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20 Only the trees which thou knowest that 5 And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come they be not trees for meat, thou shalt destroy near; for u them the LORD thy God hath chosen and cut them down; and thou shalt build bul- to minister into him, and to bless in the name warks against that city that maketh war with of the LORD; and by their wword shall every thee, until it be subdued.
controversy and every stroke be tried: CHAPTER XXI.
6 And all the elders of that city, that are next
unto the slain man, * shall wash their hands over
8 Be merciful, O Lord, unto thy people Israel, one that is hanged on a tree, is accursed of God, 2
whom thou hast redeemed, y and lay not innoAn Exod. Is
F one be found slain in the land which cent blood ? unto thy people of Israel's charge. sess it, lying in the field, and it be not known 9 So a shalt thou put away the guilt of innowho bath slain him:
cent blood from among you, when thou shalt do 2 Then thy elders and thy judges shall come that which is right in the sight of the LORD. forth, and they shall measure unto the cities 10 T When thou goest forth to war against which are round about him that is slain : thine enemies, and the LORD thy God hath de
3 And it shall be, that the city which is next livered them into thine hands, and thou hast
4 And the elders of that city shall bring down wouldst have her to thy wife;
Heb it come doon -- Ch. 16. & 1 Chron. 23. 13. Ecclus 15. 15.---> Ch. 17. 8, 9. w Heb. ingut See Pos. 19. 12 & 26. Matt 27. 21.
y Jonah 1. 14. Heb. in the midst. Ch. 19. 13. --- Or, suffer to grote.-- Heb. make, or, dress.
pay tribute to this day.” Thus Solomon destroyed their stream, probably passing through a piece of uncultivated political existence, but did not consider himself bound by ground, where the elders of the city were to strike off the the law of God to put them to death.
head of the heifer, and to wash their hands over her in 10Verse 19. (For the tree of the field is man's lise) to ken of their innocence. The spot of ground, on which the employ them in the siege. The original is exceedingly sacrifice was made, must be uncullirated, because it was obscure, and has been variously translated, 770777 13 considered to be a sacrifice to make atonement for the murw392 YODD 125 ki haadam êts hassadeh labo mipancyca der, and consequently would pollute the land. This reguba matsor. The following are the chief versions ;-For, | lation was calculated to keep murder in abhorrence, and to O man, the trees of the field are for thee to employ THEM make the magistrales alert in their office, that delinquents in the siege-or, For it is man, and the tree of the field might be discovered and punished, and thus public expense that must go before thee, for a bulwark,or, for it is a saved. tree, and not men, to increase the number of those who Verse 6. Shall wash their hands over the heifer] Washcome against thee to the seige-or, lastly, The tree of the ing the hands, in reference to such a subject as this, was field (is as) a man, to go before thy face for a bulwark. a rite anciently used, to signify that the persons thus washThe sense is sufficiently clear, though the strict gram ing were innocent of the crime in question. It was, probamatical meaning of the words cannot be easily ascertained. bly, from the Jews that Pilate" learnt this symbolical It was a merciful provision to spare all fruil-bearing, trees, method of expressing his innocence. because they yielded the fruit which supported man's life. Verse 11. And seesl--a beautiful woman) No forcible And it was sound policy also, for even the conquerors must possession was allowed even in this case ; when the woperish if the means of life were cut off. Ii is diabolic man was taken in war, and was, by the general consent cruelty to add to the miseries of war the horrors of fa- of ancient nations, adjudged as a part of the spoils. If mine; and this is done where the trees of the field are cut the person to whose lot or share such a woman fell, as is down, the dykes broken to drown the land, the villages here described, chose, he might have her for a wife, on burnt, and the crops wilfully spoiled. O, execrable war! certain conditions; but he was not permitted to use her Subversive of all the charities of life!
under any inferior character. There are several curious particulars in these verses: 1. Verse 12. She shall share her head] This was in token The people had the most positive assurances from God, of her renouncing her religion, and becoming a proselyte that their enemies should not be able to prevail against to that of the Jews. This is still a custom in the east : them by strength, numbers, nor stratagem, because God when a Christian turns Mohammedan huis head is shaven, should go with them, to lead and direct them, and should and he is carried through the city, crying, Axl gy fight for them; and against liis might none could prevail. XII Jawg svo s XVI la alahila allah ve Mohammed 2. All such interferences were standing proofs of ile being resool i Allah. “There is no god but God, and Mohamof God, of his especial providence, and of the truth of their med is the prophet of God.”' religion. 3. Though God promised them such protection, Pare her nails] Funds ON nowy, reâsetah et tsipareyet they were to expect it in the diligent use of their own niah :-She shall make her nails. Now, whether this prudence and industry. The priests, the officers, and the signifies paring or letting them grow, is greatly doubted people, had their respective parts to act in this business : among learned men. Possibly it means neither, but if they did their duty respectively, God would take care colouring the nails, staining them red with the hennah, that they should be successful. Those who will not help which is much practised in India to the present day; and themselves with the strength which God has already given which was undoubtedly practised among the ancient them, shall not have any further assistance from him. In Egyptians, as is evident from the nails of mummies which all such cases, the parable of the talents affords an accu are found thus stained. The hennah, according to Hasrate rule. 4. Their going to war against their enemies selquist, grows in India, and in Upper and Lower Egypt; must not deprive them of mercy and tenderness toward it flowers from May to August. The manner of using it their brethren. He who had built a house, and had not is this : the leaves are powdered, and made into a paste yet dwelt in it; who had planted a vineyard, and had not with water : they bind this paste on the nails of their fineaten of its fruits; who har betrothed a wife, and had not gers and toes, and let it stand on all night; in the morning yet taken her to his house, he was not obliged to go to bat- they are found to be of a beautiful reddish yellow, and this éle, lest he fell in the war, and the fruits of lus industry lasts three weeks or a month; after which, they renew and afiection should be enjoyed by others. He who was the application. They often stain the palms of their hands faint-hearted was also permitted io return, lest he should and the soles of their feet in the same way, as appears give way in the heat of battle, and his example have a fa- from many paintings of eastern ladies, done in India and tal influence on others.
Persia, which now lie before me. This siaining the soles NOTES ON CHAPTER XXI.
of the feet with the hennah is probably meant in 2 Sam. Verse 4. Shall bring dowon the heifer unto a rough xix. 24. Mephibosheth had not dressed, (literally, made) valley) 100% Srag nachal itan, might be translated a rapid' his feet—they had not been thus coloured.
be exken with ber nest pr eggs or young ones, 6, 7
13 And she shall put the raiment of her can 22 | And if a man have committed a sin tivity from off her, and shall remain in thine worthy of death, and he be put to death, and house, and 4 bewail her father and her mother a thou hang him on a tree: full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto 23 P His body shall not remain all night upon her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him
14 And it shall be, if thou have no delight in that day; (for 9 he that is hanged is ' accursed her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; of God';) that thy land be not defiled, which but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inherit. shalt not make merchandise of her, because thou hast e humbled her.
CHAPTER XXII. 15 | If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have borne him
Ordinances relative to strayed cattle and lost goods, 1-3 Humanity to pred
cattle, 1. Men and wongen skull Dot wear each other's apparel, 5. Non sball children, both the beloved and the hated; and if
the root of houses, & Improper mixtures to be avonlel, 9-11. Fringes albe the first-born son be her's that was hated :
garinents, 12 Case of the hated wile, aux token of virgimty, and proceeding
thereon, 13–21. The adulterer and adulterers to be put to death, 2 Care of 16 Then it shall be, when he maketh his the betrochent damsel corrupted in the city, 23, 24. Casis of rape, and the page sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may ment, 25-27. or fornication, 28, 29. No man shall take his father's wife,
t the , which is indeed
or his sheep hide born:
thyself from them: thou shalt in any case bring 17 But he shall acknowledge the son of the them again unto thy brother. hated for the first-born, by giving him a dou 2 And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, or ble portion of all i that he hath: for he is the if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it beginning of his strength; "the right of the unto thine own house, and it shall be with thee first-born is his.
until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt re18 | If a man have a stubborn and rebellious store it to him again. son, which will not obey the voice of his father, 3 In like manner shalt thou do with his ass; or the voice of his mother, and that, when they and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with have chastened him, will not hearken unto all lost things of thy brother's, which he hath them :
lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do like19 Then shall his father and his mother lay wise: thou mayest not hide thyself. hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders 4 Thou shalt not see thy brother's ass or his of his city, and unto the gate of his place; ox fall down by the way, and hide thyself from
20 And they shall say unto the elders ’or his them: thou shalt surely help him to list them up city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he again. will not obey our voice; he is a glutton and a 5 | The woman shall not wear that which drunkard.
pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put 21 And all the men of his city shall stone him on a woman's garment: for all that do so are with stones, that he die: m so shalt thou put evil abomination unto the LORD thy God. away from among you; "and all Israel shall 6 | If a bird's nest chance to be before thee hear, and fear.
in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whed See Pro. 45. 10. Gen. 31. 2 Ch. 22. 29. Judg. 19. 24.- Gen. 29. 33. -8 1 Chron. o Ch. 19. 6. & 22. 26. Acis 1 29. & 25.11.25. & 25 31.--p Jost. 8. 9 & 10 2.71. 5.2 & 26. 10. 2 Chron. 11. 19, 22.-- See 1 Chron. 5. 1.- Heb), that is found with Jolin 19.31.- Gal. 3. 13. --- Hebrew, the curse of God. See Namb $ 4. 2 845 him-kien. 49. 3- Gen. 5 31, 3 –n Ch. 13 5 8 19. 19, 20, 6 2 21, 24. 21.6.- Lev. 18. 6. Numb. 35. 34. Isaj. 24. 5 Jer. 16. 18. -- Exod. 2. 4. Lake 15 46
James 5. 19, 20.--u Lev. 20. 4. Pror. 24. 11, 12. & 2 27.- Exod 25. Verse 15. One beloved, and another hated] That is, are all these laws! How wondrously well calculated to one be loved less than the other. This is the true notion of repress crimes by showing the enormity of sin! It is the word hate in Scripture. So Jacob Hated Leah, that worthy of remark, that in the infliction of punishment preis, he loved her less than he did Rachel ; and Jacob'hate scribed by the Mosaic law, we ever find that Mercy walks I loved, but Esau have I HATED—that is, I have shown a hand in hand with Judgment. more particular affection to the posterity of Jacob than I have to the posterity of Esau. See the note on Gen.
NOTES ON CHAPTER XXII. xxix. 31. From this verse we see that polygamy did Verse i. Thou shalt not see thy brother's or or his exist under the Mosaic laws, and that it was put under sheep go astray) The same humane, merciful, and vise certain regulations; but it was not enjoined: Moses regulations which we met with before, Exod. xxm. 4, 5. merely suffered it
, because of the hardness of their well calculated to keep in remembrance the second grand hearts, as our Lord justly remarks. See Matt. xix. 8. branch of the law of God, Thou shalt lore thy neighbour
Verse 18–21. The stubborn, rebellious, glultonous, as thyself. A humane man cannot bear to see even an ass and drunken son is to be stoned to death.] This law, fall under his burthen, and not endeavour to relieve him; severe as it may seem, must have acted as a powerful pre- and a man who loves his neighbour as himself, cannot see ventative of crimes. If such a law were in force now, and his property in danger without endeavouring to preserve duly executed, how many deaths of disobedient and profli- it. These comparatively small matters were tests and gate children would there be in all corners of the land ! proofs of matters great in themselves, and in their conse
Verse 23. His body shall not remain all night upon quences.—See the note on Exod. xxii. 4. the tree) Its exposure, for the space of one day, was Verse 3. Thou mayest not hide thyself) Thou shalt judged sufficient. The law which required this, answered not keep out of the way of affording help, nor pretend all the ends of public justice, exposed the shame and in thou didst not see occasion to render thy neighbour any famy of the conduct, but did not put to torture the feelings service. The priest and the Levite, when they saw the of humanity, hy regniring a perpetual exhibition of a hu wounded man, passed by on the other side of the way, man being, a slow prey to the most loathsome process of Luke x. 31, 32. This was a notorious breach of the mer. putrefaction. Did ever the spiking of the heads of state ciful law mentioned above. criminals prevent high treason? or the gibbeting of a Verse 5. The woman shall not wear that which perthief or a murderer, prevent either murder or robbery? |taineth unto a man) 122953 keley geber, the instruments These questions may be safely answered in the negative; or arms of a man. As the word 22 geber, is here used, and the remains of the ancient barbarism which requires which properly signifies a strong man, or man of 20:37;it these disgusting and abominable exhibitions, and which is very probable that armour is here intended; especially are deplored by every feeling heart, should be banished as we know, that in the worship of Venus, to which that with all possible speed. In the case given in the text, of Astarte, or Ashtaroth, among the Canaanites, bore a God considers the land as defiled, while the body of the striking resemblance, the women were accustomed to apexecuted criminal lay exposed : hence it was enjoined- pear in armour before her. It certainly cannot mean a Thou shalt in any wise bury him that day.
simple change of dress, whereby the men might pass for For he that is hanged is accursed of God! That is, he women, and vice versa. This would have been impossible has forfeited his life to the law-for it is written, Cursed in those countries where the dress of the sexes had bat is every one who continueth not in all things that are little to distinguish it: and where every man rore a long written in the book of the law to do them; and on his beard. Itis, however, a very good general precept understood body, in the execution of the sentence of the law, the literally; and applies particularly to those countries where curse was considered as alighting; hence the necessity of the dress alone distinguishes between the male and the removing the accursed thing out of sight. How excellent | female. The close-shaved gentleman may at any time
Ch. 13. 11.
ther they be young ones, or eggs, and the dam | against her, saying, I found not thy daughter a sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, wthou maid; and yet these are the tokens of my daughshalt not take the dam with the young :
ter's virginity. And they shall spread the cloth 7 But thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, before the elders of the city. and take the young to thee; *that it may be 13 And the elders of that city shall take that well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong man and chastise him; thy days.
19 And they shall amerce him in an hundred § T When thou buildest a new house, then shekels of silver, and give them unto the father thou shalt make a battlement for thy roof, that of the damsel, because he hath brought up an thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall man fall from thence.
be his wife; he may not put her away all his days. 9 1 y 'Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with 20 But if this thing be true, and the tokens of divers seeds: lest the "fruit of thy seed which virginity be not found for the damsel : thou hast sown, and the fruit of thy vineyard, 21 Then they shall bring out the damsel to the be defiled.
door of her father's house, and the men of her 10 • Thou shalt not plough with an ox and an city shall stone her with stones that she die: ass together.
because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to 11 Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers play the whore in her father's house; 6 so shalt sorts, as of woollen and linen together.
thou put evil away from among you. 12 Thou shalt make thee e fringes upon the 22 Th If a man be found lying with a woman four d quarters of thy vesture, wherewith thou married to a husband, then they shall both of coverest thyself.
them die, both the man that lay with the woman, 13 | If any man take a wise, and ·go in unto and the woman: so shalt thou put away evil her, and hate her,
from Israel. 14. And give occasion of speech against her, 23 | If a damsel that is a virgin be i betrothed and bring up an evil name upon her, and say, unto a husband, and a man find her in the city, I took this wonian, and when I came to her i and lie with her; found her not a maid:
24 Then ye shall bring them both out unto the 15 Then shall the father of the damsel, and the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the stones that they die; the damsel, because she damsel's virginity unto the elders of the city in cried not, being in the city; and the man, because
he hath k humbled his neighbour's wife: Iso thou 16 And the damsel's father shall say unto the shalt put away evil from among you. elders, I gave my daughter unto this man to 25 | But if a man find a betrothed damsel in wife, and he hateth her;
the field, and the man m force her, and lie with 17 And, lo, he hath given occasion of speech her: then the man only that lay with her shall die:
v Lev. N2- Ch. 1. 40.-y Lev. 19 19.-, Heb. fulness of thy seed.-a See 2 Cor. 6. 14, 15, 16 -b Lev. 19. 19.-c Numb. 15. 3. Matl 23. 3. Heb wings. e Gen. 9. 21. Judg. 15. 1.
f Gen. 31. 7. Jodg. 20. 6. 10. 2 Sam 13. 12, 13.- Ch. 13. 5.-h Lev. 20. 10. John 8.5.-- Matt. 1. B 19.-k Ch. 21. 14.- Ver. 21, 2.-in Or, take a st-ong hold of her. 2 Sam. 13. 14.
appear like a woman in the female dress; and the woman however, that there was a physical reason for this : two appear as a man, in the male's attire. Were this to be beasts of a different species cannot associate comfortably wlerated in society, it would produce the greatest confu- together; and on this ground never pull pleasantly either sion. Clodius, who dressed himself like a woman, that in cart or plough : and every farmer knows that it is of he might mingle with the Roman ladies in the feast of considerable consequence to the comfort of the cattle, to the Bona Dea, was universally execrated.
put those together that have an affection for each other. Verse 7. Thou shall-let ine dam go, and take the This may be very frequently remarked in certain cattle, young to thee; that it may be well with thee] This passage which, on this account, are termed true yoke fellows. may be understood literally. If they destroyed both young After all, it is very probable that the general design was and old, must not the breed soon fail, and would it not, in to prevent improper alliances in civil and religious life. the end, be ill with them, and by thus cutting off the And to this St. Paul seems evidently to refer, 2 Cor. vi. means of their continual support, must not their days be 14. Be ye not unequally yoked with unbelievers—which shortened on the land? But we may look for a humane is simply to be understood as prohibiting all intercourse precept in this law. The young never knew the sweets between Christians and idolaters, in social, matrimonial, of liberty; the dam did: they might be taken and used and religious life. And to teach the Jews the propriety for any lawful purpose; but the dam must not be brought of this, a variety of precepts relative to improper and into a state of captivity. They who can act otherwise, heterogeneous mixtures were interspersed through their must either be very inconsiderate, or devoid of feelingi | law; so that in civil and domestic life, they might have and such persons can never be objects of God's peculiar them ever before their eyes. care and attention, and therefore need not expeci that it Verse 12. Fringes] See on Numb. xv. 38. shall be well with them, or that they shall prolong their Verse 15. Tokens of the damsel's virginity.) This was days on the earth. Every thing contrary to the spirit of a perfectly possible case in all places where girls were mercy and kindness, the ever-blessed God has in utter married at ten, twelve, and fourteen years of age; which abhorrence. And we should remember a fact: that he is frequent in the east. I have known instances of persons who can exercise cruelty towards a sparrow or a wren, having had two or three children at separate births hefore will, wlien circumstances are favourable, be cruel to his they were fourteen years of age. Such tokens, therefore, fellow-creatures. The poet Phocylides has a maxim in his as the text speaks of, must be infallibly exhibited by females admonitory poem, very similar to that in the Sacred 'Text. so very young, on the consummation of their marriage. Μηδε τις ορνιθας καλιης αμα παντας ελεσθω, ,
Verse 17. They shall spread the cloth, &c.) A usage of Μητερα δ' εκπρολιπης ν' εχης παλι
this kind, argues a roughness of manners, which would PHOCYL. toinjer. vovOct. ver. 80. ill comport with the refinement of European ideas on so
delicate a subject. Attempts have been made to show that The mother spare, she'll breed a future day. W. M. Johnson. the law here is to be understood metaphorically ; but they Verse 8. A battlement for thy roof] Houses in the east so perfectly fail to establish any thing like a probability, are, in general, built with flat roofs, and on them men that it would be wasting my own, and my reader's time, walk to enjoy the fresh air, converse together, sleep, &c. to detail them. A custom similar to that above, is observed It wag, therefore, necessary to have a sort of battlement or among the Mohammedans to the present day. ballustrade to prevent persons from falling off. If a man Verse 22. Shall both of them die] Thus we find, that neglected to make a sufficient defence against such acci- in the most ancient of all laws, adultery was punished dents, and the death of another was occasioned by it, the with death in both the parties. owner of the house must be considered in the light of a Verse 25. And the man force her] A rape also, by these murderer.
ancient institutions, was punished with death; because a Verse 9. Divers seeds) See the note on Leviticus xix. 19. woman's honour was considered equally as precious as
Verse 10. Thou shalt not plough with an or and an ass] her life, therefore the same punishment was inflicted on It is generally supposed, that mixtures of different sorts in the ravisher as upon the murderer. This offence is conseed, breed, &c. were employed for superstitious purposes; sidered in the same point of view in the British laws; and and therefore prohibited in this law. It is more likely by them also, it is punished with death.
Nor from a nest take all the binda away,
excludel, 4-6 Elamitea and Eruptians to be respected, 7. Their descendants
26 But unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; shall enter into the congregation of the LORD, there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death: for in their third generation. as when a man riseth against his neighbour, and 9 | When the host goeth forth against thine slayeth him, even so is this matter:
enemies, then keep thee from every wicked 27 For he found her in the field, and the be-thing. trothed damsel cried, and there was none to save 10oT 2 If there be among you any man that is her.
not clean, by reason of uncleanness that chan28 | " If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, ceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out which is betrothed, and lay hold on her, and of the camp, he shall not come within the camp: lie with her, and they be found:
11 But it shall be, when evening a cometh on, 29 Then the man that lay with her shall give he shall wash himself with water: and when unto the damsel's father fifty shekels of silver, the sun is down, he shall come into the camp and she shall be his wife: • because he hath again. humbled her, he may not put her away all his 12 T Thou shalt have a place also without the days.
camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad: 30 TP A man shall not take his father's wife, 13 And thou shalt have a paddle upon thy nor discover his father's skirt.
weapon; and it shall be, when thou wilt ease CHAPTER XXIII.
thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and Neither Eunuchs, Bastards, Ammonites, nar Monrilea, shall be incorporated with
shalt turn back and cover that which cometh the genuine Israelites, I --3. The reason why the Anmonites and onbitea were from thee: in the third generation may be incorporated with the laruelle, 8. Cautions against 14 For the LORD thy God walketh in the wickedness when they gu forth against their enemies, 9. To keep the camp free from every detilement, and the reason why, 10-14. The slave who had taken re
midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give fuge among them, is not to be delivered up to his former master, 15, 16. There up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall shall be no prostitutes nur Sodomites in the land, 17. The hire of a prostitute, or the price or in dog, is not to be brought into the home of Gol, la The Israelites thy camp be holy: that he see no e unclean shall thing in thee, and turn away from thee.
Pow's met be diligently paul, 21-2. In passing through a vineyarl or held a man may eut of the grapea or corn, but most carry away none with him, 21, 25. 15 T'Thou shalt not deliver unto his master
E that is 'wounded in the stones, the servant which is escaped from his master
or hath his privy member cut off, unto thee: shall not enter into the congregation of the
16 He shall dwell with thee, even among you, LORD.
in that place which he shall choose in one of thy 2 A bastard shall not enter into the congrega- gates, where it & liketh him best: 5 thou shalt tion of the LORD; even to his tenth generation, not opprees him. shall he not enter into the congregation of the 17 | There shall be no i whore k of the daughLORD.
ters of Israel, nor la Sodomite of the sons of 3 1 * An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter Israel. into the congregation of the LORD; even to their 18 | Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, tenth generation, shall they not enter into the or the price of a dog, into ihe house of the LORD congregation of the Lord for ever:
thy God for any vow: for even both these are 4 Because they met you not with bread and abomination unto the Lord thy God. with water in the way, when ye came forth out 19 1 m Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy of Egypt; and because they hired against thee brother: usury of money, usury of victuals, Balaam the son of Beor, of Pethor of Mesopo- ueury of any thing that is lent upon usury: tamia, to curee thee.
20'- Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon 5 Nevertheless the Lord thy God would not usury; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God upon usury: that the LORD thy God may bless turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, be thee, in all that thou settest thine hand to in the cause the LORD thy God loved thee.
land whither thou goest to possess it. 6 - Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their 21 | When thou shalt vow a vow unto the + prosperity, all thy days for ever.
LORD thy God, thou shalt not slack to pay it: Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; * sor for the LORD thy God will surely require it of he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyp thee: and it would be sin in thee. tian; because y thou wast a stranger in his land. 22 But it thou shalt forbear to yow, it shall
8 The children that are begotten of them, bé no sin in thee.
An. Exod. ler
n Exod. 22. 16, 17.-o Ver. 21.-p Lev. 198. & 20. 11. (h. 27. 20. 1 Cor. 5. 1.
See Hush 39. Ezek 16.8.- Lev. 21. 17-21 & 22 22 21.- Neh 131,2- See Ch. 2. 29-a Numb 22 5,6.- Ezra 9. 12 --w Heb.good-Geu. 521, 25, 26. Obaud. 10. 12.- Exo) 2. 21 & 23. 9. Lee, 19.34 Ch. 10. 19.-2 Lev. 15. 16.-a Heb. turnch towards.- Lev. 15. 5. Ruch 3. 3. 2 Sam. 11. 8.
c Heb, sittest down.-- Lev. B. 12- Heb neked nexs of any thing. - I Sas.
Verse 30. A man shall not take his futher's wife] This 4. and 5. to peculiar disgrace; and, on this account, were is to be understood as referring to the case of a step mother. not permitted to hold any office among the Israelites. A man, in his old age, may have married a young wife, But this did not disqualify them from being proselytes.and on his dying, his son, by a former wife, may desire to Ruth, who was a Moabitess, was married to Boaz, and espouse her: this the law prohibits. It was probably on she became one of the progenitors of our Lord. pretence of his having broken this law that Solomon put Eren to their tenth generation] That is, for crer, as his brother Adonijah to death, because he had desired to the next clause explains; see Neh. xiii. 1. have his father's concubine to wife, 1 Kings ii. 13—25. Verse 12, &c.] These directions may appear trilling to NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII.
some, but they were essentially necessary to this people in Verse 1. Shall not enter into the congregation, &c.] their present circumstances.' Decency and cleanliness If by entering into the congregation, be meant the bearing promote health, and prevent many diseases. a civil office among the people, such as magistrate, judge, Verse 15. Thou shalt not deliver the scrtant which is &c. then the reason of the law is very plain--no man escaped-unto thee) i. e. A servant who left an idolatrous with any such personal defect as might render him con master that he might join himself to God and to his people. temptible in the sight of others, should bear rule among In any other case, it would have been injustice to have the people, lest the contempt felt for his personal defecis harboured the runaway, might be transferred to his important office; and thus his Verse 17. There shall be no whore See on Gen. xxxviii. authority be disregarded. The general meaning of these 15, 21. words is simply, that the persons here designated should Verse 18. The hire of a rhore, or the price of a dog) not be so incorporated with the Jews as to partake of their Many public prostitutes dedicated to their gods a part of civil privileges.
their impure earnings; and some of these prostitutes vere Verse 2. A bastard shall not enter] vo mamzer, publicly kept in the temple of Venus Melytta, whose which is here rendered bastard, should be understood as gains were applied to the support of her abominable implying the offspring of an illegitimate or incestuous worship. mixture.
Verse 19. Usury] See on Lev. xxv. 36. Verse 3. An Ammonite or Moabite] These nations Verse 21. When thou shait rou, &c.] See on Nurk were subjected for their impiety and wickedness, see ver. xxx. 1, &c.
23 4 That which is gone out of thy lips thou 5. Ty When a man hath taken a new wife, he shalt keep and perform; even a free-will-offering, shall not go out to war, - neither shall he be according as thou hast vowed unto the LORD thy charged with any business : but he shall be free God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth. at home one year, and shall a cheer up his wife.
21 | When thou comest into thy neighbour's which he hath taken. vineyard; ' then thou mayest eat grapes thy fill, 6 | No man shall take the nether or the upper at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put mill-stone to pledge: for he taketh a man's life any in thy vessel.
to pledge. 25 When thou comest into the standing corn * 1 If a man be found stealing any of his of thy neighbour, then thou mayest pluck the brethren of the children of Israel, and maketh ears with thine hand; but thou shalt not move merchandise of him, or selleth him; then that a sickle unto thy neighbour's standing corn. thief shall die; · and thou shalt put evil away
from among you, CHAPTER XXIV. The case of a divorced wile, 1-4. No man shall be obliged to undertake any public thou observe diligently, and do according to all
8 T Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that service for the first year of his marriage, 5. The millionea shall not be taken as a pledge, 6. The man-slekler shl be put to death, ?, Conceruing cars of leprosy, that the priests the Levites shall teach you: as 59. of receiving plelkes, and returning those of the poor before bedtime, 10--13. or servants and their hire, 14, 15. Parunts and children shall not be put to death I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do. for each other, 16. Of humanity to the stranger, fatherless, widow, and bondinan, 17,18 Gleanings of the harvest, olive-yarł, to be left for the poor, stranger, widow,
9. Remember what the LORD thy God did
funto Miriam by the way, after that ye were married her, and it
10 | When thou dost & lend thy brother any to pass that she find no savour in his eyes, be-thing, thou shalt not go into his house to fetch cause he hath found some uncleanness in her: his pledge. then let him write her a bill of divorcement, 11 Thou shalt stand abroad, and the man to and give it in her hand, and send her out of his whom thou dost lend shall bring out the pledge house.
abroad unto thee. 2 And when she is departed out of his house, 12 And if the man be poor, thou shalt not she may go and be another man's wife. sleep with his pledge:
3 And if the latter husband hate her, and 13 In any case thou shalt deliver him the write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in pledge again when the sun goeth down, that he her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or may sleep in his own raiment, and i bless thee: if the latter husband die, which took her to be and it shall be righteousness unto thee before his wife;
the LORD thy God. 4 - Her former husband which sent her away, 14 | Thou shalt not loppress an hired sermay not take her again to be his wife, after that vant ihat is poor and needy, whether he be of she is defiled; for that is abomination before the thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy Lord: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, land within thy gates: which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an in 15 At his day m thou shalt give him his hire, heritance.
neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is
fatherless, &c. 19.-22. An. Exoil Isr. 40.
WHEN aa ma hath takenia wife come forhenthe Europe
Namh. 30. 2 Pel 66. 13, 14.-rl Cor. 10. 26. Heb 13. 5.- Matt. 12 1. Mark 2 Luke 6.1.- Matt 5. 31. & 19. 7. Mark 10. 4.- Heb matter of nakedness.
Heb cutting of - Lev. 21 7, 11. & 2. 13. Nunb. 30. 9.- Jer. 31-y Ch. 20. 7. -z Heb. not any thing shall pass upon him.-a Prov. 5. 18.- Exod. 21. 16.
c Ch. 19. 19. Lev. 13.2 & 14.2.-e See Luke 17. 32. I Cor. 10. 6.- Numb. 12 10.-g Heh. lend the loan of any thing to, &c.-h Exol. 22. 2.- Joh 29. 11, 13. & 31. al. 2 Cor. 9. 13. 2 Tim. 1. 18.- Ch 6. 25. Paa 106. 31. & 112. 9. Dan. 4. 27. 1 Mal. 3. 5.- Lev. 19. 13. Jer. 22. 13. Tob. 4. 14. James 5. 4.
Verse 24. Thou shall not put any in thy vessel] Thou thine hand for my name, from this day and for ever. And shalt carry none away with thee. The old English pro- thus thou art lawful for any man; and this is unto thee verb, Eai thy fill, but pocket none-seems to have been from me, a writing of divorcement, and hook (instrument) founded on this law.
of dismission, and an epistle of putting away, according to Verse 25. Thou mayest pluck the ears with thine hand] the law of Moses and Israel. It was on the permission granted by this law that the dis
A. son of B. witness. ciples plucked the ears of corn, as related, Matt. xii. 1.
C. son of D. witness." This was both a considerate and humane law, and is no Verse 4. She is defiled] Does not this refer to her havdishonour to the Jewish code.
ing been divorced, and married in consequence to another?
Though God, for the hardness of their hearts, suflered NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIV.
them to put away their wives, yet he considered all after Verse 1. Some uncleanness) . Any cause of dislike, for marriages in that case, to be pollution and defilement: and this great latitude of meaning, the fact itself authorizes us it is on this ground that our Lord argues in the places reto adopt; for it is certain that a Jew might put away his ferred to above, that whoever marries the woman that is wife for any cause that seemed good to himself--and so put away, is an adulterer-now this could not have been hard were their hearts, that Moses suffered this; and we ihe case, if God had allowed the divorce to be a legal and find they continued this practice even to the time of our proper separation of the man from his wife : but in the Lord, who strongly reprehended them on the account; sight of God, nothing can be a legal cause of separation, and showed that such license was wholly inconsistent but adultery on either side. In such a case, according to with the original design of marriage; see Matt. v. 31, &c. the law of God, a man may put away his wife, and a wife xix. 3, &c. and the notes there.
may put away her husband; see Matt. xix. 9 for it appears Verse 3. And write her a bill of divorcement) These that the wife had as much right to put away her husband, bills, though varying in expression, are the same in sub as the husband had to put away his wife, see Mark x. 12. stance among the Jews in all places. The following, col Verse 6. The nether or the upper mill-stone) Small lected from Maimonides and others, is a general form, and handmills which can be worked by a single person were contains all the particulars of such instruments. The formerly in use among the Jews, and are still used in many reader who is curious, may find a full account of divorces parts of the East. As therefore the day's meal was generin the Biblioth. Rabb. of Bartolocci, and the following ally ground for each day, they keeping no stock beforeform, in that work, vol. iv. p. 550.
hand; hence they were forbidden to take either of the “ In - day of the week-or day of the month stones to pledge, because in such a case, the family must be A. in _-year from the creation of the world; or, from the without brend. On this account, the text terms the millsupputation (of Alexander) after the account that we are stone the man's life. accustomed to count by, here, in the place B. I., C. the son Verses 8, 9. The plague of leprosy) See on Lev. xiii. of D. of the place B. (or if there be any other name which and xiv. I have, or my father hath had, or which my place, or my Verse 12. But if the man be poor, &c.) Did not this father's place hath had) have voluntarily, and with the law preclude pledging entirely, especially in case of the willingness of my soul, without constraint, disinissed, and abjectly poor? For who would take a pledge in the mornleft, and put away thee, even thee E. the daughter of É. of ing which he knew, if not redeemed, he must restore at the city G. (or it thou have any other name or surname, night? However he might resume his claim in the mornthou or thy father, or thy place, or thy father's place,) who ing, and have the pledge daily returned, and thus keep up hast been my wife heretofore; but now I dismiss thee, and his property in it, till the debt was discharged; see the note leave thee, and put thee away, that thou mayest be free, and on Éxod. xxij. 26. The Jews in several cases did act conbave power over thy own life, to go away to be married to trary to this rule, and we find them cuttingly reproved for any man whom thou wilt; and that no man be refused of l it by the prophet, Amos ii. 8.