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o Exo!. 4. 25.-por, Girls-haarloth. Nob 14.2.& 20. 61, 65. Deut. 2. 16.

Numb. I. 33. Deut. 1. 3 & 27, 14. Psa. 95. 10.

CHAPTER V.

Make thee n sharp o knives, and circumcise The offeret protect on the min bay t're l'anaanites ty t're late miracles, 1. Joshna is again, the children of Israel, the second time. en circumcimal, and why it was try to circumcised the children of Israel at ” the hill of

3 And Joshua made him sharp knives, and the price, 10 They cat oplever leaves ani prebri corni, on the nort W

the foreskins. after the Placer, !! The manua cease, 12 The capulu of the Lori's lost appears to Justria, 13-17

4 Ani! this is the cause why Joshua did cirND it came to pass, when all the cumcise: “All the people that came out of Egypt, 1. Olymp. 175.

died were on the side of Jordan westward, in the wilderness by the way, alter they came and all the kings of the Canaanites, which out of Egypt. were by the sea, heard that the Lord had dried 5 Now all the people that came out were cirup the waters of Jordan from before the child cumcised: but all the people that were born in dren of Israel, until we were passed over, that the wilderness, by the way as they came forth their heart melted, “neither was there spirit in out of Egypt, them they had not circumcised. them any more, because of the children of Israel. 6 For the children of Israel walked torty

2 | Ai that time the Lord said unto Joshua, years in the wilderness, till all the people that k Nun's 13. 29. --- Fixul 15.11.15. ( 29.10.1!. Pa 13. 6. Ezek. 21. 7.

m 1 Kings 10. 5.- Or, kníres of fitus. vailableness of human might against his omnipotence; on which no tool of iron had been lifted up, because this and the miracles he wrought for this people in the sight of would pollutcil, see Exod. xx. 25. and Deui. xxvii. 5. he the heathen, were well calculated to make these things might require that no instrument of iron should be used known..

in a rite by which the body and soul of the person were iu 1. God intends that his religion should be maintained the most solemn and sacred manner dedicated to him, to be and propagated in the earth : therefore he has given a his house and temple; the heart itself being the altar on revelation of himself to men, that it may be taught in the which continual sacrifices to God must be offered. A world; an i he particularly requires that parents should be physical reason has been given for preferring knives of diligent and fervent in touching their children the know stone in this operation : "the wound' sufiers less through jedge of his name. 2. This is one great use of the ordi- inflammation, and is sooner healel." For this a reason nances of the Gospel, and the rites of religion. They are may be given. It is almost impossible to get an edge all significators of sacred things, and point out matters of made go even and firm as not to leave particles of the infinite importance beyond themselves. 3. A spirit of in- metal in the incisions made even in the most delicate quiry, is common to every child: the human heart is ever flesh: these particles would soon become oxidized by the panting after knowledge; and if not rightly direc:ed when artion of the air, and extra inflammation in the part would young, will, like that of our first mother, go astray after be the consequence. The great apritude of iron to be oxiforbidden science. 4. If we wish our children to lie happy, dizel, i. e. to be converted to rust, is avell known; Lut how we should show them where happiness is to be found. It far this reasoning, thus applied, may be supported by fact, we wish then to be wise, we should lead them into God, I cannot pretend to determine: but it is sufficiently eviby means of his word anil ordinancez. It is natural for a deat, tha: it was a common custom to use knives of stone child to inquire, “What do you mean by this baprisin ?- in circumcision, and in all operations on those parts of the By this sacrament?-By praying ?-- By singing psalms human body. I shall give a few examples. Pliny says, and hymns ?" &. And what fine opportunities do such when they amputate certain parts, they do it with a sharp ques:ions give pious and intelligent parents to instruee stone, beenuse nothing else could be employed without their children in every article of the Christian fajih, and in danger. Bamia testa virilitatem ampulabani : nec aliter every fact on which these articles are established! Oh citra perniciem. why is this nerlecie), while the command of God is before Ovid, Fast. lib. iv. ver. 237. relates a circumstance our eyes, and the importance of the measure so strikingly where the saxum aculum, or sharp stone, was used about obvious!

those parts : NOTES ON CHAPTER V.

Tile etiam siyo ormis laniari: acta, Verse 1. The Amorites which were on the side of Jor

Longirimandap kacrelrorti coma eut. dan westuord) It has alrealy been renırked that the

Ah! prent partes, (19.2 poenere mit term Amorile is applied sometimes to signify all the na

Ah, pescant direct aduur, on za izguinis aufert;

Nillanue sunt subio signa : elicis riri. tions or tribes of Cannun. It appears from this verse that there were people thus denominated that dwell on both

This quotation is produced in order to prove that a knife sides of the Jordan. Those on the east side had already made of a sharp stone was used in making incisions and been destroyed in the war which the Israelites hnd with amputations of certain parts of the body, even when the Sihon ani 'Og: with those on the west side, Joshua hart

use of iron was well known: but a translation of the not yet yazed war. It is possible, however, that the verses is not necessary, and would be improper. The Amoriles, of whom we read in this verse, were the re

Millia qui rapta secaclt genitalia testa mains of those who dwelt on the east side of the Jordan, of Juvenal (Sat. vi. ver. 513.) is a further proof of this. and who had taken refuge here on the defeat of O, and Many other proofs might be produced; but those who Sihon.

wish for more may consult Calmet and Scheuchzer. Verse 2. Make thee sharp kniris) Dyman charbot's Cirrencise acain the children of Israel the second tsurim, knires of rock, slone, or flint. Before the use of time.) This certainly does not mean that they should repeat iron was common, all the nations of the earth had their circumcision on those who had already received it. This edge-tools made of stones, flinis, &c. In the lately dis- | would have been as absurd as impracticable: but the comcovered islands this is found to be a common case. Our mand implies, that they were to renew the observance of a ancestors, in these countries, made their arroio and spear rite which had been neglected in their travels in the deheads of fint: these I have often seen turned up by the sert; which is sufficiently evident from the following plough. But we cannot suppose, that, at the time here referred to, the Israelites were destitute of iron, and were Verse 4. This is the cause achy Joshua did circumcisc) therefore obliged to use knives made of stone or flint: The text here explains itself. Before the Israelites left their different mannfactures in the wilderness, prove that Egypt all the males were circumcised; and some learned they must have had both iron and steel. Why then use men think that all those who were born during their enknírcs made of stone? Probably it was unlawful to 1180 campment at Sinai were circumcised also, because there melal of any kind in this religious rite; and, indeed, this they celebrated the passover : but after that time, during seems likely from the circumstance of Zipporah, Exod. iv. the whole of their stay in the wilderness, there were none 25. taking a sharp slone, and circumcising her son: and circumcised till they entered into the promised land. Owwe find, from the most ancient and authentic accounts, ing to their unsettled state, God appears to have dispensed, that the Egyptians considered it unlawful or profane to use for the time being, with this rite: but as they are about :o any kind of metal to make incisions in the human body, celebrate another passover, it was necessary that all the when preparing it for embalming; see the note on Gen. 1. males should be círcumcised; for, without this, they could 2. and on Exod. iv. 25. That it was deemed improper to not be considered within the covenant, and could not keep use any other kind of instrument in circumcision, we have the possover, which was a seal of that covenant. As bapa proof in the tribe Alnajab, in Ethiopia, who follow the tism is generally understood to have succeeded to circumMosaic institution, and perform the rite of circumcision, cision, and the holy eucharise to the passover; hence, in according to Ludolf, cultris lapidibus, with knives made the church of England, and probably in most others, no of stone. Hist. Ethiop. lib. i. c. 1. And as God com person is permitted to receive ino sacrament of the Lord's manded the people to make him an altar of unhewn sione, | Supper till he has been baptized. VOL. I.-70

553

Iloitt; Veri merijas un sang une ponas,

verses.

were men of war, which came out of Egypt, 10 | And the children of Israel encamped in were consumed, because they obeyed not the Gilgal, and kept the passover on the fourteenth voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD sware day of the month at even, in the plains of that he would not show them the land, which Jericho. the Lord sware unto their fathers that he would 11 And they did eat of the old corn of the land give us; 'a land that floweth with milk and on the morrow after the passover, unleavened honey.

cakes, and parched corn in the seltsame day. 7 And a their children, whom he raised up in 12 | And the manna ceased on the morrow their stead, them Joshua circumcised: for they after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; were uncircumcised, because they had not cir- neither had the children of Israel manna any cumcised them by the way.

more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land 8 And it came to pass,

when they had done of Canaan, that year. circumcising all the people, that they abode in 13 | And it came to pass, when Joshua was by their places in the camp, "till they were whole. Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and,

9 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day behold, there stood a man over against him have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt with his sword drawn in his hand: and Joshua from off you. Wherefore the name of the place went unto him, and said unto him, Art thou for is called 'y Gilgal ? unto this day.

us, or for our adversaries ?

• Nasab. 11 23. Psa. 95. 11. Hebr. 3. 11 - Exod. 3. &- Nomb. 14. 31. Deut. .. 39.-~ Heb. when the people had made an end to be circumcised. -w See Gea 31. 25.

x Gen 34. 14. 1 Sam 14. 6. See Lev. 18. 3. Ch. 24. 14. Ezek 29. 7. & 2. 3. & 1 Mee 4.58 -y That is, rolling.-2 Ch. 4. 19-a Exed 12. 6. NED 9.5-5 Exod. 16 c Gen 18 2 32 24. Exod. 23. 23. Zech. 1. %. Acua 1. 10.- Nub. 223

Verse 8. They abode-in the camp till they were cision. The apparent impossibility of this led Mr. Har. wholc.] This required several days; see the notes on Gen. mer to suppose, that they kept the passover on the fourXxxiv, Sir J. Chardin informs us, that when adults were teenth day of the second month, the preceding time having circumcised they were obliged to keep their beds for about been employed in the business of the circumcision. See three weeks; or, at least, during that time they were not his Obserrations, vol. iv. p. 427, &c. able to walk about but with great difficulty. The account Verse 11. They did eat of the oid corn of the land] he had from several renegadoes, who had received circum- | The Hebrew word nay âbur, which we translate old corn, cision among the Mohammedans. Is it not strange, that occurs only in this place in such a sense, if that sense be during this time they were not attacked by the inhabitants legitimate. The noun, though of doubtful signification, is of the land, and utterly destroyed, which might have been evidently derived from ay âbar, to pass orer, to go becasily effected? See the case of the poor Shechemites, as yond ; and here it may be translated simply, the produce, related in Gen. xxxiv. with the notes there. Joshua, as that which passes from the land into the hands of the culan able general, would at once perceive that ihis very mea tirator; or, according to Cocceius, what passes from persure must expose his whole host to the danger of being to son to person, in the way of trofe: hence bought corntally annihilated; but he knew that GOD could not err, what they purchased from the inhabitants of the land. and that it was his duty to obcy: therefore, in the very On the morrow after the passoter] That is, on the fifteeth of his enemies, he reduced the major part of his army teenth day; for then the feast of unleavened bread began. to a state of total helplessness, simply irusting for protec- But they could neither eat bread nor parched corn, Dor tion in the arm of Jehovah! The sequel shows that his green ears, till the first-fruils of the harvest had been confidence was not misplaced: during the whole tiine, wared at the tabernacle, see Levit. xxvi. 9, &e. And God did not permit any of their enemies to disturb them therefore, in this case, we may suppose that the Israelites The path of duty is the path of safety; and it is impossible had offered a sheaf of the barley harresl, the only grain for any soul to be injured while walking in the path of that was then ripe, before they aie of the unleavened cakes obedience. But why did not God order them to be cir and parched corn. cumcised while they were on the east side of the Jordan, Verse 12. And the manna ceased-after they had eaten in a slate of great security? Because he chose to bring of the old corn) This miraculous supply continued with them into straits and difficulties, where no counsel or might them as long as they needed it. While they were in the but his own, could infallibly direct and save them; and wilderness, they required such a provision; nor could such this he did, that they might see that the excellence of the a multitude, in such a place, be supported without a mirapower was of God, and not of man. For the same reason, cle. Now ihey are got into the promised land, the anathehe caused them to pass the Jordan at the time that it over- matized inhabitants of which either fall or flee before then, flowed its banks, and not at the time when it was low and they find an old slock, and they are brought in just at the easily fordable, that he might have the better opportunity commencement of the harvest; hence, as there is an amto show them that they were under his immediate care and ple provision made in the ordinary way of Providence, protection; and convince them of his almighty power, that ihere is no longer any need of a miraculous supply; therethey mighi trust in him for ever, and not fear the force of fore the manna ceased, which they had enjored for forty any adversaries. In both cases, how apparent are the wis- years. The circumstances in which it was first given, its dom, power, and goodness of God!

continuance with them, through all their peregrinations in Verse 9. The reproach of Egypt.) Their being uncir- | the wilderness; its accompanying them over Jordan, and cumcised, made them like the uncircumcised Egyptians; ceasing as soon as they got a supply in the ordinary way and the Hebrews ever considered all those which were un of Providence, all prove that it was a preternatural gist circumcised as being in a state of the grossest impurity. “On the fourteenth of Nisan they sacrificed the Paschal Being now circumcised, the reproach of uncircuncision lamb; on the fifteenth, i. e. according to our calculation, was rolled away. This is another proof that the Israelites the same day after sunset, they disposed themselves for eatdid not receive circumcision from the Ezyptians; for they ing it, and actually did eat it. On the morrow, the sixteenth could not have considered those in a state of abomination, after having offered to God the homer, they began eating from whom they received that rite by which they con.. ihe corn of the country: and the seventeenth the manra ceived themselves to be made pure. "The Israelites haud ceased to fall from heaven. What supports this calculation this rite from Abraham; and Abraham had it from the ex- is, that the homer, or sheaf, was ofiered the sixteenth of press order of God himself. See Gen. xvii. 10. and the Nisan, in broad day-light, though pret:y late. Now the note there.

manna did not fall üll night, or very early in the morning; The place is called Gilgal] A rolling away, op roll so that it cannot be said to have ceased falling the same ing of. See the note on chap. iv. 19. where the word is day that the Israelites began to eat of the produce of the largely explained.

country."'--Dodd. Verse 10. Kept the passover on the fourteenth day of Verse 13. When Joshua vas by Jericho] The sixth the month) If the ceremony of circumcision was performed chapter should have commenced here, as this is an entirely on the eleventh day of the month, as many think; that the new relation; or these two chapters should have marie but sore was at the worst on the thirteenth, and that the pass one, as the present division has most unnaturally divided over was celebrated on the fourteenth, the people being the communication which Joshua had from the angel of then quite recovered; it must have been rather a miracu- the Lord, and which is continued to verse 5. of chap. vi. lous than a natural healing. We have already seen, from It is very likely that Joshua had gone out privately io rethe account of Sir J. Chardin, that it required about three connoitre the city of Jericho, when he had this vision; and weeks to restore to soundness adults who had submitted 10 while contemplating the strength of the place, and proba. circumcision: if any thing like this took place in the case bly reflecting on the extreme difficulty of reducing it, Gode of the Israelites at Gilgal, they could not have celebrated to encourage him, granted him this vision, and instructed the passover on the third or fourth day after their circum- him in the means by which the city should be taken.

tip ler a curs, 26. An Exol. Is 10.

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14 And he said, Nay; but as e captain of the 2 T And the Lord said unto Joshua, See, I host of the Lord, am I now come. And Joshua have given into thine hand Jericho, and the i fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, *king thereof, and the mighty men of valour. and said unto him, What saith my lord unto his

3 And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of servant ?

war, and go round about the city once. Thus 15 And the captain of the Lord's host said shalt thou do six days. unto Joshua, Loose thy shoe from off thy foot; 4 And seven priests shall bear before the ark for the place whereon thou standest is holy seven I trumpets of rams' horns: and the seventh And Joshua did so.

day ye shall compass the city seven times, and CHAPTER VI.

m the priests shall blow with the trumpets. The inhabitants of Jericho close their gates, l. Continuation of the discourse between 5 And it shall come to pass, that when they

the captain of the Lord's host a Joshua: He commands the people to march to in the city six days, the even prists tlowing with their trumpets, and to give make a long blast with the ram's horn, and a gewweral shout ulile marchins round it on the scenes, and promise toute per il bene when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the and to the people, 6, 7. The priests and people otsey the order of their procession people shall shout with a great shout; and the part of the property of the city, the whole of which God had devoted to destruction, 31. ohne Venuh say the walla fall down, and the locaelitem take the cover people shall ascend up, every man straight be

wall of the city shall fall down " flat, and the burnt, but the silver, goll, brass, an I iron, are put into the treasury of the house of fore him. the Lord, 22-24 Rahab dwells among the Israelites, 25. And the city is laid

6 || And Joshua, the son of Nun, called the TOW Jericho h was etraitly shut priests, and said unto them, Take up the ark of the 1. Olymp. 675.

up because of the children of covenant, and let seven priests bear seven trumIsrael: none went out, and none came in. pets of rams' horns, before the ark of the LORD. e Or, prince. See Exol. 23. 20. Dan 10.13, 21. & 12 ! Rev. 12. 7. & 19. 11, 14. h Heb. did shut up, and was shut up-i Ch 2 9,9. & 8.1.-k Deal 7. 24-1 Seo f Gen. 17.3.- Exod. 3. 5. Acis 7. 33.

Judlg. 7. 16, 22.-In Numb. 10.8.-n Hebunder it. There stood a man over against him) It has been a 2. By this vision he showed them that their help came very general opinion, both among the ancients and mo from himself, and that it was not by human mighi or derns, that the person mentioned here was no other than power, but by the Lord of hosts, they were to have the the Lord Jesus in that form, which, in the fulness of time, victory over all their adversaries : and he gave them the he was actually to assume for the redemption of man. most convincing proof of this in the miraculous destrucThat the appearance was supernatural, is agreed on all tion of Jericho. By this means he continued to keep it.com hands; and as the name Jehovah, is given him, (chap. vi. dependent on bis arm alone : without which depenleie 2.) and he received from Joshua divine aroration, we may the spirit of religion could not have been preserved among presume that no created angel is intended.

them. And Joshua went unto him) This is a very natural

NOTES ON CHAPTER VI. relation, and carries with it all the appearances and char Verse 1. Now Jericho was straitly shut up] The king acteristics of a simple relation of fact. The whole history of Jericho finding that the spies had escaped, though this of Joshua shows him to have been a man of the most un- city was always kept shut by night, took the most proper daunted mind and intrepid courage-a genuine hero. precaution to prevent any thing of the kind in future, by An ordinary person, seeing this man armed with a drawn keeping the city shut both day and night; having, no sword in his hand, would have endeavoured to have re- doubt, laid in a sufficiency of provisions to stand a siege, gained the camp, and sought safety in flight: but Joshua, being determined to defend himself to the uttermost. undismayed, though probably slightly armed, walks up to Verse 2. And the Lord said unto Joshua) This is the this terrible person, and immediately questioned bim, Art same person who, in the preceding chapter, is called the thou for us, or for our adversaries? Probably, at first, captain or prince of the Lord's host; the discourse being supposing that he might be the Canaanitish general, com here continued that was begun at the conclusion of the ing to reconnoitre the Israelitish camp, as himself was preceding chapter, from which the five first verses of this come out to examine the city of Jericho.

are unnaturally divided. Verse 14. But as captain of the host of the Lord am I I have given into thine hand Jericho, &c.] From now come] By this saying, Joshua was both encouraged ver. 11. of chap. xxiv. it seems as if there had been persons and instructed. As if he had said, "Fear not: Jehovah of all the seven Canaanitish nations then in Jericho, who hath sent froin heaven to save thee and thy people from might have come together at this time to help the king of the reproach of them that would swallow thee up. Israel Jericho against the invading Israelites. The 'Targum intiis the Lord's host; and the Lord of hosts is Israel's cap mates that the place was very strong, having."gates of tain. Thou thyself shalt only be captain under me; and I iron, and bars of brass--and was shut up so closely, that am now about to instruct thee relative to thy conduct in none came out either to combat, or make offers of peace.” this war."

Verse 3. Ye shall compass the city) In what order the And Joshua-did worship] Nor was he reprehended people marched round the city, does not exactly appear for offering divine worship to this person, which he would | from the text. Some think they observed the same order, not have received, had he been a created angel.-See Rev. as in their ordinary marches in the desert, see the note on xxii. 8, 9.

Numb. x. 14. and see the plans, Numb. ii.; others think Verse 15. Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, &c.] These that the soldiers marched first, then the priests, who blew were the same words which the angel on mount Sinai the trumpets, then those who carried the ark, and lastly, spake to Moses, see Exod. ni. 5—8. and from this, it seems the people. likely that it was the same person that appeared in both Verse 4. Seren trumpets of rams' horns] The Hebrew places ; in the first, to encourage Moses to deliver the op word Disan yobelim, does not signify rams' horns--seo pressed Israelies, and bring them to the promised land; the note on Lev. xxv. 11. nor do any of the ancient werin the second, to encourage Joshua in his arduous labour sions, the Chaldee excepted, give it this meaning. The in expelling the ancient inhabitants, and establishing the instruments used on this occasion, were evidently of the people in the inlaeritance promised to their fathers. same kind with those used on the jubilee, and were pro

bably made of horn or of silver: and the text in this place There is scarcely a more unfortunate division of chap- may he translated, And seven priests shall bear before the ters in the whole Bible than that here.— Through this very ark the scren jubilee trumpels; for they appear to have circumstance, many persons have been puzzled to know been the same kind as those used on the jubilee. what was intended by this extraordinary appearance, be Seven times] The time was thus lengthened out, that cause they supposed that the whole business ends with the the besiegers and the besieged might be the more deeply chapter, whereas, it is continued in the succeeding one, the impressed with that supernatural power, by which alone firsi verse of which is a mere parenthesis, simply relating the the walls fell. state of Jericho at the time that Joshua was favoured by Verse 5. The walls of the city shall fall down flat) this encouraging vision. We may draw two useful reflec- Several commentators, both Jews and Christians, have tions from the subjects of this chapter.

supposed that the ground under the foundation of the walls 1. As the manna had now failed, the people, always opened, and the wall sunk into the chasm, so that there greatly addicted to incredulity, might have been led to remained nothing but plain ground for the Israelites to imagine that God had now given them up, and would be walk over. Of this, the text says nothing: noin 50% no longer in their armies, had he not given them this onn nwyn venaphelah chomath hair tachtcyah, literally strong assurance, that the angel of his presence should be translated, is, The wall of the city shall fall down UNDER with them as the guide and protector of the whole camp: ITSELF; which appears to mean no more than, the wall for Joshua undoubtedly informed them of the encour- shall fall down from its very foundations. And this pr.). agement hy had received from the captain of the Lord's bably was the case in every part, though large breaches in host.

different places might be amply sufficient to admit the

✓ And he said unto the people, Pass on, and said unto the people, Shout: for the LORD hath compass the city, and let him that is armed pass given you the city. on before the ark of the LORD.

17 1 And the city shall be saccursed, eren it, 8 And it came to pass, when Joshua had and all that are therein, to the LORD: only Raspokon unto the people, that the seven priests | hab the harlot shall live, she and all that are bearing the seven trumpets of rains' horns, with her in the house, because she hid the mes. passed on before the LORD, and blew with the sengers that we sent. trumpets: and the ark of the covenant of the 18 And ye, "in any wise keep yourselves from LORD followed them.

the accursed thing, lest ye make yourselres ac9 And the armed men went before the priests cursed, when ye take of the accursed thing, and that blew with the trumpets, and the Prere- make the camp of lärael a curse,' and trouble it. ward came afier the ark, the priests going on, 19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of and blowing with the trumpets.

brass and iron, are « consecrated unto the LORD: 10 Aud Joshua had commanded the people, they shall come into the treasury of the LORD. saying, Ye shall not shout, nor 9 make any noise 20 | So the people shouted when the priests with your voice, neither shall any word proceed blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, out of your mouth!, until the day I bid you shout; when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, then shall ye shout.

and the people shouted with a great shout, that 11 So the ark of the Lord compassed the the wall fell down flat, so that the people went city, going about it once: and they came into up into the city, every man straight before him, the camp, and lodged in the camp.

and they took the city: 12 And Joshua rose early in the morning,' and 21 And they ? utterly destroyed all that was in the priests took up the ark of the Lord.

thecity, both man and woman, young and old, and 13 And seven priests bearing seven trumpets ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the of rams' horns before the ark of the Lord, went sword. on continually, and blew with the trumpets: and 22 T But Joshua had said unto the two men the armed men went before them; but the rere- that had spied out the country, Go into the har; ward came after the ark of the Lord, the priests lot's house, and bring out thence the woman, and going on, and blowing with the trumpets. all that she hath, "as ye sware unto her.

14 And the second day they compassed the city 23 Aud the young men that were spies went once, and returned into the camp; so they did in, and brought out Rahah, " and her father, and eix days.

her mother, and her brethren, and all that she 15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, had; and they brought out all hese kindred, and that they rose early about the dawning of the left them without the camp of Israel. day, and compassed the ciiy after the same man 21 And they burnt the city with fire, and all ner. seven time:: only on that day they compass-that has in: d only the silver, and the gold, ed the city seven times.

and the vessels of brass and of iron, ibes put into 16 And it came to pass that the seventh time, the treasury of the house of the LORD. when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshui 25 And Joshua sived Rahah the harlot alive, o N... 10. 23. - p te gathering tot - Het mok your rire bihorl. ve'); 7. 27. 1 kings k 17, 13. Jonah 1 12.-- Hen kalites*.-- V'er & Hem

Der 3.25 - 0,!lol. Lev. 27. 3. Mic. 1. 13.- Ch. 2.-u Deut-7.5 & 13. 17. Ch71, 11, 12,

11. 30 --> lle's under it.- Deul 72-a ( 21. Henr. 11. $1.- Ch.213 c Heb. fimilir, --1 Verse. 19.

armed men first, after whom the whole host mighit enter, at ano:her, i3 without foundation : for I must coniend, that in order to des roy the city.

no breach took place on this occasion; unless it could be Verse 9. Tre rerevaril came after the ark] The word made to appear that the day on which Jericho was taken ODNO incassaph, from 9px asaph, to collect or gather ur, was the sublash, which is very unlikely, and which none may signify either the rereward, as our translation under can prove. But if even this were to be conceded, it is a stands it, or the people who carried the barrage of the sufficient answer to all such cavils, that the God who comarıy; for on ihe seventh day this was necessary, as much manded the sabbath to be set apart for rest and religio: is fighting might be naturally expected in the assault, and purposes, has always authority to suspend for a season the they would need a supply of arms, darts, &c. as well as operation of merely ceremonial laws; or to abrogate them conveniences for those who might happen to be wounded: entirely, when the purpose of their institution is fulfilled. or the persons here intended inight be such as carried the The Son of mon is Lord even of the sabbath. sacred articles belonging to the ark-or merely such people Vers? 17. The city shall be accursed] That is, it shall as might follow in the procession, without observing any be devoted to destruction--ye shall take no spoils, and put particular order. The Jews think the division of Dan all that resist to the sword. Though this inay be ihe is meant, which always brought up the rear.-See Num- meaning of the word on cherem, in some places, see the bers x.

note on Lev. xxvii. 29. yet here it seems to imply the total Verse 14. So they did six days! It is not likely that destruction of all the inhabitants, see ver. 21. but it is likely the whole Israelitish host went each day round the city. ihat peace was offered to this city, and that the exterminaThis would have been utterly impossible: the fighting men tion of the inhabitants, was in consequence of the rejection alone amounted to nearly 600,000 independently of the of this offer. people, who must have amounted to at least two or three Verse 20. The people shouted with a great shout, that millions; we may therefore safely assert, that only a select the wall fill down] There has been much learned laboru number, such as was deemed necessary for the occasion, spent to prove that the shouting of the people mighi be the were employed. Jericho could not have been a large city; natural cause that the wall fell down! To wait here, either and to reduce it could not have required a hundredth part to detail or refute any such arguments, would be lost time: of the armed force under the cominand of Joshua. enow of them may be seen in Scheuchzer. The whole re

Verse 15. The seventh day-they rose carly] Because Intion evidently supposes it to have been a supervatural inon this day they had to encompass the city seven times; a terference, as the blowing of the trumpets, and the shoutproof that the city could not have been very extensire, else ing of the people, were too contemptible to be used even as ihis going round it seven times, and having time sufficient instruments in this work, with the expectation of accomleft 10 sack and destroy it, would have been impossible. plishing it in a natural way.

It is evident that, in the course of these seven days, there Verse 21. They utterly destroyedboth man and romust have been a sabbath; and that on this sabhath, the inan, &c.] As this act was ordered by God himself, who host must have encompassed the city as on the other days: is the Maker and Judge of all men, it must be right; for tie the Jews themselves allow this; and Rab. D. Kimchi says, Judge of all the earth cannot do wrong. Nothing that "He who had ordained the observation of the sabbath, breathed was permitted to live; hence the oxen, sheep, and commanded it to be broken for the destruction of Jericho. asses, were destroyed, as well as the inhabitanis. But it does not appear that there could be any breach in Verse 23. Brought out Rahab, and her father, &c.) the sahbath by the people simply going round the city, the Rahab having been faithful to her vow of seciecy; the Isark in company, and the priests sounding the sacred irum- raelites were bound by the oath of the spies, who had acted pets. This was a mere religious procession, performed at as their representatives in this business, to preserve ber and ihe command of God, in which no servile work was done. her family alive. Therefore Marcion's objection, that the God of the Hebrews And left them without the camp] They were considered showed a changeableness of disposition in commanding the as persons unclean, and consequently left without the camp; Aabbath to be kept sacred at one time, and then to be broken see Levit. xiii. 46. Numb. xü. 14 When they had abjured

and her father's household, and all that she had ; that riseth up and buildeth this city Jericho: he and she dwelleth in Israel oven unto this day; shall lay the foundation thereof in his first-born, because she hid the messengers which Joshua and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates sent to spy out Jericho.

of it. 26 | And Joshua adjured them at that time, 27 So the LORD was with Joshua: and his saying, ' Cursed be the man before the LORD, fame was noised throughout all the country.

e Soe Matt. 1. 5.-fi kinge 16. 31.

& Ch. I 5. --h Ch. 9. 1, 3

heathenism, were purified, and the males received circum After Hiel had rebuilt this city, it became of consideracision, they were doubtless admitted into the camp, and ble consequence in the land of Judea: the courses of became incorporated with Israel.

priests lodged there, who served in their turns at the temVerse 24. Only the silver, and the gold-they put into ple; see Luke x. 30. There was a school of prophets the treasury, &c.] The people were to have no share of ihere, which was visited by Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings ii. the spoils, brcause they had no hand in the conquest. God 4, 5, 18, and it was at this city that our Lord miraculously alone overthrew the city; and into his treasury only, the healed blind Bartimeus, Mait. x. 46. Luke xix. 1, &c. spoils were brought. This is one proof that the agitation At present, Jericho is almost entirely deserted, having but of the air, by the sound of the people's voice was not the thirty or forty miserable cabins in it, which serve for a cause of the fall of the city walls.

place of refuge to some wretched Moors and Arabs, who Vessels of brass und of iron] Instead of 155 keley, ves live there like beasts. The plain of Jericho, formerly 30 SELS ; the Septuagint in the Alexandrian copy, evidently celebrated for its fertility, is at present uncultivated, prohave read 5 hol, all, with the omnission of the yod; for ducing nothing but a few wild trees, and some very indifthey translate in ver. 19. 7.15 x11x95 Kill Oionpos, All the brass ferent fruits. See Calmet. and iron; but this reading does not appear in any of Ken Verse 27. So the Lord was with Joshua] Giving him nicott's or De Rossi's MSS.

miraculous assistance in all his enterprises: and this wag And she dioelleth in Israel even unto this day) This is what he was naturally led to expect from the communicaone proof that the book was written in the time to which tion male to him by the captain of the Lord's host, chapit is commonly referred : and certainly might have been ter v. 14, &c. done by the hand of Joshua himself, thongh doubtless many 1. MANY attempts have been made either to deny the marginal notes may have since crept into the text, which, miracle in the fall of Jericho, or to account for it on natu10 superficial observers, give it the appearance of having ral causes. Reference has already been made to some of been written after the days of Joshua. See the preface to these in the note on ver. 20. But to those who believe the this book.

Divine authenticity of the New Testament, every objecVerse 26. And Joshua adjured them at that time It | lion of this kind is removed by the authority of the author appears that they had received intimations from God, that of the Epistle to the Hebrews, chap. xi. 30. By FAITH this idolatrous city should continue a monument of the di the walls of Jericho fell down after they had been comvine displeasure: and having convened the princes and el. passed about seven days. Hence we find that it was a ders of the people, he bound them by an oath, that they miraculous interference; and that Joshua's faith, in the should never rebuild it: and then, in their presence, pro- promise made to him by the captain of the Lord's host, was nounced a cursa upon the person who should attempt it. The instrument which God chose to employ in the accomThe ruins of this city continuing, would be a permanent plishment of this important purpose. proof, not only of God's displeasure against idolatry, but of 2. The game is said of Rahab, By FAITH the harlot the miracle which he had wrought in behalf of the Israel- Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she ites; and for these reasons, God willed that it should not had received the spics with peace, Heb. xi. 31. She bebe rebuilt: Nevertheless, he left men to the operation of lieved that the true God was on the side of the Hebrews; their own free will, and recorded the penalty which those and that all opposition to them must be in vain : and this must piy who should disobey him.

faith led her to put herself under the Divine protection, He shall lay the foundation thereof, &c.] This is a strange and in virite of it shc escaped the destruction that fell on execration ; but it may rather be considered in the light of her countrymen. Thus God has ever chosen to put a prediction. It seeins to intimate that he who should at- honour on faith, as the instrument by which he will pertempt to rebuild this city, should lose all his children in the form his greatest miracles of justice and mercy: God, interim, from laying the foundation to the completion of the who cannot lie, has given the promise ; he that believes walls; which ihe author of 1 Kings xvi. 34. says was ac shall have it accomplished : for, with God, nothing shalb complished in Hiel the Bethelite, who rebuilt Jericho, under be impossible; and all things are possible to him that bethe reign of Ahaz, and laid the foundation of it in Abi- lieves. These are scriptural maxims, and God cannot tam, his first-born; and sel up its gates in his youngest deny himself. son Segub: this was 530 years after Joshua pronounced 3. On the curse pronounced by Joshua on those who the curge. But we are not sure that this means, that the should rebuild Jericho, it may be necessary to make a few children either died a natural or violent death on this occa remarks. In ancient history we have many instances of bion, for we may understand the history as relating to the execrations against those who should rebuild those cities slow progress of the work. Hiel having begun the work which had been destroyed in war, the revival of whose at the birth of his first-born, was not able to conclude before power and influence was dreaded; especially such cities the birth of his last child, who was born many years after : as had been remarkable for oppression, insolence, or peranıl as their names are mentioned, it is very likely that the fidy. Strabo observes, lib. xiii. p. 898. edit. 1707. ihat distance of time between the birth of each was well known Agamemnon pronounced execrations on those who should when this history was written: and that the extraordinary rebuild Troy, as Cresus did against those who should relength of time spent in the work, in which a multitude of build Sidena, in which the tyrant Glancas had taken revexatious delays had taken place, is that to which the pro- fuge; and this mode of execrating cities, according to phetic execration relates. Yet the first opinion is the most Strabo, was an ancient custom--UITE KOI karapagajevov TOU protable. We must not suppose that Jericho had been | Αγαμεμνονος κατα παλαιον εθος καθαπερ και ο Κροίσος εξελων

holly neglected from its overthrow by Joshua, to the days | την Σιδηνην εις ην ο τυραννος κατεψυγε Γλαυκιας, αρας εθετο Hiel; if it be the same with the city of palm trees, men κατα των τειχειουντων παλιν τον τοπον. . tioner Deut. xxxiv. 3. We find it mentioned as an inha The Romans made a decree, full of execrations, against bited place in the beginning of Judges, chap. i. 16. a short those who should rebuild Carthage, which had been the time after the death of Joshua. And the children of the Ke- rival of their empire; and which, from its advantageous nite, Moscs father-in-law, went up out of the city of palm situation, might again become formidable should it be retrees, with the children of Judah, &c. and this said city, if built. See Zonaras, Annal. the same with the city of palm trees, was taken from the The Ionians, according to Isocrates, pronounced the Israelites by Eglon, king of Moah, Judg. 11. 13. The am most awful execrations on those who should rebuild the bassadors of David, who were disgracefully treated by IIa- temples destroyed by the Persiana ; that they might renun king of the Ammonites, were commanded to tarry at main to posterity an endless monument of the impiety of Jericho till their beards should grow, 2 Sam. x. 4, 5. It those barbarians; and that none might put confidence in a appears, therefore, that there was a city which went under people who were so wicked as to make war on the gods this name, long before the time of Hiel, unless we can sup- themselves. The other Greeks who had suffered by the pose that the city of palm trees was a different place from Persiang, acted in the same way, leaving the desolated Jericho, or that the name Jericho, was given to some part temples as a public monument of the enmity that should of the circumjacent country, after the city was destroyed, ever subsist between the two nations. See Calmet, and which is very probable.

see the notes on Numb. xxii. 6.

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