times, P to seek for enlak, Told not I thee, saying, k All that the LORD chantments, but he set his face toward the speaketh, that I must do ?

wilderness. 27 And Balak said unto Balaam, i Come, I 2 And Balaam lifted up his eyes, and he saw pray thee, I will bring thee unto another place; Israel “abiding in his tents according to their peradventure it will please God that thou tribes; and 'the Spirit of God came upon him. mayest curse me them from thence.

3 • And he took up his parable, and said, Ba28 And Balak brought Balaam unto the top laam the son of Beor hath said, and the man of Peor, that looketh - toward Jeshimon. i whose eyes are open hath said:

29 And Balaam said unto Balak, "Build me 4 He hath said, which heard the words of here seven altars, and prepare me here seven

God, which saw the vision of the Almighty, bullocks and seven rams.

falling into a trance, but having his eyes open: d Ch. 24. 8.-e Deu. 33. 17. Job 39. 10. 11. - Or, in. - Ppl. 31. 19. & 11.1. h , h Gen. 19. 9.-i Gen, 49 27-kVer. 12. Ch. 22 39

1,18. - Heb. who had his eyes shul, but now opened-u See i San. 19. 2 Emil m Ch. 21.20.- Ver. 1.- Ch. 23. 3, 15.-p Heb. to the precung of enchantments.

1. 23. Dan. 8. 19. & tu. 15, 16. 2 Cor. 12. 2, 3, 4. Rev. 1. 10, 17. unparalleled, such words cannot be spoken of them, with punish them because of their sins, he always forewarned strict truth, If we consider them us 'spoken of the patri- them by the prophets; and also took care to apprise them arch Jacob and Israel, or of Jacob after he became Israel, of all the plots of their enemies against them. they are most strictly true, as, after that time, a more un Verse 24. Behold, the people shall rise up as a great blemished and noble character, Abraham excepted, is not | lion) nas labia, the great, mighty, or old lion, the king to be found in the page of history, whether sacred or pro of the forest, who is feared and respected by all the other fane; and for his sake, and for the sake of his father Isaac, beasts of the field. So shall Israel be the subduer and posand his grandfather Abraham, God is ever representod as sessor of the whole land of Canaan ; and as a young lion, favouring, blessing, and sparing a rebellious and undeserv-n ari, from warah, to tear off, the predatory lion, or ing people; see the concluding note, Gen. xlix. In this the lion in the act of seizing and tearing his prey. The way, I think, this difficult text may be safely understood. nations agninst whom the Israelites are now going, shall

There is another way in which the words may be inter be no more able to defend themselves against their attacks preted, which will give a good sense. 11 Aven, not only than the feeblest beasts of the forest are against the attacks signifies iniquity, but most frequently trouble, labour, dis- of the strong lion. tress, and affliction, and these indeed are its ideal mean Verse 23. Unto the top of Peor] Probably the place ings-and iniquity is only an accommodated or metaphor- where the famous Baal-peor had his chief temple. He apical one, because of the pain, distress, &c. produced by sin. pears to have been the Priapus of the Moabites, and to have

Soy amal, translated here perrerseness, occurs often in been worshipped with the same obscene and abominable the Scripture : but is never translated pervcrseness except rites. in this place. It signifies simply, labour, especially that

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIV. which is of an afflictive or oppressive kind. The words, Verse 1. He went not, as at other times, to seek for entherefore, may be considered as implying, that God will chantments) We have already had occasion to observe not suffer the people either to be exterminated by the sword, that the proper meaning of the word eni nachash, is not or to be brought under the yoke of slavery: Either of easily ascertained; see chap. xxi. 9. and see on Gen. ii. 1. these methods of interpretation gives a good sense; but Here the plural D'una nechashim, is rendered enchantour common version gives none. Dr. Kennicolt contends ments; but it probably means no more than the knouledge for the reading of the Samaritan; instead of war's lo of future events. When Balaam saw that it pleased God hibbit, he hath not seen ; the Samaritan has LYON 5 lo ubit, to bless Israel, he therefore thought it unnecessary to apply I do not sce-I do not discover any thing among them on for any farther prophetic declarations of God's will, as he which I could ground my curse. But the sense above had done before; for he could safely infer every good to given is to be preferred.

this people, from the evident disposition of God toward them. Verse 22. The strength of a unicorn) On reem and Verse 2. The Spirit of God came upon him) This On7 raim. It is generally allowed, that there is no such divine afflatus he had not expected on the present oecabeast in nature as the unicorn; j. e. a creature of the horse sion: but God had not yet declared the whole of his will. kind, with one long rich curled horn in the forehead. The Verse 3. He took up his parable] His prophetic decreature, painted from fancy, is represented as one of the claration couched in highly poetic terins, and in regular supporters of the royal arms of Great Britain. It is diffi- metre, as the preceding were. cult to say what kind of beast is intended by the original The man whose eyes are open), I believe the original word. The Septuagint translate the word 445v0x9p95, the DnV shelum, should he translated shut, not open ; for in unicorn, or one-horned animal; the Vulgate, some the next verse, where the opening of his eyes is mentioneil, times unicornus; and in the text, rhinocerolus, by which a widely different word is used, iba galah, which signifies the rhinoceros, a creature which has its name from the to open, or reveal. At first, the eyes of Balaam were shut, horn on its nose, is supposed to be meant.

That no

and so closely too, that he could not see the angel who single-horned animal can be intended by the reem of withstood him, till God opened his eyes; nor could he see Moses, is sufficiently evident from this, that Moses, the gracious intentions of God towards Israel, till the eyes speaking of Joseph, says, "be has the horss of a uni- of his understanding were opened by the power of the corn," or reem ; where the horns are spoken of in the Divine Spiril. This, therefore, he mentions, we may supplural, the animal in the singular. The creature referred pose, with humility and gratitude: and to the credit of the io is either the rhinoceros, some varieties of which have prophecy which he is now about to deliver, that the Motwo horns on the nose, or the wild bull, urus, or buffalo: abites may receive it as the word of God, which must be though some think the beast intended is a species of goat; fulfilled in due season. His words, in their meaning, are but the rhinoceros seems the most likely.

similar to those of the blind man in the Gospel—"Once I Verse 23. There is no enchantment, &c.] Because God was blind, but now I see." has determined to save them, therefore no enchantment Verse 4. Falling into a trance] There is no indication can prevail against them.

in the Hebrew, that he fell into a Irance; these words are According to this time, &c.) I think this clause should added by our translators: but they are not in the original. be read thus: “As at this time, it shall be told to Jacob and 509 noppel, is the only word used, and simply signifies to Israel, what God worketh ;'' i. e. this prople shall always falling, or falling down, perhaps, in this instance, by way have prophetic information of what God is about to work. of religious prostration. And, indeed, they are the only people under heaven who Verse 6. Lign aloes, which the Lord hath planted] Or, ever had this privilege. When God himself designed to as the tents which the Lord hath pitched; for it is the same



5 How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy curse mine enemies, and behold, thou hast altotabernacles, O Israel !

gether blessed them these three times. 6 As the valleys are they spread forth, as 11 Therefore now flee thou to thy place: 11 gardens by the river's side, as the trees of thought to promote thee unto great honour ; Tign aloes w which the LORD hath planted, and but lo, the Lord hath kept thee back from hoas cedar trees beside the waters.

7 He shall pour the water out of his buckets, 12 And Balaam said unto Balak, Spake I not and his seed shall be * in many waters, and his also to thy messengers which thou sentest unto king shall be higher than Agag, and his me, saying, kingdom shall be exalted.

13 « If Balak would give me his house full of 8 God brought him forth out of Egypt; he silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the comhath as it were the strength of a unicorn: he mandment of the LORD, to do either good or bad shall beat up the nations his enemies, and shall of mine own mind; but what the LORD saith, e break their bones, and pierce them through that will I speak ? with his arrows.

14 And now, behold, I go unto my people: 9 He couched, he lay down as a lion, and as come therefore, and 1 I will advertise thee what a great lion: who shall stir him up? Blessed this people shall do to thy people m in the latter is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that days. curseth thee.

15 1 " And he took up his parable, and said, 10 T And Balak's anger was kindled against Balaam the son of Peor hath said, and the man Balaam, and he b smote his hands together: whose eyes are open hath said: and Balak said unto Balaam, h I called thee to 16 He hath said, which heard the words of

Pan. 1. 3. Jer 17.8.-w Psa. 101. 16.-x Jer. 51. 13. Rev. 17. 1, 15.-y 1 Sam. 15.9.-- 2 Sarn 5. 12 I Chrog. 14. 2.-a Ch. 23. 22-b Ch. 14. 9. & 23. 94-c Peu 29. I. 32. 13. Jer. 50. 17. - Psal. 45. 5. Jer. 50. 9.-e Gen. 49.9.- Gep. 123. &

27. o.- Ezek. 21. 14, 17. & 22. 13.- Ch. 23 IL Deut. 2. 4,5. Josh. 21. 9, 10. Nch. 13. 2- Ch. 22. 17, 37.-- Ch.22. 18.-) Mic. 6. 5. Rev. 2 14-m Gen. 43. 1. Dan. 2. 23. & 10.14- Var. 3, 4.

word, 0157x ahalim, which is used in the 5th verse. But Verse 7. He shall pour the water out of his buckets, from other parts of Scripture, we find that the word also &c.] Here is a very plain allusion to their method of signifies a species of tree, called by some the sandal tree, raising water in different parts of the East. By the uocll, and by others the lignum, or wood aloes. The tree is de a tall pole is erected, which serves as a fulcrum to a very scribed as being eight or ten feet high, with very large long lever, to the smaller end of which a bucket is apleaves growing at the top; and it is supposed that a forest pended. On the opposite end, which is much larger, are of those, at some distance, must bear some resemblance to many notches cut in the wood, which serve as steps for a a numerous encampment. As the word comes from the man, whose business it is to climb up to the fulcrum, in root box ahal, which signifies to spread or branch out, order to lower the bucket into the well, which, when and therefore is applied to lents, because of their being filled, he raises by walking back on the opposite arm till extended or spread out on the ground; so, when it is ap his weight brings the bucket above the well's mouth: a plied to trces, it must necessarily mean such as were person standing by the well, empties the bucket into a remarkable for their widely extended branches : but what french, which communicatos with the ground intended to the particular species is, cannot be satisfactorily ascertain be watered. ed. "By the Lord's planting, is probably meant, such His seed shall be in many waters] Another simple trees as grow independently of the cultivation of man. allusion to the sowing of rice. The ground must not Nullis hominum cogentibus ; or, as Virgil expresses it, only be well watered, but flooded, in order to serve for the Sponte sua que se tolhant in luminis oris.

proper growth of this grain. The rice that was sown in Virg. Gaar. ii. 17.

many waters, must be the most fruitful. By an elegant and "Such ansprung up spontaneously into the regions of light."

chaste metaphor, all this is applied to the procreation of a As cedar-trees] Gabriel Sionita, a very learned Sy- numerous posterity. rian Maronite, who assisted in editing the Paris Polyglott, His king shall be higher than Agag] This name is a man worthy of all credit, thus describes the cedars of supposed to have been as common to all the Amalekitish Mount Lebanon, which he had examined on the spot : kings, as Pharaoh was to those of Egypt. But several

“The cedar grows on the most elevated part of the critics, with the Septuagint, suppose that a small change mountain, is taller than the pine, and so thick that five has taken place here in the original word ; and that instead men together could scarcely fathom one. It shoots out its of No me Agug, than Agag, we should read up Migog, branches at ten or twelve feet from the ground: they are than Gog. As Gog in Scripture, seems to mean the enelarge, and distant from each other, and are perpetually mies of God's people, then the promise here may imply green. The cedar distils a kind of gum, to which differ- that the true worshippers of the Most High shall ultient effects are attributed. The wood of it is of a brown mately have dominion over all their enemies. colour, very solid, and incorruptible if preserved from wel. Verse 8. God brought him out of Egypt] They were It bears a small apple, like to that of the pine."

neither expelled thence; nor came roluntarily away. De la Roque relates some curious particulars concerning God alone, with a high hand and uplifted arm brought this tree, which he learned from the Maronites of Mount them forth. Concerning the unicorn, see on chap Libanus. "The branches grow in parallel rows round xxiii. 22. the tree, but lessen gradually from the bottom to the top, Verse 9. He couched, he lay down as a lion, &c.] See shooting out parallel to the horizon, so that the tree is, in the original terms explained chap. xxiii. 24. appearance, similar to a coma. As the snows, which fall These oracles delivered by Balaam, are evident prophein vast quantities on this mountain, must necessarily, by cies of the victories which the Israelites should gain over their weight on such a vast surface, break down these their enemies, and of their firm possession of the Probranches, nature, or rather the God of nature, has so or mised Land. They may also refer to the great victories to dered it, that at the approach of winter, and during the be obtained by the Lord Jesus Christ, that Lion of the snowy season, the branches erect themselves, and cling tribe of Judah, over sin, death, and Satan, the great eneclose to the body of the tree, and thus prevent any quan- mies of the human race; and to that most numerous tity of snow from lodging on them."

posterity of spiritual children, which should be begotten Mr. Maundrel, who visited Mount Libanus in 1697, by the preaching of the Gospel. gives the following description of the cedars still growing Verse 11. Lo, the Lord hath kept thee back from hothere :

nour.) A bitter and impious sarcasm. "Hadst thou " These noble trees grow among the snow, near the cursed this people, I would have promoted thee to great highest part of Lebanon, and are remarkable as well for honour: but thou hast chosen rather to follow the directheir own age and largeness, as for those frequent allusions tions of Jehovah than mine, and what will he do for to them in the word of God. Some of them are very old, thee?" and of a prodigious bulk : others younger, and of a Verse 15. The man whose eyes are open) See on ver. emaller size. Of the former, could re on only sixteen ; 3. It seems strange that our version should have fallen but the latter are very numerous. I measured one of the into such a mistake as to render enw shetum, open, which largest, and found it twelve yards and six inches in girth, it does not signify, when the very sound of the word and yet sound ; and thirty-seven yards in the spread of expresses the sense. The Vulgate has very properly preits branches. At about five or six yards from the ground, served the true meaning by rendering the clause cujus it was divided into five limbs, each of which was equal to obturatus est oculus; he whose eyes are shut. The Tara great tree."--Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem,

gum first paraphrased the passage falsely; and most of the versions followed it.

p. 142.

1 Sam. 15. 3, &

God, and knew the knowledge of the Most | also shall be a possession for his enemies; and High, which saw the vision of the Almighty, Israel shall do valiantly. falling into a trance, but having his eyes

19 Out of Jacob shall come he that shall open

have dominion, and shall destroy him that re17 •I shall see him, but not now: I shall be- maineth of the city. hold him, but not nigh: there shall come P a 20 And when he looked on Amalek, he took up Star out of Jacob, and 9 a Sceptre shall rise out his parable, and said, Amalek was a the first of of Israel, and shall 'smite the corners of Moab, the nations ; but his latter end 'shall be that he and destroy all the children of Sheth.

perish for ever. 18 And · Edom shall be a possession, Seir 21 And he looked on the Kenites, and took up o Rev. 1. 7. --- Matt. 2 2. Rev. 22. 16.- Gen. 19. 10. Pst. 110.2-r Or, smite 9, 12-t Gen. 49. 10.-u Or, the firal of the nations that warred cerink Ieracl. through the princes of Moah 2 Sam. 8. 2. Jer. 48. 15.--. 2 Sam. 8. 14. Pa 60.8. Exod. 17.8.- Or, shall be eren to destruction Exod 17. 14.

Verse 17. I shall sce him, but not novo] Or, I shall see united, blended fold, under one Shepherd and Bishop of him, but he is not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: their souls. I shall hare a full view of him, but the time is yet dis I cannot think that the meteoric star, which guided the tant. That is, the person of whom I am now prophesy- wise men of the East to Bethlehem, can be intended here: ing, does not at present exist among these Israelites, nor nor do I think that Peter refers to this prophecy when he shall he appear in this generation There shall come a calls Christ the day-star, 2 Epist. i. 19. nor that in Rev. Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall arise out of ii. 28. where he is called the morning-star, nor that in Israel-a person eminent for wisdom, and formidable for Rev. xxii. 16. where Christ is called the bright and strength and power, shall arise as king among this peo- morning star, refer at all to this prophecy of Balaam. ple-ho shall smile the corners of Moab; he shall bring Nor do I think that the false Christ who rose in the time ihe Moabites perfectly under subjection, see 2 Sam. viii. 2. of Adrian, and who called himself Barcocab, which liteAnd destroy all the children of Sheth. The original rally signifies the son of a star, did refer to this prophecy. word pop karkar, from anp karah, to meet, associate, Had he, he must have defeated his own intention, because join, blend, and the like, is variously translated, vastabit, the Son of the star, is not the Star that should arise, he shall waste, VULGATE. -- povasiverts, shall prey on, but, at the utmost, a descendant; and then to vindicale Sept.-0952 yishlol, shall rule over, Targum.-Shali his right to the Jewish throne, he must show that the pershake, Arabic.- din? barbend, shall put a yoke on, son who was called the Star, and of whom he pretended Pers.--Shall unwall, AINSWORTH, &c. &c.

to be the son or descendant, had actually reigned before The Targum of Onkelos, translates the whole passage him. As the sun, moon, stars, planets, light, splendor thus :

effulgence, day, &c. were always considered, among the "I shall see him, but not now : I shall behold him, but Asiatics, as emblems of royalty, government, &c. iherehe is not near. When a king shall arise from the house fore many, both men and women, had these names given of Jacob, and the Messiah be anointed from the house of to them as titles, surnames, &c. So the queen of AlexIsrael : he shall slay the princes of Moab, and rule over ander the Great, called Roxana, by the Greeks, was a all the children of men."

Persian princess; and in her native tongue her name was The Jerusalem Targum is a little different: “A king Wüg) Roushen, splendor. Hadassah, who became shall arise from the house of Jacob, a redeemer and go- queen to Ahasuerus, in place of the repudiated Vashli

, vernor from the house of Israel, who shall slay the chiefs and is called Esther, by Europeans in general, was called, of the Moabites, and empty out and destroy all the chil- in the language of Persia di liin Sitarch ; from whence, dren of the East."

hy corruption, came both Esther, the Persian queen, and Rabbi Moses ben Maimon has, in my opinion, perfectly our word star. And to wave all father examples, a Mohit the meaning of the prophecy in the following para- hammedan prince, at first named Eesouf, or Joseph, was phrase of the text: I shall see him, but not now: This is called missel Wrig) Roushen Akhter, when he was raised DAVID. I shall behold him, but not nigh. This is the to the throne, which signifies a splendid or luminous star. king Messiah. A Slar shall come out of Jacob. This is This prince, by a joyful reverse of fortune, was brought David. And a Sceptre shall rise out of Isracl. This is from a gloomy prison, and exalted to the throne of Hinthe king_MESSIAH. And shall smite the corners of doostan : on which account, the following couplet was Moab. This is David, as it is written (2 Sam. viii. 2.) made, in which there is a paranomasia, or play on the And he smote Moab-casting them down to the ground. name Roushen Akhter ; and the last line alludes to the And shall destroy all the children of Sheth. This is the history of the patriarch Joseph, who was brought out of king MESSIAH, of whom it is written, Ps. lxxii. 8. He prison, and exalted to the highest honours in Egypt. shall have dominion from sea to sea. Verse 18. And Edom shall be a possession) i. e. To

) David, as it is said, and all they of Edom became David's servants. (2 Sam. viii. 14.)

And Seir shall be a possession] That is, unto the king MESSIAH, as it is said: “And saviours shall come up on

Rouchen Athter bood, aknoon rah ghud: Mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau, and the kingdom

Youzef ax Zendan lier and shah alud. shall be the Lord's.” Obad. ver. 21.-See Ainsworth.

He was a bright slar, but is now become a moon. Verse 19. Out of Jacob shall come, &c.]. This is sup

Josepte is brought out of prison, and is become a glorious king. posed to refer to Christ, becanse of what is said, Gen. Verse 20. Amalek was the first of the nations] The xlix. 10.

most ancient, and most powerful of all the nations of It is exceedingly difficult to fix the true sense of this states then within the view of Balaam; but his latter end prophecy in all its particulars. Probably the star, ver. 17. shall be that he perish for ever, or his posterity, in is only an emblem of kingly power. Among the Ezyp- acharito, shall be destroyed, or shall utterly fail. This tians á star is said to have been the symbol of the Divine oracle began to be fulfilled by Saul, 1 Sam. xv. 7. 8. who Being. The sceptre refers to the kingly power in exercise. overthrew the Amalekites, and took their king Agag priThe corners, or outskirts, may mean the peity Moabitish soner. Afterward, they were nearly destroyed by Darid, governments, as the Chaldee has understood the term. If 1 Sam. xxvii. 8. and they were finally exterminated by karkar, which we translate, utterly destroy, be not the the sons of Simeon in the days of Hezekiah, 1 Chron. iv, name of a place here, (which is not very likely) as it is in 41–43. since that time, they have ceased to exist as a peoJudges viii. 10. it may be taken in one of those senses as- ple, and now no vestige of them remains on the face of the signed to it, (see on ver. 17.) and signify the blending earth; so completely is their posterity, cut off, according together ; the children of Sheth, that is, all the inhabita to this prophecy. The marginal reading does not appear ants of the earth, for so the children of Seth must to give the proper sense. necessarily be understood, unless we consider it here as Verse 21. He looked on the Kenites] Commentators meaning some king of the Moabites, according to Grotius, are not well agreed who the Kenites were, Dr. Dodd's or a city on the borders of Moab, according to Rabbi Na opinion is, I think, nearest to the truth, Jihro, the fa:herthan. As neither Israel nor the Messiah ever destroyed in-law of Moses, is called a priest or prince of Midian, all the children of men, we must (in order to leave the Exod. ii. 1. and in Judges i. 16. he is called a Kenite; we children of Sheth what they are generally understood to may infer, therefore, says he, that the Kenites and the Mibe, all the inhabitants of the world) understand the dianites were the same; or at least that the Kenites and whole as a prophecy of the final universal sway of the the Midianites were confederate tribes. Some of these, we sceptre of Christ, when the middle wall of partition shall learn from Judges i. followed the Israelites, others abode be broken down, and the Jews and Gentiles become one still among the Midianites and Amalekites.' When Saul

روشن اختر بول اكنون ماه ند بوسف از زندن بر آمد شاه شد

his parable, and said, Strong is thy dwelling.

CHAPTER XXV. place, and thou puttest thy nest in a rock.

While Israel abode in Shittim, the people commit whoredom with the danghters of 22 Nevertheless w the Kenites shall be wasted Moab, 1. 'They become idolatera, 2 The anger of the Lord is kindled against

them, and he commands the ringlenders to be hanged, 3, 4, Moss callsee the * until Asshur shall carry thee way captive. Julges to slay the transgressor, 5. Zimri, one of the leraelitish princes of the tribe

of Siineon, brings a Midianitish princess, nauned Cazbi, isto his tent, while the 23 And he took up his parable, and said, Alas,

people are deploring their iniquity before the tabernacle, 6. Phinehas, the son of who shall live when God doeth this!

Eleazar, inceused by this insult to the laws and worship of God, runsalter then and

pierces then both with a jaselin, 7, S. Twenty-four thousand die of the plague, 24 And ships shall come from the coast of sent as a punishment for their iniquity, 9. "The Lord grunts Phinehas a covenant y Chittim, and shall afflict Asshur, and shall

of peace aui an everlasting Priesthool, 10-13. The name and quality of the lara

elitish man and Midianiush woman, 14, 15. God commands the leraelites to ves afflict · Eber, and he also shall perish for ever. and smite the Midianites, who had seduced them to the worship of Baal-peor, 16–18.

25 And Balaam rose up, and went and re ND Israel abode in Shittim, and An Exol. Is. turned to his place: and Balak also went his the people began to commit way.

whoredom with the daughters of Moab.



w Heb. Kain. Gen. 18. 19.-* Or, how long shall it be ere Asshur carry the way

captice ?

y Gen. 10. 4. Dan. 11. 30. - Gen. 10. 21, 25.-a See Ch. 31. 8.-b Ch. 33. 49. Josb

2.1. Mio. 6. 5. -c Ch. 31. 16. 1 Cor 10. 8.

destroyed the latter, we find he had no commission against wished to curse Israel, when he found they were the serthe Kentes, 1 Sam. xv. 6. but it appears that they were vants of the true God. then a small and inconsiderable people : they had, doubt 6. That it is possible he did not know this at first. less, been wasted, as the text says, though by what means Balak told him that there was a numerous people come does not appear from history. On the other hand, it may out of Egypt; and as marauders, wandering hordes, freebe observed, that the Midianites, mentioned here, lived booters, &c. were frequent in those days, he might take close to the Dead sea, at a great distance from the Madian, them at first for such spoilers; and the more readily go where Jethro lived, which was near Horeb. Perhaps they at Balak's request to consult God concerning them. were a colony or tribe that had migrated from the vicinity 7. That so conscientiously did he act in the whole bu. of mount Sinai. It seems that at this time, the Kenites siness, that as soon as he found that it displeased God, he occupied a very strong position; strong is thy dwelling- cheerfully offered to return; and did not advance, till he place, and thou puttest thy nest in a rock: where there is had not only the permission, but the authority of God to a play on the original word op kin, which signifies both a proceed. Kenite and a nest. High rocks in these countries were 8. That when he came in view of the Israelitish camp, generally used as their strong places.

he did not attempt to make use of any means of sorcery, Verse 22. Until Asshur shall carry thee away captive) evocation of spirits, necromantic spells, &c. to accomplish The Assyrians and Babylonians who carried captive the the wish of Balak. ten tribes, 2 Kings xvii. 6. and the Jews into Babylon, 2 9. That he did seek to find out the will of the true Kings xxv. probably carried away the Kenites also. In- God, by using those means which God himself had predeed this seems pretty evident, as we find some Kenites scribed, viz. supplication and prayer, and the sacrifice of mentioned among the Jews, after their return from the clean beasts. Babylonish captivity, 1 Chron. ii. 55.

10. That though he knew it would greatly displease Verse 23. Who shall live when God doeth this!) There Balak, yet he most faithfully and firmly told him all that are two senses in which these words may be taken; l. God said on every occasion. That the event is so distant, that none then alive could pos 11. That notwithstanding his allowed covetous disposisibly live to see it. 2. That the times would be so dis- tion, yet he refused all promised honours, and proffered tressing and desolating, that scarcely any should be able to rewards, even of the most extensive kind, to induce him escape. The words are very similar to those of our Lord, to act in any respect contrary to the declared will of God. and probably are to be taken in the same sense: “Wo 12. That God, on this occasion, communicated to him to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in some of the most extraordinary prophetic influences ever those days."

conferred on man. Verse 24. Ships shall come from the coast of Chittim) 13. That his prophecies are, upon the whole, clear and Some think by Chittim the Romans, others the Macedo- pointed, and have been fulfilled in the most remarkable nians under Alexander the Great, are meant. It is certain manner; and furnish a very strong argument in proof of that the Romans did conquer the Assyrians, including all Divine revelation. the people of Syria, Mesopotamia, &c. but Calmet strongly 14. That notwithstanding the wicked counsel given to contends that by Chitlim, Macedonia is m ; and that the Midianites, the effects of which are mentioned in the the prophecy refers to the conquests of Alexander. Chit- following chapter, on which account he probably lost his tim was one of the sons of Javan, the son of Japhet, the life, chap. xxxi. 8. the badness of this man's character has son of Noah, Gen. x. 4. and his posterity, according to been very far overrated; and that it does not appear that he Josephus, Antiq. I. ii. c. 22. settled in Cilicia, Macedonia, was either a hypocrite, false prophet, or a sorcerer, in the Cyprus, and Italy also; and therefore, says Mr. Ainsworth, common acceptation of the term, and that he risked even the prophecy may imply both the troubles that befell the life itself in following and fulfilling the will of the Lord. Assyrians and Jews by the Greeks and Seleucidæ, in the 15. That though it is expressly asserted, chap. xxxi. 16. troublous days of Antiochus.

and Rev. ii. 14. that Israel's committing whoredom with the And shall afflict Eber] Probably not the Hebrews, as daughters of Moab, was brought about by the evil counsel some think, but the people on the other side the Euphrates, given by Balaam to cast this stumbling-block in their way; from 15y abar, to pass over, go beyond-all which people yet it does not appear from the text that he had those most were discomfited, and their empire destroyed by Alexan- criminal intentions which are generally attributed to him: der the Great.

for as we have already seen so much good in this man's Verse 25. And Balaam-returned to his place] In-character, and that this, and his love of money, (and who tended to have gone to Mesopotamia, his native country; thinks this a sin ?) are almost the only blots in it; it must see Deut. xxiii. 4. but seems to have settled among the certainly be consistent with candour and charity to sugMidianites, where he was slain by the Israelites, see chap. gest a method of removing at least some part of this blame. xxxi. 8.

16. I would therefore simply say, that the counsel given

by Balaam to Balak might have been, "to form alliances Though the notes in the preceding chapters have been with this people, especially through the medium of matriextended to a considerable length, yet a few additional re monial connexions ; and seeing they could not conquer marks may be necessary: the reader's attention is earnestly them to endeavour to make them their friends.” Now, requested to the following propositions.

though this might not be designed by Balaam to bring 1. It appears sufficiently evident from the preceding ac them into a snare; yet it was a bad doctrine, as it led to count,

that Balaam knew and worshipped the true God. the corruption of the holy seed, and to an unequal yoking 2. That he had been a true prophet, and appears to have with unbelievers; which, though even in a matrimonial been in the habit of receiving oracles from God.

way, is as contrary to sound policy, as to the word of 3. That he practised some illicit branches of knowledge, God. -See the notes on chap. xxv. 3. and 6. or was reputed by the Moabites as a sorcerer-probably 17. That it was the Moabitish women, not Balaam, that because of the high reputation he had for wisdom-and we called the people to the sacrifices of their gods; and it arknow that even in our own country, in the fifteenth and gued great degeneracy and iniquity in the hearts of the sixteenth centuries, persons who excelled their contempo- people, on so slight an invitation, to join so suddenly in raries in wisdom, were reputed as magicians.

so impure a worship, and so speedily to cast off the whole 4. That though he was a believer in the true God, yet he form of godliness, with every portion of the fear of the was covetous—he loved the wages of unrighteousness. Almighty: therefore the high blame reste ultimately with 5. That it does not appear that in the case before us, he themselves.

2 And a they called the people unto the sa 9 And n those that died in the plague were crifices of their gods; and the people did eat, twenty and four thousand. and bowed down to their gods.

10 ff And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 3 And Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor: and 11 © Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of d the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel. Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath away

4 And the LORD said unto Moses, . Take all from the children of Israel, while he was zealous the heads of the people, and hang them up be- for my sake among them, that I consumed not fore the Lord against the sun, that the fierce an- | the children of Israel in my jealousy. ger of the Lord may be urned away from Israel. 12 Wherefore say, 'Behold, I give unto him

5 And Moses said unto 6 the judges of Israel, my covenant of peace: b Slay ye every one his men that were joined 13 And he shall have it, and his seed after unto Baal-peor.

him, even the covenant of an everlasting priest6 | And behold, one of the children of Israel hood; because he was u zealous for his God, came and brought unto his brethren a Midian- and made an atonement for the children of itish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the Israel. sight of all the congregation of the children of 14 Now the name of the Israelite that was Israel, i who were weeping before the door of the slain, even that was slain with the Midianitish tabernacle of the congregation.

woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of 7 And & when Phinehas, 'the son of Eleazar, a w chief house among the Simeonites. the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up 15 And the name of the Midianitish woman from among the congregation, and took a jave- that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of < Zur; lin in his hand;

he was head over a people, and of a chief house 8 And he went after the man of Israel into the in Midian. tent, and thrust both of them through, the man of 16 | And the Lord spake unto Moseş, saying, Israel, and the woman through her belly. Som the 17 y Vex the Midianites, and smite them : plague was stayed from the children of Israel. 18 For they vex you with their ? wiles, where

a Josh. 22 17. Psa. 106. 28. Hos 9.10.- Exo 31. 15, 16, 1 Cor. 10. 20.- Exod. 20. 5. - Psa. 105. 2 -e Deut. 1.3. Joah 22. 17.-r Ver. 11. Dent. 13. 17.- Exol. 18. 21, 35.-h Exod. 32 2. Deut. 13. 6, 9, 13, 15.-i Joel 2. 17.-k Pisa. 106. 30. Ecclus. 45. 23. 1 Mac. 2 51- Exol 6.6.-m Psa 106. 30.-n Dent 4. 3. 1 Cor. 10. 8. - Psa. 106. 30. Eeclus. 45 3.-p Heb. twith my zeal: See 2 Cor. 11. 2

q Exod. 20. 5. Deul 32 16,21 1 Kings 14. 2. Pra. 78. 59. Ezek 15 Zeph. L. 13. & 38.- Mal. 2. 4, 5. & 3. 1. Ecclus. 45. 24 1 Mac. 2 51.-- See 1 (1.000 6.4, &c.- Exod. 10. 15. 'Ecclus. 45. 24.- Acts 22. 3. Rom. 10 2- Her 217 w Heb. house of a father.--x Ch. 31. 8. Josh. 13. 21.-y Ch 31, 2-2 Ch 31 16 Rev. 2. 14.


requiring a conference in Smithfield with the rebel leader, Verse 3. Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor] The same Sir William Walrorth, then mayor of London, provoked as the Priapus of the Romans, and worshipped with the same at the insolence with which Tyler behaved to his sovereign, obscene rites, as we have frequently had occasion to remark. knocked himn off his horse with his mace, after which he

The joining to Baal-peor, mentioned here, was proba- was instantly despatched. While his partizans were bend. bly what St. Paul hal in view when he said, 2 Cor. vi. ing their bows to revenge the death of their leadler, Richard, 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers. then only sixteen years of age, rode up to them, and with And this joining, though done even

in a matrimonial way, great courage and presence of mind thus addressed them, was nevertheless fornication, see Rev. ij. 14. as no mar "What, my people, will you kill your king ? be not conriage between an Israelite and a Midianite could be legi- cerned for the death of your leader-follow me, and I will timate, according to the law of God. See the propositions be your general.”—They were suddenly appeased, and the at the close of the preceding chapter.

rebellion terminated. The action of Sir William WalVerse 4. Take all the heads of the people, &c.] Mean- worth was that of a zealot, of essential benefit at the time; ing the chiefs of those who had transgressed: as if he had and justified only by the pressing exigencies of the case. said, Assemble the chiefs and judges, institute an inquiry Verse 9. Those that dicd-were twenty-four thousand.] concerning the transgressors, and hang them who shall be St. Paul, 1 Cor. x. 8. reckons only twenty-three thousand; found guilty before the Lord, as a matter required by his although some MSS. and Versions, particularly the latter justice.' Against the sun-in the most public manner, Syriac, and the Armenian have twenty-four thousand, and in day-light.

with the Hebrew text. Allowing the 24,000 to be the Dr. Kennicott has remarked, that the Samaritan and genuine reading, and none of the Hebrew MSS. exhibit Hebrew texts must be both taken together to make the any various reading here, the two places may be reconciled sense here complete. And the Lord said unto Moses, SPEAK thus : 1000 men were slain in consequence of the examinaunto all the heads of the people; AND LET THEM SLAY THE tion instituted ver. 4. and 23,000 in consequence of the orMEN THAT WERE JOINED TO BAAL-PEOR ; and hang them ders given, ver. 5. making 24,000 in the whole. St. Paul up before the Lord against the sun, &c.

probably refers only to the latter number. Verse 5. Slay ye cvery one his men] In the different Verse 12, 13. My covenant of peace-of an everlasting departments where you preside over thousands, hundreds, priesthood) As the word peace implied all kinds of blessfifties, and tens, slay all the culprits that shall be found. ings, both spiritual and temporal ; it may mean no more

Verse 6. One of the children of Israel] Zimri, the son here than the promise of God, to grant him and his family of Salu, a prince of a chief family in the tribe of Simeon, the utmost prosperity in reference to both worlds. The ver. 14. brought a Midianitish woman-Cozbi, daughter everlasting priesthood refers properly to the priesthood of of Zur, head over a people of one of the chief families in Christ, which was shadowed out by the priesthood under Midian, ver. 15. The condition of these two persons plain the law; no matter in what family it was continued. There ly proves it to have been a matrimonial alliance--the one fore the obvy nana cehunnath ôlem, or cternal priesthood, was a prince the other a princess-therefore I must con does not merely refer to any sacerdotal ministrations which clude, that fornication or whoredom, in the common sense should be continued in the family of Phinehas, during the of the word, was not practised on this occasion. The mat Mosaic dispensation : but to that priesthood of Christ, type ter was bad enough, as the marriage was in flat opposition fied by thai of Aaron and his successors. The priesthood to the law of God: and we need not make it worse by re alone is everlasting; and a covenant or grant of that was presenting the woman as a cominon prostitute, as the Vul made to Phinehas and his descendants. The Jews reckon gate and several others have done. In such a case this is 12 high priests of the race of Phinehas, from this time to the absolutely inadmissible. Josephus positively says that Zim- days of Solomon-9 more froin that time to the captivity, ri had married Cozbi, Antiq. 1. iv. chap. 6. and it he had see 1 Chron. vi. 4. 15. and 15 from their return to the time not said so, still the thing is nearly self-evident.-See the of Antiochus Eupator, the last of whom was Onias, slain conclusion of chap. xxiv.

by Lysias. Ezra, the great priest and scribe, was of inis The children of Israel were weeping] This aggravated line, Ezra vii. 1, 5. The family of Ithamar, uncle of Phi- . the crime, because the people were then in a state of great hu- nehas, had the priesthood for about 150 years; but it was miliation because of the late impure and illegal transactions. restored to the family of Phinehas in the person of Zadok

Verse 3 Thrust both of them through) Inspired, un the priest, 1 Chron. vi. 50. in which it continuel, in the doubtedly, by the Spirit of the God of justice to do this act, whole, about 950 years. Probably the Maccabies were of which can never be a precedent in any common occasion. the same family: but though this is not certain, there is no An act something similar occurs in our own history. In evidence arainst it. See Calmet: God therefore suth1381, in the minority of Richard II. a most formidable in- ciently fulfilled his promise : he gave to him and his desurrection took place in Kent and Essex; about 100,000 scendants, almost the utmont temporal length that could be men, chiefly under the direction of Wat Tyler, seized on given of that priest hrod, which is, in its own nature, eternal. London, massacred multitudes of innocent people, and Here then, the word obvyôlam means, not a limited time, but were proceeding to the greatest enormities: when the king what is eternal in its duration. See the note on Gen. 111.33.

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