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ting of the gate, when it was dark, that the ness, that ye will also show kindness unto my men went out: whither the men went, I wot not: father's house, and give me a true token: pursue after them quickly; for ye shall overtake 13 And that ye will save alive my father, and them.

my mother, and my brethren, and my sisters, 6 But i she had brought them up to the roof and all that they have, and deliver our lives of the house, and hid them with the stalks of from death. flax, which she had laid in order upon the 14 And the men answered her, our life for roof.

yours, if ye utter not this our business. And it 7 And the men pursued after them, the way shall be, when the LORD hath given us the land, to Jordan, unto the fords: and as soon as they that * we will deal kindly and truly with thee. which pursued after them were gone out, they 15 Then she y let them down by a cord shut the gate.

through the window: for her house was upon 81 And before they were laid down, she came the , the wall. up

the mountain, lest the pursuers meet you: and hide Lord hath given you the land, and that your yourselves there three days, until the pursuers terror is fallen upon us, and that all the inhabit- be returned: and afterward may ye go your ants of the land i faint because of you.

10 For we have heard how the LORD m dried 17 And the men said unto her, We will be up the water of the Red sea for you, when ye : blameless of thine oath which thou hast made came out of Egypt; and "what ye did unto the

us swear; two kings of the Amorites, that were on the 18 - Behold, when we come into the land, thou other side Jordan, Sihon and Og, whom ye shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the winutterly destroyed.

dow which thou didst let us down by: and thou 11 And as soon as we had heard these things, shalt ebring thy father, and thy mother, and thy pour hearts did melt, neither " did there remain brethren, and all thy father's household, home any more courage in any man, because of you: unto thee. for the LORD your God, he is God in heaven 19 And it shall be, that whosoever shall go above, and in earth beneath.

out of the doors of thy house into the street, his 12 Now therefore, I pray you, 'swear unto blood shall be upon his head, and we will be me by the Lord, since I have showed you kind-guiltless: and whosoever shall be with thee in

9 And she said unto the men, I know that the moon And she said unto them,"Get you to the

way.

i See Exod. 1. 17. 2 Sam. 17. 19.-- Gen. 35. 5. Exol. 2 27. Deut. 225 & 11. 25. I Heb. melt. Exod. 15. 15,-m Exod. 14. 21. Ch. 4. 23-n Numb. 21. 21, 34, 35. o Exod. 15. 14, 15.--p Ch. 5. 1.& 7. 5. Isai. 13. 7.-r Heb. rose tap.

Deut. 4. 39.-- Sre I Sam. 2011, 15, 17.- See I Tim. 5.- Ver. 18. - Heb. instead of you to die. - Judg. 1 21. Matt 5. 7.- Acts 9. 25.- Exod. 27. a Ver. 12-6 Ch. 6. 23.- Het gather.

appears to be a proof of the preceding opinion : had she had she this clear knowledge of the Divine nature ? 1. been a prostitute, or a person of ill-fame, he could at once Possibly the knowledge of the true God was general in have sent officers to have seized the persons lodged | the earth at this time, though connected with much superwith her, as vagabonds : but if she kept a house of enter stition and idolatry: the people believing that there was tainment, the persons under her roof were sacred, according a god for every district, and for every people : for the to the universal custom of the Asiatics ; and could not be mountains and for the valleys. See 1 Kings xx. 23. 2. molested on any trifling grounds. A guest, or a friend, is Or she received this instruction from the spies, with whom sacred, in whatever house he may be received, in every she appears to have had a good deal of conversation ; er, part of the East, to the present day.

3. She had it from a supernatural influence of God upon Verse 4. And hid them] Probably she secreted them her own soul. She probably inade a better use of the for the time being, in some private corner ; till she had the light she had received, than the rest of her countrymen, opportunity of concealing them on the house-top, in die and God increased that light. manner mentioned ver. 6.

Verse 12. Surear unto me by the Lord] This is a Verse 5. When it was dark) So it appears, that it was farther proof that this woman had received considerable after night that the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, order instruction in the Jewish faith : she acknowledged the ing her to produce the persons who lodged with her. The true God by his essential character, Jehorah : and knew season itself was friendly to the whole plot: had these that an oath in his name, was the deepest and most solemn transactions taken place in day-light, it is scarcely possible obligation under which a Jew could possibly come. Does that the spics could have escaped. But this is no excuse not this also refer to the command of God, Thou shalt for the woman's prevarication for God could have saved fear the Lord, and shall swear by his name? See the his messengers independently of her falsily. God never note on Deut. vi. 13. says to any, Do evil that good may come of it. See at the Verse 13. Deliver our lires from death] She had end of the chapter.

learnt either from the spies, or otherwise, that all the inhaVerse 6. Hid them with the stalks of fax] It is a bitants of the land were doomed to destruction; and matter of little consequence whether we translate yy. VnuD therefore she obliges them to enter into a coronant with pistey haêts, stalks of flax, or stalks of hemp: the word her, for the preservation of herself and her household. yy êts, which signifies wood, serves to show, that whe:her Verse 14. Our life for yours] "May our life be deit was hemp or flar, it was in its rough unmanufactured stroyed if we suffer yours to be injured?" This is what state : and as this w23 about the season, viz. the end of was anciently called, in our country, pledging-staking a March or the beginning of April, in which the flax is ripe man's life for that of his neighbour or friend. in that country, consequently Rahab's flat might have Verse 15. Then she let them doren by a cord, &c.) been recently pulled, and was now drying on the roof of The natural place for this verse, is after the first clause of her house. The reader may find some useful remarks the 21st verse; for it is certain that she did not let them upon this subject in Mr. Ilarmer's Observations, vol. iv. p. down in the basket, till all those circumstances, marked 97, &c.

frorn the 16th to the 20th verse inclusive, had taken place. Upon the roof] We have already seen, that all the She dwelt upon the wall.] That is, either the wall of houses in the east were made flal-roofed : for which a law the city made a part of her house, or her house was is given, Deut. xxii. 3. On these flat roofs, the Asiatics to builded close to the wall, so that the top or battlements of this day, walk, converse, and oftentimes even sleep and it were above the wall, with a window that looked cut to pass the night. It is probable, that this hiding was after the country. As the city gates were now shut, there was that referred to in the fourth verse.

no way for the spies to escape but through this window ; Verse 9. I know that the Lord hath given you the land] and in order to this, she let them down through the vidIt is likely she had this only from conjecture, having dow, in a basket, suspended by a cord, till they reached the heard of their successes against the Amorites, their pro- ground on the outside of the wall. digious numbers, and seeing the state of terror and Verse 16. Hide yourselves there three days. They dismay, to which the inhabitants of her own land were were to travel by night, and hide themselves in the day reduced,

time; otherwise they might have been discovered by the Verse 11. He is God in heaven aborc, and in carth be- pursuers, who were in search of them. neath.). This confession of the true God is amazingly Verse 18. This line of scarlet thread) von on mpn full, and argues considerable light and information. As if Tikkerath chut hashani. Probably this may mean, this she had said, “I know your God to be omnipotent and piece of scarlet clothor, this cloth (inade) of scarlet thread. omnipresent:" and in consequence of this faith, she hid | When the Israelites took the city, this piece of red cloth the spies, and risked her own life in doing it. But how seems to have been hung out of the window, by way of

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water of Jordan,

the house, d his blood shall be on our head, if he and all the children of Israel, and lodged any hand be upon him.

there before they passed over. 20 And if thou utter this our business, then 2 | And it came to pass i after three days, we will be quit of thine oath which thou hast that the officers went through the host; made us to swear.

3 And they commanded the people, saying, 21 And she said, According unto your words, When ye see the ark of the covenant of the so be it. And she sent them away, and they de- LORD your God, and the priests the Levites parted: and she bound the scarlet line in the bearing it, then ye shall remove from your place, window.

and go after it. 22 And they went, and came unto the moun 4 * Yet there shall be a space between you tain, and abode there three days, until the pur- and it, about two thousand cubits by measure: suers were returned : . and the pursuers sought come not near unto it, that ye may know the them throughout all the way, but found them way by which ye must go: for ye have not passnot.

ed this way," heretofore. 23 || So the two men returned, and descended 5 | And Joshua said unto the people, "Sancfrom the mountain, and passed over, and came tify yourselves: for to-morrow the Lord will do to Joshua the son of Nun, and told him all things wonders among you. that befel them:

6 And Joshua spake unto the priests, saying, 24 And they said unto Joshua, Truly,' the P Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass LORD hath delivered into our hands all the land ; over before the people. And they took up the for even all the inhabitants of the country do ark of the covenant, and went before the peofaint because of us.

ple. CHAPTER III.

7 1 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day Tire Israelitish camp removes from Shittim to Jordan, 1. The officers inform them will I begin to 9 magnify thee in the sight of all

pow they are us pass the river, and the distance they are to keep from the ark, Israel, that they may know that, ' as I was with delivers the Lord's nesage to the people, and foretellthe miraculous passage and Moses, so I will be with thee. division of Jordan, 9–13. The priests, bearing the ark, enter the river, and immediately the waters are cut off, and the priests stand on dry ground, in the bed of the

8 And thou shalt command the priests that river, ull add the camp passes over, 14-17.

bear the ark of the covenant, saying, When ye L Olyinp. 675. morning; and they removed ye shall stand still in Jordan.

ha from Shittim, and came to Jordan, 9 | And Joshua said unto the children of d Matt. 27. 25- 2 Sam. 17. 20. Psa. 32 6.- Exod. 23. 31. Ch. 6.2 & 21. 44. n Heb. since yesterday and the third day.- Exod. 19. 10, 14, 15. Lev 20. 7. Heb. melt. Ver. 9. --- Ch. 21-i Ch L 10, 11. - See Numl. 10.33.- Deut. 31. Numb. II. 18. Ch. 7. 13. 1 Sam. 16. 5. Joel 2 16.-p Numb. 4. 16. Ch. 4. 14. 1 - Ezed 19. 12"

Chron. 23. 25. 2 Chron. 1. 1.-r Ch. 1.5.- Ver. 3-- Ver. 17.

Ed ella: il reo si trova al tuo cospetto; flag; and this was the sign on which she and the spies

Opra e il furto, Signor, di questa mano had agreed.

lo l'immagine tolai; lo son colei Verse 20. If thou utter this our business) It was pru

Che tu ricerchi, e me punir tu dei.

Cosi al pubblico fato il capo altero dent to make her life depend on her secrecy: had it been

Offerse, el volle in se sol racorte.

Magnanima menzogna! or quando e il vero otherwise, she might have been tempted to have given in

Si Bello, che si possa a te preporre! formation, not only concerning the spies, but concerning

Then she : "Before thy sight the guilty standa; the designs of the Israelites. But her life being at stake,

The theft, Oking! committed by these hande

In me the thief, who stole the image, view; added to every other motive, she kept the secret for the sake

To me the punishment decreed is due." of her own personal safety, and that of all her relatives.

Thus fills with public seal, the generous damne

A victim for her people's ransom came. Verse 23. So the two men returned] Having concealed

Ogreat deceitt'o hie! divinely fair! themselves in the mountain that night, all the next day,

What truth with such a falsehood can compare! Hoole. and the night ensuing: and on the third day, they returned Thus a lie is ornamented with splendid decorations, both to Joshua.

by the Italian and English poet, and the whole formed Verse 24. Truly the Lord hath delivered into our hands into an anti-apostolic maxim ; Let us do Evil, that Good all the land] How different was this report_from that may come of it. brought by the spies on a former occasion! They found A purer morality was taught by one of the most ancient that all the inhabitants of the land were panic struck. The heathen writers, than is here preached by these demipeople had heard of the great exploits of the Israelites on Christians. ibe other side of Jordan; and as they had destroyed the Εχθρος γαρ μοι κεινος, ομως αιδαο πυλησιν, potent kings of the Amorites, they took it for granted, that Ος χ' ετερον μεν κευθει ενι φρεσιν, αλλο δε βαζει. nothing could stand before them. This information was

Iliad. ix. v. 312. necessary to Joshua, to guide him in forming the plan of

My soul detents him as the gates of hell, his campaign.

Who knows the truth, and dares a falschood tell. 1. It may be asked, Did not Rahab lie in the account

The following is the advice of a genuine Christian poet, she gave to the officers of the king of Jericho ? ver. 4, 6. and one of the holiest men of his time: There crme men unto me, &c. I answer, She certainly

Lie not : but let thy heart be true to God;

Thy tongue to it, thy actions to them both did: and the inspired writer sets down the fact merely as

Cowards tell lies, and those who fear the rod :

The stormy working coul spits lies and froth it stood, without making the Spirit of God responsible for

Dare to be truel nothing can need a lie. the dissimulation of the woman. But was she not re

The fault that needs it most, grows two thereby. Herbert warded, &c. ? Yes ; for her hospitality and faith; not for For other observations on this subject, see the notes on her lie. But could she have saved the spies without tell- Gen. xii. end, and xx. 12. ing a lie? Yes, she certainly might. But what notion 3. Though the hand of God was evidently in every thing could a woman of her occupation, though nothing worse that concerned the Israelites; and they were taught to conthan an innkeeper, have of the nicer distinctions between sider that by his might alone, they were to be put in postruth and falsehood, living among a most profligate and session of the promised land; yet they were as fully condepraved people, where truth could scarcely be known? vinced that if they did not use the counsel, prudence, and

2. There is a lax morality in the world, that recom- strength, which they had received from him, they should mends a lie, rather than the truth, when the purposes of not succeed. Hence, while they depended on the Divine religion and humanity can be served by it!' But when direction and power, they exercised their own prudence, can this be? The religion of Christ is one eternal system and put forth their own strength: and thus they were of truth, and can neither be served by a lie, nor admit of workers together with him, and did not receive the grace one. On this vile subject fine words have been spoken. of God in vain. The application of this maxim is easy; Tasso, in his elegant episode of Sophronia and Olindo, and we cannot expect any success, either in things spiritual in the Gerusalemme Liberata, b. ü. v. 22. represents the or temporal, unless we walk by the same rule, and mind former as telling a lie to Saladin, relative to the stealing the same thing. of an image ; for which, as he could not discover the cul

NOTES ON CHAPTER III. pril, he doomed all the Christians in his power to death. Verse 1. Joshua rose earlyl Archbishop. Ussher supSophronia, a pious Christian virgin, getting into the pre- poses that this was upon Wednesday, the 28th of April, sence of the tyrant, in order to save her people, accuses A. M. 2553, the fortieth year after the Exodus from Egypt. herself, though perfectly innocent, of the theft. Her con- From Shittim, where they had lately been encamped, to duct on this occasion, the poet embellishes in the following Jordan, was about sixty stadia, according to Josephus ; manner, for which the religion of that time, which dealt that is, about eight English miles. in holy frauds, would no doubt applaud him:

Verse 2. After three days) These three days were pro

Israel, Come hither, and hear the words of the Jordan shall be cut off from the waters that LORD your God.

come down from above; and they a shall stand 10 And Joshua said, Hereby ye shall know upon a heap. that u the living God is among you, and that he 14 | And it came to pass, when the people will

, without fail, drive out from before you the removed from their tents, to pass over Jordan, Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Hivites, and the priests bearing the bark of the covenant and the Perizzites, and the Girgashites, and the before the people ; Amorites, and the Jebusites.

15 And as they that bare the ark were come 11 Behold, the ark of the covenant or w the unto Jordan, and the feet of the priests that Lord of all the earth, passeth over before you, bare the ark, were dipped in the brim of the into Jordan

water, (for d Jordan overfloweth all his banks 12 Now therefore s take you twelve men out all the time of harvest,) of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a 16 That the waters which came down from man;

above, stood and rose up upon a heap, very far 13 And it shall come to pass, s as soon as the from the city Adam, that is beside ''Zaretan: roles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark and those that came down 6 toward the sea of the of the LORD, ? the LORD of all the earth, shall plain, even the salt sea, failed, and were cut off: rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of and the people passed over right against Jericho.

u Dent. 5. 23. I San. 17. 26. 2 Kings 19. 4. Hos. I. 10. Matt. 16. 16. 1 Thess. 1. 9.

Exo 33 2. Deut. 7. 1. Psalin H. 2.- Verme 13. Micah 4. 14. Zech. 4. 14. & 6. 5. --X Chap. 1. 2.-y Venres 15, 16.

z Verve 11.--a Psa. 78. 13. & 1143-b Acts 7. 45.-C Ver. 13 Ihana 12. li Jer. 12 5. & 49. 19. Eccl. 2.-e Ch. 4. 18. & 5. 10, 12-filings i 12 & 1 g Deut. 3. 17.-h Gen. 14. 3. Numb. 34. 3.

bably to be thus understood. As soon as Joshua took the Verse 10. Hereby ye shall know that the LiviXG God is command of the army he sent the spies to ascertain the among you] The Israelites were apt to be discouraged, state of Jericho, as we have seen chap. i. 12. They re and to faint at even the appearance of danger; it was neturned at the end of three days, or rather on the third day, cessary, therefore, that they should have the fullest and made their report. It was at this time, immediately assurance of the presence and assistance of God in the on the return of the spies, that he made the proclamation important enterprise on which they were now entering. mentioned here; in consequence of which the people im- They are to combat idolaters, who have nothing to trust mediately struck their tents, and marched forward to in, and help them, but gods of rood, stone, and metal: Jordan.

whereas they are to have the living God in the midst of Verse 4. About two thousand cubits) This distance they them, He who is the author of life and of being-yho were to keep, 1. For the greater respect, because the pre- can give, or take it away, at his pleasure; and who by this sence of the ark was the symbol and pledge of the Divine miracle proved that he had undertaken to guide and presence. 2. That the ark, which was to be their pilot defend them: and Joshua makes this manifestation of over these waters, might be the more conspicuous, which God, the proof that he will drive out the Hittites, Hiviles, it could not have been, had the people crowded upon it. &c. before them.

Verse 5. Sanctify yourselves) What was implied in this With regard to the situation of each of these nations in command, we are not informed; but it is likely, that it the land of Canaan, Calmet remarks, that those called was the same as that given by Moses, Exod. xix. 10-14. CANAANITES chiefly inhabited what is called Phænicia, They were to wash themselves and their garmenis, and the environs of Tyre and Sidon: the HITTITES occupied abstain from every thing that might indispose their minds the mountains, southward of the Promised Land. The from a profitable attention to the miracle about to be HIVITES dwelt by Ebul and Gerizim, Sichem, and wrought in their behalf.

Gibeon, toward the mountains of Hermon. The Periz. Verse 6. Spake unto the priests, saying, Take up the zites were probably not a distinct nation or tribe, but ark] It is remarkable that the priests, not the Levites, rather villagers, scattered through the country in general. whose ordinary business it was, were employed to carry | The GIRGASHITES possessed the country beyond the Jor: the ark on this occasion. Calmet conjectures that this was dan, toward the lake of Gennesareth: the JESUSITES because it was probably carried without being wrapped up possessed Jerusalem : and the AMORITES occupied the in its curtains, as it always was when the Levites carried mountainous country in the vicinity of the western part of it. Though it was the business of the Levites, the sons of the Dead sea, and also that part of the land of Moab Kohath, to carry the ark; yet on certain occasions, the which the Israelites conquered from Sihon and Og. priests alone performed this office. 1. In the present case. Verse 12. Take you twelve men] See the note on 2. When they encompassed Jericho, chap. vi. 6. 3. When chap. iv. 2. it was carried to the war against the Philistines by the Verse 15. And the feet of the priests_pere dipped in priests, the sons of Eli, 2 Sam. xv. 25. 4. When David the brim of the water] Thus we find that every thing sent it back to Jerusalem, at the time he was obliged to fly occurred exactly in the way in which Joshua had foretold from it, through the rebellion of his son Absalom, 2 Sam. it. This must have greatly increased his credit among xv. 25.

And 5. At the time that it was taken out of the the people. tabernacle, to be deposited in the temple, see 1 Kings viji. For Jordan overfloweth all his banks, &r.] It has 6-1l. These were the most solemn occasions, and on often been remarked, that there was no need of a miracle such alone, we may presume, the priests performed this in crossing Jordan, as it is but an inconsiderable strenm, office, instead of the Levites.

casily fordable; being but about twenty yards in breadtk. In all their former marches, the ark was carried in the But the circumstance marked here by the sacred historian centre of this immense camp; see the scheme at the end proves, that there was a time in the year, viz. in the har of chap. ii. of the book of Numbers, but now it was to rest, that this said river overflowed his banks: and this is proceed at the head of the army, and to go before them, confirmed by another place in Scripture, 1 Chron. xii. 15. and at such a distance, about three quarters of a mile, as As the miracle reported here took place about the beginthe whole camp might see it as their guide.

ning of April, a time in which rivers in general are less Verse 7. This day will I begin to magnify thee] By than in winter, it may be asked, how there could be such making him the instrument in this miraculous passage, he an increase of waters at this time? The simple fact is, did him honour, and gave him high credit in the sight of that the Jordan, as we have already seen, has its origin at the people : hence his authority was established, and obe- the foot of Mount Lebanon; which mountain is always dience io him as their leader fully secured. What must covered with snow, during the winter months: in those have confirmed this anthority, was his circumstantially months, therefore, the river is low; but when the sumforetelling how the waters should be cut off, as soon as the mer's sun has melted these snows, there is consequently a feet of the priests had touched them, ver. 14. This de- prodigious increase of waters, so that the old channel is monstrated that the secret of the Lord was with him. not capable of containing them; and this accounts for the

Verse 8. Ye shall stand still in Jordan) The priests statement in the text, that the Jordan over floweth his proceeded first with the ark, and entered into the bed of the banks all the time of harvest : and this was the time river, the course of which was immediately arrested, the which God chose they should pass over it, that a miracuwaters collecting above the place where the priests stood, lous interposition might be necessary; and that by the while the stream fell off towards the Dead sea; so that miracle they should be convinced of his omnipotence, who the whole channel below where the priests were standing, was not only their gnide, but had promised to put them in became dry. The whole camp, therefore, passed over possession of this good land. below where the priests were standing, keeping at the dis Verse 16. Rose up upon a heap] That is, they contance of 2000 cubits from the ark : this they could rendily tinued to accumulaté, filling up the whole of the channel do, as the whole bed of the river was dry for many miles toward the source, and the adjacent ground orer which below the place where the priests entered.

they were now spread, to a much greater depth; the

each trite, to take up a stone on his shoulder, out of the indst of the river, at eur Ty it to the other aile, to be set up as a memorial of this miraculous passage, 1-7. They do, and set up the stones in the place ere they encamp the first night, 9.

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i See Exod 14. 23.- Deut. 27.2 Ch. 3. 17.-1 Ch. 3. 12.- Ch. 2. 13.

n Ver. 19, 20.

17 And the priests that bare the ark of the he had prepared of the children of Israel, out of covenant of the Lord, stood firm on dry ground every tribe a man: in the midst of Jordan, i and all the Israelites 5 And Joshua said unto them, Pass over before passed over on dry ground, until all the people the ark of the LORD your God into the midst of were passed clean over Jordan.

Jordan, and take you up every man of you a stone CHAPTER IV.

upon his shoulder, according unto the number of When the people were prune lover, Joshun commands twelve men, one taken out of

the tribes of the children of Israel:

6. That this may be a sign among you, that

when your children ask their fathers Pin time to The priests sanulin the river, till all the people are passed over, 10, 11. Of the tribes of Reuben an Gal, anl the half uite of Slanasseh, 40.000 fighting men pass over

come, saying, What mean ye by these stones? with the other trihen, 12, 13. Joshua is magnified in the sight of the people, and they 7 Then ye shall answer them, That 'the wariver, which, on their leaving it, immeliately returns, and overflows its banks as be ters of Jordan were cut off before the ark of the 19. The stones are set up in Gilgal; and Joalua teaches the people what use they covenant of the LORD; when it passed over Jorare to make of thein, 2-21.

dan, the waters of Jordan were cut off: and these people were passed over of Israel for . 1. Olymp. 675. Jordan, that the LORD spake unto 8 And the children of Israel did so, as Joshua Joshua, saying,

commanded, and took up twelve stones out of 2 Take you twelve men out of the people, out the midst of Jordan, as the LORD spake unto of every tribe a man,

Joshua, according to the number of the tribes of 3 And command ye them, saying, Take you the children of Israel, and carried them over with hence out of the midst of Jordan, out of the place them unto the place where they lodged, and laid where m the priests' feet stood firm, twelve them down there. stones, and ye shall carry them over with you, 9 | And Joshua set up twelve stones in the and leave them in the lodging place, where ye midst of Jordan, in the place where the feet of shall lodge this night.

the priest which bare the ark of the covenant 4 Then Joshua called the twelve men, whom stood: and they are there unto this day.

o Ver. 21. Exod. 12. 26. & 13. 14. Deut. 6. 20. Per. 14. 1. & 78. 3,4,5,6.- Heb. co

morrow. - Ch. 3. 13, 16.-r Exod. 12. 14. Numb. 16. 40. power of God giving a contrary direction to the current. his power, nor of his love to Israel. After this, was it posWe need not suppose them to be gathered up like a moun sible for this people ever to doubt his being or his bounty? tain, instar montis, as the Vulgate expresses it, but This, with the miraculous passage of the Red sea, were that they continued to flow back in the course of the chan- well calculated to have established their faith for ever : nel; and ere they could have reached the lake of Genne- and those who did not yield to the evidence afforded by sareth, where they might have been easily accumulated, these two miracles, were incapable of rational conviction. the whole Israelitish army would have all got safely to 3. In some respects, the passage of the Jordan was the opposite side.

more strikingly miraculous, than that even of the Red sea. Very far from the cily Adambeside Zaretan] In this latter, God was pleased to employ an agent: the Where these places were, it is difficult to say. The city sea went back by a strong east wind all that night, and Adam is wholly unknown. From 1 Kings iv. 12. we made the sea dry land, Exod. xiv. 21. Nothing of this learn, that Zartanah was below Jezreel, near Beth-shean kind appeared in the passage of the Jordan; a very rapid or Scythopolis ; and not far from Succoth, 1 Kings vii. river, for so all travellers allow it to be, went back to its 46. And it appears from Gen. xxxiii. 17. Josh. xiii. 27. source, without any kind of agency, but the invisible hand that Succoth lay on the east side of Jordan, not far from of the invisible God. the lake of Gennesareth ; and probably Adam was on 4. Through the whole period of the Jewish history, these the same side, to the north of Succoth. It is probable, that miracles, so circumstantially related, were never denied by the Israelites crossed the Jordan near Bethabara, where any ; but on the contrary, conscientiously believed by all. John baptized, John i. 23. and which probably had its Nor did any of them in their revolts from God, which were name, the house of passage, from this very circumstance. both foul and frequent, ever call these great facts in quesSee Calmet's Commentary, and the Map. After all, it is tion; when even so full of enmity against God as to blasextremely difficult to ascertain the exact situation of these pheme his name, and give his glory to dumb idols ! Is not places; as in the lapse of upward of 3000 years, the face this a manifest proof that these facts were incontestable ? of the country must have been totally changed. Seas, and that Jehovah had so done his marvellous works, that rivers, and mountains, change not: and though we cannot they should be had in everlasting remembrance ? Reader, ascertain the spot, it' is sufficiently evident that we can the same God who is over all, is rich in mercy to all that come near to the place. It has been considered a lame call upon him. He changes not, neither is he weary : objection against the truth of the Ilias, that the situation of trust in the Lord for ever; for in the Lord Jehovah is everTroy cannot now be exactly ascertained. There are even lasting strength; and He ever saves his followers out of many ancient cities and considerable towns in Europe, the hands of all their enemies, and having guided them by that though they still bear their former names, do not oc- his counsel, will receive them into his glory. cupy the same spot : there are not a few of those even in England, among such, Norwich, Salisbury, &c. may be

NOTES ON CHAPTER IV. ranked.

Verse 2. Take you twelve men] From chap. iii. 12. it Right against Jericho.) It would be impossible for appears, that these twelve men had been before appointed, the whole camp to pass over in the space opposite to Jeri- one taken out of each of the twelve tribes; and now they cho, as they must have taken up some miles in breadth, are employed for that purpose for which they had been òcbesides the 2000 cubits which were left on the right, before selecied. tween them and the ark; but the river was divided oppo Verse 3. Where ye shall lodge this night] This was in site to Jericho; and there, the camp began to pass over. the place that was afterward called Gilgal. See ver. 19.

Verse 17. The priests-stood firm on dry ground] Verse 4. Twelve men, whom he had prepared] This
They stood in the mid channel, and shifted not their posia must refer to their appointment, ch. iii. 12.
tion, till the camp, consisting of nearly 600,000 effective Verse 6. This may be a sign] Stand as a continual
Inen, besides women, children, &c. had passed over. memorial of this miraculous passage; and consequently a

1. Is it not surprising, that the Canaanites did not dis- proof of their lasting obligation to God. pute this passage with the Israelites ? It is likely they Verse 9. And Joshua set up tuclve stones in the midst would, had they had any expectation that such a passage of Jordan) It seems from this chapter, that there were would have been attempted. They must have known that i'ro sets of stones, erected as a memorial of this great event : the Israelitish camp was on the other side of the Jordan ; twelve at Gilgal, ver. 20. and twelve in the bed of Jordan. but could they have supposed, that a passage for such a ver. 9. The twelve stones in the bed of Jordan might have host was possible, when the banks of the Jordan were been so placed, on a base of strong stone-work, so high as quite overflowed? It was not merely because they were always to be visible, and serve to mark the very spot where panic struck, that they did not dispute this passage ; but the priests stood with the ark. The twelve stones set up at because they must have supposed it impossible ; and Gilgal, would stand as a monument of the place of the when they found the attempt was made, the passage was first encampment, after this miraculous passage. Though cffected, before they could prepare to prevent it.

this appears to me to be the meaning of this place, yet Dr. 2. God now appears in such a way, and works in such Kennicott's criticism here should not be passed by. "It is a manner, as to leave no doubt concerning his presence, orwell known," says he, "that when Joshua led the Israel

10 1 For the priests which bare the ark stood | bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD were in the midst of Jordan, until every thing was fin come up out of the midst of Jordan, and the soles ished that the LORD commanded Joshua to speak of the priests' feet were w lifted up unto the dry unto the people, according to all that Moses land, that the waters of Jordan returned unto commanded Joshua: and the people hasted, and their place, and flowed over all his banks, as passed over.

they did before. 11 And it came to pass, when all the people 19 And the people came up out of Jordan on were clean passed over, that the ark of the LORD the tenth day of the first month, and encamped passed over, and the priests, in the presence of z in Gilgal, in the east border of Jericho. the people.

20 | And · those twelve stones, which they 12 And s the children of Reuben, and the chil- took out of Jordan, did Joshua pitch in Gilgal

. dren of Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, 21 And he spake unto the children of Israel, passed over armed before the children of Israel, saying, When your children shall ask their as Moses spake unto them:

fathers in time to come, saying, What mean 13 About forty thousand prepared for war, these stones? passed over before the Lord unto battle, to the 22 Then ye shall let your children know, sayplains of Jericho.

ing, Israel came over this Jordan on dry land. 14 | On that day the LORD " magnified Joshua 23 For the LORD your God dried up the wain the sight of all Israel; and they feared him, ters of Jordan from before you, until ye were as they feared Moses, all the days of his life. passed over, as the LORD your God did to the

15 | And the LORD spake unto Joshua, saying, Red sea, which he dried up from before us,

16 Command the priests that bear 'the ark of until we were gone over: the testimony, that they come up out of Jordan. 24 ' That all the people of the earth might

17 Joshua therefore commanded the priests, know the hand of the LORD, that it is & mighty: saying, Come ye up out of Jordan.

that ye might h fear the LORD your God i for 18 And it came to pass, when the priests that ever.

• Num. 32. 2, 27, 28.- Or, ready armed-u Ch. 3. 7.- Exod. 25. 16, 22 v Heb plucted up. - Ch. 3. 15.-y Meb. woent--: Ch. 5. 9.- Ver. 3. --b Ver. 6. • Heb. 10-norrow.

d Ch. 3. 17.-e Exod. 14. 21.-fl Kings 8. 42, 43. 2 Kings 19. 19. Pa 106

Exod. 45. 16. I Chron. 29. 12. Psa. 80. 13.- Exod. 14. 31. Deat. 6. 2 Ps 83.7 Jer. 10. 7. --i Heb. all daya.

ites over Jordan, he was commanded to take troelde stones the tenth of the first month, A. M. 2553, it is evident that out of the midst of Jordan, to be a memorial that the forty years, wanting five days, had elapsed, from the time ground in the very midst of that river had been made dry of their exodus from Egypt to their entrance into the But where was this memorial to be set up ? The ninth verse promised inheritance. says-Joshua set up these stones in the midst of Jordan. Encamped in Gilgal] That is, in the place that was But is it likely that the stones should be placed, or set down, afterward called Gilgal, see chap. v. 9. for here the name where they were taken up: and that the memorial should is given it by anticipation. In Hebrew, So gal, signifies be erected there, where, when the river was again united, to roll ; and the doubling of the root 5252 galgal, or gilit would be concealed, and of course could be no memorial gal, signifies rolling round and round, or rolling off, or at all? This, however, flatly contradicts the rest of the away, because, in circumcising the children that had been chapter; which says these stones were pitched in Gilgal, born in the wilderness, Joshua rolled away, rolled off where Israel lodged in Canaan for the first time. The so complelely, the reproach of the people. From this time lution of this difficulty is, that guna betoc, in the midst, Gilgal became a place of considerable eminence in the should be here fino mitoc, From the midst, as in ver. 3, 8, sacred history. 1. It was the place where the Israelitish 20. and as the word is here also in the Syriac version. The camp rested the first night of their entering into that land, true rendering therefore is, And Joshua set up the twelve which had been promised to their fathers from the days of sloncs (taken) FROM the midst of Jordan," &c. I confess Abraham. 2. It was the place in which Joshua circumI see no need for this criticism, which is not supported by cised all the people who had been born in the wilderness, a single MS. either in his own or De Rossi's collection, during the forty years of their wandering after the left though they amount to four hundred and ninety-four in Egypt. 3. It was the place in which Joshua had what number. Twelve stones might be gathered in different we might term his fortified camp; and to which he and parts of the bed of the Jordan, and be set up as a pillar in his army constantly returned, after each of their expedianother, and be a continual visible memorial of this grand tions against the inhabitants of the land. 4. It appears to event. And if twelve were set up in Gilgal as a memorial have been the place where all the women, children, cattle, of their first encampment in Canaan : it is still more likely, and goods, &c. were lodged, probably, during the whole that iwelve would be set up in the bed of the river, to show of the Canaanitish war. 5. It was the place where they where it had been divided, and the place where the Israel. celebrated the first passover they kept in the promised itish host had passed over dry shod. The reader may fol- land. 6. It was the place where Saul, the first king of low the opinion he judges most likely.

Israel, was proclaimed. 7. There the manna ceased to Verse 10. And the people hasted, and passed over.) fall. And, 8. there the ark was fixed, till after the conHow very natural is this circumstance! The people seeing quest of the country it was removed to Shiloh. the waters divided, and Jordan running back, might be ap Gilgal was about ten furlongs from Jericho, and filly prehensive that it would soon resume its wonted course; from Jordan: Jericho being on the west, and Jordan on and this would naturally lead them to hasten over, with as the east, Gilgal being between both. See Josephus, De much speed as possible. The circumstance itself, thus Bello, &c. lib. v. c. 4. and Calmet on this place. Calmet marked, is a proof that the relator was an eyewitness of supposes there was neither city nor town here before the this miraculous passage.

arrival of the Israelites. Verse 12. The children of Reuben, and-Gad] Con Verse 20. Those twelve stones) It is very likely that a cerning the numbers of these tribes that staid behind, to base of mason-work was erected of some considerable take care of the women, children, and cattle, and which height, and then the twelve stones placed on the top of it; amounted to 70,580 men, see the note on Numb. xxxii. 17. and that this was the case both in Jordan and in Gilgal : Passed over armed.) See on chap. i. ver. 14.

for twelve such stones as a man could carry a considerable Verse 14. The Lord magnified Joshua) See the note way on his shoulder, see ver. 5. could scarcely have made on chap. iii. 7.

any observable altar, or pillar of memorial : but erected on Verse 18. The waters of Jordan returned unto their a high base of mason-work, they would be very conspicuplace] It is particularly remarked by the sacred historian, ous, and thus properly answer the end for which God orthat as soon as the soles of the priests' feet touched the wa dered them to be set up. ter, the stream of the Jordan was cut off, chap. iii. 15. and Verse 22. Then ye shall let your children know) Tha the course of the river continued to be inverted all the time necessity of an early religious education is inculcated they continued in its channel : and that, as soon as the soles through the whole oracles of God. The parents who neof their feet had touched the dry land, on their return from glect it, have an awful account to give to the Judge of the the bed of the river, the waters immediately resumed their quick and dead. natural course. All this was done by the sovereign influ Verse 24. That all the people of the earth might know) ence of that God, whose presence was represented by the It is very likely that para po sa col âmmey ha-arets, ark of the covenant.

means simply, all the people of this land all the CanaanVerse 19. On the tenth day of the first month] As the itish nations, to whom, by the miracles wrought in behalf Israelites left Egypt on the fifteenth day of the first month, of his people, he intended to show his eternal power and A. M. 2513, see Exod. xiv. and they entered into Canaan Godhead, the excellence of his protection, and the una

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