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f sheep, wherein is blemish, or any evil-lavour- | shall choose, shall show thee; and thou shalt obedness! for this is an abomination unto the LORD serve to do according to all that they inform thee: thy God.

11 According to the sentence of the law which 2 5 If there be found among you, within any they shall teach thee, and according to the judgof thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth ment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thee, man or woman, that hath wrought wick- thou shalt not decline from the sentence which edness in the sight of the LORD thy God, in they shall show thee, to the right hand, nor to transgressing his covenant,

the left. 3 And hath gone and served other gods, and 12 And w the man that will do presumptuousworshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or ly, * and will not hearken unto the priest, ' that any of the host of heaven, k which I have not standeth to minister there, before the LORD thy commanded;

God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; 4 1 And it he told thee, and thou hast heard of and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel. it, and inquired diligently, and behold, it be true, 13 a And all the people shall hear, and fear, and the thing certain, that such abomination is and do no more presumptuously. wrought in Israel:

14 | When thou art come into the land which 5 Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess woman, which have committed that wicked it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, "I will thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that set a king over me, like as all the nations that woman, and mshalt stone them with stones, till are about me; they die.

15 Thou shalt in any wise set him king over 6'" At the mouth of two witnesses, or three thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be one « from among thy brethren shalt thou set put to death; but at the mouth of one witness king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger he shall not be put to death.

over thee, which is not thy brother. 7 . The hands of the witnesses shall be first 16 But he shall not multiply horses to himupon him to put him to death, and afterward self, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, the hands of all the people. So'p thou shalt put to the end that he should multiply horses: forasthe evil away from among you.

much as the Lord hath said unto you, Ye 8 1 9 If there arise a matter too hard for thee ahall henceforth return no more that way. in judgment, 'between blood and blood, between 17 Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, plea and plea, between stroke and stroke, being that i his heart turn not away: neither shall he matters of controversy within thy gates: then greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place 18 k And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the which the LORD thy God shall choose;

throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him 9 And + thou shalt come unto the priests the a copy of this law in a book, out of that which Levites, and ' unto the judge that shall be in is before the priests the Levites: those days, and inquire; and they shall show 19 And mit shall be with him, and he shall thee the sentence of judgment:

read therein all the days of his life: that he may 10 And thou shalt do according to the sen- learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the tence, which they of that place which the LORD words of this law and these statutes, to do them: f Or, goal - Ch. 13. 6.-h Josh. 7. 11. 15.& 23. 16. Judg. 2. 20. 2 Kings 18. 12. Hos 8.1.-; Ch 4. 19. Job 31. 3.- Jer. 7. 22, , 31. & 19. 5. & 22 35.- Ch. 13. HOX 41.- Heb, not to hearken-y Ch. 19 5,7.-2 Ch. 13. 5-a Ch 13 11. & 12

t See Jer. 18. 18. Ch. 19. 17.-v Ezek. 44. 24.-* Nomb. 15. 30 Ezra 10 &

12, 14-m Lev. 21. 11, 16. Ch. 13. 10. Josh 7. 25.-- Nomb. 35. 30. Ch. 19. 15. Matt. 18. 16. John 8. 17. 2 Cor 13. 1. 1 Tim. 5. 19. Heb. 10.28 - Ch. 13. 9. Acta 7. 59. -p Ver. 12 Ch. 13 5. & 19. 19.-22 Chron. 19. 10. Hag. 2. 11. Mal. 2 7.-r See Exol. 21. 13, 20, 22, B. & 22. 2. Numb. 35. 11, 16, 19. Ch. 19. 4, 10, 11. Ch. 12. 5. & 19. 17. Psal. 1222 5.

20.-b 1 Sam 5.8, 19, 20.- See I Samn. 9. 15. 10. 24. & 16. 12 I Chron 22 12 d Jer. 20. 21.-e ''Kings 4. 3. & 10. 26. . Pea 20. 2- Isti, 31. 1. Fa 17. 15 g Exod. 13. 17. Numb. 11.3, 1.- Ch.263. Jos. 11. 5. & Jer. 42 15 - Seel Kings 11. 3, 4.--k 2 Kings 11. 12- Ch. 31. 9, S. See 2 King 22. &- Jost. & Pwa. 119. 97, 98.

nesses.

Jesus, but to that sincerity and uprightness of heart, which foreign power. Had Christ said, Yes: then they would God requires in all those who approach him in the way of have condemned him by this law. Had he said, No: then worship

they would have accused him to Cæsar. See this subject Verse 4. If it be told thec] In a private way by any discussed in great detail, in the notes on Matt. xxii. 16, &c. confidential person. And thou hast heard of it--so that it Verse 16. He shall not multiply horses) As horses apappears to be notorious, very likely to be true, and publicly pear to have been generally furnished by Eggpl, God proscandalous. And hast inquired diligently-sought to find hibits these, 1. Lest there should be such commerce with out the truth of the report, by the most careful examina- Egypt as might lead to idolatry. 2. Lest the people might tion of persons reporting, circumstances of the case, &c. depend on a well-appointed cavalry as a means of security, And behold it is truc-the report is not founded on vague anu so cease from trusting in the strength and protection rumour, hearsay, or malice. And the thing is certain- of God. And 3. That they might not be tempted to exsubstantiated by the fullest evidence. Then shalt thou tend their dominion by means of cavalry, and so get scatbring forth the man-ver. 5. As the charge of idolatry tered among the surrounding idolatrous nations, and thus was the most solemn and awful that could be brought cease, in process of time, to be that distinct and separate against an Israelite, because it affected his life, therefore people which God intended they should be; and without God required that the charge should be substantiated by which the prophecies relative to the Messiah, could not be the most unequivocal facts, and the most competent wit-known to have their due and full accomplishment.

Hence all the precautions mentioned in the fourth Verse 17. Neither shall he multiply wires] For this verse, must be carefully used in order to arrive at so affect- would necessarily lead to foreign alliances, and be the ing and so awful a truth.

means of introducing the manners and customs of other Verse 6. Two witnesses] ONE might be deceived, or nations; and their idolatry also. Solomon sinned against prejudiced, or malicious—therefore God required two sub this precept, and brought ruin on himself and on the land slantial witnesses for the support of the charge.

by it. See 1 Kings xi. 4. Verse 8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee] Verse 18. He shall write him a copy of this lau) 1993 These directions are given to the common magistrates, sin nint. Mishneh ha-torah hazzoth, an iteration or duwho might not be able to judge of, or apply the law in alí plicate of this laro-translated by the Septuagint, he devtepcases that might be brought before them. The priests and voulov TOUTO, This Deuteronomy. From this version, both Levites, who were lawyers by birth and continual practice, the Vulgate Latin, and all the modern versions have taken were reasonably considered as the best qualified to decide the name of this book. And from the original word, the on difficult points.

Jews call it Mishneh. See the Preface to this book. Verse 12. The man that will do presumptuously] The Out of that which is before the priests the Levites] It man who refused to abide by this final determination for- is likely this means, that the copy which the king was to feited his life, as being then in a state of rebellion against write out, was to be taken from the autograph kept in the the highest authority; and consequently, the public could tabernacle before the Lord: from which, as a standard, have no pledge for his conduct.

every copy was taken; and with which, doubtless, every Verse 15. One from among thy brethren shalt thou set transcript was compared : and it is probable, that the priests king over thee) 'It was on the ground of this command and the Levites had the revising of every copy that was that the Jews proposed that insidious question to our Lord, taken off; in order to prevent errors from creeping into Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, OR NO? Matt. the sacred text. xxii. 17. for they were then under the authority of a Verse 19. And it shall be with him, &c.] It was the

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20 That his heart be not listed up above his ✓ Then he shall minister in the name of the brethren, and that he " turn not aside from the LORD his God, as all his brethren the Levites commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: do, which stand there before the Lord. to the end that he may prolong his days in his 8 They shall have like * portions to eat, beside kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony. Israel.

9 T When thou art come into the land which CHAPTER XVIII.

the Lord thy God giveth thee, ? thou shalt not The priests and Levites to have no inheritance, 1,2 What is the priest's dues, 3–5.

learn to do after the abominations of those nations.

10 There shall not be found among you any copy the alaninations of the funner inhabitants, 9. None to cause his son or daughter to pew through the fire, or use any kind of divination or enchantment, is the

one that maketh his son or his daughter á to pass furner inhabitants did, 10-14 The great Prophet which Gol promised to raise up, 15.-19. Of false propheta, 20. And how to discern them, 21, 22

through the fire, bor that useth divination, or an tribe of Levishall have no part

charmer, or a consulter nor inheritance with Israel; they P shall eat the spirits, or a wizard, or a d necromancer. offerings of the LORD made by fire, and his in 12 For all that do these things are an abomiheritance.

nation unto the LORD: and because of these 2 Therefore shall they have no inheritance abominations the LORD thy God doth drive them among their brethren: the LORD is their inher- out from before thee. itance, as he hath said unto them.

13 Thou shalt be perfect with the LORD thy 3 V 'And this shall be the priest's due from the God. people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether 14 For these nations, which thou shalt & posit be ox or sheep; and they shall give unto the sess, hearkened unto observers of times, and priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the unto diviners: but as for thee, the LORD thy God maw.

hath not suffered thee so to do. 4 The first-fruit also of thy corn, of thy wine, 15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy bresheep, shalt thou give him.

thren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken. 5 For the LORD thy God hath chosen him 16 According to all that thou desiredst of the out of all thy tribes, ! to stand to minister in the Lord thy God in Horeb i in the day of the asname of the Lord, him and his sons for ever. sembly, saying, Let me not hear again the

6 | And if a Levite come from any of thy voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see gates out of all Israel, where he u sojourned, and this great fire any more, that I die not. come with all the desire of his mind ' unto the 17° And the Lord said unto me, 1 They have place which the LORD shall choose;

well spoken that which they have spoken.

Ch. 5. 32. I King 15. 5.-- Numb. 18. 2. & 26.2 Ch. 10.9.--p Numb. 18 %, 9. I Cor. 9. 13.- Lev 7. 30-31 --r Exod. 22. 29. Numb. 18. 12. 21.-- Exol. 28. 1. Numb, 3 10.-- Ch. 10.8. & 17. 12. --- Numb. 35. 2, 3.--v Ch. 12. 5.---W 2 Chron. 31 2-2 Chron. 31. 4. Neh. 12. 14, 17.---y Heb. his sales by the fathera.

z Lev. 18. 26, 27, 30. Ch. 12. 29, 30, 31. Lev. 19. 21. Ch. 12 31.- Lev. 19. 25, 31. & 20. 27. leai. 8. 19.-- Lev. 20. 27.-I Sam. 28. 7.- Lev. 18. 21, 25. Ch. 9. 4.

Or, upright, or, sincere. Gen. 17. 1.- Or, inherit -b Ver. 18.' Jobo 1. 45. Acts 3. 22 & 7.37.-i Ch. 9. 10. ---k Exod. 2. 19. Heb. 12 19.-- Ch. 5. 23.

surest way to bring the king to an acquaintance with the Divination) DYDop Dop Kosem kesameem, one who divine law, to oblige him to write out a fair copy of it, with endeavours to find out futurity by auguries, using lots, &c. his own hand, in which he was to read daily. This was Observer of times) pro Meonen, one who pretends to essentially necessary, as these laws of God were all per- foretell future events by present occurrences; and who manent, and no Israelitish king could make any new law. predicts great political or physical changes from the asThe kings of this people being ever considered as only the pects of planets, eclipses, motion of the clouds, &c. &c. vicegerents of Jehovah.

See on Gen. xli. 8. Verse 20. He, and his children, in the midst of Israel] Enchanter] unin Menachesh, from ung nachash, to From this verse it has been inferred that the crown in view attentively, one who inspected the entrails of beasts, Israel was designed to be hereditary, and this is very pro observed the flight of birds, &c. &c. and drew auguries bable; for long experience has proved, to almost all the thence. Some think divination by serpents is meant, nations of the world, that hercditary succession in the which was common among the heathen. regal government is, on the whole, the safest, and best A witch] qwoo Mecasheph, probably those who by means calculated to secure the public tranquillity:

of drugs, herbs, perfumes, &c. pretended to bring certain NOTES ON CHAPTER XVIII.

celestial influences to their aid. See the note on Lev. xix. 26. Verse 1. The priests the Lerites--shall have no part] Verse 11. A charmer] nan nan Chober chaber, one who That is, says Rab. Maimon, they shall have no part in the uses spells---a peculiar conjunction, as the term implies, spoils taken from an enemy.

of words or things, tying knots, &c. for the purposes of Verse 2. The Lord is their inheritance] He is the por- | divination. This was a custom among the heathen, as we tion of their souls; and as to their bodies, they shall live learn from the following verses : by the offerings of the Lord made by fire, i. é. the meat

Necte tribus nodis Lernos, Amarylli, colores: offering, the sin-offering, and the tresspass-offering.

Necte, Amarylli, modo ; et Veneris, dic vincula necte.

Virg. Ed. vill. v. 77. And whatever was the Lord's right in these or other offer

Knil with three knots, the fillets, knit them straight; ings, he gave to the priests.

Then say, these knots to love I conscrate.

Dryden. Verse 3. Offer a sacrifice] narin inar Zobachey hazebach. A consulter with familiar spirits) 29 SNU Shoel ob, a The word na zabach, is used, not only to signify an ani- Pythoness, one who inquires by the means of one spirit, mal sacrificed to the Lord, but also one killed for common to get oracular answers from another of a superior order. use: see Gen. xlüi. 15. Prov. xvii. 1. Ezek. xxv. 6. And See on Lev. xix. 31. in this latter sense it probably should be understood here; A wizard] wyr Yideoni, a wise one, a knowing one. and consequently, that the command in this verse relates Wizard was formerly considered as the masculine of to what the people were to allow the priests and Levites, wilch, both practising divination by similar means.

See from the animals slain for common use. The parts to be the notes on Exod. xxii. 18. Lev. xix. 31. given to the priests were, 1. The shoulder, probably cut Or a necromancer] Don SN097 Doresh el ha-metim, off from the beast, with the skin on : 80 Maimonides. one who seeks from, or inquires of, the dead. Such as 2. The two cheeks, which may include the whole head. the witch at Endor, who professed to evoke the dead, in 3. The maw, the whole of those intestines which are com order to get them to disclose the secrets of the spiritual monly used for food.

world. Verse 4. The first-fruit also of thy corn, of thy wine, Verse 15. The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a and of thine oil, &c.] All these first-fruits and firstlings Prophet) Instead of diviners, observers of times, &c. were ihe Lord's portion, and these he gave to the priests

. God here promises to give them an infallible guide, who Verse 8. The sale of his patrimony. So we find that should tell them all things that make for their peace; so though the Levites might have no part of the land by lot, that his declarations should completely answer the end of yet they were permitted to make purchases of houses, all the knowledge that was pretended to be gained by the goods, and cattle-yea, of fields also. See the case of persons already specified. Åbiathar, 1 Kings ií. 26. and of Jeremiah, Jer. xxxii. 7, 8. Like unto me) Viz. a prophet, a legislator, a king, a

Verse 10. To pass through the fire] Probably in the mediator, and the head or chief of the people of God. way of consecration to Moloch, or some other deity. It is 'This was the very person of whom Moses was the type, not likely that their being burnt lo death is here intended. and who should accomplish all the great purposes of the See on Lev. xviii. 21.

Divine Being. Such a prophet as had never before ap

18 mI will raise them up a Prophet from among 2 : Thou shalt separate three cities for thee their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my in the midst of thy land, which the LORD thy words in his mouth; "and he shall speak unto God giveth thee to possess it. them all that I shall command him.

3 Thou shalt prepare thee a way, and divide 19 P And it shall come to pass, that whosoever the coast of thy land, which the LORD thy God will not hearken unto my words which he shall giveth thee to inherit, into three parts, that speak in my name, I will require it of him.

every slayer may flee thither. 20 | But the prophet, which shall presume 4 And this is the case of the slayer, which to speak a word in my name, which I have not shall" Aee thither, that he may live: Whoso commanded him to speak, or r that shall speak killeth his neighbour ignorantly, whom he hated in the name of other gods, even that prophet not ? in time past; shall die.

5 As when a man goeth into the wood with 21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetchwe know the word which the Lord hath not eth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, spoken?

and the head slippeth from the helve, and 22 When a prophet speaketh in the name of lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die; he the LORD, ! if the thing follow not, nor come to shall flee unto one of those cities, and live: pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not 6. Lest the avenger of blood pursue the spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it u pre- slayer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, sumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him. because the way is long, and slay him; whereas CHAPTER XIX.

he was not worthy of death, inasmuch as he

hated him not in time past. Three cities of refuse to be appointed in the midst of the promised land; the land being disiled into three parts. a city is to be plucer in each, to which a proper way

7 Wherefore I command thee, saying, Thou may be claimed - Three cities incre to be ahead, goude the front enlarge shalt separate three cities for thee.

8 And if the Lord thy God & enlarge thy from these cities, is not to shifted, 14. wit peu challebic mai suficient to convict u mu, 15. How a false witness shall coast, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, and inflictul or his neighbour, 16-27. Another comunanu to establish the lez rationis, give thee all the land which he promised to give

unto thy fathers; WHE

HEN the LORD thy God hath 9 If thou shalt keep all these commandments

cut off the nations, whose land to do them, which I command thee this day, to the Lord thy God giveth thee, and thou suc- love the LORD thy God, and to walk ever in his ceedest them, and dwellest in their cities, and ways; h then shalt thou add three cities more in their houses;

for thée, beside these three:

is to be preparel, 1-3

their consta, an the reasons why, 7-10. The intentional murderer shall have no

21. An. Exol. Iar 40.-Seixat.

m Ver. 15. John 1. 45. Acts 3. 22. & 7 37.-n Isai. 51. 16. John 17.8.-o John 4. 5. & 8. R. & 12. 49, 50.-- Acts 3 23.-4 Ch. 13. 5. Jer. 14. 14, 15. Zech. 13 3 r Ch. 13. 1, 2. Jer. 28-j Jer. 29.9.- See Ch. 13. 2-u Ver. 20.- Ch. 12. 29. w Heb. inheritest, or, possesseel.

x Exod. 21 13 Numb. 35. 10, 14. Josh. 20. 2-y Nunb. 36. 15. Ch. 4. 2.- Het from yesterday the third doy-a Heb. iron.--. Het wood.-c Her Aseeth.

Numb 35. 12-e Heb smite him in life-f Heb. from yesterday the shird day g Gen. 15. 18 Ch. 12. 20.- Josh. 20. 7,8

peared, and who should have no equal till the consumma the people, Luke xxiv. 19. A man approved of God tion of the world.

among them, by miracles, signs, and wonders, which This prophet is the Lord Jesus, who was in the bosom God did by him in the midst of them, Acts ii. 22. For of the Father, and who came to declarc him to mankind. he did among them, the works which no other man did, Every word spoken by him, is a living, infallible oracle John xv. 24. Unto himthat is, not unto the diviners, from God hinself, and must be received and obeyed as wizards, or any such like, but unto him, and him only such, on pain of the eternal displeasure of the Almighty, as, Him thou shalt serre, Deut. vi. 13. is expounded, Him See ver. 19. and Acts iii. 22, 23. and see the conclusion of only, Matt. iv. 10. And though this is principally meant this chapter.

of Christ in person, of whom God said, Hear him, Matt. Verse 22. If the thirg follow not] It is worthy of re xvii. 5. yet it implies also his ministers, as himself said, mark, that the prophets in general predicted those things He that heareth you, hearcth me, Luke x. 16. To these which were shortly to come to pass, that the people might may be added, 6. As Moses was king among his people, have the fullest proof of their divine mission; and of the in this respect Christ is like to him, but infinitely greater, existence of God's providence in the administration of the for he is King of kings, and Lord of lords, Rev, xix. 16. affairs of men.

1 Tim. v. 15. And 7. He was like to Moses as a legislaThe promise contained in the 15th and 18th verses of tor. Moses gave laws to Israel by the authonty and this chapter has long been considered of the first impor-commandment of God, which the Jews have ever actance in the controversies between the Christians and knowledged as coming from the immediate inspiration of Jews. Christ, says Mr. Ainsworth, was to be a man, the Almighty: these are contained in the Pentateuch. and of the stock of the Jews by promise, because the peo- Christ gave a new law, the Gospel contained in the four ple could not endure to hear ihe voice of God, ver. 16. evangelists and Acts of the Apostles, on which the Chris And as it was in respect of his prophecy, so of the priest-tian church is founded, and by which all genuine Chrishood; for every high priest is taken from among men, tians are governed, both in heart and life. To all which Heb. v. 1. and of his kingdom, as in Deut. xvii. 15. may be added, 8. That God never commissioned any huFrom among thy brethren shalt thou sel a king orer thee man beings to give laws to mankind, but Moses and like unto me.

Christ; and therefore, as a lawgiver, Christ alone resem"1. Christ alone was like unto Moses as a PROPHET, bles Moses; for, to the present hour, none but themselves for it is written, There arose not a prophet in Israel like have given laws in the name of God, which he has rati. unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the fied and confirmed by the most indubitable and infallible signs and wonders which the Lord sent him to do; Deut. signs, proofs, and miracles.". xxxiv. 10, 11, 12. This therefore cannot be understood Dr. Jortin, in his Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, of the ordinary prophets, which were raised up in Israel, has drawn a parellel between Moses and Christ, in a great but of Christ only, as the apostles expound 'it: Acts ii. number of particulars, which he concludes thus : "Let 22—26. 2. Christ was like unto Moses in respect to his us search all the records of universal history, and see if office of mediation between God and his people, Deut. y. we can find a man who was so like to Moses as Christ 5. 1 Tim. ij. 5. but greater than Moses, as being the medi- was, and so like to Christ as Moses was. If we cannot alor of a better covenant (or testament) which was es find such a one, then have we found HIM, of whom tablished upon better promises, Heb. viii. 6. 3. Christ Moses in the law, and the prophets did write, to be Jesus was like unto Mozes in excellency; for as Moses excelled of Nazareth, the Son of God.” On this subjectsee all the prophets, in speaking to God mouth to mouth, Ainsworth, Calmet and Dodd, who have all marked this Numb. xii. 6, 7, 8. so Christ excelled him and all men, striking correspondence between Moses and Christ. in that, being in the bosom of the Father, he hath come

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIX. down from heaven, and hath declared God unto us, John Verse 2. Thou shall separate three cities) See on i. 18. and vi. 13. 4. Christ was like to Moses in faithful-Numb. xxxv. 10, &c. ness, but therein also excelling: for Moses was faithful Verse 3. Thou shalt prepare thee a tray) The Jews in God's house as a serrant, but Christ as the son over inform us, that the roads to the cities of refuge were made his own house, Heb. jii. 2, 5, 6. 5. Christ was like to very broad, thirty-two cubits; and eren, so that there Moses in signs and wonders, wherein he also excelled should be no impediments in the way; and constantly Moses, as the history of the Gospel shows. For he was kept in good repair. a prophel mighty in deed and word before God and all Verse 9. Shalt thou add thrce cities more) This was

The officers shall

cated it, 5.

WI

10 That innocent blood be not shed in thy , fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for such evil among you. an inheritance, and so blood be upon thee.

21 And thine eye shall not pity; but w life 11 | But i if any man hate his neighbour, and shall go for lile, eye for eye, tooth' for tooth, lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and hand for hand, foot for foot. smite him mortally that he die, and fleeth into

CHAPTER XX. one of these cities: 12 Then the elders of his city shall send and

Directions concerning campaigna, I. The priest shall encourage the people, with the

assurance that GoT will accompany and fight for them, fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand dinnias from the army all who have just builled a new house, but have not deli

All who had plantert n vineyard, but had not ea'en of its fruits, 6. All of the avenger of blood, that he may die.

who hail betrothel a wife, bu had not brought her horde, 7. And all who were 13 1 Thine eye shall not pity him, m but thou

timid and faint-bearteri, s. The commanders to be chosen after the timmil, &e had

retired, 9. No city to be nunckel till they had proclaimed coordions of peace to shalt put away the guilt of innocent blood from it, provided it be a city beyond the bums of the reveu Canaaniush natione; if it

submitted, it was to become tributary; if not, it was to her besiegel, muckel, and all Israel, that it may go well with thee.

the inales put to the sword; the wonen, children, air carte, to be taken in booty,

10-15. No such offers to be made to the ciile of the Canaanites; of them nothing 14 | Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's

shll be provel, and the resun, 16-18 lu besieging a city, no trecs to be cut landmark, which they of old time have set in down but those which do not bear fruit, 19, 20. thine inheritance, which thou shalt inherit in THEN thou goest out to battle an. Exodi Jr. the land that the LORD thy God giveth thee to against thine enemies, and seest possess it.

horses, and chariots, and a people more than 15 T. One witness shall not rise up against a thou, be not afraid of them: for the LORD thy man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin God is y with thee, which brought thee up out that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, of the land of Egypt. or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the 2 And it shall be, when ye are come nigh unto matter be established.

the battle, that the priests shall approach and 16 1 If a false witness P rise up against any speak unto the people, man to testify against him that which is wrong: 3 And shall say unto them, Hear, O Israel,

17 Then both the men, between whom the ye approach this day unto battle against your controversy is, shall stand before the Lord, he- enemies : let not your hearts 2 faint, fear not, fore the priests and the judges, which shall be and do not « tremble, neither be ye terrified bein those days;

cause of them; 18 And the judges shall make diligent inqui 4 For the Lord your God is he that goeth sition: and, behold, if the witness be a false with you, b to fight for you against your enewitness, and hath testified falsely against his mies, to save. you. brother;

5 And the officers shall speak unto the peo19 : Then shall ye do unto him, as he had ple, saying, What man is there that hath built thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt a new house, and hath not o dedicated it ? let thou put the evil away from among you. him go and return to his house, lest he die in 20 i And those whích remain shall hear, and the battle, and another man dedicate it.

. Prov. 19. 5, 9. Dan. 6. 21. Hist. Sur. 62- Ch. 13. 5. & 17. 7. & 21. 21 & 22. 21, I Ch. 13. 8. 25. 12-m Nurab. 35. 33, 34. Ch. 21 9 1 Kings 2 31.- Ch. 27. 17.

5. 38. - See Psa. 20. 7. Isai. 31 1-y Nob. 23. 21 Ch. 31. 6. 8. 2 Chron. 13. 12 & 17. 2 Cor. 13. 1. 1 T'ün 5. 19. feb. 10. 2.-p Paa 27. 12 & 35 11.- Or, Salling

i Exod. 21. 12 &c. Nurnb. 35. 16, 24. Ch. 27. 21. Prov. 23. 17.-k Heb. in life

21 & 24. 7.- Ch. 17. 13. & 21. 21.-v Ver. 13.- Exol. 21. 2. Lev. 24. 20. Mall

Jeb 21 2 Prov. 222 Hos. 5. 10.- Nurnb. 35. 30. Ch. 17. 6. Matl. 18. 16. John 8.

32 7, 8.- Heb. be tendera Heb. make hg.le-b Ch 1. 30. & 3. 22. Josh. 23. 10. c See Neh 12 2. Pet. 30. title.

away.- Ch. 17. 9. & 21. 5.

Fust. 1 1. . 655.

afterward found necessary, and accordingly, six cities Verse 15. One witness shall not rise up, &c.] See were appointed, three on either side Jordan. See Josh. Numb. xxxv. 30. xx. 1, &c. In imitation of these cities of refuge, the Verse 19. Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought heathens had their asyla, and the Catholics their privi- to have done unto his brother) Nothing can be more leged altars. See Exod. xxi. 13, 14. and on Numb. equitable or proper than this, that if a man endeavour to xxxv. 6, &c.

do any injury to, or take away the life of another, on deVerse 11. If any man hate his neighbour] See on tection, he shall be caused to undergo the same evil which Exod. xxi. 13.

he intended for his innocent neighbour. Verse 14. Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's land Some of our excellent English laws have been made mark) Before the extensive use of fences, landed property on this very ground. In the 37th of Edw. III. ch. 18. it was marked out by stones or posts, set up so as to ascer is ordained, that all those who make suggestion, shall tain the divisions of family estates. It was easy to re incur the same pain which the other should have had, if move one of these landmarks, and set it in a different he were attainted, in case his suggestions be found evil. place; and thus the dishonest man enlarged his own A similar law was made on the 38th of the same reign, estate by contracting that of his neighbour. The termini, ch. 9. By a law of the 12 Tables, a false witness was or landmarks, among the Romans, were held very sacred, thrown down the Tarpeian rock. In short false witnesses and were at last deified.

have been execrated by all nations. To these termini, Numa Pompilius commanded offer Verse 21. Life-for life, eye for eye, &c.] The operaings of broth, cakes, and first-fruits, to be made. And tion of such a law as this must have been very salutary. Ovid informs us, that it was customary to sacrifice a lamb If a man prized his own members, he would naturally to them, and sprinkle them with its blood.

avoid injuring those of others. It is a pity that this law Spargitur el caso communis terminus agno.

were noi still in force: it would certainly prevent many

of those savage acts which now both disgrace and injure And from Tibullus it appears, that they sometimes society. adorned them with flowers and garlands.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XX.
Nan veneror, seu stipes habet desertus in agrie,

Verse 1. When thou goest out to battle) This refers
Seu vetus in trivio florida seria lapis. - Elec. Ii'e i. v. Il.

chiefly to the battles they were to have with the CanaanRavere each antime stone, beleckd with flowers, That bounds the field, or points the doubful way.--Grainger.

ites, in order to get possession of the promised land: for

it cannot be considered to apply to any wars which they It appears from Juvenal that annual oblations were

might have with the surrounding nations, for political made to them.

reasons; as the divine assistance could not be expected in Improbus, aut campum mihi si virinus ademit,

wars, which were not undertaken by the divine command. Aut sacrud effodit medio de limite marum,

Verse 2. The pricsls shall approach, and speak unto Quod non cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo-Sat. xvi. v. 30.

the people) The priest, on these occasions, was the repreIf any rogue vexatious suits advance Against me for my known inheritance,

sentative of that God whose servant he was, and whose Enter hy violence my fruitful grounds, Or take the sacred landmark from my bounds,

worship he conducted. It is remarkable that almost all Those bouwvl, which with possession and with prayer

ancient nations took their priests with them to battle, as And offered cakes, have been my annual care.-Dryden.

they did not expect success, without having the object of In the digests there is a vague law, de termino moto, their adoration with them; and they supposed they seDigestor, lib. xlvii. Tit. 21. on which Calmet remarks, cured his presence, by having that of his representative. that though the Romans had no determined punishment Verse 5.' That hath built a new house, and hath not for those who removed the ancient landmarks: yet, if dedicated it.) From the title of Psal. xxx.- A psalm or slaves were found to have done it with an evil design, song at the dedication of the house of Darid--it is evident they were put to death; that persons of quality were that it was a custom in Israel to dedicate a new house to sometimes exiled, when found guilty; and that others God, with praver, praise, and thanksgiving; and this was were sentenced to pecuniary fines, or corporal punishment. done in order to secure the divine presence and blessing; VOL. 1.-61

491

Convallem ruris aviti

6 And what man is he that hath planted a 14 But the women, and the little ones, and vineyard, and hath not yet I eaten of it? let him the cattle, and all that is in the city, eren all also go and return unto his house, lest he die in the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself; the battle, and another man eat of it.

and "thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, my e And what man is there that hath betroth- which the LORD thy God hath given thee. ed a wife, and hath not taken her ? let him go 15 Thus shalt thou do unto all the cities which and return unto his house, lest he die in the bal- are very far ofi' from thee, which are not of the tle, and another man take her.

cities of these nations. 8 And the officers shall speak further unto 16_1 But of the cities of these people, which the people, and they shall say, 'What man is the LORD thy God doth give thee for an inthere that is searsul and fainthearted ? let him heritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that go and return unto his house, lest his brethren's breatheth: heart 6 faint, as well as his heart.

17 But thon shalt utterly destroy them; name9 And it shall be, when the officers have made ly, the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanan end of speaking unto the people, that they shall ites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jemake captains of the armies h to lead the people. busites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded 10 | When thou comest nigh unto a city to

thee: fight against it, then proclaim peace unto it. 18 That p they teach you not to do after all

11 And it shall be, if it make thee answer of their abominations, which they have done unto peace, and open unto thee, then it shall be, that their gods; so should ye 4 sin against the LORD all the people that is found therein shall be your God. tributaries unto thee, and they shall serve thee. 19 | When thou shalt besiege a city a long

12 And if it will make no peace with thee, but time, in making war against it to take it, thou will make war against thee, then thou shalt be- shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an siege it:

axe against them: for thou mayest eat of them, 13 And when the Lord thy God hath delivered and thou shalt not cut them down (" for the tree it into thine hands, k thou shalt smite every male of the field is man's life) to employ them in the thereof with the edge of the sword:

siege: Helm made it common. See Lev. 19.23, 21. Ch. 2. - Ch21.5.-- Judz. 7: 3 m Heb spoil.-n Josh. 22.8.-- Numb. 21. 2. 3. 35. & 3. 52 Ch 7 1,2 Joh. IL. Het meu-h Heb. to be in the head of the people.--CIL 25. 6. I Sam. 1. 14.2 14.-.P Ch. 7. 4. & 12 39, 31 & 18.9.- Exod 23. 3.- Or, for, Oman, iree San. 20. 18, 20. 2 Kings 9. 17.-k Niunb. 31. 7.-Jesh. 8. 2.

of the field is to be employed in the dege.--. Heb to go from before hee.

for no pious or sensible man could imagine he could dwell greatly divided concerning the objects of this law. The safely in a house that was not under the immediate pro- text, taken in connexion with the context, see verses 15 tection of God. Hence it has been a custom in the most 18. appears to state, that this proclamation, or offer of barbarous nations to consecrate a part of a new house to peace to a city, is only to be understood of those cities the deity they worshipped.

which were situated beyond the limits of the seren anaThe houses of the inhabitants of Bonny, in Africa, are thematized nations, because these latter are commanded generally divided into three apartments : one is a kind of to be totally destroyed. Nothing can be clearer than this state room, or parlour; another servos for a common from the bare letter of the text, unless some of the words, room, or kitchen; and the third is dedicated to the Juju, taken separately, can be showed to have a different meanthe serpent god, which they worship: for even those sav- ing. For the common interpretation, the following reasons ages believe, that in every house their god should have his are given : temple! At the times of dedication among the Jews, be God, who knows all things, saw that they were incurasides prayer and praise, a feast was made, to which the ble in their idolatry; that the cup of their iniquity was relatives and neighbours were invited. Something of this full; and as their Creator, Sovereign, and Judge, he decustom is observed in some parts of our own country, in termined to destroy them from off the face of the earth, what is called warming the house: but, in these cases, "lest they should teach the Israelites to do after all their the feasting only is kept up-the prayer and praise for- abominations," ver. 18. After all, many plausible argugotten! so that the dedication appears to be rather more ments have been brought to prove that even these seven to Bacchus, than to Jehovah, the author of every good and Canaanitish nations might be received into mercy, properfect gift.

vided, lst. They renounced their idolatry; 21y, Became Verse 7. Betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her.] subject to the Jews; and 3dly, Paid annual tribute : and It was customary among the Jews to contract matrimony, that it was only in case that these terms were rejected, espouse or betroth, and for some considerable time to leave that they were to leave alive, in such a city, nothing that the parties in the houses of their respective parents : when breathed, ver. 16. the bridegroom had made proper preparations, then the Verse 17. But thou shalt utterly destroy them] Tlie bride was brought home to his house, and thus the mar above reasoning will gain considerable strength, provided riage was congunmated. The provisions in this verse we could translate Dinan Dino v ki hacharem lecharefer to a case of this kind : for it was deemed an exceg rimem, thou shalt utterly subdue them---slaying them, if sive hardship for a person to be obliged to go to battle, they resist, and thus leaving nothing alive that breathed; where there was a probability of his being slain, who had or totally expel them from the land, or reduce them to a left a new house unfinished : a newly purchased heritage state of slavery in it, that they mighi no longer exist as a half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just contracted people. This certainly made them an anathema as a namarriage. Homer represents the case of Protesilaus as tion, wholly destroying iheir political existence. Probe very afflicting, who was obliged to go to the Trojan war, bly this was so understood by the Gibeonites, viz. that they leaving his wife in the deepest distress, and his house un either must be slain, or utterly leave the land, which last finished.

was certainly in their power; and, therefore, by a straiagem, Του δε και αμφιδρυφης αλογος φυλακη ελελειπτο, ,

they got the princes of Israel to make a league with them. Και δομος ημιτελης' τον δ' εκτανε Δαρδανος ανηρ,

When the deceit was discovered, the Israelites, though not Νηος αποθρωσκοντα πολυ πρωτιστων Αχαιων. .

bound by their oath, because they were deceived by the Iliad. b. v. 700.

Gibeonites, and therefore were under no obligation to fulfil

their part of the covenant; yet, though they had this comTo rent in Phylice her bleeding chiks,

mand before their eyes, did not believe that they were And an wirininkl mencion: first lie die 1 Of all the ireoke; for as he leap' lo lani,

bound to put even those deceivers to death; but they deLoag ere the rest, a Darlan s.suck hina dead."- Corper.

stroyed their political existence, by making them herders Verse 8. Wrat min is there that is fearful and faint- of wood and drawers of water to the congregation ; i. e. hearted?] The original 77 rac, signifies tender, or soft- slaves to the Israelites, see Josh. ix. Rahab and her hearted. And a sofl heart the man must have, who in household also were spared; so that it does not appear that such a contest, after such a permission, could turn his back the Israelites believed that they were bound to put every upon

his enemies, and on his brethren. However, such Canaanite to death. Their political existence was under were the troops commanded by Gideon, in his war against the anathema, and this the Hebrews annihilated. the Midianites; for, after he gave this perinission, out of That many of the Canaanites continued in the land, 32,000 men, only 10,000 remained to fight. Judges vii. 3. even to the days of Solomon, we have the fullest proof: There could be no deception in a business of this kind; for we read, 2 Chron. viii. 7. “All the people of the land for the departure of the 22,000 was the fullest proof of that were left of the Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites their dastardliness which they could possibly give. and Jebusites, who were left in the land, whom the chile Verse 10. Proclaim peace unto it.] Interpreters are dren of Israel consumed nos

, them did Solomon make to

"A toife he left

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