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TABLE VI.

Year of the Jewish lunar cycle, the golden number, the first day of the Jewish passover, Easter Sunday, and the

commencement of each Jewish year according to the Gregorian calender, from A. D. 1812, lo A. D. 1900.

Rabbinical year of the

world.

Year from Year of

the the Jewish Incarnation. lunarcycle

Golden
Number

First day of the Jewish Passover,

(15 Nisan.)

Commencement of the Easter Sunday, Jewish year, according

to the Greg. Calender.

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March 29
April 18

10
March 26
April 14

6 March 22 April 11

2 22

7 March 30 April 18

3 March 26 April 15

6 19 11

3 22

7
March 30
April 19

3
March 26
April 15
March 31
April 19

11
March 27
April 16

7 March 23 April 12

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5572 5573 5574 5575 5576 5577 5578 5579 5580 5581 5582 5583 5584 5585 5586 5587 5588 5589 5590 5591 5592 5593 5594 5595 5596 5597 5598 5599 5600 5601 5602 5603 5604 5605 5606 5607 5608 5609 5610 5611 5612 5613 5614 5615 5616 5617 5618 5619 5620 5621 5622 5623 5624 5625 5626 5627 5628 5629 5630 5631 5632 5633 5634 5635 5636 5637 5638 5639 5640 5641 5642 5643 5644 5645 5646 5647

B 1812

1813 1814

1815 B 1816

1817 1818

1819
B 1820

1821
1822

1823
B 1824

1825
1826

1827
B 1828

1829 1830

1831
B 1832

1833
1834

1835
B 1836

1837
1838

1839
B 1840

1841
1842

1843
B 1844

1845
1846

1847
B 1848

1849
1850

1851
B 1852

1853
1854

1855
B 1856

1857 1858

1850
B 1860

1861
1862

1863
B 1864

1865
1866

1867
B 1868

1869
1870

1871
B 1872

1873
1874

1875
B 1876

1877
1878

1879
B 1880

1881 1882

1883
B 1884

1885
1886

1887
B 1888

1889 1890

1691 B 1892

1893 1894

1895 B 1896

1897 1898 1899 1900 1901

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Saturday,

March 28
Thursday, April 15
Tuesday,

April 5
Tuesday,

April 25 Saturday,

April 13 Tuesday, April 1 Tuesday,

April 21
Saturday, April 10
Thursday, March 30
Tuesday,

April 17
Saturday, April 6
Thursday, March 27
Tuesday,

April 13
Sunday, April 3
Saturday, April 22
Thursday, April 12
Tuesday, April 1
Saturday,

April 18
Thursday, April 8
Tuesday,

March 29
Sunday,

April 15
Thursday, April 4
Thursday, April 24
Tuesday,

April 14
Saturday,

April 2
Thursday, April 20
Tuesday, April 10
Saturday, March 30
Saturday, April 18
Tuesday,

April 6
Saturday, March 26
Saturday, April 15
Thursday, April 4
Tuesday,

April 22
Saturday,

April 11
Thursday, April 1
Tuesday,

April 18
Saturday, April 7
Thursday, March 28
Thursday, April 17
Sunday, April 4
Saturday,

April 23
Thursday, April 13
Tuesday,

April 3
Sunday, April 20
Thursday, April 9
Tuesday,

March 30
Tuesday,

April 19
Saturday, April 7
Tuesday,

March 26
Tuesday,

April 15 Saturday, April 4 Thursday, April 21 Tuesday,

April 11 Saturday,

March 31
Saturday, April 20
Tuesday,

April 7
Saturday,

March 27
Saturday,

April 16
Thursday, April 6
Tuesday,

April 23
Saturday, April 12
Thursday, April 2
Tuesday,

April 20 Sunday, April 9 Thursday, March 29 Thursday, April 18 Tuesday,

April 8
Saturday,

March 27
Thursday, April 14
Tuesday,

April 4
Sunday,
Thursday, April 10
Tuesday,

March 31
Tuesday,

April 20
Saturday, April 9
Tuesday, March 27
Tuesday,

April 16 Saturday, April 5 Thursday, April 23 Tuesday,

April 12
Saturday, April 1
Saturday, April 21
Tuesday,

April 9
Sunday, March 29
Saturday,

April 17
Thursday, April 7
Sunday, March 26
Saturday, April 14
Thursday, April 4

Sept. 19, 1811

7, 1812 25, 1813

15, 1814 Oct. 5, 1815 Sept. 23, 1816

11, 1817 Oct.

1, 1818 Sept. 20, 1819

9, 1820 27, 1821 16, 1822

6, 1823 23, 1894

• 13, 1425 Oct. 2, 1826 Sept. 22, 1827

9, 1828 28, 1829 18, 1830

8, 1831 25, 1832

14, 1833 Oct. 4, 1834 Sept. 24, 1835

12, 1838 30, 1837 20, 1838

9, 1839 28, 1840 16, 1841

5, 1842 25, 1843

14, 1844 Oct. 2, 1845 Sept. 21, 1846

11, 1847 28, 1848 17, 1849

7, 1850 27, 1851

14, 1832
Oct. 3, 1853
Sept. 23, 1854

13, 1855
30, 1856
19, 1857

9, 1858
29, 1859
17, 1860

5, 1861 25, 1862 14, 1863

1, 1864
Sept. 21, 1865

10, 1866
30, 1867
17, 1868

6, 1869
26, 1870

16, 1871 Oct. 3, 1872 Sept. 29, 1873

12, 1874 13, 1875 19, 1876

8, 1877 28, 1878 18, 1879

6, 1880 24, 1881 14, 1892

2. 1883 Sept. 20, 1884

10, 1885 30, 1886 19, 1887

6, 1888 96, 1889

15, 1890 Oct. 3, 1891 Sept. 22, 1892

11, 1893 Oct.

1, 1894 Sept. 19, 1895

8, 1896 97, 1897 17, 1898

5, 1899 24, 1900

19
1
2
3

Oct.

8

23

8 March 31 April 20

11 March 27 April 16

8 March 23 April 12

4 24

8 March 31 April 20

5 March 27 April 16

1 21

12 March 28 April 17

9 March 31 April 13

5 March 28 April 16

1 21

13 March 28 April 17

9 March 25 April 13

5 25 10

1 21

6 March 29 April 17

2 March 25 April 14

5 18 10

10 11 12 13

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6

15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3

April 22

Oct.

5648

8

5649 5650 5651 5652 5653 5654 5655 5656 5657 5658 5659 8680 5661

11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8

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354

354 738 1003

1
2
ЗЕ
4
5
6 E
7
8E
9
10

355 351

555 851

-జన జనితంబీలుటియం

11 E

0 hours 0 min. 0 sec.
8

48 40
6

21 23
15
10

3
53 43
21

31 26
20

6
3

52 49
12

29
21
30

9
19

2 52 3

51 12

40
10

12
19
3

50
1

22
10

11
7
16

33

1092 1416 1830 2185 2569 2923 3277 3661 4016 4370 4754 5108 5-163 5817 6201 6385 6939

12
13
14 E
15
16
17 E
18
19 E
1

2569 2021 3278 3662 4016 4371 475+ 5109 5463 5847

354 355 383 355

351

BEFORE the reader enters upon the particular uses of each

0 days
of the preceding tables, it will be necessary to give a de-

354
tailed account of the rabbinical computation of time upon
which they have been constructed. The year used by the
Jews contains 12 or 13 lunations, which are so artificially

1447
disposed, that its commencement constantly happens about

1831 the time of the autumnal equinor. In order to etfect this,

2125 354 they have been obliged to have recourse to the sun's revolution through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, or, to speak more properly, to the quantum of time which the earth takes up in making one complete periodic revolution round the sun.— This period of time, according to the rabbins, (which is the same that is used in the construction of their calendar,) is 365 days, 5 hours, 997 chelakim (points) and

351 48 moments; which reduced to our time, is equal to 365

384 days, 5 hours, 55 minutes, and 25 seconds—1080 chelakim

6201 being contained in one hour, and 76 moments in a chilek.

6585 See Bibl. Rabb. Part II. p. 407.

6940 355 The quantity of the synodical revolution of the moon, according to the rabbins, is 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 chela From the last column of the preceding table, it is evident kim, which, also reduced to our time, is equal to 29 days, that the paschal full moons happen constantly after an in12 hours, 44 minutes, and 31 seconds; and twelve times terval of 354, 355, 393, or 384 days, omitting the fraction this quantity, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, and 40 se parts; but the length of the Jewish year may be either conds, is equal to the Jewish common year, which is nearly 353, 354, 355, 353, 334, or 355 days. The reason of this 11 days short of the solar revolution; consequently, to keep discordance between the length of the Jewish year, and the the seasons of the year in their respective months, the rabbing interval between two consecutive paschal full moons, arises employ an embolismic or leap year, of 13 lunar months, chiefly from the circumstance of never beginning the year every second or third year; by means of which, with other on the first, fourth, or sixth day of the week. Hence, if corrections, which will be hereafter noticed, their years are the new moon, which regulates the commencement of the found to correspond so exactly with the Gregorian calendar, year, should happen on the first day of the week, the year as not to deviate from it materially, through the course of does not begin till the following day: and if on the 4th or some centuries.

6th, the commencement of the year is dated from the 5th or In the lunar cycle of 19 years, which embraces the prin- sabbath. The reason why the Jews never begin their year cipal variations in the motion of the moon, they have 12 on the first day of the week, is, to prevent the occurcommon years of 12 lunar months, and 7 embolismic years rence of the celebration of the festival of Hosanna Rabba of 13 lunar months; and, in order that all their months may on the Sabbath-day: as some parts of this festival are begin as nearly as possible with the day of the conjunction deemed by them incompatible with the strict observance of of the sun and moon, they have, alternately, for the most the sabbath enjoined on them by the fourth commandment. part, 29 and 30 days. Thus Tisri, their first month, con The reason why the year is never begun on the 4th or 6th iains 30 days; Marchesvan, their second month, 29 or 30; days of the week, is to prevent the oceurrence of the great Cisleu, 29 or 30; Tebet, 29; Sebat, 30; Adar, 29; Nisan, day of atonement on the 6th or Lord's day : for, as the 30; Ijar, 29; Siran, 30; Tummuz, 29; Ab, 30; and Elul, Jews are bound to keep this fast on the 10th of Tisri, and 29. In the embolismic year, the thirteenth month, which also to observe it as strictly as they would the sabbath, in is named Veadar, always consists of 30 days.

this case, two sabbaths, as it were, would come together, The reason why an embolismic year, for the most part, and produce great inconvenience, as, in their estimation, it succeeds two common years, is evident from the circum- is not lawful to bury their dead, or boil their food, on either stances of the lunar year being nearly 11 days shorter than of these days. the solar; so that in three years the latter gains from the Hence arises the necessity of adding or subtracting, from former not fewer than about 32 days; and as only a month time to time, an entire day, to or froin the mean length of of 30 days is intercalated in that time, at the commencement the common or embolismic year; which correction is alof the lunar cycle, it is manifest that two intercalary years ways made in the month Niarchesran, or Cisleu, just in must sometimes happen with only one common year be the same manner as the intercalated day in the Gregorian tween. Accordingly, the 3d, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and calendar, is always attached to the end of February. 19th years of every lunar cycle, are denominated embolis From the different varieties in the length of the months mic. See Table 1. If the lunar synodic revolution con Marchesvan and Cisleu, connected with the day of the sisted precisely of 29 days 12 hours, the assigning to the week upon which the year begins, are produced fourteen Jewish months 29 and 30 days alternately, would be suffi- diflerent kinds of years among the Jews, seren of which cient to fix the commencement of the different months about are common years, and the other seren 'embolismic; for the day of the conjunction, ad infinitum; but as the syno sometimes these two months have each only 29 days; dic revolution, according to rabbi Adda, contains 44 min sometimes they have each 30 days; and at other times utes, 31 seconds more than 294 days, it is demonstrable that Marchesvan has 29, and Cisleu 30 days; and the new the assignment of 29 and 30 days alternately to the months year may commence with the sabbath, or the 2d, 3d, or 5th must be insufficient, and in the course of a few years must day of the week. produce a very sensible error.

T'he indexes by which these different years are distinThus, in order to make this circumstance obvious to the guished in the preceding tables, are, for the common years, lowest capacity, let the first paschal full moon in the lunar | 6 P 1,5 d 7,7 D 1,7 P3, 2 D 3, 2 P 5, and 3 d5; and for cycle, be supposed to commence precisely at mid-day, then the embolismic, 5 D 1, 3 d 7, 2 P 7,5 P 3, 7 D 3, 7 P 5, it is evident, from the quantity of a synodic revolution, as and 2 D 5. The first figure of the index denotes the day of ascertained by the rabbins, that the nineteen paschal full the week upon which the year commences; thus, 5 denotes moons, which are contained in every cycle, will in this the year to begin on the fifth day of the week, or Thursday; case happen as in the following table where the first col- 3 the third day of the week, or 'Tuesday, &c. &c. the letier umn points out the year of the cycle; the second, the precise of the index determines the length of the months Marpoint of time in the lunar cycle of the respective paschal chesran and Cisleu ; thus, P stands for perfect, i. e. these full moons; the third, the nearest corresponding day, omit two months are both perfect, each containing 30 days; D ting the fractional parts; and the fourth, the differences of stands for defective, i.e. each of these months contains the numbers in the third column, or, in other words, the only 29 days; and a small d denotes that one of these interval of time, expressed in whole numbers, which months is defective, which, in this case, is always Marelapses between each successive paschal full moon. chesran. The last figure of the index shows the day of

the week upon which the passover happens ; just in the When the word succoth is aftixed to any particular sab. same manner as the figure denotes the day of the week bath, if it be the 15th of Tisri, it is the day upon which upon which the year begins.

the feast of tabernacles commences; the portion of the law For a farther explanation of the index, let it be required for which occasion begins at the 34th verse of the xxiid to find upon what day of the week the rabbinical year of chapter of Leviticus. The Haphtorah is the xivth chapter the world 5817 begins; upon what day of the week the of the prophet Zechariah ; but on the sabbath which folpassover is held in that year; and also the length of the lows the 15th of Tisri, if it be within the octave of the inonths Marchesran and Cisleu. To solve this question, feast of tabernacles, the portion

of the prophets which is we have only to refer to Table I. where we find the index read is the xxxviiith chapter of Ezekiel, according to the of the year to be 2 D 5, i. e. the year commences on Tues- German Jeus; but the other Jews read from Ezek. day, the

passover is held upon Thursday, and the months xxxviii. 18. to xxxix. 16. Marchestan and Cisleu are both defective, i. e. have only The capital letters B. L. which are affixed to the fifty29 days each.

fourth section of the law, in the third column of Table v. Having premised thus much respecting the mode of con stand for book of the Law. This section is read on the structing the Jewish calendar, we now come to explain | 23d of Tisri, which is contrived so as never to happen on the chief object of the preceding tables, which is to deter- the sabbath, as the day upon which it is read is a time of mine the order of reading the Pareshioth and Haphta- great festivity among the Jews, for their having completed roth, or seclions of the Law and the Prophets for any the reading of the fifty-four Pareshioth, which comprise given year. For this purpose Tables I. II. and V. are the whole book of the Law. The asterisk affixed to the chiefly constructed. In Table I. the index for every Jew- | 23d day of 'Tisri, in Table V. and its corresponding time in ish year of the world from 5569 to 5314 (both inclusive) is the Gregorian computation, is designed to show that this given; and as these years correspond to all the years of day happens on a week day, and not on the sabbath, as all our Lord from 1807 to 2054, (both inclusive,) it will be 242 the other days in the same columns do. years before this table, in its present form, will be entirely When I Pas. or 2 Pas. is affixed to any particular sabantiquated : and it may be rendered perpetual, by affixing bath, it is the first or second sabbath of the passover, upon the same routine of indexes to the 247 years, begining with which, if the 15th of Nisan be the sabbath day, the portion A. D. 2055, and ending with A. D. 2301; and to the 247 of the prophets read on the occasion is the vih chapter of years subsequent to A. D. 2301, &c. &c. ad infinitum. Joshua, all but the first verse. If there be only one sahTable II. contains a calendar of sabbaths, for the 14 differ- bath in the feast of the passover, the Haphtorah is the 14 ent kinds of years made use of by the Jews; together with first verses of the xxxviith chapter of Ezekiel; to włuch the Pareshah or Pareshioth read on the different sabbaths some add the three following. If there be tuo sabbaths in of each. In the first column of the months, the black cir- the feast of the passover, the latter is termed the octare, cle, or astronomical signs of the conjunction of the sun upon which they read the whole of the Canticles, and also and moon, points out the figure annexed to it to be the day the prophet Isaiah, from the 32d verse of the xth chapter of the week upon which ihe month begins; and when two to the end of the twelfth. numbers are affixed, it is to show that the conjunction of When Pent. is affixed to any particular sablath, it is the luminaries corresponds to both days; the latier of which the second day of the feast of pentecost, upon which ceis always taken for the commencement of the month. casion the irid, ivth, vth, and vith chapters of the prophet the other numbers in this column are the days of the month Habakkuk, together with the book of Ruth, are read. upon which the sabbaths happen, except sometimes in the Besides the 54 sections of the law which are regularly month of Tisri, where two numbers occur together, the read through in the course of a Jewish year, whether it be first of which is the day of the week, and the latter the common or embolismic, there are four minor PABESHIOTH corresponding day of the month. In order, therefore, to which are generally read in the month Adar of a common, find what Pareshah or Pareshioth are read on any given and in Veadar of an embolismic year. These are dispo Sabbath, nothing more is necessary than to look into Ta- Shekalim, 7131 Zachor, 1770 Para, and winn Hachodes; ble I. for the index of the given year, and with it to enter and are marked down in Tables II. and y. by their initial Table II. where, against the given sabbath, in the column letters S, Z, P, and H. The minor Pareshah, SHEKALIX, of Parcshioth, will be found the given Pareshah or Pa commences with the 11th verse of the xxxth chapter of rcshioth required.

Exodus, and ends at the 16th verse of the same; ZACHOR Examp. 1. Required the Pareshah or Pareshioth ap- begins with the 17th verse of the xxvth chapter of Deuter. pointed to be read in the synagogue on the second sabbath onomy, and contains the divine malediction upon the Amaof the month Sivan, A. M. 5572.-In Table I. the index lekites; Para begins with the xixth chapter of Numbers, for the year is 5 d7; from which it appears, by Table II. and ends with the chapter; and HACHODESH begins with that it is the second Jewish common year; and the second the 10th verse of the xiith chapter of Erodus, and ends at sabbath of Sivan, in this year, is upon the 12th day of the the 20th verse of the same chapter. month, over against which, in the column of Pareshioth, When the Jewish year commences on the sabbath, is 35, the number of the Pareshah required. By a refer- (wliich circumstance is noticed in the third column of Taence to the list of Pareshioth given at the end of the Com- ble V. whenever it occurs,) Lev. xxiii. 24. and Numb. mentary, on the last chapter of Deuteronomy, we find that xxix. 1—7. are read. this section of the Law commences with Numb. iv. 21. and When the 25th of Cisleu falls on the sabbath, the conends at vii. 89. of the same book. The Haphlorah read traction En. for encænia, dedication, is affixed to the numon this sabbath, appears by the same list, to be the xiiith ber of the Pareshah in Tables II. and V. to show that it chapter of Judges, from the 2d to the 25th verse; in Table is the day to be held in commemoration of the altar's being V. the 12th of Sivan, A. M. 5572 is the same with the 23d dedicated afresh to the service of God, after its purification of May, 1912.

from its pollutions by Antiochus. Examp: 2. Required the Pareshah or Pareshioth, ap Tables III. and IV. are constructed to determine the day pointed to be read on the fourth of Tammuz, A. M. 5584. of the week upon which the principal Jewish fasts and In Table I. the index for the year is 7 D 3; which index feasts are held for any given year. One example will be corresponds to the fifth embolismic year in Table II. con sufficient to illustrate these tables. Eramp. Required the sequently the fourth sabbath of Tammuz falls on the 28th day of the week upon which the principal Jewish fasts and of the month ; and the Pareshioth for the given day are the feasts happened in the Jewish year of the world 5573.-By 422 and 434. The former commences at the second verse a reference to TABLE I. this year corresponds to A. D. of the xxxth chapter of Numbers, and the latter is continu- 1913; and in TABLE III. in the same square with 1813, is ed from it to the end of the book. By a reference to Table the capital letter C, which shows that the numbers in V. the 28th of Tammuz, A. M. 5584, answers to the 24th column C, of Table' iv. over against the different fasts of July, 1824.

and festivals, are the days of the week required. Thus, N. B. The figure and capital letter found in the first the commencement of Tisri is on the second and third days column of Table V. at the beginning of each Jewish year, of the week; the fast of Gedaliah on the 14th ; the fast of show to which of the fourteen kinds of years, according to ATONEMENT on the 14th; the feast of tabernacles on the their disposition in Table II. the said year belongs; thus 2d; Hosannah Rabba on the Ist; the Lætitia Legis, or 1 C stands for the first common year; 5 E, the fifth embo-joy for the Law, on the 3d; the commencement of Marlismic year, &c. &c. &c.

chessan on the 3d and 4th; the commencement of Cislau When, in the column of Pareshioth, or Haphtaroth, in on the 5th; the Encania on the 1st; the commencement Tables II. and V. the word chippur is affixed to any par- of Tebet on the 5th; the fast of the 10th of Tebet on the licular sabbath, it points it out to be the great day of ATONE- Ist; the commencement of Sebat on the sabbath ; the comMENT, for which a particular service is appointed. The mencement of Adar on the 1st and 2d; the commencement portion of the Law read on that day begins with the 27th of Veadar on the 3d and 4th; the fast of Esther on the verse of the xxiiid chapter of Leviticus, and ends with the 2d; the feast of Purim on the 3d ; the commencement of chapter. The Haphtorah for this day is the book of the Nisan on the 5th; the feast of the passover on the 5th; prophet Jonah.

the commencement of Ijar on the 6th and 7th; the 33

Omir on the 3d; the commencement of Siran on the first; , concise in the execution. Those who best understand the the feast of pentecost on the 6th; the commencement of work will perceive, that it required no common industry, Tammuz on the 2d and 30 : the fast of the 17th of Tam

to say nothing of other requisiie qualifications, to construct muz on the 5th; the commencement of Ab on the 4th; the such tables, even with the extensive work of Bartolocci's fast of the 9th of Ab on the 5th ; and the commencement of Bibliotheca Rabbinica before him, to which the present Elul on the 5th and 6th days of the week.

collection of tables acknowledges high obligations. The Table VI. needs little explanation; the titles of its differ- writer could not consider his comment on the Pentateuch ent columns being sufficient for this purpose. The first as even tolerably complete, without such an apparatus as column shows the year of the world according to the Jew- is here produced, which it is hoped every minister of the ish reckoning: the second column the year of our Lord, the word of God will find of the utmost use to him, in various letter B, in the same column, shows each bissextile or leap matters connected with the Jewish affairs : but on this subyear. The 3d and 4th columns contain the lunar cycleject nothing need be added, as the tables and their uses and golden numbers. The fifth column shows the month, have been already so largely explained. In his prospectus, and day of the month, on which the Jewish passover falls, the author promised "every requisite table;" and had he from the present year, 1812, to the year 1900. The sixth not added these, he must have considered the pledge given column marks the day on which Easter falls during the to the public not redeemed. same period. The seventh column shows the year of our On the subject of the accompanying map, a good deal Lord corresponding with the beginning of the Jewish year has already been said :—it is scarcely necessary to add, in the first column; and also on what day of what month that great care and pains have been taken to make it even the Jewish year, according to the Gregorian calendar, generally correct. It will be found, in some particulars, commences. By the slightest inspection of these tables, to differ from that of Dr. Shaw, placed at the end of Eroany person may at once see the day on which the Jewish dus ; and, perhaps, in the situation of some places, from passover, and the Christian Easter, falls for any year of the comment itself. Th was unavoidable; the comment the above period from 1912 to 1900.

was formed from the sacred text, the map was constructed

from other authorities : to have forced them to an agreeOn the subject of the preceding tables there will be ment in every particular, would have been to do violence doubtless, various opinions among the readers of this work. to the respective authorities on which they are founded; Some may even think them useless, while others will and the words of God must not yield to the sayings of judge them of considerable importance. The writer has men. We have not an accurate geographical knowledge only to say, that no other part of the work has occasioned of the promised land : and, therefore, are not certain of the so much labour and so much erpense. Nothing of this real names, and true situation, of various places mentionnature, on the same plan, has ever before met the eye of ed in the Pentateuch : add to this, that many of the places the English reader ; nor does any other language afford are long since extinct; and others have changed their a similar subject, at once so extensive in the plan and so names, so as to be no longer discernible, &c.

541

PREFACE

TO THE

BOOK OF JOSHUA.

JOS
TOSHUA, the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, was first called Oshcâ, or Hosheâ yun. Numb. xiii. 16. which

signifies sared, a Saviour, or Salvation ; but afterward Moses, guided no doubt by a prophetic spirit, changed his name into your Yehoshuâ, or Joshuân, which signifies, he shall suve, or the Salvation of Jehorah : 'referring, no doubt, to his being God's instrument in saving the people from the hands of their enemies, and leading them from victory to victory over the different Canaanitish nations, till he put them in possession of the promised land. On the change and meaning of the name, see the note on Numb. xiii. 16. By the Septuagint he is called Incovs Naun, Jezus Naué, or Jesus son of Narè; and in the New Testament, he is expressly called Incovs, Jesus. See Acis vii. 45. Heb. iv. 8. Joshua was denominated the servant of Moses, as he seems to have acted sometimes as his secretary, sometimes as his aid-du-camp, and sometimes as the general of the army. He was early appointed to be the successor of Moses, see Exod. xvii. 14. and under the instruction of this great master, he was fully qualified for the important office. He wag a great and pious man, and God honoured him in a most extraordinary manner, as the sequel of the history amply proves. From the preceding books it appears that he became attached to Moses shortly after the exodus from Egypt: that he was held by him in the highest esteem; had the command of the army confided to him in the war with the Amalekites; and accompanied his master to the mount, when he went up to receive the law from God. These were the highest honours he could possibly receive, during the lifetime of Moses.

Commentators and critics are divided in opinion, whether the book that goes under his name, were actually compiled by him.

It is argued by those who deny Joshua to be the author, that there are both names and transactions in it, which did not exist iill considerably after Joshua's time. The account we have chap. iv. 9. of the twelve stones set up by Joshua in the midst of Jordan, remaining to the present day, seems to prove that the book, at least this verse, was not written till after Joshua's time; the same may be said of the account of Ai, that Joshua made it a heap for ever, even a desolation to the present day, chap. viii. 28. which is a proof, however, that the book was not written after the time of the Kings, as Ai subsisted after the return from the captivity, see Ezra ii. 28. The men of Beth-el and Ai theo hundred tienty and three. It is supposed also, that the relation of the marriage of Achsah, daughter of Caleb, with Othniel, the son of Kenaz, necessarily belongs to the time of the Judges; Josh. xv. 16–19. as also the account of the capture of Leshem by the Danites, chap. xix. 47. compared with Judges xviii. 7, 29.

"What is related chap. xv. 63. concerning the Jebusites duelling with the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto this day, must certainly have been written before the time of David; for he took the strong hold of Zion, and expelled the Jebusites. See 2 Sam. v. 7–9. Also what is said chap. xvi. 10. they drave not out the Canaanites that did! in Gezer: but they dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day-must have been written before the time of Solomon; for in his time, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, had taken Gezer, burnt it with fire, slain the Canaanites that dwelt in it, and gave it a present to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1 Kings xix. 16. The country of Cabul, mentioned chap. xix. 27. had not this name till the time of Solomon, as appears from 1 Kings ix. 13. and the city called Joktheel, chap. xv. 38. had not this name till the reign of Joash, as appears from 2 Kings, chap. xiv. 7. it having been previously called Selah. The like may be said of Tyre, chap. xix. 29. and of Galilee, chap. xx. 7. and xxi. 32."

These are the principal objections which are made against the book, as being the work of Joshua. Some of these difficulties might be so removed, as to render it still probable that Joshua was the author of the whole book, as some think to be intimated, chap. xxiv. 26. And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of the Lord : (but this probably refers to nothing more, than the words of the covenant which was then made, and which is included in ver. 2—24.) but there are other difficulties that cannot be removed on the above supposition: and therefore it has been generally supposed that the book was written by some inspired person after the time of Joshua, and positively before many kings had reigned in Israel. The book has been attributed to Samuel ; though some give this honour tó Ezra.

After all, I cannot help considering the book, in the main, as the composition of Joshua himself. It is certain that Moses kept an accurate register of all the events that took place during his administration in the wilderness ; at least from the giving of the Law to the time of his death. And in that wilderness he wrote the Book of Genesis, as well as the others that bear his name. Now, it is not likely that Joshua, the constant servant and companion of Moses, could see all this, be convinced, as he must be, of its utility, and not adopt the same practice;

especially as, at the death of Moses, he came into the same office. I therefore take it for granted, that the Book of Joshua is as truly his work, as the Commentaries of Cesar are his, and all the real difficulties mentioned above, may be rationally and satisfactorily accounted for, on the ground, that in transcribing this book in after ages, especially between the times of Joshua and the Kings, some few changes were made, and a very few slight additions, which referred chiefly to the insertion of names by which cities were then known instead of those by which they had been anciently denominated. This book therefore, I conceive to be not the work of Ezra, nor of Samuel, nor of any other person of those times; nor can! allow that “it is called the Book of Joshua, because he is the chief subject of it

, as the heroic poem of Virgil is called the Æneis, because of the prince whose travels and actions it relates," but I conceive it to be called the Book of Joshua, 1. Because Joshua wrote it. 2. Because it is the relation of his own conduct in the conquest, division, and settlemen of the promised land. 3. Because it contains a multitude of particulars that only himself, or a constant cycuitness, could possibly relate. 4. Because it was evidently designed to be a continuation of the Book of Deuteronomy, and is 80 connected with it in narrative as to prove that it must have been immediately commenced on the termination of the other. 5. I might add to this, that with the exception of a few individuals, the whole of the ancient Jewish and Christian Churches have uniformly acknowledged Joshua to be its author.

The Book of Joshua is one of the most important writings in the Old Covenant; and should never be separated from the Pentateuch, of which it is at once both the continuation and completion. Between this book and the fire books of Moses there is the same analogy as between the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. The PENTATETCH contains a history of the acts of the great Jewish Legislator, and the laws on which the Jewish church should be established. The Book of Joshua gives an account of the establishment of that church in the land of Canaan, according to the oft-repeated promises and declarations of God. The Gospels give an account of the transactions of JESUS CHRIST, the great Christian Legislator, and of those laws on which his church should be established, and by which it should be governed. The Acts of the Apostles give an account of the actual establishment of that church, according to the predictions and promises of its great Founder. Thus then, the Pentateuch bears as pointed a relation to the Gospels, as the Book of Joshua does to the Acts of the Apostles. And we might, with great appearance of probability, carry this analogy yet farther, and show that tħe writings of several of the Prophets bear as strict a relation

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