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Of those who endeavour to entice and

17, 18.

40.-Sebai.

16 « Only ye shall not eat the blood ; ye shall | the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the pour it upon the earth as water.

LORD thy God: and the blood of thy sacrifices 17 11 Thou mayest not eat within thy gates the shall be poured out upon the altar of the LORD tithe of thy corn, or of thy wine, or of thy oil, thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh. or the firstlings of thy herds, or of thy flock, nor 28 Observe and hear all these words which I any of thy vows which thou vowest, nor thy free-command thee, y that it may go well with thee, will-offerings, or heave-offering of thine hand: and with thy children after thee for ever, when

18 But thou must eat them before the LORD thou doest that which is good and right in the thy God in the place which the Lord thy God sight of the Lord thy God. shall choose, thou, and thy son, and thy daugh 29 1 When 2 the Lord thy God shall cut off ter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, the nations from before thee, whither thou goest and the Levite that is within thy gates; and to possess them, and thou a succeedest them, thou shall rejoice before the LORD thy God in all and dwellest in their land: that thou puttest thine hands unto.

30 Take heed to thyself that thou be not 19 1 Take heed to thyself that thou forsake snared by following them, after that they be denot the Levite " as long as thou livest upon the stroyed from before thee; and that thou inquire earth.

not after their gods, saying, How did these na20 | When the LORD thy God shall enlarge tions serve their gods ? even so will I do like, thy border," as he hath promised thee, and thou wise. shalt say, I will eat flesh, (because thy soul long 31 a Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy eth to eat flesh;) thou mayest eat Aesh, what God: for every abomination to the Lord which soever thy soul lusteth after.

he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for 21 If the place which the LORD thy God hath even their sons and their daughters they have chosen to put his name there, be too far from burnt in the fire to their gods. thee, then thou shalt kill of thy herd and of thy 32 What thing soever I command you, obflock, which the Lord hath given thee, as I have serve to do it: 6 thou shalt not add thereto, nor commanded thee, and thou shalt eat in thy gates diminish from it. whatsoever thy soul lusteth after. 22 p Even as the roebuck and the hart is

CHAPTER XIII.

or false prophets and their lying signs, 1 --eaten, so thou shalt eat them : the unclean and seduce people to klolatry, 7-5. The punishment of such, 9.-11. Or cities perthe clean shall eat of them alike.

verted from the pure worship of God, 12---14. How that city is to be treated, 15.

All the spoil of li to be destroyed, 16. Promises to them who obey these direcuona, 23 Only be sure that thou eat not the blood : * for the blood is the life; and thou mayest not F there arise among you a prophet, An. Exod. Is. eat the life with the flesh.

21 Thou shalt not eat it, thou shalt pour it giveth thee a sign or a wonder, upon the earth as water.

2 And the sign or the wonder come to pass, 25 Thou shalt not eat it; . that it may go well whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go with thee, and with thy children after thee, after other gods, which thou hast not known, u when thou shalt do that which is right in the and let us serve them; sight of the LORD.

3 Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of 26 1 Only thy holy things which thou hast, that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for and thy vows, thou shalt take, and go unto the the LORD your God 'proveth you, to know place which the LORD shall choose:

whether ye love the LORD your God with all 27 And thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, your heart, and with all your soul. * Gen. 9. 4. Lev. 7. 26 & 17. 10. Ch. 15. 23. & Ver. 33, 24-1 Ver. 11, 12 & Ch. & Heb. inheritest, or, posserseat them.-- Ch. 7. 16. --- Heb. cfter them. - Ver. 14. 23 - Ch 14. 27. Ecclns. 7. 31.-n Heb. all thy days - Gen. 15. 18.& 2 11 Exod. 31. 21. Ch. 11. 24. & 19.8.-p Ver. 15.- Ver. 16.-r Heb. be strong - Gen. 9. 4. 19. 17. 11, IL--C4. 10. Lai, 3 10.-U'Exod. 15. 26. Ch. 13. 13. Kings 11. 33.- Nunub. 5. 9. 10. & 18. 19.-W1 Sam. 1. 21, 22, 24.- Lev. 1. 5, 9, 13. & 17.11. y Ver. 35.- Exod. 23. 23. Ch. 19. 1. Josh. 23. 4. gale8] With the proviso that the blood be poured out on agree in offering human victims to their gods, on extraorthe ground. 1. The blood should not be eaten. 2. It dinary occasions; by which it is evident that none of those should be poured out by way of sacrifice. I think this is nations had any right notion of the divine nature. How the meaning; and not, that they should pour out the blood necessary then was the book of Revelation, to teach men with as little ceremony and respect as ihey poured water what that religion is with which God can be well pleased ! upon the ground; which is the meaning according to The Hindoos, to this day, offer human victims to their Calmet and others.

goddess Cali, and at the temple of Jaggernaut ; and The roebuck-and the hart.] It is very likely that by yet, notwithstanding this, there are found certain persons 58 (sebi, the entelope is meant; and by box ayal, the hart who, while they profess Christianity, are absolutely unor deer. This is the opinion of Dr. Shaw: and from the willing to send the Hindoos the Gospel of Christ, because report of travellers, we learn that both these animals are they think it would not be politically wise! But the wisfound in that desert to the present day. See Harmer, vol. dom of this world has ever been foolishness with God; iv. p. 25, &c. Of the propriety of eating clean animals, and in spite of all this infidel policy, the word of the Lord there could be no question; but the blood must be poured shall have free course, and be glorified. out; yet there were cases in which they might kill and eat in all their gates, (cities and dwellings,) such as the

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII. roebuck and the hart, or all clean wild beasis, for these Verse 1. If there arise among you a prophet] Any being taken in hunting, and frequently shot by arrows, pretending to have a divine influence, so as to be able pertheir blood could not be poured out at the altar. There- fectly to direct others in the way of salvation-or a fore the command appears to take in only such tame beasts dreamer of dreams, one who pretends that some deity as were used for food.

has spoken to him in the night season-and giveth thee a Verse 19. Forsake not the Levite] These had no inher- sign on oth, what appears to be a miraculous proof of itance, and were to live by the sanctuary-if therefore the his mission, or a wonder, novo mopheth, some type or reofferings were withheld by which the Levites were sup- presentation of what he wishes to bring you over to-as ported, they of course must perish. Those who have de some have pretended that they had received a consecrated voied themselves to the service of God in ministering to image from heaven-hence the origin of the Palladium, the salvation of the souls of men, should certainly be fur Numa's Shields, and many of the deities among the Hinnished at least with all the necessaries of life. Those doos--but here the word seems to mean some portentous who withhold this from them, sin against their own mer- sign-such as an eclipse, which he who knew when it cies; and that ordinance of God by which a ministry is would take place, might predict to the people who knew established for the salvation of souls.

nothing of the matter, and thereby accredit his pretensions. Verse 23. For the blood is the life] And the life being Verse 3. The Lord your God proreth you) God peroffered as an alonement, consequently the blood shoulů mits such impostors to arise to try the faith of his follownot be eaten : see the notes on Levit. xvii. 11. where the ers, and to put their religious experience to the test ; for subject of the vitality of the blood is largely considered. he who experimentally knows God, cannot be drawn away

Verse 31. Their sons and their daughters they hare after idols. He who has no experimental knowledge of burnt in the fire) Almost all the nations in the world 'God may believe any thing Erperience of the truths Vol. 1.-60

473

4. Lev. 18. 3, 26, 32 Kings 17. 15. Heh abomination of the - Lev. 18. 21. 20.2. Ch. 18. 10. Jer. 32. 35. Ezek. 23. 37.-- Ch. 4.2 R 13. 18. Josh. 1. 7. Prov. 30. 6. Rev. 22. 18.--h Zech. 10. 2.-- Matt 21. 21. 2 Theas. 2.9.--k See Ch. 18. 22. Jer. B. 9. Matt. 7. 22.-- Ch. 8. 2. See Matt. 21. 24. I Cor. 11. 19. 2 Thess 2 11. Rev. 13. 14.

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4 Ye shall " walk after the LORD your God, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and and the thing certain, that such abomination is obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and wrought among you; cleave unto him.

15 Thou shalt eurely smite the inhabitants of 5 And that prophet, or that dreamer of that city with the edge of the sword, e destroydreams, shall be put to death ; because he hath | ing it utterly, and all that is therein, and the P spoken to turn you away from the LORD your cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword. God, which brought you out of the land of 16 And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of into the midst of the street thereof, and shalt bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which 'burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in every whit, for the Lord thy God : and it shall 9 So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst be sa heap for ever; it shall not be built again. of thee.

17 And there shall cleave nought of the 6 If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or cursed thing to thine hand: that the LORD may thy son, or thy

daughter, or the wife of thy turn from the fierceness of his anger, and show bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and and multiply thee, 1 as he hath sworn unto thy serve other gods, which thou hast not known, fathers; thou, nor thy fathers;

18 When thou shalt hearken to the voice of 7 Namely, of the gods of the people which the LORD thy God, m to keep all his commandare round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off ments which I command thee this day, to do that from thee, from the one end of the earth even which is right in the eyes of the LORD thy God. unto the other end of the earth;

CHAPTER XIV. 8 Thou shalt "not consent unto him, nor

The Israelites are not to adopt superstitious customs in mouming, 1,2 The different hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity kinds of clean and unclean aniinals, 3. Nothing to be eaten that deth

sell, 2. Concerning offerings, which, from distance, Gaumot be carried to the alu him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou

of God, and which may be turned into money, 22-26. The Levite is next to be conceal him :

forsaken, 27. The third year's tithe for the Levite, stranger, wilon, &c , 23

YE the children of the LORD An Exod. I«. hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, your God : oye shall not cut yourand afterward the hand of all the people. selves, nor make any baldness between your eyes

10 And thou shalt stone him with stones, that for the dead. he die: because he hath sought to thrust thee 2 P For thou art a holy people unto the LORD away from the LORD thy God, which brought thy God, and the Lord hath chosen thee to be a thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house peculiar people unto himself, above all the naof bondage.

tions that are upon the earth. 11 And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and 3 T 9 Thou shalt not eat any abominable shall do no more any such wickedness as this is thing. among you.

4. These are the beasts which ye shall eat: 12 Î If thou shalt hear say in one of thy the ox, the sheep, and the goat, cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee 5 The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow to dwell there, saying,

deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, ' and 13 Certain men, a the children of Belial, bare the wild ox, and the chamois. gone out from among you, and have withdrawn 6 And every beast that parteth the hoof, and ihe inhabitants of their city, saying, "Let us go cleaveth the cleft into two claws, and cheweth and serve other gods, which ye have not known; the cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat. 14 Then shalt

thou inquire, and make search, 7 Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them m 2 Kings 23. 3. 2 Chron. 31. 31.-n Ch. 10. 20. & 30. 20.- Ch. 18. 20. Jer. 14. 2 Cor. 6. 15.- 1 John 2. 19. Jade 19.-C 2 Kings 17.2.Ver. 2,6.-e Exod 22.2 15 Zech. 13. 3.-p Heb. spoken recolt against the LORD.-9 Ch. 17. 7. & 22. 21, Lev. 27. 28. Josh. 6. 17,21.- Josh 6. 21.-g Joak. 8. 29. Isai. 17. 1. & 25.2 Jer 48.3 22, 24. I Cor. 5. 13.-r Ch 17.2- See Geo. 16. 5. Ch. 3. 51. Pros. 5. 20. Mic. 7. hCh. 7. 26. Josh. 6. 18.- Or, devoted.- Josh. 6.%. Gen. 22. 17. & 28. 4,21 & 5.--t I Sam. 18. 1, 3. & 20. 17.--u Prov. 1. 10.-v Ch. 17. 5.-w Ch. 17. 7. Acus 7. 14.-m Ch. 12. 25, 23, 32.-n Rom. 8. 16. & 9.8,26 Gal. 3.2. - Lev. 19. & 2.5 58.- Heb. bondinen.-y Ch. 17. 13. & 19. 21 - Josh. 22 u, &c. Judg. 20. 1, 2 Jer. 16. 6. & 41.

6. & 47.5. 1 Thens. 4. 13.- Lev. 20. 21. Ch. 7. 6 & I8 19-9 Exek a Or, naughty men; See Judg. 19. 22. 1 Sam. 2. 12. & 5. 17, 3. 1 Kings 21. 10. 13. 4. 14. Acts 10. 13, 14- Lev. IL. 2, &c.- Or, bison.- Bets distor. contained in the word of God can alone preserve any man to their deities: though they sometimes also made incisions from Deism, or a false religion. They who have not this, in their flesh. are a prey to the pretended prophet, and to the dreamer of Verse 4. These are the beasts which ye shall cat] On dreams.

Lev. xi. I have entered into a considerable detail relative Verse 6. If thy brother-or thy son] The teacher of to the clean and unclean animals here mentioned. For idolatry was to be put to death; and so strict was this or the general subject, the reader is referred to the notes der, that a man must neither spare nor conceal his brother, on that chapter ; but as there are particulars mentioned son, daughter, wife, nor friend—because this was the here, which Moses does not introduce in Leviticus, it will highest offence that could be committed against God, and be necessary to consider them in this place. the most destructive to society; hence the severest laws The or]' Shor: Bos, fifth order Pecora, of the gewere enacted against it.

nus MAMMALIA, species 41. This term includes all clean Verse 13. Children of Belial] byoga from 5a, bal, not, animals of the beeve kind : not only the or, properly so and Syn yâal, profit, avopes Tapavopoi, lawless men, (Sept.) called, but also the bull, the cou, heifer, and calf. persons good for nothing to themselves or others, and ca The sheep] av Sch: ovis, fifth order Pecora, of the pable of nothing but mischief.

genus MAMMALIA, species 40. Including the ram, the Verse 15. Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants) If wether, the ewe, and the lamb. one city were permitted to practice idolatry, the evil The goat] iy Az: CAPRA, fifth order Pecora, of the would spread; therefore the contagion must be destroyed genus MAMMALIA, species 39. Including the he-goals

, in its birth.

she-goat, and kid. The words in the text, Dv2 nesch Verse 17. And there shall cleave nought of the cursed kesabim, signifies the lamb or young of sheep: and thing), As God did not permit them to take the spoils of Dry nv seh âzzim, the young or kid of goats; but this is these idolatrous cities, they could be under no temptation a Hebrew idiom, which signifies every creature of the to make war upon them. It could only be done through a genus, as wunja ben Enosh, and on ja ben Adam, son merely religious motive, in obedience to the command of of man, signify any human being. See Psal. cxliv. 3. God, as they could have no profit by the subversion of Job xxv. 6. such places. How few religious wars would there ever The flesh of these animals is universally allowed to be have been in the world, had they been regulated by this the most wholesome and nutritive. They live on the very principle: "Thou shalt neither extend thy territory, nor best vegetables ; and having several stomachs, their food take any spoils.”

is well concocted, and the chyle formed from it the most NOTES ON CHAPTER XIV.

pure, because the best elaborated, as it is well refined

before it enters into the blood. Of ruminating, or chewing Verse 1. Ye are children of the Lord] The very high- the cud, see the note on Lev. xi. 3. est character that can be conferred on any created beings. Verse 5. The hart] 5 Ayal, the deer, according to Ye shall not cut yourselves-i. e. their hair, for it was a Dr. Shaw; see the note on ch. xii. 15. custom among idolatrous nations to consecrate their hair The roebuck] Tsebi, generally supposed to be the

that chew the cud, or of them that divide the people unto the Lord thy God. b Thou shalt cloven hoof: as the camel, and the hare, and not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. the coney; for they chew the cud, but divide not 22 T « Thou shalt truly tithe all the increase the hoof; therefore they are unclean unto you. of thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year by

8 And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, year. yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean unto you: 23 And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor touch their God, in the place which he shall choose to place dead carcass.

his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy 9 T These ye shall eat of all that are in the wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy waters: all that have fins and scales shall ye herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn eat:

to fear the Lord thy God always. 10 And whatsoever hath not fins and scales 24 | And if the way be too long for thee, so ye may not eat; it is unclean unto you.

that thou art not able to carry it; or if the 11 1 Of all clean birds ye shall eat.

place be too far from thee, which the LORD thy 12 But these are they of which ye shall not God shall choose to get his name there, when eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, the LORD thy God hath blessed thee:

13 And the glede, and the kite, and the 25 Then shalt thou turn it into money, and vulture after his kind,

bind up the money in thine hand, and shalt go 14 And every raven after his kind,

unto the place which the Lord thy God shall 15 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the choose: cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

26 And thou shalt bestow that money for 16 The little owl, and the great owl, and the whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or swan,

for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for 17 And the pelican, and the gier eagle, and whatsoevor thy soul 6 desireth: hand thou shalt the cormorant,

eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou 19 And the stork, and the heron after her shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household, kind, and the lapwing, and the bat,

27 And i the Levite that is within thy gates; 19 And every creeping thing that fieth is thou shalt not forsake him; for * he hath no part unclean unto you: 9 they shall not be eaten. nor inheritance with thee. 20 But of all clean fowls ye may eat.

29 T At the end of three years, thou shalt 21 [ Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth bring "forth all the tithe of thine increase the of itself: thou shalt give it unto the stranger same year, and shalt lay it up within thy gates : that is in thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou 29 m And the Levite, (because " he hath no mayest sell it unto an alien : * for thou art a holy part nor inheritance with thee) and the stranger,

u Lev. 11. 26. 27.- Lev. 11.9.-w Lev. 11. 13.- Lev. 11. 20.-y See Lev. 11. 21. 2 Lev. 17. 15. & 22 & Ezek 4.11.-a Ver. 2.- Exol. 2. 19. & 31. 2.-c Lev. 2. 30 Ch. 12 6, 7. Nghi. 10. 7. Chi. 12 5, 6, 7, 17, 18.

e Ch. 15. 19, 20.-- Ch. 12. 21.- Ilel aaketh of ther-h Ch. 12. 7, 18. & 26. 11. i Ch. 12. 12, 13, 19.-k Numb. 18.20. Ch. 13. 1,2--1 Ch. 26. 12. Amos 14--m Ch. 25. 12- Vư. . C. 12 12.

antclopc, belonging to the fifth order Pecora, genus mam-tuagint and Vulgate translate it the camelopard: but this MALIA, and species 38. It has round, twisted, spiral creature is only found in the torrid zone ; and probably horns, hairy tufts on the knees, browses on tender shoots, was never seen in Judea--consequently could never be lives in hilly countries, is fond of climbing rocks, and prescribed as a clean animal, to be used as ordinary food. is remarkable for its beautiful black eyes. The flesh is I must once more be permitted to say, that to ascertain the good and well flavoured.

natural history of the Bible is a hopeless case. Of a few The fallow deer om Yachmur, from on chamar, ) of its animals and vegetables we are comparatively certo be troubled, disturbed, disordered : this is suposed to tain ; but of the great majority we know almost nothing. mean, not the falloo deer, but the bubalus, or buffalo, Guessing and conjecture are endless, and they have, on which is represented by Dr. Shaw, and other travellers these subjects been sufficiently employed. What learning, and naturalists, as a sullen, malerolent, and spiteful deep, solid, extensive learning and judgment could do, has animal; capricious, ferocious, and every way brutal. already been done by the incomparable Bochart, in his According to the Linnaan classification, ihe buffalo be- Hierozoicon. The learned reader may consult this work, longs to the genus Mammalia, fifth order Pecora, species and while he gains much general information, will have Bos. According to 1 Kings iv. 23. this was one of the to regret that he can apply so little of it to the main and animals which was daily served up at the table of Solo- grand question. As I have consulted every authority mon. Though the flesh of the buffalo is not considered as within my reach, on the subject of the clean and unclean very delicious, yet in the countries where it abounds, it is animals, mentioned in the law, and have detailed all the eaten as frequently by all classes of persons as the ox is in information I could collect, in my notes on Lev. xi. I England. The yachmur is not mentioned in the parallel must refer my readers to what I have there laid down. place, Lev. xi.

Verse 13. The rulture after his kind) The word XT The wild goat] 198 Akko. It is not easy to tell what daah, is improperly translated rulture, Lev. xi. 14. but creature is intended by the akko. Dr. Shaw supposed it means a kite or gledc. The word 77 dayah, in this verse, to be a kind of very timorous goat, known in the cast by is not only different from that in Leviticus, but means the name fishtall and serwee; and bears a resemblance also a different animal-properly enough translated rulboth to the goat and the stag, whence the propriety of the cure. See the note on Lev. xi. 14. name given it by the Septuagint and Vulgate, tragelapus, Verse 21. Thou shall not secthe a kid in his mother's the goat-stag ; probably the rupicupra, or rock-goat milk) Mr. Calmet thinks that this precept refers to the The word is found nowhere else in the Hebrew Bible. paschal lamb only, which was not to be offered to God till

The pygarg) 1vnt Dishon. As this word is nowhere it was weaned from its mother:--but see the note on Exod. else used, we cannot tell what animal is meant by it. The xxiii. 19. word pygarg Tuyssyys, literally signifies white-buttocks, Verse 22. Thou shalt truly tilhe] Meaning the second and is applied to a kind of eagle, with a white tail : but | tithe, which they themselves were to eat, ver. 23. for there here it evidently means a quadruped. It was probably was a first tithe that was given to the Levites; out of some kind of gout, common and well known in Judea. which they paid a tenth parl to the priests, Numb. xvii.

The wild or]wn Theo. This is supposed to be the 24-23. Neh. x. 37, 38. Then of that which remained, oryz of the Greeks, which is a species of large stag. It the owners separated a second tithe, which they ate before may be the same with the bekker el wash, described by Dr. the Lord, the first and second year: and in the third year, Shaw as "a species of the deer kind, whose horns are it was given to the Levites and to the poor, Deut. xiv. exactly in the fashion of our stag, but whose size is only | 28, 29. In the fourth and fifth years, it was eaten again between the red and fallow deer. In Isai. li. 20. a crea by the owners, and in the sixth year was given to the poor. ture of the name of nin thoa, is mentioned, which we The serenth year was a sabbath to the land : and then all translate wild bull; it may be the same creature intended things were common : Exod. xxiii. 10, 11. where see the above, with the interchange of the two last letters. notes. And sce Ainsirorth on this place.

The chamois) i Zamer. This was probably a spe Verse 26. Or for strong drink] What the sikera or cies of goat or deer, but of what kind we know not--that strong drink of the Hebrews was, see in the note on Levit

. it cannot mean the chamois is evident from this circum x. 9. This one verse sufficiently shows, that the Mosaic stance, "that the chamois inhabits only the regions of snow law made ample provision for the comfort and happiness and ice, and cannot bear the heat.” Buffon. The Sep-1 of the people. Thou shall rejoice, thou and thine.

An Exol. Isr.

40.-Sebal.

A years

and the fatherless, and the widow, which are , heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and him: because that' for this thing the LORD thy be satisfied, that the LORD thy God may bless God shall bless thee in all thy works, and in all thee in all the work of thine hand which thou that thou puttest thine hand unto. doest.

11 For 6 the poor shall never cease out of the

land: therefore I command thee, saying, Thou CHAPTER XV.

shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to The mbbatical year of release, 1. The manner in which this release shall take place, 2-5. Of len ting to the poor, an the xhsposition in which it should be Jone, 6--11

thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land. Or the Hebrew scrvant who has serve! six years, and who shall be dismissed well 12 | And hit thy brother, a Hebrew man, or furnishe], 12--15. The ceremony of boring the ear, when the servant wishes to continue with his master, 14--19. Of the firstlings of the flock and herud, 19, 20. a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve the clean and the unctoan, except the blood, which is never to be enten, but poures thee, six years; then in the seventh year thou out upon the grow, 22, 23.

shalt let him go free from thee.

13 And when thou sendest him out free from thou shalt make a release. thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty: 2 And this is the manner of the release: 14' Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy Every acreditor that lendeth ought unto his Rock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy wineneighbour shall release it; he shall not exact it press; of that wherewith the Lord thy God hath of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it i blessed thee thou shalt give unto him. is called the Lord's release.

15 And k thou shalt remember that thou wast 3 Of a foreigner thou mayest exact it again: a bondman in the land of Egypt, and the LORD but that which is thine with thy brother, thine thy God redeemed thee: therefore I command hand shall release:

thee this thing to-day. 4. Save when there shall be no poor among 16 And it shall be,' ' if he say unto thee, I will you: + for the LORD shall greatly bless thee, in not go away from thee; because he loveth thee the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and thine house, because he is well with thee: for an inheritance to possess it :

17 Then thou shalt take an awl, and thrust it 5 Only if thou carefully hearken unto the through his ear unto the door, and he shall be voice of the Lord thy God, to observe to do all thy servant for ever. And also unto thy maidthese commandments which I command thee servant thou shalt do likewise. this day.

18 It shall not seem hard unto thee, when thou 6 For the LORD thy God blesseth thee, as he sendest him away free from thee; for he hath -promised thee; and thou shalt lend unto many been worth ma double hired servant to thee, in nations, but thou shalt not borrow; and w thou serving thee six years; and the LORD thy God shalt reign over many nations, but they shall not shall bless thee in all that thou doest. reign over thee.

19 " All the firstling males that come of thy 7 T If there be among you a poor man of one herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto the of thy brethren, within any of thy gates in thy Lord thy God thou shalt do no work with the land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, * thou firstling of thy bullock, nor with the firstling of shalt not harden thine heart, nor shut thine thy sheep. hand from thy poor brother:

20 • Thou shalt eat it before the LORD thy 8 » But thou shalt open thine hand wide unto God, year by year, in the place which the LORD him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his shall choose, thou and thy household. need, in that which he wanteth.

21 And if there be any blemish therein, as if 9 Beware that there be not a ? thought in thy it be lame, or blind, or have any ill blemish, thou « wicked heart, saying, The seventh year, the shalt not sacrifice it unto the LORD thy God. year of release, is at hand: and thine beye be 22 Thou shalt eat it within thy gates: a the evil against thy poor brother, and thou givest unclean and the clean person shall eat it alike, him nought; and he cry unto the Lord against as the roebuck, and as the hart. thee, and dit be sin unto thee.

23 'Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof, 10 Thou shalt surely give him, and thine thou shalt pour it upon the ground as water.

o Ch. 15. 10. Prov. 3. 9, 10. See Mal. 3. 10.-p Exod. 21. 2 & 23. 10, 11, Lev. 25. 2, 4. Ch. 31. 10. Jer. 31. 14.- Heb. master of the lending of his hand.-r See Ch. 23. 20.- Or, to the end that there be no poor among you. - Ch. 23. & -- Ch. 28. 1.-v Ch. 23. 12, H.--w Ch 24. 13. Prov. 22. 7.--* 1 John 3. 17.--y Lev. 25. 35. Mali 5.12 Luke 6. 31, 35.- Hleb. toord.-a Heb. Belial-- Ch. 23. 51, 56. Prov. 23. 6. & 28. 22. Mall 20. 15.

c Ch. 21. 15 - Matt. 35. 41. 12 -- 2 Cor. 9. 5, 7.-- Ca 14921. 19. Pa 41 1. Prov. 22.9.-g Matt. 26. 11. Mark 117. John 12 &- Eid 22. Les 25. 39. Jer. 31. 14. - Prov. 10. 22. -- Ch. 5. 15 & 16. 12-1 Fio! 215,6 m See lau. 16. 14. & 21. 16.-n Exod. 13. 2. & 31. 19. Lev. 27. 3. Vund 31-12 5, 6, 7, 17. & 14. 3. & 16. 11, 14.--p Lev. 22. 20. Ch. 17. 1. Eccina. 35. 12-01 15, 22.-r Ch. 12. 16,23

Verse 29. And the Levile, because he hath no part nor lation to the poor and the oppressed, that they have a sure inheritance) And hence much of his support depended on friend in God, who will hear their cry and redress their the mere free-will-offerings of the people. God chose to grievances. make his ministers thus dependent on the people, that they Verse 11. For the poor shall nerer ccase out of the land] might be induced (among other motives) to labour for their To this passage our Lord appears to allude, Mark xiv. 1. spiritual profiting; that the people thus blessed under their For ye have the poor with you always. God leaves these ministry, might feel it their duty and privilege to support in mercy among men, to exercise the feelings of compasand render them comfortable.

sion, tenderness, mercy, &c. And without occasions afNOTES ON CHAPTER XV.

forded to exercise these, man would soon become a Stoie Verse 1. At the end of every seven years thou shalt

or a brute. make a releasc.) For an explanation of many things re Verse 13. Thou shalt not let him go away empły) Be corded in this chapter, see the notes on Exodus xxi. and cause, during the time he served thee, he made no property xxiii. and Leviticus xxv.

for himself, having been always honest towards then add Verse 4: Therc shall be no poor] i. e. comparatively; now when he leaves thee, he has nothing to begin the sce ver. 11.

world with. Verse 8. Thou shalt open thine hand wide] Thy be Verse 14. Thou shalt furnish him-out of thy fock) nevolence shall be in proportion to his distress and pov- Thou shalt give him some cattle to breed with.

Oui of erty, and thy ability. Thou shalt have no other rule to thy floor-some corn for seed and for bread. And out of regulate thy charity by.

thy winepress-an adequate provision of roine, for present Verse 9. Beware that there be not a thought in thy necessity. wicked heart] Syasa 7225 lebabca beliâl, thy belial heari, Verse 17. Thou shalt take an awl) See the note on that is, thy good-for-nothing, or unprofitable heart; see on Exod. xxi. 6. chap. xiv. 13.

Verse 20. Thou shalt eat it-in the place which the Lord And thine cye be eril] An evil eye signifies a covetous shall choose) Thua God in his mercy made their duty and disposition. See the same form of expression, used by our interest go hand in hand. And in every case God acts thus Lord, in the same sense, Matt. vi. 23. If thine cye be with his creatures: well

, therefore, might Satan ask, Dith evil-i. q. if thou be a covetous person. Evil eye is, by Job serve God for nought? No! nor does God design tha: our Lord, opposed to single cye, i. e. a person of liberal, any man should. benevolent mind. Covetoneness darkens the soul : liber Verse 21. If there be any blemish] See the notes en ality and benevolence enlighten it.

Lev. xxii. 20. God will have both a perfect priest, and a And he cry unto the Lord against thee) What a conso- perfect offering,

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CHAPTER XVI.

ger, and the fatherless, and the widow that are The month of Abib to be obarvel, 1. The feast of the possover and of unlmrenad among you, in the place which the LORD thy breol, 2- "The fort of tark, 9-12 The loro inbernaric, 13-15. All the males to appear before the lorithrice in the year, none to come empty, each to

God hath chosen to place his name there. give according to this ability, 16, 17. Jules and office to le mie in all their cities,

12 1 And thou shalt remember that thou wast is. Sunet justice shall be executel, 19, 20. No gruve to be plantei near the altar of God, nor image to be wel op, 21, 22

a bondman in Egypt: and thou shalt observe An Exil Is. BSERVE the month of Abib, and and do these statutes. 40. Sebut.

13 1 m Thou shalt observe the feast of taberthy God: for in the month of Abib, the LORD thy pacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered God brought thee forth out of Egypt u by night. in thy corn and thy wine:

2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover 14 And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast, thou, unto the LORD thy God, of the flock and the and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-serherd, in the w place which the LORD shall choose vant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite, the to place his name there.

stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that 3 - Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; are within thy gates. seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread 15 p Seven days shalt thou keep a solemn feast therewith, even the bread of affliction; for thou unto the LORD thy God, in the place which the camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: LORD shall choose; because the LORD thy God that thou mayest remember the day, when thou shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all camest forth out of the land of Egypt, all the the works of thine hands, therefore thou shalt days of thy life.

surely rejoice. 4 And there shall be no leavened bread seen 16 || : Three times in a year shall all thy males with thee in all thy coast seven days;,? neither appear before the Lord thy God, in the place shall there any thing of the flesh, which thou which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavensacrificedst the first day at even, remain all night ed bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the unto the morning.

feast of tabernacles: and 'they shall not appear 5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the passover before the Lord empty : within any of thy gates, which the LORD thy God 17 Every man shall give s as he is able, i acgiveth thee:

cording to the blessing of the LORD thy God 6 But at the place which the LORD thy God which he hath given thee. shall choose, to place his name in, there thou 18 Judges and officers shalt thou make shalt sacrifice the passover at beven, at the go-thee in all thy gates, which the Lord thy God ing down of the sun, at the season that thou giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they camest forth out of Egypt.

shall judge the people with just judgment. 7. And thou shalt roast and eat it d in the place 19 - Thou shalt not wrest judgment; w thou which the LORD thy God shall choose: and thou shalt not respect persons, * neither take a gift: shalt turn in the morning and go unto thy tents. for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and

8 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread : pervert the words of the righteous. and on the seventh day shall be af solemn as 20 2 That which is altogether just shalt thou sembly to the LORD thy God: thou shalt do no follow, that thou mayest a live, and inherit the work therein.

land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 9 1. Seven weeks shalt thou number unto 21 1 Thou shall not plant thee a grove of thee: begin to number the seven weeks from such any trees, near unto the altar of the LORD thy time as thou beginnest to put the sickle to the God, which thou shalt make thee. corn.

22 - Neither shalt thou set thee up any dim10 And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks age; which the LORD thy God hateth. unto the LORD thy God, with " a tribute of a free

CHAPTER XVII. will-offering of thy hand, which thou shalt give all sacrifices to be without rolemiah, 1. of unsons convicted of idolatry and their

punishment, 27. Difficult matters in judginent to be laid before the priests and unto the LORD thy God, i according as the LORD judges, and to be determined by them, and all to sulumit to their decision, 8-13. thy God hath blessed thee :

The king that may be chosen to be one of their brethren, no stranger to be ap.

pointed to that office, 14, 15. He shall not muluply horaes to himself, nor cause 11 And thou shalt rejoice before the LORD the people to return unto Egypt, 16. Nor multiply trives, money, &c. 17.

shall write a copy of the law for his own use, and read and study at all his days, thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, that his heart be not lifted up above his brethrei, 15--20. and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and THOU e shalt not sacrifice unto the An. Exod. far.

40.--Sebat. the Levite that is within thy gates, and the stran LORD thy God any bullock, or

* Exod. 12. 2, &c.- Exod. 13. 4. & 31. 18.-u Exod 12. 12, 29,- Numb. 23. 19. n Heb foor and thy szint-press:- Neh. 8. 9. &c - Lev. 2 39, 40.-- Exod. w Ch. 125,- Exod. 12. 15, 19, 39. & 13. 3, 6, 7. & 31. 18.-y Exod. 13. 7. 23. 14, 17. & 31. 3.-r Exul. 24. 15. & 31. 20. Ecclus. 35. 4.- Heb. according to 2 Exod. 12 10 & 31. 55 - Or, kiu. -- Exol 12 6 -- Exod. 12. 8. 9. 2 Chron. 35. the gin of his hand. 2 Cor. 8 12-! Ver. 10.-u Ch. 1. 16. I Chron. 23. 1. & 2. 29. 13.- 2 Kinga 23. 23. John 2 13, 2. & 11. 50.- Exod. 12. 16. & 13. 6. Lev. 23. 8. 2 Chron. 19.5,8.-v Exod. B 2,6. Lev. 19. 15.- Ch. 1. 17. Prov. 21. 23 -x Exod. 1 Heb. restraint. Lev. 2. 36.- Exod. 23. 16. & 31. 22. Lev. 23. 15. Numb. 23. 2. 23. 8. Prov. 17. 23. Eeclet 7. 7. Ecclus. 20. 29.- Or, inters.--2 Heb. Justice, Acts 2 1.-h Or, sufficiency. - Ver. 17. I Cor. 15. 2 -k Ch. 12. 7, 12, 18. Ver. 14. justice.-a Ezek 18.5,9.-Exod. 31. 13. 1 King 11. 15. & 16.3 2 Kings 17. 16. & 21. I Ch. 15. 15.-m Exod. 2. 16. Lev. 23. 34. Numb. 23. 12.

3. 2 Chron. 33. 3.- Lev. 26.1.--dor, elatue, or, pillar.-e Ch. 15. 21. Mal. 1.8, 13, 14. NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI.

Verse 18. Judges and officers shalt thou make] JUDGES, Verse 1. Keep the passover) A feast so called, because DWow shopheteem, among the Hebrews, were probably the angel that destroyed the first-born of the Egyptians, the same as our magistrates, or justices of the peace. OFseeing the blood of the appointed sacrifice sprinkled on the FICERS, DNow sholereem, seem to have been the same as lintels and door-posts of the Israelites' houses, passed over our inquest, serjeants, beadles, &c. whose office it was to THEM and did not destroy any of their first-born. See the go into houses, shops, &c. and examine weights, measures, notes on Exod. xii. 2, &c.

and the civil conduct of the people. When they found any Verse 3. Bread of affliction] Because being baked thing amiss, they brought the person offending before the without leaven it was unsavoury, and put them in mind of magistrate, and he was punished by the officer on the their afflictive bondage in Egypt.

spot. They seem also to have acted as heralds in the army, Verse 11. Thou shalt rejoice) The offerings of the Is- chap. xx. 5. See also Rab. Maimon in sanhedrin. In raelites were to be eaten with festivity, communicated to China for all minor offences, the person, when found guiltheir friends with liberality, and bestowed on the poor with ty, is punished on the spot, in the presence of the magisgreat generosity, that they might partake with them in these trate or mandarin of justice. sacred repasts, with joy before the Lord. To answer these Verse 21. Thou shall not planl thee a grore, &c.] We views, it was necessary to eat the flesh while it was fresh, have already seen that grores were planted about idol temas in that climate putrefaction soon took place: therefore ples, for the purposes of the obscene worship performed in they were commanded to let nothing remain until the morn them. See onch. xij. 1. On this account, God would have ing, ver. 4. This consideration is sufficient to account for no groves or thickets about his altar : that there might be the command here, without having recourse to those mo no room for suspicion that any thing contrary to the strict. ral and evangelical reasons that are assigned by the learned est purity was transacted there. Every part of the divine and devout Mr. Ainsworth for the command. How bene- worship was publicly performed for the purpose of general ficent, and cheerful is the design of this institution! Har edification. mer, vol. i. p. 396.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVII. Verse 16. Three times in a year] See Exod. xxiii. 14. Verse 1. Wherin is blemish] God must not have that where all the Jewish feasts are explained. See also Levit. offered to him, which

thou wouldest not use thyself

. This xxiii. 34.

not only refers to the perfect sacrifice offered by Christ

He

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