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poor, and "setteth his heart upon it: •lest he 21. When thou gathereet the grapes of thy cry against thee unto the Lord, and it be sin vineyard, thou shalt not glean it wafterward: unto thee.

it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, 16 TP The fathers shall not be put to death and for the widow. for the children, neither shall the children be 22 And * thou shalt remember that thou wast put to death for the fathers: every man shall be a bondman in the land of Egypt: therefore I put to death for his own sin.

command thee to do this thing. 17 T 9 Thou shalt not pervert the judgment

CHAPTER XXV. of the stranger, nor of the fatherless; nor take Punishment by whipping, not to exceed forly stripes, 1.-3. The ox that treada sat

The onliusuce concerning marrying the sea the widow's raiment to pledge:

of that brother who has died childleas, 5-10. Of the woman who aci: Djecu 18 But thou shalt remember that thou wast

in accouring her husband, 11, 12' Of lale weights and meantes, 13-16.

Amalek is to be destroyei, 17---19. in , re

men, and they come unto judgment,

that the judges may judge them; then they 19 | When thou cuttest down thine harvest shall justify the righteous, and condemn the in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, wicked. thou shalt not go again to fetch it: it shall be 2 And it shall be, if the wicked man be a worfor the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the thy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause widow: that the LORD thy God may a bless thee him to lie down,'' and to be beaten before his in all the work of thine hands.

face, according to his fault, by a certain number. 20 When thou beatest thine olive tree, 'thou 3 Ċ Forty stripes he may give him, and not shalt not go over the boughs again: it shall be exceed : lest, if he should exceed, and beat for the stranger, for the fatherless and for the him above these, with many stripes, then thy widow.

brother should seem vile unto thee.

deemed thee thence: therefore

I command dhee I there be a controversy between a beste bo

n Heb. liftoth his soul unto it. Psa. 25. 1. & 86.4.- James 5. 4.-p 2 Kings 14. 6. 2 Chron 25. 1. Jer. 31. 29, 30. Ezek 18. 20.- Exol. 22. 21, 22 Prov. 22. 22. Isai. 1. 23. Jer. 5. 23. & 22. 3. Ezek 22 29. Zech. 7. 10. Mal. 3. 5.- Exol. 22 26.- Ver.

2. Ch. 16. 12- Lev. 19. 9, 10 & 2.2 Ch. 15. 10. Psa. 41. 1. Prov. 19. 17. - Heb thou shall not bough it after thet -- Heb, after thee.- Ver 18.-y Ch. 19.17 Esck H. 24.- See Prov. 17. 15.- Luke 12. 48.- Matt 10. 17.--2 Cor. IL 24. Job 18.3

The cor

cases

Verse 15. He is poor, and setteth his heart upon it) from above or not, that for any offence, sentences a man How exceedingly natural is this! The poor servant who to receive three hundred, yea, a thousand stripes ? What seldom sees money, yet finds from his master's affluence horrible brutality is this! and what a reproach to human that it procures all the conveniences and comforts of life, nature, and to the nation, in which such shocking barbarilongs for the time when he shall receive his wages-should ties are exercised and tolerated ! Most of the inhabitants his pay be delayed after the time is expired, he may natu of Great Britain have heard of Lord Macartney's Emrally be expected to cry unto God against him who with bassy to the Emperor of China ; and they have heard holds it; see most of the subjects of this chapter treated also of its complete failure ! But they have not heard of at large on Exod. xxii. 21–27.

the cause. It appears to have been partly occasioned by Verse 16. The fathers shall not be put to death for the the following circumstance. A soldier had been convicted children, &c.] This law is explained and illustrated'in suf of some petty traffic with one of the natives, and he was ficient detail, Ezek. xviii.

sentenced, by a court martial, to receive sixty lashes !Verse 18. Thou shalt remember that thou wast a bond- Hear my author : "The soldiers were drawn up in form, man) Most people who have affluence rose from compara in the outer court of the palace where we resided : and the tive penury; for those who are born to estates, frequently poor culprit being fastened to one of the pillars of the squander them away: such therefore should remember great portico, received his punishment without mitigation. what their feelings, their fears and anxieties were, when The abhorrence excited in the breasts of the Chinese, at they were poor and abject. A want of attention to this this cruel conduct, as it appeared to them, was demonstramost wholesome precept, is the reason why pride and arro- bly proved by their words and looks. They expressed gance are the general characteristics of those who have their astonishinent that a people professing the mildesi, the risen in the world from poverty to affluence; and it is the most benevolent religion on earth, as they wished to have conduct of those men which gave rise to the rugged pro- it believed, could be guilty of such flagrant inattention to verb, Set a beggar on horseback, and he'll ride to the its merciful diciates. One of the principal mandarins devil.”

who knew a litile English, expressed the general senti Verse 19. When thou cuttest down thine harvest] This ment, Englishmen too much cruel, too much bad." is an addition to the law, Lev. xix. 9. xxiii. 22.

"Accurate account of Loru Macartney's Embassy to Chiners of the field, the gleanings, and the forgotten sheaf, na, by an attendant on the Embassy.? 12mo. 1797. p. 58 were all the property of the poor. This the Hebrews ex The following is Mr. Ainsworth's note on this verse, tended to any part of the fruit or produce of a field which “This number forty, the Scripture uses sundry times in had been forgotten in the time of general ingathering, as of humiliation, aftliciion, and punishment. As appears from the concluding verses of this chapter. Moses twice humbled himself in fasting and prayer, forty NOTES ON CHAPTER XXV.

days and forty nights, Deut. ix. 9, 18. Elias fasted forty Verse 1. They shall justify the righteous) This is a days, 1 Kings xix. 8. And our Saviour, Matt. iv. 2. Forty very important passage, and is a key to several others. years Israel was afflicted in the wilderness for their sins, The word 273 Isudak, is used here precisely in the same Numb. xiv. 33, 34. And forty years Egypt was desolate sense in which St. Paul sometimes used the corresponding for treacherous dealing with Israel, Ezek. xxix. 11, 12, word dikatw, not to justify, or make just, but to acquit, 13. Forty days every woman was in purification from declare innocent, to remit punishment, or give reasons her uncleanness, for a man-child that she bare, and twice why such an one should not be punished--so here the forty days for a woman-child, Lev. xii. 4, 5. Forty days magistrates 17478.7 hitsadiku, shall acquit the righteous, and forty nights it rained at Noah's flood, Gen. ru. 12. declare him innocent; because he is found to be righteous, Forty days did Ezekiel bear the iniquity of the house of and not wicked; so the Septuagint kai dikarwooVolv Tov Judah, Ezek. iv. 6. Jonah preached-Ye forly days and dikatov, they shall make righteous the righteous ; de Nincveh shall be overthroun, Jonah iii. 4. Forty years' clare him free from blame-not liable to punishment, space the Canaanites had to repent after Israel came out acquitted; using the same word with St. Paul when he of Egypt, and wandered so many years in the wilderness, speaks of a sinner's justification, i. e. his acquittance from Num. xiv. 33. And thrice forty years the old world had blame and punishment, because of the death of Christ in Noah preaching unto them repentance, Gen. vi. 3. It was his stead.

forty days ere Christ ascended into heaven, after his reVerse 2. The judge shall cause him to lie down, and surrection, Acts i. 3, 9. And forty years' space he gave to be beulen before his fuce) This precept is literally fol- unto the Jews, from the time that they killed him, before lowed in China: the culprit receives, in the presence of he destroyed their city and temple, by the Romans. the magistrate, the punishment which the law directs to "By the Hebrews this law is expounded thus. Hoxe be inflicted. Thus, then, justice is done: for the magis many stripes do they beat (an offender) with? With forty, trate sees that the letter of the law is duly fulfilled, and lacking one ; as it is written, (Deut. xxv. 2, 3.) by numthat the officers do not transgress i', either by indulgence ber foriy, that is

, the number which is next to forty, Thalon the one hand, or severity on the other. The culprit mud, Bab. in Maccoth, chap. iii. This, their understand receives nothing more nor less than what justice requires. ing, is very ancient, for so they practised in the apostle':

Verse 3. Forly stripes ye may give him, and not ex- days: as Paul testified, of the Jews five times receired I CEED] According to God's institution, a criminal may forty (stripes) sare onc, 2 Cor. xi

. 24. But the reasca receive forty stripes : not one more! But is the institution which they give is not solid : as when they say, if it hed

41. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he other, and the wife of the one draweth near, for treadeth out the corn.

to deliver her husband out of the hand of him 5. If brethren dwell together, and one of them that smiteth him, and putteth torth her hand, die, and have no child, the wile of the dead shall and taketh hin by the secrets: not marry without, unto a stranger: her hus 12 Then thou shalt cut ofl' her hand, a thine band's brother shall go in unto her, and take her eye shall not pity her. to him to wife, and perform the duty of a hus 13 T - Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers band's brother unto her.

weights, a great and a small. 6 And it shall be, that the first-born which she 14 Thou shalt not have in thine house · divers beareth i shall succeed in the name of his brother measures, a great and a small. which is dead, that his name be not put out of 15 But thou shalt have a perfect and just Israel.

weight, a perfect and just measure shal: thou 7 And if the man like not to take his ! bro-have: that thy days may be lengthened in the ther's wife, then let his brother's wife go up to the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. tu gate unto the elders, and say, My husband's 16 For all that do such things, and all that brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother ado unrighteonsly, are an abomination unto the name in Israel, he will not perform the duty of Lord thy God. my husband's brother.

17 9 "Remember what Amalek did unto thee by $ Then the elders of his city shall call him, the way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt; and speak unto him: and if he stand to it, and 18 How he met thee by the way, and smote say. " I like not to take her;

the hindmost of thee, even all that were feeble 9 Then shall his brother's wise come unto him behind thee, when thou wast faint and weary; in the presence of the elders, and loose his and he feared not God. shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and 19 Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies that man that will not p build up his brother's round about, in the land which the Lord thy house.

God giveth thee for an inheritance, to possess it, 10 And his name shall be called in Israel, The that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of house of him that hath his shoe loosed.

Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not for11 | When men strive together one with an- get it. e Prov. 12. 10. 1 Cor. 9.9. I Tim. 5. 18-f Heb. Heresheth. Hos 10.11.-g Matt. & 3.9.-Gen 38. 9. -- Ruth 4. 10. - Or, nest kinsman's wife-m Ruth 4.1, 2 1. 1 Thess. 4. 6. -w Exod. 17.8.x Psa. 36. 1. Prov. 16. 6. Rom. 3. 18.-y 1 Sam. 18.

22 23 Mark 12 19. Luke 31.28.-h Or, nert kinsman. Gen. 388. Ruth 1 12, 13.

g Ch. 19. 13.-r Lev. 19, 37, 38. Prov. 11. 1. Ezek. 45. 10. Mic. 6. 11.- Heb. 4 stone and a stone - Heb. an ephah and an ophal. -- Exol. 20. 12. - Prov. 11.

o Ruth 1.6.- Ruth 4. 7.-P Ruth 4. 11.

3.- Exal 17. 11.

assure us.

been written; FORTY IN NUMBER, I would say it were vere at work, somne muzzled their mouths to hinder them full forty ; but being written in number forty, it means from eating the corn, which Moses here forbids; instructthe number which reckons forly, next after in that is ing the people by this symbolical precept to be kind to thirty-nine. By this exposition they confound the verses, their servants and labourers, but especially to those who and iake away the distinction. I think rather this custom ministered to them in holy things: So St. Paul applies il, was taken up, by reason of the manner of their beating, | 1 Cor. ix. 9. 1 Tim. v. 18. Le Clere considers the injuncforespoken ol, which was, with a scourge that had three tion as wholly symbolical; and perhaps, in this view, it cords, so that every stroke was counted for three stripes, was intended io confirm the laws enjoined in the fourteenth and then they could not give even forty, but either thirty- and fifteenth verses of the former chapter. See Dodd and nine or forty-two, which was above the number set of God. Shaw. And hereof they write thus. When they judge, (or con Veise 9. And loose his shoc] It is difficult to find the demn) a sinner to so many (stripes) as he can bear, they reason of these ceremonies of degradation. Perhaps the judgé nol but by strokes that are fit to be trebled ; (that shoe was the emblem of power ; and by stripping it off, is, to give three stripes to one stroke, by reason of the a deprivation of that power and authority was reprethree cords.) If they judge that he can bcar twenty, they sented. Spilling in the face was a mark of the utmost do not say he shall be beaten with one and trenty; to the ignominy; but the Jews, who are legitimate judges in this end that they may treble the stripes, but they give him case, say, that the spitting was not in his face, but before eighteen. Maimony in Sanhedrin, chap. xvii. sect. 2. his face, on the ground. And this is the way in which Thus he that was able to bear twenty stripes, had but the Asiatics express their detestation of a person to the preeighteen; the executioner smote him but six times; for if sent day; as Niebuhr, and other intelligent travellers he had smitten him the seventh, they were counted one

It has been remarked that the prefix > beth, is and twenty stripes, which was above the number ad seldom applied to yo peney; but when it is, it signifies as judged; so he that was adjudged to forty, was smitten well before, as in the face, see Josh. xxi. 44. xxiii. 9. thirteen times, which being counted one for three, make Esther ix. 2. and Ezk. xlii. 12. which texts are supposed thirty-nine. And so, R. Bechaios, writing hereof says, to be proofs in point. The act of spitting, whether in or

The strokes are trebled ; that is, every one is three; and before the face, marked the strong contempt the woman three times thirteen are nine and thirty.

fest for the man who had slighted her. And it appears, Thy brother be sile, or be contemptible.). By this that the man was ever after disgraced in Israel; for so God teaches us to hate and despise the sin, not the sinner, much is certainly implied in the saying, ver. 10. And his who is, by this chastisement, to be amended. As the name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that power which the Lord hath given is to edification, not to hath his shoe loosed. destruction, 2 Cor. xiij. 10."

Verse 13. Divers weights) 13N YSN eben ra-aben; a Verse 4. Thou shalt not muzzle the o.x, &c.] In Judea, stone and a stone; because the weights were anciently as well as in Egypt, Greece, and Italy, they made use of made of stone. In our own country, this was once a combeeves to tread out the corn; and Dr. Shaw tells us, that mon case; smooth, round, or oval stones, were generally the people of Barbary continue to tread out their corn after chosen by the simple country people for selling their wares, the custom of the east. Instead of beeves, they frequently especially such as were sold in pounds and half pounds. made use of mules and horses, by tying by the neck, three And hence the term a stone weight, which is still in use, or four in like manner together, and whipping them after- though lead or iron be the matter that is used in the counWard round about the nedders, as they call the treading terpoise, but the name itself shows us, that a stone of a floors, (the Libycæ arex Hor) where the sheaves lie open certain weight was the material formerly used as a weight. and expanded in the same manner as they are placed and See the notes on Levit. xix. 35, 36. prepared with us for threshing. This, indeed, is a much Verse 14. Divers measurcs] Literally, an ephah, and quicker way than ours, though less cleanly, for as it is an ephah: one heary, to buy thy neighbour's wares, performed in the open air, (Hos. xiii. 3.) upon any round, another light, to sell thy own by. So there were

knapes level plat of ground, daubed over with cow's dung, to pre in all ages, and among all nations. See the note on Exod. vent as much as possible, the earth, sand, or gravel from xvi. 16. and Lev. 19. 35. rising; a great quantity of them all, notwithstanding this Verse 18. Smote the hindmost of thee) See the notes precaution, must unavoidably be taken up with the grain, on Exod. xvii. 8. It is supposed, that this command had At the same time that the straw, which is their chief and its final accomplishment in the death of Haman and his only fodder, is hereby shattered to pieces: a circumstance ten sons, Esth. iii. vii. ix. as from this time the memory very pertinently alluded to, 2 Kings xiii. 7. where the and name of Amalek was blotted out from under heaven; king of Syria is said to have made the Israelites like the for, through every period of their history, it might be truly dust, by threshing Travels, p. 138. While the oxen I said, They feared not God. VOL.1.-62

489

First-fruits must be offered to , 1, 2. The form to be used on the oc

the form of confession to be on this 15The Israelites are to like Jehovah for their God, and to keep his tesumonies, 16, 17. And Jehovah is to take

An Exod. Isr.

40. Sebal.

CHAPTER XXVI.

11 And m thou shalt rejoice in every good

thing which the LORD thy God hath given unto 3. The more this year's titlesin tre given to the Te vites apud te peret, 12 am thee, and unto thine house, thou, and the Le

vite, and the stranger that is among you. thein for his people, and make them high above all the nations of the earth, 18, 19. 12 | When thou hast made an end of tithing

in unto the land which the LORD which is the year of tithing, and hast given it

be thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and pos- unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, sessest it, and dwellest therein;

and the widow, that they may eat within thy 2 That thou shalt take of the first of all the gates, and be filled; fruit of the earth, which thou shalt bring of thy 13 Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee, and God, I have brought away the hallowed things shalt put it in a basket, and shalt go unto the out of mine house, and also have given them place which the Lord thy God shall choose, to unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the place his name there.

fatherless, and to the widow, according to all 3. And thou shalt go unto the priest that shall thy commandments which thou hast commanded be in those days, and say unto him, I profess this me: I have not transgressed thy commandments, day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto P neither have I forgotten them: the country which the LORD sware unto our 14 - I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, fathers, for to give us.

neither have I taken away ought thereof for any 4 And the priest shall take the basket out of unclean use, nor given ought thereof for the thine hand, and set it down before the altar of dead: but I have hearkened to the voice of the the LORD thy God.

LORD my God, and have done according to all 5 And thou shalt speak, and say before the that thou hast commanded me. LORD thy God, A Syrian a ready to perish was 15. Look down from thy holy habitation, from my father, and he went down into Égypt, and heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land sojourned there with a ' sew, and became there which thou hast given us, as thou swarest unto a nation, great, mighty, and populous:

our fathers, a land that floweth with milk and 6. And the Egyptians evil entreated us, and honey. afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage: 16 | This day the LORD thy God hath com

7 And when we cried unto the LORD God of manded thee to do these statutes and judgments; our fathers, the LORD heard our voice, and look- thou shalt therefore keep and do them with all ed on our affliction, and our labour, and our op- thine heart, and with all thy soul. pression.

17 Thou hast i avouched the LORD this day to 8 And the Lord brought us forth out of be thy God, and to walk in his ways, and to keep Egypt, with a mighty hand, and with an out his statutes, and his commandments, and his stretched arm, and with great terribleness, judgments, and to hearken unto his voice: and with signs, and with wonders:

18 And " the Lord hath avouched thee this 9 And he hath brought us into this place, and day to be his peculiar people, as he hath promhath given us this land, even I a land that flow- ised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all his eth with milk and honey.

commandments; 10 And now, behold, I have brought the first 19 And to make thee high above all nations fruits of the land, which thou, O Lord, hast given which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and me. And thou shalt set it before the LORD thy in honour; and that thou mayest be * a holy God, and worship before the Lord thy God: people unto the LORD thy God, as he hath spoken.

m Ch. 127, 12, 18. & 16. IL-n lev. 27. 30 Numb. 18. 24- Ch 14 3,9

Psa. 119. 141, 153, 176 - Lev. 7. 20. & 21.1. 11. Hos 9.4.- lai 63. 15. Zeeb EN 10. 122, ERG. 18,1,2-4 6x2127984.54:- Exol. 12 34

, 57. x ,

8. & B. I. Ps. 148. 14.-w Exod. 19. 6. Ch. 7. 6. & 2. 9. 1 Pet 2 9. NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVI.

by which, as his health was much impaired, so his life Verse 2. Thou shalt lake of the first of all the fruit, &c.) might have often been in imminent danger. This was intended to keep them in continual remembrance Verse 8. With a mighty hand, &c.] See on Deut. iv. 34 of the kindness of God, in preserving them through so Verse 11. Thou shalt rejoice) God intends that his many difficulties, and literally fulfilling the promises he followers shall be happy; that they shall eat their bread had made to them. God being the author of all their with gladness and singleness of heart, praising him. Those blessings, the first-fruits of the land were consecrated to who eat their meat grudgingly, under the pretence of their him as the author of every good and perfect gift.

unworthiness, &c. profane God's bounties; and shall have Verse 5. A Syrian ready to perish was my father] no thanks for their voluntary humility. This passage has been variously understood, both by the Thou, and the Levite, and the stranger] They were ancient versions, and by modern commentators. The Vul to take care to share God's bounties among all those who gate renders it thus, Syrus persequebatur patrem meum, were dependent on them. The Levite has no inheritance, "A Syrian persecuted my father." The Septuagint thus, let him rejoice with thee. The stranger has no home, let Evplav aneßatdev o tarnp pov, “My father abandoned Sy- him feel thee to be his friend and his father. ria.” The Targum thus, NON DI NTS NYA ONOIN Verse 12. The third year, which is the year of tithing! laben aramaah bâa leobada yat aba, "Laban the Syrian This is supposed to mean the third year of the seventh or endeavoured to destroy my father." The Syriac, "My sabbath year, in which the tenths were to be given to the father was led out of Syria into Egypt.” The Arabic, poor. See the law, chap. xiv. 28. but from the letter in both

Surely, Laban, the Syrian, had almost destroyed my these places, it would appear, that the tithe was for the Lefather." The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel: “Our vites, and that this tithe was drawn only once in three years. father Jacob went at first into Syria of Mesopotamia, and Verse 14. I have not-given ought thereof for the dead) Laban sought to destroy him."

That is, I have not consecrated any of it to an idol, which Father Houbigant dissents from all, and renders the was generally a dead man, whom superstition and ignorance original thus, Fames urgebat patrem meum qui in has deified. From 1 Cor. x. 27, 23. we learn that it was cutÆgyptum descendit, "Famine oppressed my father, who tomary to offer that flesh to idols, which was afterwards sold went down into Egypt." This interpretation Houbigant publicly in the shambles ; probably the blood poured out begives the text, by taking the yod from the word fore the idol in imitation of the sacrifices offered to the true aramey, which signifies an Aramite or Syrian, and join- God. Perhaps the text here alludes to a similar custom. ing it to 22N" yeabud, the future for the perfect, which is Verse 17. Thou hast arouched the Lord] The people common enough in Hebrew: and which may signify con- avouch, publicly declare, that they have taken Jehovah to strained; and then seeking for the meaning of Omaram, be their God. in the Arabic po arama, which signifies famine, dearth, Verse 18. And the Lord hath arouched] Publicly de&c. he thus makes out his version; and this version he declared, by the blessings he pours down upon them, that he fends at large in his notes. It is pretty evident from the has taken them to be his peculiar people. Thus the covetext, that by a Syrian we are to understand Jacob, so nant is made and ratified between God and his followers. called, from his long residence in Syria with his father-in Verse 19. Make thee high above all nations] It is writlaw Laban. And his being ready to perish, may signify ten, Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach the hard usage and severe labour he had in Laban's service, 'to any people, Prov. xiv. 34. While İsrael regarded God's

490

a Exod. 23. 19. & 34. 26. Nunb. 18. 13. Ch. 16. 10. Prov. 3. 9.-b Ch12. 5.

& 13. 3, 14, 16. Ch. 5. 15.-k Ch. 4. 34.-1 Exol 3.8

AND Moses vith the elders of Israel the people of the horrorhyo bodo

k Exod. 20. 4, 23. & 34. 17. Lev. 19. 4. & 26. 1. Ch. 4. 16, 23. & 5. & Isai. 44. 9. Hos. 13 2.--I See Numb. 5. 22. Jer. 11. 5. 1 Cor. 14. 16.- Exod. 20. 12 & 21. 17. Lev. 19. 3. Ch. 21. 18.--O Ch. 19. 14. Prov. 22. 28.

CHAPTER XXVII.

eat there, and rejoice before the Lord thy God. Mones commanis the people to write the law upon Hones, when they shall come to the promised land, 1-3. And to wet op these stones on Mount Ebal, 4. And

S And thou shalt write upon the stones all the to build an altar of unhewn stones, and to offer on it burnt-offering and peace words of this law very plainly: offerings, 5-7. The words to be written plainly, and the people to be exhortei to obedience, 8–10. The six tribes which should stand on Mount Gerizim to 9 | And Moses, and the priests, the Levites, bleas the people, 11, 12, Thou who are lo stand upon Mount Esnl, to curse the transgresor, 13. The different tramgressors, against whom the curses are

spake unto all lerael, eaying, Take heed, and to be denounced, 1428.

hearken, O Israel; this day thou art become An Exod. lor. 40.-Sebal

, saying 10 Thou shalt therefore obey the voice of the Keep all the commandments which I command LORD thy God, and do his commandments and you this day.

his statutes, which I command thee this day. 2 And it shall be on the day when ye shall 11 | And Moses charged the people the same pass over Jordan, unto the land which the LORD day, saying, thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee 12 These shall stand upon mount Gerizim up great stones, and plaster them with plaster: to bless the people, when ye are come over Jor

3 And thou shalt write upon them all the dan; Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, words of this law, when thou art passed over, and Joseph, and Benjamin. that thou mayest go in unto the land which the 13 And these shall stand upon mount Ebal LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth to curse; Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Zebuwith milk and honey; as the LORD God of thy lun, Dan, and Naphtali. fathers hath promised thee.

14 T And i the Levites shall speak and say 4. Therefore it shall be when ye be gone over unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice, Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which 15 Cursed be the man that maketh any graI command you this day, in mount Ebal, and ven or molten image, an abomination unto the thou shalt plaster them with plaster.

LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, 5 And there shalt thou build an altar unto the and putteth it in a secret place. And all the LORD thy God, an altar of stones; d thou shalt people shall answer and say, Amen. not lift up any iron tool upon them.

16 m Cursed be he that setteth light by his 6 Thou shalt build the altar of the LORD thy father or his mother. And all the people shall God of whole stones: and thou shalt offer burnt- say, Amen. offerings thereon unto the LORD thy God:

17 Cursedbe he that removeth his neighbour's 7 And thou shalt offer peace-offerings, and shalt landmark. And all the people shall say, Amen. a Jasb. 4 1.- Josti. 8. 32.-c Ch. IL 29. Josh. 8. 30.- Exod. 20. 25. Josh. 8. 31. Ch. 25. 18.- Ch. ll. 29. Josh. 8. 33. Jadg. 9. 7.- Ch. 11. 29. Josh. 8. 33. · Heb for a curring.-Ch. 3. 10. Josh. 8. 33. Dan. 9. Il. word and kept his testimonies, they were the greatest and being dug out; but the Tamool is indented. A kind of most respectable of all nations: but when they forsook reddish paint has been smeared over the letters, to make God and his law, they became the most contemptible. O them more apparent. Two Arabic marbles in the UniverBritain! even more highly favoured than ancient Israel, sity of Oxford have the inscriptions in relievo, like those learn wisdom by what they have suffered. It is not thy on the slab of basaltes in my possession. In the opinion feets nor thine armies, howsoever excellent and well ap of some, even this case may cast light upon the subject in pointed, that can ultimately exall, and secure thy perma- question. nence among the nations. It is righteousness alone. Be Verse 3. All the words of this law) After all that has come irreligious, neglect God's ordinances, profane his been said by ingenious critics concerning the law ordered sabbach, despise his word, persecute his followers; and to be written on these stones, some supposing the whole thou art lost. But fear, love, and serve him; and thy Mosaic law to be intended; others only the decalogue; enemies shall be found liars, thou shalt defeat their pro- I am fully of opinion that the rain torah, law or ordijects, and trample on their high places.

nance in question, simply means the blessings and curses The form of confession when bringing the first-fruits, mentioned in this and in the following chapter ; and indeed related, ver. 410. is both affecting and edifying. Even these contained a very good epitome of the whole law, in when brought into a state of affluence and rest, they were all its promises and threatenings, in reference to the whole commanded to remember, and publicly acknowledge, of its grand moral design. See at the end of this chapter. their former degradation and wretchedness, that they might Verse 4. Set up these stones-in mount Ebal] So the be ever kept humble and dependent; and they must bring present Hebrew text; but the Samaritan has mount Getheir offering as a public acknowledgment to God, that it rizim. Dr. Kennicott has largely defended the reading of was by his mercy their state was changed, and by his the Samaritan, in his second dissertation on the present bounty their comforts were continued. If a man rise from state of the Hebrew text; and Dr. Parry has defended the poverty to affluence, and forget his former state, he be- Hebrew against the Samaritan, in his Case between Gecomes proud, insolent and oppressive. If a Christian con rizim and Ebal fairly stated. So has J. H. Verschuir, vert forget his former state, the rock whence he was hewn, in his Dissert. Critica. Many still think Dr. Kennicott's and the hole of the pit whence he was digged; he soon be arguments unanswerable; and have no doubt that the Jews comes careless, unthankful, and unholy. The case of the have here corrupted the text through their enmity to the ten lepers that were cleansed, of whom only one returned Samaritang. On all hands it is allowed that Gerizim to give God thanke, is an awful lesson. How many are abounds with springs, gardens, and orchards, and that it is continually living on the bounty of God, who feel no grati- covered with a beautiful verdure, while Ebal is as naked tude for his mercies! Reader, is this thy state? If so, then and as barren as a rock. On this very account, the former expect the just God to curse thy blessings.

was highly proper for the ceremony of blessing, and the NOTES ON CHAPTER XXVII.

latter for the ceremony of cursing. Verse 2. Thou shalt set thee up great slones) How Verse 12. These shall stand upon mount Gerizim lo many, is not specified; possibly twelve; and possibly only bless the people) Instead of upon mount, &c. we may a sufficient number to make a surface large enough to write translate by, as the particle sy'âl, is sometimes used: for the blessings and the curses on.

we do not find that the tribes did stand on either mount; Plaster them with plaster) Perhaps the original nu for in Josh. vii. 33. when this direction was reduced to TO ONN desadła otam beseed, should be translated thou practice, we find the people did not stand on the mountains, shalt cement them with cement, because this was intended but over against them on the plain. See the observations to be a durable monument. In similar cases, it was cus at the end of this chapter. tomary to set up a single stone, or a heap, rudely put to Verse 15. Cursed be the man, &c.) Other laws pregether, where no cement or mortar appears to have been viously made, had prohibited all these things, and penal used; and because this was common, it was necessary to sanctions were necessarily understood; but here God more give particular directions, when the usual method was not openly declares, that he who breaks them is curscd; falls to be followed. Some suppose, that the writing was to be under the wrath and indignation of his Maker and Judge. in reliero, and that the spaces between the letters were See the note on Exod. xx. 4. filled up by the mortar or cement. This is quite a possible Verse 16. Setteth light by his father or his mother.) case, as the eastern inscriptions are frequently done in this See the note on Exod. xx. 12. way. There now is before me a large slah of basaltes, Verse 17. Removeth his neighbour's landmark.) See two feet long, by sixteen inches wide; on which there is before on Deut. xix. 14. and on Exod. xx. 17. And for all an inscription in Persian, Arabic, and Tamool : in the two the rest of these curses, see the notes on Exod. xx. and the former, the letters are all raised, the surface of the stone observations at the end of it.

18 Cursed be he that maketh the blind to 26 - Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the wander out of the way. And all the people words of this law to do them. And all the peoshall say, Amen.

ple shall say, Amen. 19 P Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow.

CHAPTER XXVIII. And all the people shall say, Amen.

The blessings which Gol pronounced on the oberlient, 1-6. Particular privileges 20 - Cursed be he that lieth with his father's which the faithful sball receive, 7–13 The curta pronouncelaras die wady

an idolatrona, 11-19 A detailed account of the mines, which then be it wife; because he uncovereth his father's skirt. flicted on them, should they weglect the comman in 13 of the lar, 2

shall be snitten with the testilence, 21 with comption, fryt ! And all the people shall say, Amen.

air barrenners, 21, 21. thy shall be defeated by their ermia. 5. 23. urey shalte 21 * Cursed be he that lieth with any manner a Micrel with the botch of Egypt. 27. with madness anxi bloninck, 2, 2 dhe sa

he disappointed in all theis projects, 30. deprived of all their pusiana of beast. And all the people shall say, Amen. el in all twir neuters 31-35 they at ther king wall gay into captivity and

become a by-wont among the natots. 37 Thrulan suallartrunthul, and my 22 · Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, shall be the lowest of all people, 344 All these curses shall come on Uhrah! the daughter of his father, or the daughter of they be disobedient, 15-13. Charcter of the people by why they stoalitet

duel, 19, 50. Prentars of their dreadlnl sidrme, S1-57. A recepi zlato his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen. their wretchelners, 57-63. The prediction that they shall be seatterad song all 23 - Cursed be he that lieth with his mother

the nations of the earth, 61-63. in-law. And all the people shall say, Amen.

40-Spot 24 Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour shalt hearken diligently unto the secretly. And all the people shall say, Amen. voice of the LORD thy God, to observe and to do

25 w Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay all his commandments which I command thee an innocent person. And all the people shall this day, that the LORD thy God will get tbee Amen.

on high above all nations of the earth:

say,

olev. 19. 11.-p Exol. 22. 21, 22. (5. 10. R21. 17. Mal. 35.-r Lev. 188 & 20 IL Ch. 22. 30.- Lev. 18. & 20. 15.-Lev. 18. 9. & 2. 17.--u Lev. 1& 17. & 20. 11

Exol. 20. 13. & 21. 12,21. Lev. 21. 17. Niumb 35. 31. (h. 19.11.-Exud 27, Ch. 10. 17. & 16.19. Ezek 22. 12-x Ch 28. 15. Pa 119. 2 Ja 11.3 G13.10.a Exod. 16 26. Lev. 26. 3. Inni, 55. 2- Ch. 19

ARK.

SOUTH.
GERIZIM.

Curses.

Blessings

EBAL
NORTH

Verse 18. The blind to wander out of the way.) A sin

WEST, against the sixth commandment. See on Exod. xx. 13. Verse 26. That confirmelh not all the words of this law)

PRIESTS.

PRIESTS. The word 5 col, all, is not found in any prinied copy of

Levites.

ALTAR. Lerites. the Hebrev text, but the Samaritan preserves it, and so

подшS

uagnad JAT

pes do sir MSS. in the collections of Kennicott and De Rossi,

qepns

jaus V besides several copies of the Chaldee Targum. The Sep

JPGess1

uningaz tuagint also, and St. Paul in his quotation of this place,

udasor

( Gal. ii. 10. St. Jerom says that the Jews suppressed the urwesuag

teqden word, that it might not appear that they were bound to "นวมแบนls

"นวม42s fulfil all the precepts in the law of Moses.

'LSVIT 1. Dr. Kennicott, who contends that it was the Decalogue 3. It is worthy of remark, that Moses assigns to the that was written on the stones mentioned in this chapter, children of Rachel and Leah, the two mothers of the says, “If we examine these twelve curses, they will ap- family, the office of blessing the people, as being the pear to contain a strong enforcement of the ten commands; most honourable ; and these he places on mouni Ge. and it is highly probable, that the curses were here pro

rizim. claimed, principally to secure obedience to the command On the contrary, he assigns the office of cursing the ments, as will be made more clear by the following table. people to the sons of Zilpah and Bilhah, as being the least

The first second, third, and fourth Commandments. honourable office; but with these he joins Zebulun, the Verse 15. Cursed be the man that maketh any graven or youngest of Leah's sons, and Reuben, the eldest. As there molten image, an abomination to the Lord, &c.

must be six tribes on each mountain, it was necessary that The fifth Commandment.

while six of the sons of Rachel and Leah, the legitimate Verse 16. Cursed be he that setteth light by his father wives, should be employed in blessing, tuo tribes descendor his mother.

ed from the same mothers, should be joined to tbe other The sixth Commandment.

four, who proceeded from the handmaids, in order to make Verse 25. Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay an in- 'up the number si.r. The question is, which two of the nocent person.

more honourable tribes should be joined to the four least Verse 24. Cursed be he that smileth his neighbour secretly. honourable, in order to complete the number six ? Zebu

Verse 18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander lun is chosen, because being the sixth and youngest of all out of the way,

Leah's sons, he was the least honourable of those who proThe seventh Commandment.

ceeded from the free woman: and Reuben is chosen, who, Verse 20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife. though the eldest of Jacob's sons, and entitled to the birthVerse 21. Cursed be he that lieth with any bcast. right, had lost it by his transgression. And hence he, in Verge 22. Cursed be he that lieth with big sister. his posterity, was degraded, and obliged to pronounce the Verse 23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. curse: Cursed is he that lieth with his father's wife; see The eighth Commandment.

Gen. xlix. 3, 4. and xxxv. 22. and the notes on both places. Verse 17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's 4. It is strange how long the disgrace consequent on landmark.

some fagrant transaction of a parent may cleave to his The ninth Commandment.

posterity! See this exemplified in the posterity of Reuben. Verse 19. Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of Hence, with great propriety, we may pray, "Remember the stranger, fatherless, and widow.

not, Lord, our offences, nor the offences of our forefathers; The tenth Commandment.

neither take thou vengeance of our sins.” Litany. For Verse 26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words the offences of onr forefathers may be so remembered of this law to do them."

against their posterity, that God, in the course of his proriMany will think this arrangement fanciful; and the dence, may still keep up a controversy in secular matters analogy far from being natural.

with the descendants, (though even pious,) of unholy an. 2. In pronouncing these blessings and curses, the Talmud cestors; for as all men were seminally included in their says, six tribes went up toward the top of mount Gerizim, parents, they come into the world depraved with their des and six toward the top of mount Ebal; and the priests and pravity, and in some sort liable to their curses, though nos the Levites, and the ark, stood beneath in the midst. The so far as to affect their eternal interests, without the addipriests encompassed the ark, and the Levites stood roundtion of their own personal offences. Thus God may be about the priests; and all Israel on this side and on that; said to visit the sins of the fathers upon the children even see Josh. viii. 33. Then they turned their faces toward unto the third and fourth generation; as he may have a mount Gerizim, and pronounced the blessing; Blessed be controversy with the land for the evil which has been the man, &c. and those on each side answered, Amex. done in it, and for which no proper atonement has been Then they turned their faces toward mount Ebal, and pro- made. Why is it that at this moment Spain is suffering nounced the curse: Cursed be the man, &c. and those on the most afflictive and cruel desolations ? What has she each side answered, AMEN! till they had finished the bless done to merit all this? Is she more wicked than all the ings and the curses, and afterward they brought stones European nations because she suffers such things ?-Here and built an altar. Some suppose that the Levites were is the mystery: Nations, as such, can only be punished in divided into two grand bodies, part standing at, or on

this world. Look at the torrents of innocent blood shed by mount Gerizim, and part on mount Ebal, and that with each their ancestors in South America three hundred years ago; division were some of the priests. The whole Dr. Parry and see now and adore the awful hand of retributive jus supposed to have been arranged in the following manner. tice! December, 1811. We often see persons tried and

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