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above all cattle, and above every beast of the sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; fand thy field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust desire shall be s to thy husband, and he shall shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:
h rule over thee. 15 And I will put enmity between thee and 17 And unto Adam he said, i Because thou the woman, and between thy seed and her hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, kand seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded bruise his heel.
thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it; " cursed 16 | Unto the woman he said, I will greatly is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in thou eat of it all the days of 'thy life;
a Isai 65. 3. Mic. 7. 17,- Matt. 3. 7. & 13. 38. & 23. 33. John 8. 44. Acts 13. 10. I John 3 &-c Ps 132. 11. Isti. 7. 14. Mic. 53. Mall. I. 23. 25. Luke 1. 31, 31, 35. Gal 4.4.- Rom. 16 20. Col. 2. 15. Hebr. 2 14. 1 John 5. 5. Rev. 12. 7, 17.-e P 48. 6. Isai. 12. && 21. 3. John 16. 21. 1 Tim 2. 15.
f Ch. 4. 7.- Or, subject to thy husband.-h 1 Cor. 11. 2. & 14. 31. Eph. 5. 2,
trangression: I did not pluck the fruit, she took it, and sion of a sinner, is to convince him that it is Satan he has gave it to me.
been serving; that it is to him he has been giving up his 2. When the woman is questioned, she lays the blame soul, body, goods, &c. he starts with horror when this upon God and the serpent (nachash) the serpent beguiled conviction fastens on his mind, and shudders at the thought me, and I did eal-Thou didst make him much wiser of being in league with the old murderer. But there is a than thou didst make me; and therefore, my simplicity deeper meaning in the text than even this, especially in and ignorance were overcome by his superior wisdom: 7 these words, it shall bruise thy head, or rather, nya hua, can have no fault here, the fault is his, and his who made HE, who? the Seed of the woman, the Person who is to him so wise, and me so ignorant. Thus we find, that come by the woman, and by her alone, without the concurwhile the eyes of their body were opened to see their rence of man. Therefore the address is not to Adam and degraded státe ; the eyes of their understanding were Eve, but to Eve alone; and it was in consequence of this closed so that they could not see the sinfulness of sin; and purpose of God, that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin : at the same time their hearts were hardened through its this, and this alone, is what is implied in the promise of deceitfulness. In this also their posterity copy their ex the seed of the woman bruising the head of the serpent. ample. How few ingenuously confess their own sin! Jesus Christ died to put away sin by the sacrifice of him
They see not their guilt-they are continually making self, and to destroy him who had the power of death, that excuses for their crimes: the strength and subtlety of the is, the devil. Thus he bruises his head, destroys his templer, the natural weakness of their own minds, the power and lordship over mankind, turning them from the unfavourable circumstances in which they were placed, power of Satan unto God, Acts xxvi. 18. And Satan &c. &c. are all pleaded as excuses for their sins, and thus bruises his heel-God so ordered it, that the salvation of the possibility of repentance is precluded: for till a man man could only be brought about by the death of Christ : take his sin lo himself; till he acknowledge that he alone and even the spiritual seed of our blessed Lord, have the is guilty, he cannot be humbled, and consequently cannot heel often bruised, as they suffer persecution, temptation, be saved. Reader, till thou accuse thyself, and thyself &c. which may be all that is intended by this part of the only, and feel that thou alone art responsible for all thy prophecy; iniquities, there is no hope of thy salvation.
Verse 16. Unto the woman he said] She being second Verse 14. And the Lord said unto the serpent] The in the transgression is brought up the second to receive tempter is not asked why he deceived the woman? He her condemnation, and to hear her punishment. I will cannot roll the blame on any other : self-tempted he fell; greatly multiply, or multiplying, I will multiply; i. e. and it is natural for him, such is his enmity, to deceive I will multiply thy sorrows, and multiply those sorrows and destroy all he can. His fault admits of no excuse; by other sorrows; and this during conception and pregand therefore God begins to pronounce sentence on him nancy; and particularly so in parturition or child-bearing. first. And here we must consider a twofold sentence, one And this curse has fallen in a heavier degree on the woman on Satan, and the other on the agent he employed. The than on any other female. Nothing is better attested than nachash, who was at the head of all the inferior animals, this; and yet there is certainly no natural reason why it and in a sort of society and intimacy with man, is to be should be so : it is a part of her punishment, and a part, greatly degraded, entirely banished from human society, from which, even God's mercy will not exempt her. It and deprived of the gift of speech. Cursed art thou above is added farther, Thy desire shall be to thy husbandall catile, and above every beast of the field—thou shalt Thou shalt not be able to shun the great pain and peril of be considered the most contemptible of animals—upon thy child-bearing, for thy desire, thy appetite
, shall be to thy belly shall thou go-thou shalt no longer walk erect, but husband;—and he shall rule over thee; though in the mark the ground equally with thy hands and feet-and creation both were formed with equal rights, and the dust shalt thou eat, though formerly possessed of the woman had as much right to rule as the man; but subjecfaculty to distinguish, choose, and cleanse thy food, thou tion to the will of her husband is one part of her curse; shalt feed henceforth like the most stupid and abject quad- and so very capricious is this will often, that a sorer ruped, all the days of thy life-through all the innumerable punishment no human being can well have, to be at all in generations of thy species. God saw meet to manifest his å state of liberty, and under the protection of wise and displeasure against the agent employed in this most mel. equal laws. ancholy business : and perhaps this is founded on the part Verse 17. And unto Adam he said] The man being the which the intelligent and subtle nachash took in the seduc last in the transgression is brought up last to receive his tion of our first parents. We see that he was capable of sentence. Because thou hast harkened to the voice of thy it, and have reason to believe that he became a willing wife-"thou wast not deceived, she only gave and coun. instrument.
selled thce to eat—this thou shouldest have resisted;" and Verse 15. I will put enmity between thee and the that he did not, is the reason of his condemnation. Cursed woman) This has been generally supposed to apply to a is the ground for thy sake; from henceforth its fertility certain enmity subsisting between men and serpents; but shall be greatly impaired; in sorrow shalt thou cat of it; this is rather a fancy than a reality. It is yet to be dis- be in continual perplexity concerning the seed time and covered that the serpentine race have any peculiar enmity the harvest, the cold and the heat, the wet and the dry. against mankind; nor is there any proof that men hate How often are all the fruits of man's toil destroyed by serpents more than they do other noxious animals. Men blasting, by mildew, by insects, wet weather, land-floods, have much more enmity to the common rat and magpie &c. &c. Ánxiety and carefulness are the labouring man's than they have to all the serpents in the land, because the portion. former destroy the grain, &c. and serpents, in general, far Verse 18. Thorns also, and thistles, &c.) Instead of from seeking to do men mischief, flee their approach, and producing nourishing grain and useful vegetables, noxious avoid their dwelling. If, however, we take the word weeds shall be peculiarly prolific, injure the ground, choke nachash to mean any of the simia, or ape species, we find the good seed, and mock the hopes of the husbandman. a more consistent meaning, as there is scarcely an animal And thou shalt eat the herb of the field-Thou shalt no in the universe so detested by women as these are ; and longer have the privilege of this garden of delights, but indeed men look on them as continual caricatures of them- must go to the common champaign country, and feed on selves. But we are not to look for merely literal meanings such herbs as thou canst find, till by labour and industry here: it is evident, that Satan, who actuated this creature, thou hast raised others, more suitable to thee, and more is alone intended in this part of the prophetic declaration comfortable. God in his endless mercy has put enmity between men In the curse pronounced on the ground, there is much and him : so that, though all mankind love his service, more implied than generally appears. The amazing foryet all invariably hate himself. Were it otherwise, who tility of some of the most common thistles and thorns, could be saved 1' A great point gained toward the conver- renders them the most proper instruments for the fulfil
18 - Thorns also and thistles shall it bring LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed forth to thee: and · thou shalt eat the herb of them. the field ;
22 | And the Lord God said, Behold, the 19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat man is become as one of us, to know good and bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, kand of it wast thou taken: for edust thou art, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live runto dust shalt thou return.
for ever: 20 And Adam called his wife's name & Eveb; 23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth because she was the mother of all living. from the garden of Eden, 'to till the ground
21 | Unto Adam also and to his wile did the from whence he was taken.
a Job 31. 40.-b Heb. cauze to bud.-P. 100, 14. Job 1. 21. Pen. 90. 3. & 101.2d Eccles. 1. 13. 2 These 3. 10,- Ch.2 7. Dan. 12. 2- Jub 21. 26. & 34. 15. Ps. 101. -2. Eccles. 3. 21. & 12. 7. Dan. 12. 2. Rom. 5. 12. Hebr. 9. 27.-glleb, Chavak.
That is, living:- h Acts 17. 26. - Ver. 5. Like Isa. 19. 12. & 47. 12, 13. Jer. 2 Bk Ch. 29.-1 Ch. 2. 5. & 4.2 & 9. 20. Eccl. 5. 9.
ment of this sentence against man. Thistles multiply seen, was intended to be the means of continual preservaenormously; a species called the Carolina silvestris, tion. For as no being but God can exist independently of bears ordinarily from twenty to forty heads, each contain any supporting agency, so man could not have continued ing from one hundred to one hundred and fifty seeds. to live without a particular supporting agent; and this
Another species, called the Acanthum vulgare, produces supporting agent, under God, appears to have been the tree above 100 heads, each containing from 3° to 400 seeds. of life. Suppose we say that these thistles produce at a medium Verse 20. And Adam called his wife's name Ere, beonly 80 heads, and that each contains only 300 seeds; the cause she was the mother of all living.] A man who does first crop from these would amount to 24,000. Let these not understand the original, cannot possibly comprehend be sown, and their crop will amount to 576 millions. Sow the reason of what is said here. What has the word Ede these, and their produce will be 13,824,000,000,000, or thir to do with being the mother of all liring? Our translateen billions, eight hundred and trocnly-four thousand mil tors often follow the Septuagint: it is a pity they had not lionş; and a single crop from these, which is only the third done so here, as the Septuagint translation is literal and year's growth, would amount to 331,776,000,000,000,000, correct. Και καλεσιν Αδαμ το ονομα της γυναικός αυτου ζωή, or three hundred and thirty-one thousand, seren hundred οτι μητηρ πάντων των ζωνταν, . “And Adam called his wife's and serenty-si.r billions : and the fourth year's growth name Life, because she was the mother of all the living."" will amount to 7962,624,000,000,000,000,000, or seven thous This is a proper and faithful representation of the Hebrew and nine hundred and sixty-two trillions, six hundred text; for the iron charah, of the original, which we have and twenty-four thousand billions. A progeny more than corrupted into Ere, a word destitute of all meaning, sufficient to stock not only the surface of the whole world, answers exactly to the Zon of the Septuagint, both signibut of all the planets in the solar system, so that no other fying life; as does also the Hebrew in chai, to the Greek plant or vegetable could possibly grow, allowing but the Ewrt ww, both of which signify the liring. It is probable space of one square foot for each plant.
that God designed by this name to teach our first parents The Carduus vulgatissimus viarum, or common hedge these two important truths: 1. That though they had thistle, besides the almost infinite swarms of winged seeds merited immediate death, yet they should be respited, and it sends forth, spreads its roots around many yårds, and the accomplishment of the sentence long delayed ; they throws up suckers every where, which not only produce should be spared to propagate a numerous progeny on the seeds in their turn, but extend their roots and propagate earth. 2. That though much misery would be entailed on like the parent plan, and stifle and destroy all vegetation this posterity, and death should have a long and universal but their own.
empire, yet One should, in the fulness of time, spring As to Thorns, the bramble, which occurs so commonly, from the woman, who should destroy death, and bring tife and is so mischievous, is a sufficient proof how well the and immortality to light, 2 Tim. i. 10. Therefore Adam means are calculated to secure the end. The genista, or called his wife's name Life, because she was to be the spinosa vulgaris, called by some furze, by others whins, mother of all human beings, and because she was to be is allowed to be one of the most mischievous shrubs on the mother of HIM who was to give life to a world, dead the face of the earth. Scarcely any thing can grow near in trespasses, and dead in sins, Ephes. ii. 1. &c. it; and it is so thick set with prickles, that it is almost Verse 21. God made coats of skins) It is very likely impossible to touch it without being wounded. It is very that the skins out of which their clothing was made, were prolific; almost half the year it is covered with flowers, taken off animals, whose blood had been poured out as a which produce pods filled with seeds. Besides, it shoots sin-offering to God: for as we find Cain and Abel offerout roots far and wide, from which suckers and young ing sacrifices to God, we may fairly presume, that God plants are continually springing up, which produce others had given them instructions on this head; nor is it likely, in their turn. Where it is permitted to grow, it soon over
that ihe notion of a sacrifice could have ever occurred to spreads whole tracts of ground, and it is extremely diffi- the mind of man, without an express revelation from God. cult to clear the ground of its roots where once it has got Hence we may safely infer, 1. That as Adam and Eve proper footing. Such provision has the just God made to needed this clothing as soon as they fell, and death had fulfil the curse which he has pronounced on the earth, not as yet made any ravages in the animal world, it is because of the crimes of its inhabitants.--See Hale's most likely that the skins were taken off victims offered Vegetable Statics.
under the direction of God himself, and in faith of HIM, Verse 19. In the sıcat of thy face] Though the whole who, in the fulness of time, was to make an atonement ly body may be thrown into a profuse sweat, if hard labour his death. And 2dly, it seems reasonable also, that this be long continued, yet the face or forehead is the first part matter shonld be bronght about in such a way, that Satan whence the sweat' begins to issue : this is occasioned by and death should have no triumph, when the very first the blood being strongly propelled to the brain, partly death that took place in the world, was an emblem and through stooping, and principally by the strong action of type of that death which should conquer Satan, destroy the muscles: in consequence of this the blood-vessels his empire, reconcile God to man, convert man to God, about the head become turgid through the great flux of sanctify human nature, and prepare it for heaven. blood, the fibres are relaxed, the pores enlarged, and the Verse 22. Bchold, the man is become as one of us] On sweat or serum poured out. Thus, then, the very com all hande, this text is allowed to be difficult; and the diffimencement of every man's labour may put him in mind culty is increased by our translation, which is opposed to of his sin and its consequences.
the original Hebrew, and the most authentic versions. Dust Thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.] God The Hebrew has no hayah, which is the third person had said that in the day they ate of the forbidden fruit, preterite tense, and signifies was, not is. The Samaritan dying they should die: they should then become mortal, lert, the Samaritan version, the Syriac, and the Septuaand continue under the intluence of a great variety of un- gint, have the same tense. These lead us to a very diffriendly agencies in the atmosphere, and in themselves, ferent sense, and indicate that there is an ellipsis of some from heats, colds, drought, and damps in the one, and words, which must be supplied, in order to make the sense morbid increased and decreased action in the solids and complete. A very learned man has ventured the following fluids of the other, till the spirit, finding its earthly house paraphrase, which should not be lightly regarded : " And no longer tenable, should return to God who gave it; and the Lord God said, the man who was like one of us in the body, being decomposed, should be reduced to its purity and wisdom, is now fallen, and robbed of his exprimitive dust. It is evident from this, that man would cellence: he has added myos ladaật, to the knowledge of have been immortal, had he never transgressed; and that the good, by his transgression, the knowledge of the evil: this state of continual life and health depended on his obe- and noir, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the dience to his Maker. The tree of life, as we have already tree of life and eat, and live for ever in this miserable
24 So he drove out the man; and he placed and a flaming sword which turned every way, to a at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, keep the way of the tree of lite.
a Ch 2 &
b Exol. 5. 2, 20. I King 6. 25-28. Josh. 5. 13. Ps. 101. 4. Heb. 1. 7.
state, I will remove him, and guard the place, lest he word compounded of ke, a particle of resemblance, like should re-enter. Therefore the Lord God sent him forth to, like as, and an rab, he was great, powerful, &c. Hence from the garden of Eden,' &c. This seems to be the it is very likely, that the cherubs, to whatever order of beings most natural sense of the place. Some suppose that the they belonged, were emblems of the ALL-MIGHTY, and words are spoken ironically, and that the Most High in were those creatures by whom he produced the great tended by a cutting taunt to upbraid the poor culprit for effects of his power. The word an rab is a character of his offence; because he broke the divine command, in the the Most High, Prov. xxvi. 10. The Great God who expectation of being like God, to know good and evil; formed all; and again in Psal. xlviii. 2. where he is called and now he had lost all the good that God had designed the Great King, an 750 melee rab. But though this is for bim, and got nothing but evil in its place; and there- rarely applied as a character of the Supreme Being in the fore God taunts him for the total miscarriage of his pro Hebrew Bible, yet it is a common appellative of the Deity ject. But God is ever consistent with himself; and surely in the Arabic language, Yrab, and compell raó' his infinite pity prohibited the use of either sarcasm or ulaâlameen, Lord of both worlds, or, Lord of the universe, irony, in speaking of so dreadful a catastrophe, that was are expressions repeatedly used to point out the almighty in the end to occasion the agony and bloody sweat, the energy and supremacy of God.
On this ground, I supcross and passion, the death and burial, of the Almighty's pose, the cherubim were emblematical representations of fellow, Zech, xuli. 7.
the eternal power and Godhead of the Alınighty. These In chap. i. 26, 27. we have seen man in the perfection angelic beings were for a time employed in guarding the of his nature, the dignity of his office, and the plenitude entrance to paradise, and keeping the way of, or road to, of his happiness. Here we find the same creature, but the tree of life. This, I say, for a time; for it is very stripped of his glories and happiness, so that the word probable that God soon removed the tree of life, and man no longer conveys the same ideas it did before. Man abolished the garden, so that its situation could never after and intellectual ercellence were before so intimately con be positively ascertained. necied as to appear inseparable; man and misery are now By the flaming suord turning erery way, or flame equally so. In our nervous mother-tongue, the Anglo- folding back upon itself, we may understand the formidable Saxon, we have found the word Irod, God, signifying not appearances which these cherubim assumed, in order to only the Supreme Being, but also good or goodness : and render the passage to the tree of life inaccessible. it is worthy of especial note, that the word Man, man, in Thus terminates this most awful tragedy, a tragedy in the same language, is used to express not only the human which all the actors are slain! in which the most awful being so called, both male and female, but also mischief, murders are committed, and the whole universe ruined ! wickedness, fraud, deceit, and rillany. Thus a simple | The serpent, so called, is degraded—the uomun cursed monosyllable, still in use among us in its first sense, con with pains, miseries, and a subjection to the will of her veyed at once to the minds of our ancestors the two follow- husband, which was never originally designed—the man, ing particulars :-1. The human being in his excellence, the lord of this lower world, doomed to incessant labor capable of knowing, loving, and glorifying his Maker, and toil-and the earth itself cursed with comparative 2. The human being in his fallen state, capable of, and barrenness! To complete all, the garden of pleasure is committing all kinds of wickedness.
"Obiter hic notan interdicted, and this man, who was little less than God, dum, siys old Mr. Somner in his Saxon Dictionary, (see on Psal. viii. 5.) and who would be like Him, shame
venit, Lod Saxonibus, et Deum significasse et BONUM : fully expelled from a place where jure spirits alone could uti (Man) Man, et hominem et nequitiam. Here it is to dwell. Yet, in the midst of wrath, God remembers mercy, be noted, that among the Saxons, God signified both the and a promise of redemption from ihis degraded and cursed Divine Being and goodness, as the word Man significd state is made to them, through HIM, who, in the fulness both the Human Being and wickedness." This is an ad of time, is to be made flesh, and who, by dying for the sin ditional proof that our Saxon ancestors both thought and of the world, shall destroy the power of Satan, and deliver spoke at the same time, which, strange as it may appear, all who trust in the merit of his sacrifice, from the power, is not a common case; their words are not arbitrary signs; guilt, and nature of sin, and thus prepare them for the but, as far as sounds can convey the ideal meaning of celestial paradise at the right hand of God.-Reader, hast things, their words do it. And they are so formed and thou repented of thy sin ? for, often hast thou sinned after naed, as necessarily to bring to view the nature and proper the similitude of thy ancestor's transgression. Hast thou ties of those things of which they are the signs. In this sought and found redemption in the blood of the Lamb ? sense the Anglo-Saxon is inferior only to the Hebrew. Art thou saved from the disposition which led thy first
Verre 24. So he drove out the man) Three things are parents to transgress, living a life of dependence on thy noted here: 1. God's displeasure against sinful man, Creator, and of faith and loving obedience to Him who died evidenced by his expelling him from this place of blessed for thee? Wilt thou live under the curse, and die eternally? negg. 2. Man's unfitness for the place, of which he had God forbid! Return to him with all thy soul, and receive rendered himself unworthy by his ingratitude and trans this exhortation as a call from his mercy. gression. And 3. His reluctance to leave this place of To what has already been said on the awful contents of . happiness. He was, as we may naturally conclude, this chapter, I can add little that can either set it in a unuilling to depart, and God drove him out.
clearer light, or make its solemn subject more impressive. He placed ai the east, Dipo mikkedem, or before the We see here that by the subtlety and envy of the devil, sin garden of Eden, before what may be conceived its gate entered into the world, and death by sin; and we find that or entrance ; cherubims. 012120 ha-kerubim, the cheru- death reigned not only from Adam to Moses, but from Moses him. Hebrew plurals in the masculine, end in general in to the present day. How abominable must sin be in the sight im: to add an 8 to this when we introduce such words of God, when it has not only defaced his own image from into English, is very improper; therefore the word should the soul of man, but has also become a source of natural be written cherubim, not cherubims. But what were these? and moral evil throughout every part of the globe. DisThey are utterly unknown. Conjectures and guesses rela- ruption and violence appear in every part of nature; vice, tive to their nature and properties are endless. Several profligacy, and misery, through all the tribes of men, and think them to have been emblematical representations of orders of society. It is true, that where sin hath abounded, the sacred Trinity, and bring reasons and scriptures in there grace doch much more abound; but men shut their support of their opinion: but as I am not satisfied that this eyes against the light, and harden their hearts against the opinion is correci, I will not trouble the reader with it. truth. Sin, which becomes propagated into the world by From the description in Exod. xxvi. 1, 31. 1 Kings vi. 29, natural generation, growing with the growth, and strength32. 2 Chron. iii. 14. it appears that the cherubs were some- ening with the strength of man, would be as endless in its times represented with two faces, namely, those of a lion duration, as unlimited in its influence, did not God check and of a man: but from Ezek. i. 5, &c. X. 20, 21. we find and restrain it by his grace, and cut off its extending that they had four faces and four wings: the faces were influence in the incorrigibly wicked, by means of death? those of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle: but it seems How wonderful is the economy of God! That which there was but one body to these heads. The two-faced entered into the world as one of the prime fruits and effects cherubs were such as were represented on the curtains and of sin, is now an instrument in his hands, to prevent the veil of the tabernacle, and on the wall, doors, and veil of extension of its contagion. If men, now so greatly multithe temple : those with four faces appeared only in the plied on the earth, and fertile in mischievous inventions, Holy of Holies.
were permitted to live nearly a thousand years, as in the The word 23 or yu kerub, never appears as a verb in ancient world, to mature and perfect their infectious and the Hebrew Bible, and therefore is justly supposed to be a destructive counsels, what a sum of iniquity and ruin would
2 And she again bare his brother bAbel. And
Abel was “a keeper of sheep, but Cain was da The birth, tra le, and religion of Cain and Abel, 1–7. Cain murders his brother Abel,
Gol calls him into juigment for it, 9, 10.' 'He is cursed, 11, 12 He compaira, 13; tiller of the ground. 14. A promise given him of preservation, and a mark set on him to prevent his 3 And ein process of time it came to pass, that cali Enoch, and builds a city,
which he calls after his same, 17 Cain has never Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an the use of tents and feeling caule, 2. Julxa, che inventor of musical inetruments, offering unto the LORD. 21. Tubal-cain, the inventor of emith-work, 22. Strange speech of Lamech to his 4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings wives, 23, 24 Seth born to Adam and Eve in the place of Abel, 25. Enoch born, and the worship of God restored, 3.
of his flock, and of the fat thereof. And the
Anconadaved kned bere hisa wife andishe Terine had respect unto Abel and to his of
conceived, and bare *and said, Ifering; have gotten a man from the LORD.
5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had That is, gotten, or acquired.- Heb. Hebel.-c Heb. a feeder. Ver. 5, 29. 1 e Held at the end of days.- Numb. 18. 12-g Numb. 18. 17. Prov. 39.- Heba John 3. 10, 12, 15. Psal. 1. 3. John 8. 44 Ch. 3. 2 & 9. 20.
sheep or goals.-i Hebr. II. 4. the face of the earth present! Even while they are laying farmer. These were the three primitive employments; plans to extend the empire of death, God, by the very and, I may add, the most rational, and consequently the means of death itself, prevents the completion of their best calculated to prevent strife and an immoderate love of diabolical and pernicious designs. Thus, what man, by the world. his wilful obstinacy, does not permit grace to correct and Verse 3. In process of time] Opippo mikels yamim, restrain, God, by his sovereign power, brings in death to at the end of days. Some think the anniversary of the control. It is on this ground, that wicked and blood-thirsty creation to be here intended : it is more probable that it men live not out half their days: and what a mercy to the means the sabbath, on which Adam and his family
unworld that it is so ! They who will not submit to the sceptre doubtedly offered oblations to God, as the divine worship of mercy, shall be dashed in pieces by the rod of iron. was certainly instituted, and no doubt the sabbath properly Reader, provoke not the Lord to displeasure; thou art not observed in that family. This worship was, in its original stronger than He. Grieve not his Spirit
, provoke him not institution, very simple. It appears to have consisted of to destroy thee; why shouldst thou die before thy time? tuo parts: 1. Thanksgiving to God, as the Author and Thou hast sinned much, and needest every moment of thy Dispenser of all the bounties of nature; and oblations, short life to make thy calling and election sure. Shouldest indicative of that gratitude. 2. Piacular sacrifices to hia thou provoke God by thy perseverance in iniquity to cut justice and holiness, implying a conviction of their own thee off by death before this great work is done, better for sinfulness, confession of transgression, and faith in the thee thou hadst never been born!
promised Deliverer. If we collate the passage here with How vain are all attempts to attain immortality here! the apostle's allusion to it, Heb. xi. 4. we shall see cause For some thousands of years men have been laboring to to form this conclusion. find out means to prevent death; and some have even Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering] boasted that they had found out a medicine capable of pre anda minchah, unto the Lord. The word minchah is serving life for ever, by resisting all the attacks of disease, explained, Lev. ii. 1, &c. to be an offering of fine four, and incessantly repairing all the wastes of the human with oil and frankincense. It was merely an eucharistic, machine. That is, the alchymistic philosophers would or gratitude-offering; and is simply what is implied in the have the world to believe, thai they had found out a private fruits of the ground brought by Cain to the Lord, by passage to the tree of immortality! but their oron deaths, which he testified his belief in him as the Lord of the in the common order of nature, as well as the deaths of universe, and the dispenser of secular blessings. the millions which make no such pretensions, are not only Verse 4. Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his a sufficient confutation of their baseless systems, but also a flock] Dr. Kennicott contends, and I am of the same continual proof that the cherubim, with their flaming opinion, that the words he also brought, min D3 Nan hebia swords, are turning every way to keep the passage of the gam hua, should be translated, Abel brought it also ; i. e. tree of life. Lise and immortality are, however, brought a minchah, or gratitude-offering; and besides this, he to light by the Gospel, and he only who keepeth the sayings brought of the first-born (ninap mibecoroth) of his flock: of the Son of God shall live for ever. Though the body and it was by this alone that he acknowledged himself a is dead, consigned to death, because of sin, yet the spirit is sinner, and professed faith in the promised Messiah. To life, because of righteousness, and on those who are influ- this circumstance the apostle seems evidently to allude, enced by this spirit of righteousness, the second death shall Heb. xi. 4. BY FAITH Åbel offered assoove bursav, a MORE have no power,
or GREATER sacrifice, not a more excellent, (for this is no NOTES ON CHAPTER IV.
meaning of the word rA06w) which leads us to infer, that Verse 1. I have gotten a man from the Lord.) Cain Abel, besides his minchah, or gratitude-offering, brought ?" signifies acquisition : hence Éve says op kaniti, I also buros, a victim, to be 'slain for his sins; and this he have gotten or acquired a man, Tinneth Yehovah, the chose out of the first-born of his flock, which, in the order Lord. It is extremely difficult to ascertain the sense in of God, was a representation of the Lamb of God that was which Eve used these words, which have been as variously to take away the sin of the world: and what confirms this translated as understood. Most expositors think that Eve exposition more, is the observation of the apostle-God imagined Cain to be the promised seed that should bruise testifying, 7005 dwpoos, with his gifts, which certainly the head of the serpent. This exposition really seems too shows he brought more than one. refined for that period. It is very likely that she meant no Cain, the father of Deism, not acknowledging the necesmore than to acknowledge, that it was through God's sity of a vicarious sacrifice, nor feeling his need of an peculiar blessing that she was enabled to conceive and bring atonement, according to the dictates of his natural religion, forth a son; and that she had now a well-grounded hope brought a minchah, or eucharistic offering, to the God of that the race of man should be continued on the earth. the universe. Abel, not less grateful for the produce of his Unless she had been under divine inspiration, she could not fields, and the increase of his flocks, brought a similar have called her son (even supposing him to be the promised offering, and by adding a sacrifice to is, paid a proper seed) Jchorah ; and that she was not under such an infiu- regard to the will of God, as far as it had then been ence, her mistake sufficiently proves; for Cain, so far revealed, acknowledged himself a sinner, and thus deprefrom being the Messiah, was of the wicked one, 1 John iii. cating the Divine displeasure, showed forth the death 12. We may therefore suppose, that my na cth Yehorah, of Christ till he came.' Thus his offerings were accepted, THE LORD, is an elliptical form of expression for my ND while those of Cain were rejected; for this, as the apostle meeth Yehovah, FROM THE LORD, or through the Divine says, was done by raity, and therefore he obtained witness blessing:
that he was righteous, or a justified person, God testifying Verse 2. And she again bare his brother Abel] Literally, with his gifts the thank-offering and the sin-offering by she added to bear (n755 on datoseph laledeth) his brother. accepting them, that his faith in the promised seed was the From the very face of this account, it appears evident that only way in which he could accept the services and offerCain and Abel were twins. In most cases, where a subjectings of mankind. Dr. Magee, in his discourses on the of this kind is introduced in the Holy Scriptures, and the atonement, criticises the opinion of Dr. Kennicott, and successive births of children of the same parents are noted, contends that there is no ground for the distinction ho the acts of conceiving and bringing forth are mentioned in makes on the words ni Dian and shows that thoug! reference to each child: here, it is not said that she con the minchah signifies in general an unbloody offering, yet ceived and brought forth Abel, but simply, she added to it is sometimes also used to express both kinds; and that bring forth Abel his brother; that is, as I understand it, the minchah in question, is to be understood of the sacrifice Cain was the first-born; Abel, his twin brother, came next. or victim then offered by Abel.
Abel was a keeper of sheep) Adam was originally a Verse 5. Unto Cain, as being unconscious of his sinfulgardener-Abel a shepherd, and Cain an agriculturist, or ness, and consequently unhumbled, and to his offering, as
not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, his countenance fell.
and thou shalt rule over him. 6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou 8 T And Cain talked with Abel his brother: wroth ? and why is thy countenance fallen? and it came to pass, when they were in the
7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, cepted? and it thou doest not well, ein lieth at and a slew him. Ch 31. 2 Numb. 16. 15. Isa). 3. 10, 11. Psa. 20. 3.-- Or, have the excellency. c Or, subject unto thee. Ch. 3. 16. - Job 11. 15. P's 21. 3.-6. & 55. 21. & 139. 19
Hebr. Il. 4. Prov. 21. 27. Job 29. 4.
Wisd. 10. 3. Matt 23. 35. 1 John 3. 12 Jude II.
not being accompanied, as Abel's was, with a sacrifice for out into the field ; and it came to pass, when they were in sin, he had not respect.] He could not, consistently with the field, that Cain rose up,” &c. The Jerusalem 'Targum, his holiness and justice, approve of the one, or receive the and the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, pretend to give other. Of the manner in which God testified his appro- us the substance of their conversation; the piece is curious, bation we are not informed; it was probably, as in the and I shall insert a translation of it for the sake of those case of Elijah, by sending down fire from heaven and con who may not have access to the originals. suming the sacrifice.
“And Cain said unto Hebel, his brother, Let us go out Cain was wroth) That displeasure which should have into the field; and it came to pass that, when they were in been turned against his own unhumbled heart, was turned the field, Cain answered and said to Hebel, his brother, I against his innocent brother, who, though not more highly thought that the world was created in mercy, but it is not privileged than he made a much better use of the advan- governed according to the merit of good works, por is iages which he shared in common with his ungodly and there any judgment, nor a judge, nor shall there be any unnatural brother.
future state in which good rewards shall be given to the Verse 6. Why art thou wroth] This was designed as righteous, or punishment executed on the wicked; and A gracious warning, and a preventive of the meditated nor, there is respect of persons in judgment. On what
account is it that thy sacrifice has been accepted, and mine Verse 7. If thou dost well, that which is right in the not received with complacency? And Hebel answered and sight of God, shalt thou not be accepted?! Does God said, the world was created in mercy, and it is governed reject any man who serves him in simplicity and godly according to the fruit of good works; there is a judge, a sincerity? But if thou dost not well, can wrath and indig- future world, and a coming judgment, where good rewards nation against thy righteous brother save thee from the shall be given to the righteous, and the impious punished ; digpleasure under which thou art fallen? On the contrary, and there is no respect of persons in judgment; but because have recourse to thy Maker for mercy. Pan non nnos my works were better and more precious than thine, my lapetach chalath robets, a sin-offering lieth at thy door : oblation was received with complacency. And because of an animal proper to be offered as an atonement for sin, is these things they contended on the face of the field, and now couching at the door of thy fold.
Cain rose up against Hebel his brother, and struck a stone The words nnon chatath, and on chatah, frequently into his forehead, and killed him.” signify sin ; but I have observed more than a hundred It is here supposed that the first murder committed in the places in the Old Testament where they are used for sin- world was the consequence of a religious dispute; however offering, and translated « sexipton by the Septuagint, which this may have been, millions since have been sacrificed to is the term the apostle uses, 2 Cor. v. 21. He hath made prejudice, bigotry, and intolerance. Here, certainly, origihim to be sinux?"**, A SIN-OFFERING for us, who knew nated the many-headed monster, religious persecution: no sin. Cain's fault now, was his not bringing a sin-offer- the spirit of the wicked one, in his followers, impels them ing, when bis brother brought one; and this neglect and to afflict and destroy all who are partakers of the Spirit of contempt caused his other offering to be rejected. How- God. Every persecutor is a legitimate son of the old ever, God nuw graciously informs him, that though he murderer. This is the first triumph of Satan; it is not had miscarried, his case was not yet desperate, as the merely a death that he has introduced, but a violent one, means of faith from the promise, &c. were in his power, as the first-fruits of sin. It is not the death of an ordinary and a victim proper for a sin-offering was lying (panrobets, person; but of the most holy man then in being: it is not a word used to express the lying down of a quadruped) at brought about by the providence of God, or by a gradual the door of his fold. How many sinners perish, not be- failure and destruction of the earthly fabric, but a violent cause there is not a Saviour able and willing to save them, separation of body and soul : it is not done by a common but because they will not use that which is within their enemy, from whom nothing better could be expected, but power. Of such, how true is that word of our Lord, Ye by the hand of a brother; and for no other reason, but will not come unto me, that ye might have life!
because the object of his envy was more righteous than Unto thee shall be his desire, &c.] That is, thou shalt himself. Alas! how exceeding sinful does sin appear in ever have the right of primogeniture, and in all things shall its first manifestation ! thy brother be subject unto thee. These words are not Verse 10. The roice of thy brother's blood] It is probable spoken of sin, as many have understood them, but of Abeľs that Cain, having killed his brother, dug a hole and buried submission to Cain as his superior; and the words are him in the earth, hoping thereby to prevent the murder spoken to remove Cain's envy.
from being known; and that this is what is designed in Verse 8. Cain talked with Abel his brother, Ip Dn the words, thy brother's blood cricth unto me FROM THEpaiyomer kain; and Cain said, &c.) Not talked, for GROUND, which hath opened her mouth to receive it from this construction the word cannot bear, without great thy hand. Some think that by the voice of thy brother's violence to analogy and grammatical accuracy. But why blood, the cries of Abel's widow and children are to be should it be thus translated? Because our translators understood; as it is very probable that he was father of a could not find that any thing was spoken on the occasion, family; indeed his occupation and sacrifices seem suffiand therefore they ventured to intimate that there was a cient proofs of this probability: and probability is all we conversation, indefinitely. In the most correct editions of can expect on such a subject. God represents these as the Hebrew Bible, there is a small space left here in the calling aloud for the punishment of the murderer; and it text, and a circular mark, which refers to the following is evident that Cain expected to fall by the hands of some note in the margin: poo poona NDOD piska beamtså person, who, from his consanguinity, had the right of the pasuk. There is a hiatus or deficiency in the verse. avenger of blood; for now that the murder is found out,
Now, this deficiency is supplied in the principal ancient he expects to suffer death for it. See ver. 14, versions, and in the Samaritan text. In this the supplied Verse 12. A fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be] words are, y query T325 neelkeh hassadeh, LET US WALK Thou shall be expelled from the presence of God, and OUT INTO THE FIELD. The Syriac has A91. Issen from thy family connexions, and shalt have no fixed secure nerde lepakatho, Let us go to the desert. The Vulgate, residence in any place. The Septuagint render this oTHYw egrediamur foras, Let us walk out. The Septuagint, xao tri pawon ion, thou shalt be groaning and trembling upon $1$20wper 15 tomadow, Let us go out into the field. The two the earth; the horror of thy crime shall ever haunt thee, Chaldee Targums have the same reading, so has the and thou shalt never have any well-grounded hope that Coplic version. This addition is completely lost from God will remit the punishment thou deservest. No state every MS. of the Pentateuch now known; and yet it is out of endless perdition can be considered more awful than sufficiently evident, from the Samaritan text, the Samari- this. tan version, the Syriac, Septuagint, and Vulgate, that it Verse 13. My punishment is greater than I can bear.) was in the most authentic copies of the Hebrew, before, The margin reads, mine iniquity is greater than that it and some time since, the Christian æra. The words may may be forgiven. The original words, Awapyry Sou therefore be safely considered as a part of the sacred text, Gadal aroni mineso,
may be translated, Is my crime too and with them the whole passage reads clear and consist- great to be forgiven? Words which we may presume he enly. "And Cain said unto Abel, his brother, Let us go uttered on the verge of black despair. It is most probablo