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which brought thee forth out of the land of 20 1 And when thy son askeil thee in time Egypt, from the house of bon-lage.

to come, saying, What mean the testimonies, 13 Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God, and and the statutes, and the judgments, which the serve him, and "shalt ewear by his name. LORD our God hath commanded you?

11 Ye shall not go after other gods, w of the 21 Then thou shalt say unto thy son, We gods of the people which are round about you; were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt; and the

15 (For * the LORD thy God is a jealous God Lord brought us out of Egypt 8 with a mighty anong you) lest the anger of the LORD thy hand: God be kindled against thee, and destroy thee 22 h And the Lord showed signs and wonfrom off the face of the earth.

ders, great and i sore, upon Egypt, upon Pha16 - Ye shall not tempt the LORD your God, raoh, and upon all his household, before our * as ye tempted him in Massah.

eyes: 17 Ye shall b diligently keep the command 23 And he brought us out from thence, that ments of the Lord your God, and his testimonies, he might bring us in, to give us the land which and his statutes, which he hath commanded thee. he sware unto our fathers.

18 And thou shalt do that which is right and 24 And the LORD commanded us to do all good in the sight of the LORD: that it may be these statutes, * to fear the Lord our God, i for well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and our good always, that he might preserve us possess the good land, which the LORD sware alive, as it is at this day. unto thy fathers,

25 And it shall be our righteousness, if we 19 To cast out all thine enemies from before observe to do all these commandments before thee as the Lord hath spoken.

the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us.

> Heh hubanen, or, servants.-- Ch. 10. 12, 2. & 18. 4. Matt 4. 10. Luke 4.8. w Pal Q. 11. las 11 2. &tió. 16. Jer. 4.2 & 5. 7. & 12. 16.---v Ch. 8. 19. & 11 B Jer. 235 6.- Ch. 13. 7.---x Exol. 20. 5. Ch. 4. 21.-y Ch. 7. 4. & 11. 17.-2 Matt 4.7. Luke : 12-2 Exod. 17. 2, 7. Nuo 2.3, 1. & 21. 4, 5. I Cor. 10. 9.

b Ch. 11. 13, 22. Psn. 119.4.- Exod. 15. 28. Ch. 12. 28. & 13. 18.- Nurob. 33. 32,53 - Eral. 13. 14.- Hleb to-morrore. - Exo 3. 19. & 13. 3.-h Excl.7.& 8. & 9 & 19. & 11 & 12 Par. 135.9.-i llet cril.-k Ver. 2-1 Ch 10.13. Joh 35.7, 8. Jer. 32 39.- Ch. 4.1. &6.1. Psa. 41.2 Lake 10. -nlev. 18.5. Ch. 24.13. Rom. 10.3, 6.

of their souls. It must, however, be granted, that extreme Verse 16. Ye shall not tempt the Lord] Ye shall not poverty is as injurious to religion as excessive affluence. provoke him by entertaining doubts of his mercy, goodHence the wisdom as well as piety of Agur's prayer, ness, providence, and truth. Prov. xxx. 7–9. “Give me neither poverty nor riches As ye tempted him in Massah] How did they tempt lest I be full, and deny thee; or lest I be poor, and him in Massah ? They said, Is the Lord among us or steal," &c.

not? Exod. xvii. 1-7. After such proofs as they had of Verse 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God] Thou his presence and his kindness, this was exceediogly proshalt respect and reverence him as thy lawgiver and voking. Doubting God's kindness, where there are so judge: as thy crcator, preserver, and the sole object of thy many evidences of it, is highly insulting to God Almighty, religious adoration.

Verse 17. Ye shall diligently koep, &c.] On this and And serve him) Our blessed Lord, in Matt. iv. 10. the following verse, see the note on ver. 3. Luke iv. 8. quotes these words thus : And him ONLY Verse 20. And when thy son askch thee, &c.) “Here," (avrw Hovw) shalt thou serve. It appears, therefore, that as Mr. Ainsworth justly remarks, "followeth a brief 1725 lcbado, was anciently in the Hebrew text, as it was catechism, containing the grounds of religion." and is in the SEPTUAGINT (avrw povw) from which our Lord What mean the testimonies, &c.] The Hebrew lanquoted it. The Coptic preaerves the same reading ; so do guage has no word to express to mean, or signify, and also the VULGATE (illi soli) and the ANGLO-Saxon (Geopa therefore uses simply the substantive verb--What is, i. e. him anum.) Dr. Kennicott argues, that without the word what mean, or signify, &c. The seren thin ears ARE, only, the text would not have been conclusive for the pur- i. e. signify seven years of famine. This form of speech pose for which our Lord advanced it; for as we learn frequently occurs. from Scripture that some men worshipped false gods in Verse 25. It shall be our righteousness) The eridence conjunction with the true, the quotation here would not that we are under the influence of the fear and love of God. have been full to the point, without this exclusive word. It | Moses does not say, that this righteousness could be may be proper to observe, that the omitted word 1775 wrought without the influence of God's mercy; nor does lebado, retained in the above versions, does not exist in the he say that they should purchase heaven by it; but God printer Hebrew text, nor in any MS hitherto discovered. required them to be conforined to his will in all things,

Shall swear by his name] yavn tishabcâ, from you that they might be holy in heart, and righteous in every slabâ, he was full, salisfied, or gave that which was full part of iheir moral conduct. or satisfactory. Hence an oath and swearing, because, 1. On a very important subject in this chapter it may appealing to God, and taking him for witness in any case be necessary to make some farther observations. of promise, &c. gave full and sufficient security for the A most injurious and destructive maxim has lately been performance : and if done in evidence, or to the truth of advanced by a few individuals, which, it is to be hoped, is any particular fact, it gave full security for the truth of disowned by the class of Christians to which they belong : that evidence. An oath, therefore, is an appeal to God, though the authors affect to be thought Christians and who knows all things, of the truth of the inatter in ques- | rational oncs 100; the sum of the maxim is this ;tion : and when a religious man takes such an oath, he Children ought not to be taught religion, for fear of gives full and reasonable satisfaction that the thing is so, having their minds biassed to some particular creed; but as staied : for it is ever to be presumed, that no man, un- they should be left to themselves, till they are capable less in a state of the deepest degradation, would make of making a choice, -and, choose to make one." This such an appeal falsely--for this would imply an attempt to maxim is in flat opposition to the command of God; and make God a party in the deceptior..

those who teach it, show how little they are affected by Verse 14. Ye shall not go after other gods] The ob- the religion they profess. If they felt it to be good for any ject of religious worship among every people, whether thing, they would certainly wish their children to possess that object be true or false, is ever considered as the pat- it; but they do not teach religion to their children, because tern or examplar to his worshippers. Christians are they feel it to be of no use to themselves. Now the Christermed the followers of God : they take God for their tian religion, properly applied, suves the soul-fills the pattern, and walk (act) as he does. Hence we see the heart with love to God and man; for the love of God is meaning of the terms in this verse- Ye shall not go afler shed abroad in the heart of a genuine believer, by the -ye shall not take false gods for your patterns. The Holy Ghost given to him. These persons have no such Canaanites, Greeks, Romans, &c. were a most impure love, because they have not the religion that inspires it; people, because the objects of their worship were impure; and the spurious religion, which adınits of the maxim and they went after them, i. e, were like their gods. This above-inentioned, is not the religion of God, and conserves to show us, that such as our Redeemer is, such sequently better untaught than taught. But what can be should we be: and indeed, this is the uniform language said to those parents, who, possessing a better faith, of God to man-Be ye holy, for I am holy, Lev. xxi. 8. equally neglect the instruction of their children in the Be ye perfect, as your Father who is in heaven is perfect, things of God? They are highly criminal; and if their Mait. v. 48.

children perish through neglect, which is very probable, Verse 15. A jealous God] Jehovah has betrothed you what a dreadful account must they give in the great day! to himself, as a bride is to her husband. Do not be un Parents ! hear what the Lord saith unto youYe shall faithful, else that lore wherewith he has now distinguished diligently teach your chillren that there is one Lord, Jeyou, shall assume the form of jealousy, and so divorce hovah, Elohim; the Father, the Son, and the Holy and consume you,

Ghost; and that they must love him with all their hicari,

With the seven nations that Golshall cast out, 1. they shall make no covenaat, 2 por

W being thee ihto the hand whither sworen uinto your fathers

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7 The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor

choose you, because ye were more in number forun any matrimonial alliances, 3 lest they shoulí tentun into wolny, t. All monuments of holatry to be destroyal, 5. "The Israelites are to coulder chuscles than any people; for ye were a the fewest of all a boly prajk, 6. anel that the lonhalma le uitm such, not for their merita, Unit for

, , people: 3--11. The great privileges of the olalient, 12-21. All alolutry to be avoidel, 25, 26, 8 But bbecause the Lord loved you, and beAn. Exod. Isr.

HEN thy God shall cause he keep which he had 40.--Sebut. thou goest to possess it, and hath cast out you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you many nations before thee, P the Hittites, and the out of the house of bondmen, from the hand of Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Canaan- Pharoah king of Egypt. ites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the 9 | Know therefore that the LORD thy God, he Jebusites, seven nations "greater and mightier is Göd, e the faithful God, which keepeth covethan thou;

nant and mercy with them that love him and 2 And when the LORD thy God shall "deliver keep his commandments, to a thousand generathem before thee; thou shalt smite them, and tions; * utterly destroy them, thou shalt make no cov 10 And & repayeth them that hate him to their enant with them, nor show mercy unto them: face, to destroy them: "he will not be slack to

3 u Neither shalt thou make marriages with him that hateth him, he will repay him to his them; thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his face. son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy 11 Thou shalt therefore keep the command

ments, and the statutes, and the judgments, 4 For they will turn away thy son from follow- which I command thee this day, to do them. ing me, that they may serve other gods:

so will

12. 1 i Wherefore it shall come to pass, kif ye the anger of the Lord be kindled against you, hearken to these judgments, and keep, and do and destroy thee suddenly.

them, that the LORD thy God shall keep unto thee 5 But thus shall ye deal with them; ye shall I the covenant and mercy which he sware unto w destroy their altars, and break down their * im- thy fathers : ages, and cut down their groves, and burn their 13 And he will m love thee, and bless thee, and graven images with fire.

multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of ihy 6 T For thou art a holy people unto the LORD womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy God: " the LORD thy God hath chosen thee thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine, to be a special people unto himself, above all peo- and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he ple that are upon the face of the earth.

sware unto thy fathers to give thee.


o Ch 31. 3 Pel 41. 2, 3.-p Gen. 15. 19, &c. Exol. 3. 2- Ch. 4. 38. & 9. 1. r Ver. 23. Ch. 23. 11.- Lev. n. 23, 29. Numb. 33. 32 Ch. 20. 16, 17. Joch. 6. 17. & 8 21 & 9. 24. & 10. 29, 40. & 11. II, 12.- Exol. 23. 32. & 31. 12, 15, 16. Julg. 2 2. See Ch. 2. 10, &c. Josh 2 14. & 9. 18. Judg. 1. 21.-u Josh 23. 12. 1 Kings 11. 2 Ezra 9.2--- Ch. 6. 15.-W Exol. 23. 24. & 34. 13. Ch. 122, 3.-x Heb. eluQues, or, pillars.

y Exod. 19. 6. Ch. 14.2 & 26. 19. Put 50. 5. Jer. 23-2 Exod. 19. á ADX 32 1 Pet. 2 9.-a Ch. 10. 22.-b Ch. 10. 15. Exod. 32 13. Pea. 105. 9, 9, 10 Luke L 55, 72, 73.- Exod. 13.3, 11-e Isu. 49. 7. I Cor. 1. 9. & 10. 13. 2 Cor. 1. 18. I Thes 5. 2. 2 Thess. 3. 3. 2 Tim. 2 13. Heb. II. II. I John 1.9.-- Exod 26 Ch 5 10 Neh. 1. 5. Dan. 9.4.- Isa. 59. 18. Nah. 1. 2-h Ch. 32 25.-i Lev. 28. 2 Ch. XL k Heb. because.-1 Psa. 105.8,9. Luke 1, 55, 72, 73. ---m Joha 14.21.- Ch.

with all their soul, and with all their might. And as child- oaths and imprecations, and all such oaths as are not reren are heedless, apt to forget, liable to be carried away by quired by the civil magistrate, in cases where the Lord is sensible things; repeat and re-repeat the instruction, and supposed to be witness, are certainly intended in our blessadd line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little, and ed Lord's prohibition. See on chap. iv. 26. there a little; carefully studying time, place, and circumstances, that your labour be not in vain-show it in its

NOTES ON CHAPTER VII. amiableness, excite attention by exciting interest--show Verse 1. Seven nations greater and mightier than thor] how good, how useful, how blessed, how ennobling, how In several places of the Hebrew texh, each of these seven glorious it is. Whet these things on their hearts, till the nations is not enumerated : some one or other being left ont, keenest edge is raised on the strongest desire-uill they which the Septuagint in general supply. How these nacan say, "Whom have I in heaven but thee! and there is tions were distributed over the land of Canaan, previously none on earth I desire besides thee." See the notes on to the entering in of the Israelites, the reader may see in chap. iv. 9. and on Gen. xviii. and xix. at the end. the note on Josh. ii. 10.

2. Without offence to any, I hope a few words more may Verse 2. Thou shall smite them, &c.] These idolatrous be said on the nature of an oath, in addition to the note on nations were to be utterly destroyed; and all the others also ver. 13. The matter is important, and perhaps not well un which were contiguous to the boundaries of the Promised derstood by many.

Land, provided they did not renounce their idolatry, and The making an appeal to the Supreme Being, and call receive the true faith ; but if they did not, ther. no covenant ing him to witness and record, constitutes the spirit and was to be made with them on any secular or political conessence of an oath. It is no matter in what form this ap- sideration whatever : no mercy was to be shown to them, peal is made, whether by putting the hand under the thigh, because the cup of their iniquity also was now full; and as among the patriarchs ; by the water of the Ganges, as they must either embrace, heartily embrace, the crue reliamong the Hindoos; on a surat, or chapter of the Koran, gion, or be cut off. as among the Mohammedans ; on a Hebrero Pentateuch, Verse 3. Neither shalt thou make marriages, &c.) The as among the Jers; on the form of the cross, as among heart being naturally inclined to evil, there is more likelthe Roman Cat lics ; kissing the New Testament, as hood that the idolatrous wife should draw aside the belieramong Prostestants in general; or making affirmation, ing husband, than that the believing husband should be according to a prescribed form, (see concluding remarks on able to bring over his idolatrous wife to the true faith. 2 Cor. i.) as among the people called Quakers-still the Verse 6. Thou art a holy people] And therefore should oath is the same, for the appeal is made to God. On this have no connexion with the workers of iniquity. ground, and this is the true ground, the making affirma A special people] bo segullah, Septuagini laov repetion in a court of justice, is as perfect, as substantial, and ovolov, a peculiar people-a private property. The words, as formal an oath, as kissing the New Testament. Why, as they stand in the Septuagint, are quoted by the apostle then, so many objections against taking an oath in a court 1 Pet. ii. 9. of justice by any one particular form, when the same thing Verse 8. But because the Lord loved you] It was no is done in spirit, essence, and substance, when God is called good in them that induced God to choose them at this time to witness and record, though the form be different? When to be his peculiar people; he had his reasons, but these God says, Thou shall fear the Lord thy God, and shalt sprang from his infinite goodness. He intended to make a swear by his name he says, in effect, Thou shalt have no full discovery of his goodness to the world; and this must god besides me—thou shalt consider' me the Fountain of have a commencement in some particular place, and among

Truth, the Rewarder of righteousness, and the Punisher some people. He chose that time, and he chose the Jewish of perfidy and wickedness. Swear by my name-bind people; but not because of their goodness or holiness. thyself to me: take me for witness to all thy actions; and Verse 12. The Lord-shall keep unto thee the covenant) act in all things as having me continually before your eyes, So we find their continuance in the state of favour was to and knowing that for every act and word ye shall give depend on their faithfulness to the grace of God. If they acconnt to me in the day of judgment. Our Lord's coin should rebel, though God had chosen them through his love, mand, Slocar not at all, can never relate to an oath in a yet he would cast them off in his justice. The dect, we civil cause, taken according to the definition above given ; see, may become unfaithful, and so become reprobatus. profane and common swearing, with all light, irreverent | So it happened to 24,000 of them, whose carcassés fell 15

tions are more than 1; how can I i dispossess Almthen commandments which in Bremen

14 Thou shalt be blessed above all people: I lest thou be i snared therein: for it is k an abom- there shall not be male or female barren among ination to the Lord thy God. you, or among your cattle.

26 Neither shalt thou bring an abomination 15 And the LORD will take away from thee all into thine house, lest thou be a cursed thing like sickness, and will put none of the Pevil diseases it: but thou shalt utterly detest it, and thou shalt of Egypt, which thou knowest, upon thee; but utterly abhor it ; 'for it is a cursed thing. will lay them upon all them that hate thee. 16 And thou shalt consume all the people

CHAPTER VIII. which the Lord thy God shall deliver thee;rthine An exhortation to ołtalience from a consideration of Goal's past mercies, 1.2 Man in not eye shall have no pity upon them ; neither shalt to live by read only, but by every word of God, 3. How Goi prositled for them in

the willinen, The Land chasebed them that they might toedient, 5, 6. A thou serve their gods; for that will be 'a snare description of the land into which they were going. 7-9. Cautiona, lest they should

forget to in their prosperity, 10---16, andlest they should atribute thint prosperity unto thee.

to themselven, nnd not to Gel, 17, 18, The terrible juugmenta that shall tall upon 17 If thou shalt say in thine heart, These na them, should they prove unfaithful, 19, 20,

LL them?

command ye 18 · Thou shalt pot be afraid of them: but observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, shalt well remember what the Lord thy God and go in and possess the land which the LORD did unto Pharaoh, and unto all Egypt;,

sware unto your fathers. 19 - The great temptations which thine eyes 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which saw, and the signs, and the wonders, and the the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in mighty hand, and the stretched-out arm, where the wilderness, to humble thee, and ó to prove by the LORD thy God brought thee out: so shall thee, P to know what was in thine heart, wheththe LORD thy God do unto all the people of whom er thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no. thou art afraid,

3 And he humbled thee, and 4 suffered thee to 20 * Moreover the Lord thy God will send the hunger, and ' fed thee with manna, which thou hornet among them, until they that are left, and knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that hide themselves from thee, be destroyed. he might make thee know that man doth * not

21 Thou shalt not be affrighted at them: for live by bread only, but by every word that prothe LORD thy God is among you, 2 a mighty God ceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man and terrible.

live. 22 a And the LORD thy God will put out those 4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, nations before thee by little and little: thou may- neither did thy foot swell, these forty years. est not consume them at once, lest the beast of 5 u Thou shalt also consider in thine heart, the field increase upon thee.

that as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD 23 But the Lord thy God shall deliver them thy God chasteneth thee. unto thee, and shall destroy them with a migh 6 Therefore thou shalt keep the commandty destruction, until they be destroyed.

ments of the LORD thy God, 'to walk in his ways, 24 And he shall deliver their kings into thine and to fear him. hand, and thou shalt destroy their name from 7 For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a under heaven: there shall no man be able to good land, w a land of brooks of water, of founstand before thee, until thou have destroyed tains and depths that spring out of valleys and them.

hills; 25 | The graven images of their gods & shall 8 A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and ye burn with fire: thou shalt not desire the sil- fig-trees, and pomegranates; a land * of oil-olive, ver or gold that is on them, nor take it unto thee, and honey ;

o Exod. 2*, &-p Erod. 9. 14. & 16. 20. Ch. 227.00.- Ver. 2.-r (h. 18. 8. & 19. 13,

2212 - EL B 3. Ch. 12 D. JW $.7. Pra, Jaw Nomb 353-u 0.31 - Pa 105.5. 5.-w (h. 4.3129. 3.-x Exol23

Joh 11 12.- Nunh. 11. 20. 214. 9. 14, 42 & 16.3. Josh. 3. 10.- ( 10. 7. Neb. 1.5.& 111&9 1-a Exol. 23. 29,30.- Heb. plurk off-cllch llor the face. Ver. 2 - Joh. 10. 21, 6, 12 &NI, &c. - Exod. 17. 14. Ch. 9. 14. & 23. 19. & 2.2 Ch 11. 8. Josh. 1. 5. & 10. 8. & 2 9.

Ver. 5. Exod. 22. 20. Ch. 12. 3. I Chron. 14. 12-h Josh 1. 1, 21. 2 Mac. 12. 10. Buds. 27. Zeph 1.2-k Ch 171 -ITEVRC 13.12. ford. 6. 17. 18. & 7.1.-m Ch. 4. 1 & 5. 32, 33. & 6.1, 2, 3.- Ch. 1. 3. & 27. & 3. 5. PL 135. 16. Ane 2 10.- Exol. 16. 4. Ch 13 3 - Chrop. 32. 31. Juba 2 3 -- Exod. 16. 2, 3.-r Exc. 16. 12, 14, 35.- Pa. 10. 9. Matl 4.1. Luke 1.4.- Ch.29 5. Neh. 9. 21. - 2 Sam 7. 14. Hea, 9. 32. Pros, 3. 12 feb. 12. 5, 6 Rev, 3. 19.- Ch. 5. 3. --w Ch. 11. 10-12-x Heh. of olire tree of oil.

the wilderness, because they had sinned: yet these were of this : “God so amply provided for them all the necessaries the elect that came out of Egypi. Let him that standeth of life, that they never were obliged to wear tattered gar-. take heed legt he fall.

ments, nor were their feet injured for lack of shoes or sanVerse 22. Put out those nations-by little and little] | dals." If they had carvers, engravers, silversmiths, and The Israelites were not as yet sutñciently numerous to fill jewellers among them, as plainly appears from the account the whole land occupied by the seven nations mentioned ver. we have of the tabernacle and its utensile, is it to be won1. And as wild and ferocious animals might be expected dered at, if they also had habbit and sandal makers, &c. lo multiply, where either there are no inhabitants, or the &c. as we are certain they had ucarers, embroiderers, and place is but badly peopled; therefore God tells them, that such like. And the traffic which we may suppose they though at present, by force of arms, they might be able to carried on with the Moabites, or with travelling hordes of expel them, that it would be impolitic so to do, lest the Arabians, doubtless supplied them with the muterials. beasts of the field should multiply upon them.

Though, as they had abundance of sheep and neat cattle, Verse 25. Thou shall not desire the silver or gold that they must have had much of the materials within themis on them] Some of the ancient idols were plated over selves. It is generally supposed that God, by a miracle, with gold; and God saw that the value of the metal, and preserved their clothes from wearing out; but if this sense excellence of the workmanship, might be an inducement be admitted, it will require not one miracle, but a chain of for the Israelites to preserre ihem; and this might lead, the most successive and astonishing miracles ever wrought, remotely at least, to idolatry. As idols were accursed, all to account for the thing: for, as there were not less than those who had ihem, or any thing appertaining to them, 600,000 males born in the wilderness, it would imply that were accussed also, ver. 26.

the clothes of the infant grew up with the increase of his NOTES ON CHAPTER VIII.

body to manhood, which would require a miracle to be conVeren 2. Thou shalt remember all the way) The vari-tinually wrought on every thread, and on every particle of ous dealings of God with you; the dangers and difficulties matter of which that thread was composed.. And this is to which ye were exposed, and from which God delivered not all, it would imply that the clothes of the parent became you, together with the various miracles which he wrought miraculously lesscned, to fit the body of the child, with for you, and his long-suffering toward you.

whose growth they were again to stretch and grow, &c. Verse 3. He--suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee] No such miraculous interference was necessary. God never permits any tribulation to befall his followers, Verse 9. A land of wheat, &c.) On the subject of this which he does not design to turn to their advantage. When verse I shall introduce the following remarks, which I find he permits us to hunger, it is that his mercy may be the more in Mr. Harmer's Observations on the Fertility of the Land observable in providing us with the necessaries of life. of Judea, vol. iii. p. 243. Privations in the way of Providence are tie forerunners "Hasselquist tells us that he ate olives at Joppa, (upon of mercy and goodness abundant.

his first arrival in the Holy Land) which were said to grow Verse 4. Thy raiment wared not old, &c.] The plain on the mount of Olives, near Jerusalem; and that, indepenmeaning of this mrch-ortured :ext appeara to me to be dent of their oiliness, they were of the bee: lind he had Vol. 1.-59


9 A land wherein thou shalt eat bread without 10 - When thou has eaten and art full, then scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a thou shalt bless the LORD thy God, for the good land y whose stones are iron, and out of whose land which he hath given thee. hills thou mayest dig brass.

11 Beware that thou forget not the LORD thy

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tasted in the Levant. As olives are frequently eaten in inhabitants of Palestine are not strangers to the use of hives. their repasts, the delicacy of this fruit in Judea ought not They are constructed of very different materials from ours, to be forgotten; and the oil that is goiten from these trees, but just the same with the Égyptian hives. They seem to much less, because still more often made use of. In the be an ancient contrivance; and indeed so simple an iorenprogress of his journey, he found several fine vales, abound tion must be supposed to be as old as the days of Moses, ing with olive-irees. He saw also olive-trees in Galilee; when arts, as appears from his writings, of a much more but none farther, he says, than the mountain where it is elevated nature, were known in Egypt. I cannot then supposed our Lord preached his sermon.

well persuade myself to adopt that opinion of some of "The fig-trees in the neighbourhood of Joppa, Hassel- the learned, that those words of Moses, in Deut. xxxi. 13. quist goes on to inforın us, were as beautiful as any he had He made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out seen in the Levant.

of the flinty rock, are to be understood of his causing Is"The reason why pomegranates are distinctly men rael to dwell in a country where sometimes they might tioned, in this description of the productions of the land of find honey-comb in holes of the rock. It is very possible promise, may be, their great usefulness in forming cooling that, in that hot country, these insects, when not iaken due drinks : for they are used among the Asiatics nearly in the care of, may get into hollow places of the rocks, and form same way that we use lemons, see vol. ii, p. 145.

combs there, as they sometimes construct them in ours, in Honey is used in large quantities in these countries; hollow trees, though I do not remember to have met with and Egypt was celebrated for the assiduity with which the any traveller that has made such an observation. But people there managed their bees. Maillet's account of it would this have been mentioned with so much triumph by is very amusing. There are,' says he, 'abundance of bees Moses in this place? The quantities of honey produced in that country, and a singular manner of feeding them, after this manner could be but small, compared with what introduced by the Egyptians of ancient times, still continues would be collected in hives properly managed; when there. Toward the end of October, when the Nile, upon found it must often cost a great deal of pains to get the its decrease, gives the peasants an opportunity of sowing honey out of these little cavities in the hard stone : and the lands, sainfoin is one of the first things sown, and one much the greatest part must be absolutely lost to the inhaof the most profitable. As the Upper Egypt is hotter than bitants. The interpretation is the more strange, because the Lower, and the inundation there goes sooner off the when it is said in the next clause, "and oil out of the lands, the sainfoin appears there first. The knowledge flinty rock," it is evidently meant, that they should have they have of this, causes them to send their bee-hives from oil produced in abundance hy olive-trees growing on flinty all parts of Egypt, that the bees may enjoy, as soon as may rocks; and consequently, the sucking honey out of the be, ihe richness of the flowers which grow in this part of rock should only mean their enjoying great quantities of the country sooner than in any other district of the kingdom. honey, produced by bees that collected it from flowers

The hives, upon their arrival at the farther end of Egypt, growing among the rocks; the rocky mountains of this are placed one upon another, in the form of pyramids, in country, it is well known, produce an abundance of aroboats prepared for their reception, after having been num matic plants proper for the purpose. bered by the people, who place ihem in the boats. The Nor does Asaph, in the close of the eighty-first psalm, bees feed in the fields there for some days: afterward, when speak, I apprehend, of honey found in cavities of rocks; it is believed they have nearly collected the honey and wax, nor yet is he there describing it as collected from the odowhich were to be found for two or three leagues around, riferous plants that grow in the rocky hills of those they cause the boats to go down the stream, iwo or three countries, if the reading of our present Hebrew copies be leagues lower, and leave them there, in like manner such a right: but the prophet tells Israel, that had they been proportion of time as they think to be necessary for the obedient, God would have fed them with the fat of "beat, gathering up the riches of that canton. At length, about and with the rock of honey would he have satisfied them: the beginning of February, after having gone the whole that is, with the most delicious wheat and with the richest, length of Egypt, they arrive at the sea, from whence they most invigorating honey, in large quantities, both for eatare conducted, each of them to their usual place of abode.ing, and making agreeable drink. Its reviving, strengthFor they take care to set down exactly, in a register, each ening quality, appears in the story of Jonathan, Saul's district from whence the hives were carried in the beginning son, 1 Sam. xix. 27. ; as the using the term rock to signify of the season, their number, and the names of the persons strength, &c. appears in a multitude of places. The rock that sent them, as well as the number of the boats, where of a sword, Psal. lxxxix. 43. for the edge of the sword, they are arranged according to the places they are brought in which its energy lies, is, perhaps, as strange an expresfrom. What is astonishing in this affair is, that with the sion to western ears. greatest fidelity of memory that can be imagined, each bee I shall have occasion to speak of the excellency of the inds its own hive, and never makes any mistake. That grapes of Judea in a succeeding chapter; and I may be which is still more amazing to me is, that the Egyptians of dispensed with as to the pursuing the farther examination old should be so attentive to all the advantages deducible of the productions of this country, upon giving my reader from the situation of their country; that after having oh a remark of Dr. Shaw's to this purpose," that it is imserved that all things came to maturity sooner in Upper possible for pulse, wheat, or grain of any kind, to be richer Egypt, and much later in Lower, which made a difference or better tasted, than what is sold at Jerusalem. Only it of above six weeks between the two extremities of their may not be amiss to add, with respect to this country's country, they thought of collecting the wax and the honey, being well watered, that the depth bnn tehom, spoken of 60 as to lose none of them, and hit upon this ingenious me in this passage, seems to mean reservoirs of water, filled thod of making the bees do it successively, according to the by the rains of winter, and of great use to make their blossoming of the flowers, and the arrangement of nature.' lands fertile, as the second word ninsyn teâlotiah, seems to

If this solicitude were as ancient as the dwelling of Is mean wells, or some such sort of conveniences, supplied rael in Egypsthey must have been anxious to know, by springs, and the first word, hunn naharoteeah, rivers whether honey, about which they took such care in Egypt, or running streams, whether carrying a larger or smaller was plentiful in the land of promise ; and they must have body of water. What an important part of this pleasing been pleased to have been assured it was. It continues to description, especially in the ears of those that had be produced there in large quantities: Hasselquist, in the wandered near forty years in a most dry and parched wilprogress of his journey from Acra to Nazareth, tells us derness ! I will only add, without entering into particulars that he found" great numbers of bees bred thereabouts, to that the present face of the country answers this description the great advantage of the inhabitants.'' He adds, “they Verse 9. A land whose stones are iron] Not only make their beehives, with little trouble, of clay, four feet meaning that there were iron mines throughout the land, long, and half a fooi in diameter, as in Egypt

. "They lay but that the loose stones were strongly impregnated with ten or twelve of them one on another, on the bare ground, iron-ores of this metal (the most useful of all the products and build over every ten a little roof.” Mr. Maundrel ob of the mineral kingdom) being every where in great serving also many bees in the Holy Land, takes notice that | plenty. by their means, the most barren places of that country, in Out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass] As there is other respects become useful, perceiving in many places of no such thing in nature as a brass mine, the word nens the great salt-plain near Jericho, a smell of honey and nechosheth, should be translated copper ; of which, by wax as strong as if he had been in an apiary.

the addition of the lapis calaminaris, brass is made. By Hasselquist's account it appears that the present See on Exod. xxv. 3.

God, in not keeping his commandments, and his and he shall bring them down before thy face: judgments, and his statutes, which I command so shalt thou drive them out, and destroy them thee this day :

quickly, as the LORD hath said unto thee. 12 - Lest when thou hast eaten and art full, 4 w Speak not thou in thine heart, after that and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein; the LORD thy God hath cast them out from be

13 And when thy herds and thy flocks multi- fore thee, saying, For my righteousness the ply, and thy silver and thy, gold is multiplied, Lord hath brought me in to possess this land: and all that thou hast is multiplied ;

but * for the wickedness of these nations the 14 Then thine heart be listed up, and thou Lord doth drive them out from before thee. • forget the LORD thy God, which brought thee 5 y Not for thy righteousness, or for the upforth out of the land of Egypt, from the house rightness of thine heart, dost thou go to possess of bondage;

their land: but for the wickedness of these na15 Who dled thee through that great and ter- tions the LORD thy God doth drive them out rible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, from before thee, and that he may perform ? the and scorpions, and drought, where there was no word which the LORD sware unto thy fathers, water: who brought theé forth water out of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. the roek of flint;

6 Understand therefore, that the LORD thy 16 Who fed 'thee in the wilderness with God giveth thee not this good land to possess it & manna, which thy fathers knew not, that he for thy righteousness; for thou art " a stiff-neckmight humble thee, and that he might prove ed people. thee, 6 to do thee good at thy latter end;

7 [[ Remember, and forget not, how thou pro17' And thou say in thine heart, Mý power yokedst the LORD thy God to wrath in the wiland the might of mine hand hath gotten me this derness: \from the day that thou didst depart wealth.

out of the land of Egypt, until ye came unto this 18 But thou shalt remember the LORD thy place, ye have been rebellious against the LORD. God: k for it is he that giveth thee power to get 8 Also in Horeb ye provoked the Lord to wealth, Ithat he may establish his covenant wrath, so that the LORD was angry with you to which he sware unto thy fathers, as it is this day. have destroyed you.

19 And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the 9. When I was gone up into the mount to LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and receive the tables of stone, even the tables of serve them, and worship them, " I testify against the covenant which the LORD made with you, you this day that ye shall surely perish.

then I abode in the mount forty days and forty 20 As the nations which the LORD destroyeth nights, I neither did eat bread nor drink water: before your face, so skall ye perish; because 10 And the LORD delivered unto me two tables ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the of stone written with the finger of God; and on LORD your God.

them was written according to all the words, CHAPTER IX.

which the LORD pake with you in the mount, The people are informed that they shall shortly pass over Jordan, and that God out of the midst of the fire, é in the day of the cautioned not to soppose that it is on account of their righteousness that God assembly: is to give them that land, 1-6. They are exported to renumber their various provocations of the divine Majesty, especially at Horeb, 7--14. and how Moses

11 And it came to pass at the end of forty interceded for them, and destroyed the golden call, 15–21. How they mur. days and forty nights, that the LORD gave me were from the begioning, 2. An account of the intercession of Moses in their the two tables of stone, even the tables of the

covenant. , IsraelThou art to

And , possess nations P greater and mightier than thy- which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt have self; cities great and a fenced up to heaven; corrupted themselves : they are i quickly turned

2 A people great and tall, the children of the aside out of the way which I commanded them; Anakims, whom thou knowest, and of whom they have made them a molten image. thou hast heard say, Who can stand before the 13 Furthermore k the Lord spake unto me, children of Anak?

saying, I have seen this people, and behold, 'it 3 Understand therefore this day, that the LORD is a stiff-necked people : thy God is he which goeth over before thee; 14 m Let me alone that I may destroy them, as a consuming fire " he shall destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven:

behall, 25-29. An Exot Isr.


* Ch. 27. & 22 15. Prov. 30. 9. Hos 13.6--- I Cor. 4. 7.-c Pea. 106. 21. d Isti. 63. 12-14. Jer. 2 6.-e Numbo. 21. 6. Hox. 13. 5.- Nurnb. 20. 11. Psa. 78. 15. & 114. 8.- Ver. 3. Exol. 16. 15.- Jar. 24. 5, 6. Heb. 12. 11.- Ch. 9. 4. I Cor. 4 1.- Prov. 10. 22 Aos 28-I Ch. 7.8, 12-m Ch. 1. 2. & 30. 18.-n Dan. 9. 11, 12- Ch. IL 31. Josh 3. 16. & 4. 19-p Ch 4. 34. & 7. 1. & 11. 23.- (h. 1. 2- Nurnb. 13. 22, 23, 32, 33 - Ch. 31. 3.' Josh. 3. Il. - Ch. 4. 24. Heb. 12. 29.

Ch. 7. 2 - Exod. 23. 31. Ch. 7. 24.

w Ch. 8. 17. Rom. 11. 6,20 I Cor. 4. 4, 7:- Gen. 15. 16. Lev. 18. 21, 3. Ch. 18. 12--y Tit. 3. 5.- Gen. 12 7. & 13. 15. & 15.7. & 17.8.26. 1. & 2. 13.-a Ver. 13. Exod 32. 9. & 33. 3. & 34. 9.- Exol. 14. 11. & 16. 2 & 17. 2. Numb. II. 4. & 20. 2 & 25. 2 Ch 31. 27.- Exod. 32. 4. Psa. 106. 19. Exod. 21. 12, 15,- Exod. 24. 18. & 34, - Exod.31. 18.- Exod. 19. 17. & 20. 1. Ch. 4. 10.& 10. 1. & 18.16

--- Exod 227 iCh. 31. 29. Judg, 2 17.- Exol. 32. 9.- Ver. 6. Ch. 10. 16. &31.27. 2 Kings 17. 14. in Exod. 32. 10 - Ch. 29. 20. Psal. 9.5 & 109. 13.

Verse 15. Who led thee through that-terrible wilder- not permitted, at that day, or time to pass over, because ness) See the account of their journeying in the notes on of their rebellions: but this time they shall certainly pass Exod. xvi. 1, &c. Numb. xxi. &c.

over. This was spoken about the eleventh month of the Fiery serpents) Serpents, whose bite oce ned a fortieth year of their journeying; and it was on the first most violent inflammation, accompanied with an nin month of the following year they passed over : and during quenchable thirst; and which terminated in death. See this interim Moses died. on Numb. xxi. 6.

Verse 5. For the wickedness of these nations) So then Verse 16. Who fed thee--with manna] See this mira- it was not by any sovereign act of God that these people cle described, Exod. xvi. 13, &c.

were cast out; but for their wickedness--they had iransVerse 18. God-givcth thee power to get wealth] Who gressed the law of their Creator-they had resisted his among the rich and wealthy believes this saying? Who Spirit, and could no longer be tolerated. The Israelites gives wisdom, understanding, skill, bodily strength, and were to possess their land, not because they deserved it, health? Is it not God? And without these how can but first, because they were less wicked than the others: wealth be acquired? Whose is providence? Who gives and secondly, because God thus chose to begin the great poorse to a right

issue? Is it not God as and without these sites were cut off, and the Teraelites, were grafted in and also can wealth be acquired? No. Then the proposition the Israelites, because of their wickedness, were afterward in the text is self-evident; it is God that giveth power to cut off, and the Gentiles grafted in-let the latter not be get wealthand to God the wealthy man must account for high-minded, but fear; if God spared not the natural the manner in which he has expended the riches which branches, take heed lest he spure not thee. God hath given him.

Verse 10. Tables of stone) See the notes on Exod. NOTES ON CHAPTER IX.

xxxi. 18. & xxxii. 15, 16. Verse 1. Thou art to pass oder Jordan this day! Om Verse 12. Thy people-have corrupted themselves) Dehayom, this time: they had come, thirty-eight years before based themselves by making and worshipping an Egyptian this, nearly to the verge of the promised land, but were idol. See on Exod. xxxii.

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