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Joshua exhorts him to confins his sin, 19. aceput, 20, 21

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5 And the men of Ai smote of them about The trespass of the Israelites, 1. Joahun sen de men to view the state of Ai, 2. They thirty and six men: for they chased them from Three thosun men are sent against it, who

before the gate even unto Shebarim, and smote are defeatel, and turty-six killel, 1, 5. Jomis greatly disresel, prostratea

them in the going down: wherefore Pthe himeli, an lingures of the lor the reason why he has abandoned Israel to their encmies, 6-9. The lori ruisce un an lintarus hun, that contrary to the cominan, hearts of the people melted, and became as one of the people hal tereel some of the poils of Jericho, 10-12 He is directe i how to diac serine belingreat, 12-13. Josta ingures in what tribe the guilt is water. found, anti la 11 to be in the tribe of Jular.-in winut fanily, and finds it to be 6 | And Joshua rent his clothes, and sell to among the Zırhites, in what householl, an fils it to be in that of lani, in whit individul, and finals it to be Acha , son of Carai, son of Zaydi, 16.-18. the earth upon his face before the ark of the

He doen 10, and gives a circumstantial Joenia senis tor the stolen articles, 22, 23.And Achan, and all LORD, until the even-tide, he, and the elders of that belonged to him, are brought to the valley of Achor, stone and burnt, 21-6. Israel, and 'put dust upon their heads. An Exol. Isr. 40. UT the children of Israel com 7 And Joshua said, Alas, O Lord God, I. Olymp. 675. mitted a trespass in the accursed wherefore haet thou at all brought this people

thing: for i Achan, kthe son of Car-. over Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the mi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the Amorites, to destroy us? would to God we had tribe of Judah, took of the accursed thing; and been content, and dwelt on the other side Jordan! the anger of the LORD was kindled against the 8 O LORD, what shall I say, when Israel children of Israel.

turneth their backs before their enemies? 2. And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, 9 For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side of of the land shall hear of it, and shall environ us Beth-el, and spake unto them, saying, Go up round, and w cut off our name from the earth: and view the country. And the men went up and what wilt thou do unto thy great name? and viewed Ai.

10 | And the LORD said unto Joshua, Get 3 And they returned to Joshua, and said unto thee up; wherefore w liest thou thus upon thy him, Let not all the people go up; but let mabout face? two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai; 11 - Israel hath sinned, and they have also and make not all the people to labour thither; transgressed my covenant which I commanded for they are but few.

them ; y for they have even taken of the accurs4 So there went up thither of the people ed thing, and have also stolen, and · dissembled about three thousand men: " and they fled be- also, and they have put it even among their fore the men of Ai.

own stuff. i Ch.22 20.- I Chron. 2. 7, Achar.- Or, Zimri, 1 Chron. 26.-m Heb. clout rl Sam. 4. 12. 2 Sam. 1. 2 & 13. 19. Neh. 9. 1. Job 2 12- Exol. 5 2 2 King 2000 men, or about 3000 men.-n Lev. 23. 17. Deut. 23. 25.- Or, in Morad.-p Ch. 3. 10.-- Heb. necka.-u Paa. 83. 4.- See Exol. 32. 12 Nab. 14. 13.- Hek 29, 11. Lev. 26. 36. Pan. 22. 14.-9 Gen. 37. 22, 31.

Sallest.-x Ver. 1.-y Ch. 6. 17. 18. —z See Acts 5.1, 2.

discouraged; and by this gave an ample proof, that withVerse 1. The children of Israel committed a trespass) | out the supernatural assistance of God, they could never It is certain that one only was guilty; and yet the trespass have conquered the land. is imputed here to the whole congregation; and the whole Verse 6. Joshua rent his clothes, &c.] It was not in congregation soon suffered shame and disgrace on the ac consequence of this slight discomfiture simply considered count, as their armies were defeated, thirty-six persons in itself that Joshua laid this business so much to heart: slain, and general terror spread through the whole camp: but, 1. because the people melted, and became as rato, Being one body, God attributes the crime of the individual and there was little hope that they would make any stand to the whole, till the trespas3 was discovered, and by a against the enemy; and 2. because this defeat evidently public act of justice inflicted on the culprit, the congrega- showed that God had turned his hand against them. Had tion had purged itself of the iniquity. This was done to it not been so, their enemies could not have prevailed. render every man extremely cautious, and to make the Put dust upon their heads) Rending the clothes, people watchful over each other, that sin might be no- beating the breast, tearing the hair, putting dust upon where tolerated or connived at, as one transgression might the head, and falling down prostrate, were the usual bring down the wrath of God upon the whole camp. See marks of deep affliction and distress. Most nations have on ver. 12.

expressed their sorrow in a similar way. The example The accursed thing] A portion of the spoils of the city of the distressed family of king Latinus, so affectingly of Jericho, the whole of which God had commanded to related by Virgil, may be adduced in illustration of many be destroyed.

passages in the history of the patriarchs, prophets, aposFor Achan, the son of Carmi, &c.) Judah had two tles, &c. sons by Tamar, Pharez, and Zerah. Zerah was father of

Regina ut tertis penientem prospicit hosterZabdi, and Zabdi of Carmi, the father of Achan. These

Purpureos moritura, manu disciorbit amictos

Folia prima manu flavos Lacinia crines, five persons extend through a period of 265 years; and

Et roseas laniata genas hence Calmet concludes, that they could not have had

It soissa veste Latinus,

Canitiem immundo perfiisam pulvere turpana children before they were 50 or 55 years of age. This Achan, son of Zabdi, is called, in 1 Chron. ii. 6. Achar,

queen who saw the foes invade the town, son of Zimri; but this reading is corrected into Achan,

And brands on top of burning houses thrown,

She raves againat the godly, she beats ker breast, by some MSS. in the place above cited.

And tears, with both her hands, her purple pest. Verse 2. Sent men from Jericho to Ai] This is the

The sa: Lavinia Tends her yellow hair,

Aul rosy checks; the rest her sortok share. place called Hai, Gen. xii. 8. It was in the east of Beth

Latinis feare his garments, as he goes,

Both for his public and his privale woes; el, north of Jericho, from which it was distant about ten

With filth his venerable beard besmears, or twelve miles. From verses 4 and 5. it appears to have

And sordid dust deforms his silver haire." Dryder been situated upon a hill, and belonged to the Amorites, as Verse 7. Alas, O Lord God] Particles of exclamawe learn from verse 7. It is very likely that it was a tions and distress, or what are called interjections, are strong place, as it chose to risk a siege, notwithstanding nearly the same in all languages; and the reason is bethe extraordinary destruction of Jericho, which it had cause they are the simple voice of nature. The Hebrew lately witnessed.

word, which we translate, alas, is non ah, ah. The comVerse 4. About three thousand men] The spies sent to plaint of Joshua, in this and the following verses, seems reconnoitre the place, ver. 3. reported, that the town was principally to have arisen from his deep concern for the meanly garrisoned, and that two or three thousand men glory of God, and the affecting interest he took in hebalf would be sufficient to take it. These were accordingly of the people; he felt for the thousands of Israel, whom sent up, and were repulsed by the Amorites.

he considered as abandoned to destruction ; and he felt for Verse 5. They chased them from before the gate even the glory of God; for he knew, should Israel be deunto Shebarįm) They seem to have presumed, that the stroyed, God's name would be blasphemed among the men of Ai would have immediately opened their gates to heathen; and his expostulations with his Maker, which them, and therefore they marched up with confidence; but have been too hastily blamed by some, as savouring of too the enemy appearing, they were put to flight, their ranks great freedom and impatience, are founded on God's own utterly broken, and thirty-six of them killed.' Shebarim, words, Deut. xxxii. 26, 27. and on the practice of Moses onay signifies breaches, or broken places, and may here himself, who had used similar expressions on a similar apply to the ranks of the Israelites, which were broken occasion. See Exod. v. 22, 23. Numb. xiv. 13-18. by the men of Ai; for the people were totally routed, Verse 10. Wherefore liest thou thus upon thy face ?) I though there were but few slain. "They were panic struck, is plain there was nothing in Joshua's prayer, or com. and fled in the utmost confusion.

plaint, that was offensive to God, for here there is no The hearts of the people melted) They were utterly reprehension. Why liest thou thus? This is no time for

Æn lib. xil. rer. SE


12 Therefore the children of Israel could | and brought Israel by their tribes; and the tribe not stand before their enemies, but turned their of Judah was taken: backs before their enemies, because they were 17 And he brought the family of Judah ; and accursed: neither will I be with you any more, he took the family of the Zarhites: and he except ye destroy the accursed from among you brought the family of the Zarhites man by man;

13'Up,' sanctily the people, and say, " Sancti- and Zabdi was taken; fy yourselves against to-morrow: for thus saith 18 And he brought his household man by the LORD God of Israel, There is an accursed man; and Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of thing in the midst of thee, O Israel: thou canst Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, not stand before thine enemies, until ye take kwas taken. away the accursed thing from among you.

19 1 And Joshua faid unto Achan, My son, 14 In the morning therefore ye shall be give, I pray thee, glory to the LORD God of brought according to your tribes: and it shall Israel, mand make confession unto him; and be, that the tribe which the Lord taketh shall n tell me now what thou hast done; hide it not come according to the families thereof; and the from me. family which the Lord shall take shall come by 20 And Achan answered Joshua, and said, households; and the household which the LORD Indeed I have sinned against the LORD God of shall take, shall come man by man.

Israel, and thus have I done: 15 And it shall be, that he that is taken with 21 When I saw among the spoils a goodly the accursed thing, shall be burnt with fire, he Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels and all

that he hath: because he hath 5 trans- of silver, and a • wedge of gold of fifty shekels gressed the covenant of the Lord, and because weight, then I coveted them, and took them; he " hath wrought i solly in Israel.

and, behold, they are hid in the earth in the 16 | So Joshua rose up early in the morning, midst of my tent, and the silver under it.

a See Numb. 14. 15. Julg 211-b Deut. 7. 26. Ch. 6. 18.-c Exod. 19. 10.-- Ch. 3.5.- Prov. 16. 33.- See 1 Sam 14. 33, 39.- Ver. 11.-h Gen. 31 7. Judg. 20. 6.

i Or, virkedness -- I Num. 14. 42 -- See I Sam. 6. 5. Jer 13. 16. Jolu 9. 24. --m Numb. 5.6.7. 2 Chron. 30. 22. Psa 51. 3. Dan. 9. 4.- 1 Sam. 14. 13.-o Heb. longue.

complaint ; something else is indispensably necessary to &c. That this was a frequent mode of determining diffibe done.

cult questions, and appointed by God himself, is evident Verse 11. Israel hath sinned] It is impossible that from Lev. xvi. 8. Psal. xxii. 18. Prov. xvi. 33. xviii. 18. God should turn against his people, if they had not and Acts i. 26. turned away from him. They have iaken of the accursed Verse 17. And he brought the family of Judah] Dr. thing-notwithstanding my severe prohibition : they have Kennicott observes, “All Israel came near by their also stolen-supposing, if not seen by their brethren, I TRIBES, and one tribe was fixed on : then that tribe came should either not see, or not regard it. They have dis- by its FAMILIES, and one family was fixed on; then came sembled-pretended to have kept strictly the command Ithat family by its HOUSEHOLDs, and one household was gave them : and have put it among their own stuj - fixed on; and then that household, coming man by MAN, considered it now as a part of their own property:

one man was fixed on. Yet, according to the present Verse 12. Because they were accursed] From this verse text, in the execution of this command, all Israci came, it appears that the nature of the execration or anathema and the tribe of Judah was fixed on: secondly came the was such, that those who took of the thing doomed to de families of Judah, and the family of the Zarhilcs was struction, fell immediately under the same condemnation. fixed on ; thirdly came the family of the Zarhiles, MAN The inhabitants of Jericho, and all that they had, were by man, and Zabdi was fixed on; and fourthly came accursed; therefore they, and all their substance, were to the houschold of Zabdi, man by man, and Achan was be destroyed. The Israelites took of the accursed thing, fixed on. So that, in the third article, the word sor, by and therefore became accursed with it. This was certainly households, is most certainly left out; and the fourth arti. understool when the curse was pronounced-Every man cle, man by man, is improperly expressed twice. Instead who touches this property shall be involved in the same of 57225 legaberim, man by man, in ver. 17. the true execration. Achan, therefore, was sufficiently aware of word Dinas lebeithin, by HOUSEHOLDS, is preserved in six the risk he ran in taking any part of the anathematized | Hebrew copies, and the Syriac version. By this method thing; and when viewed in this light, the punishment in was discovered Achan, as he is here five times called, flicted on him will appear to be perfectly just and proper. though the valley in which he was stoned is called Achor.

Verse 13. Up, sanctify the people) Joshua, all the time He is also called Achar in the text, and in all the Ver. that God spake, lay prostrate before the ark; he is now sions, in 1 Chron. ii. 7. He is called Achar in the five commanded to get up, and sanctify the people, i. c. cause places of Joshua, in the Syriac version, also, in all

five, in them to wash themselves, and get into a proper disposition the Greek of the Vatican MS. and twice in the Alexan. to hear the judgment of the Lord, relative to the late drian MS. and so in Josephus."-Kennicott's Observat. transactions.

Verse 19. My son, gire--glory to the Lord God] The Verse 14. Ye shall be brought according to your person being now detected, Joshua wishes him to actribes] It h 13 been a subject of serious inquiry, in what knowledge the omniscience of God, and confess his crime. manner, and by what means, the culpable tribe, family, And doubtless this was designed, not only for the edificahousehold, and individual, were discovered. The Jews tion of the people, and a vindication of the righteous have many conceits on the subject: the most natural is, judgment of God, but in reference to his own salvation : that the tribes being, in their representatives, brought he for as his life was now become forfeited to the law, there fore the high priest, the stone on the breast-plate gave im was the utmost necessity of humiliation before God, that mediate intimation by suddenly losing its lustre, according his soul might be saved.' Gire glory to God, signifies the to them. This is what is termed, consulting God by same as make a thorough confession as in the presence of Urim and Trummim. It is, however, most probable, God, and disguise no part of the truth. In this way and that the whole was determined by the lot; and ihat God in these very words, the Jews adjured the man who had chose this method to detect the guilty tribe, next the been born blind, that he would truly tell who had healed Fumily, thirdly the household, and lastly the individual. bim; for they pretended to believe that Christ was such a This was nearly the plan pursued in the election of Saul, sinner, that God would not work a miracle by him, John by Samuel. “Now, therefore," says he, "present your

ix. 24. selves before the Lord by your tribes, and by your thou Verse 20. I hare sinned against the Lord God) This sands. And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of

seems a very honest and hearty confession; and there is Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken. hope, that this poor culprit escaped perdition. When he had caused the tribe of Benjamin to come near Verse 21. A goodly Babylonish garment] 2017 by their families, the family of Matri was taken ; and adereth Shineâr, a splendid or roslly robe of Shinar: Saul the son of Kislı, was taken." If the lot was used but as Babylon or Babel, was built in the plain of Srinar, in the one case, it was doubtless used in the other also, as the word has, in general, been translated Babylon, in this the procedure, in the main, was entirely similar. The place. It is very probable, that this was the robe of the same mode was used to find out who it was that trang. king of Jericho; for the same word is used, Jonah iii. 6. gressed the king's command, when it was found that to express the royal robe of the king of Nineveh, which Jonathan had ea'en a little honey, 1 Sam. xiv. 40–43. It he laid aside in order to humble himself before God. is well known that the promised land was divided by lot Bochart and Calmet have shown at large, that Babyamong the Israelites, see Numb. xxiv. 55. xxxiii. 54. lonish robes were very splendid, and in high reputation. Deut. 1. 38, &c. and that we courses of the priests were "They are," says Calmet, "generally allowed to have - Jated by lot in the days of David, 1 Chron. xxiv. 5, I been of various colours, though some suppose they were

22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran | had: and they brought them unto "the valley of unto the lent; and, behold, it was hid in his Achor. tent, and the silver under it.

25 And Joshua said, "Why hast thou troubled 23 And they took them out of the midst of us? the LORD shall trouble thee this day. And the tent, and brought them unto Joshua, and all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned unto all the children of Israel, and » laid them them with fire, after they had stoned them with out before the LORD.

stones. 24 | And Joshua, and all Israel with him, took 26 And they'raised over him a great heap Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the of stones into this day. So 'the LORD turned garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, from the fierceness of his anger. Wherefore and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, the name of that place was called, The valley and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he of Achor, unto this day.

p Help poured. Ver. 2. Ch. 15. 7.- Ch. 6. 18. 1 Chron. 2 7. Gal. 5. 12 1 CL. 8. 29. 2 Sam. 13. 17. Laun. 3. 52-1 Deut. 13 17 2 Sun 21.14- Verse a

. Degl 17.5.

Isaiah 65. 10. Hosea 2 15.--w That is, tble.

Punic. xiv. ver. 657.

woven thus; others, that they were embroidered with the raised over him a great heap of stones. The SYRIAC needle; and others, that they were painled. Silius Ilal says simply, They stoned him with stones, and burn! icus appears to think they were woven, thus :

what pertained to him with fire. The Targrx is the Vestia spirantes referens subleznine vultus,

same as the Hebreu. The ANGLO-SAXON seems to refer Qua radio celat Babylon.

the whole to Achan and his GOODS: And hine Dæn staa"Martial seems to say they were embroidered with the don, I his ding forbarndon.— And him they stoned there, needle:

and burnt his goods. The ARABIC version alone says, Non ego pertulerim Babylonica picta superbe Terla, Semiramia quca variantur acu. Lib. viii. E. 28. ver. 17.

They stoned him and hi CHILDREN, and his goods, "Pliny (lib. viii. c. 48.) and Apulerus (Florid. lib. i.) | tico of De Rossi's MSS. read you otho, hiv; which read

wlog duyInstead of burnt THEM, Onk otham, speak of them as if painted: Colores diversos pictura ing, if genuine, would make the different members of the intexere Babylon mazimè celebravit, et nomen imposuit." Thus far Calmet: but it may be observed, ihat the

verse agree better. It is possible that Achin, his Oset, clothes woven of divers colours at Babylon, which were

asses, sheep, tent, and all his household goods, were de50 greatly celebrated, and hence called Babylonic gar

stroyed; but his sons and daughters left uninjured. But

it may be asked, Why are they brought out into the valley ments, appear rather to have had the pictures voren or embroidered in them, than painted on them, as Calmet for ever deterred by their father's punishment from imitat

with the rest? Why, that they might see, and fear, and be supposes; though it is most likely, the figures referred to,

ing his example. were the work of the needle, after the cloth came from the I have gone thus far into this important transaction, in loom.

which the justice and mercy of God are so much concerned, AQUILA translates the original, nav nn7x adcrcth Shinår, by otoàn, BaBudovixny, a Babylonish robe-SYMMA

that I miglit be able to assign to each its due. That Achan's

life was forfeited to justice by his transgression, no one Chus, evdupa ovvap, a robe of Sinar---the SEPTUAGINT, doubts: he sinned against a known and positive law. His Vilnv rokidny, a fine garment of different colours--and children could not suffer with him, because of the law, the VULGATE, Pallium coccineum, a scarlet cloak. There is no doubt it was both beautiful and costly; and on these guilt: of this there is no evidence; and the text in ques

Deut. xxiv. 16. unless they had been accomplices in his grounds it was covered by Achan. Two hundred shekels of silver] At three shillings per dubious, as far as it relates to this point. One circum

tion, which speaks of Achan's punishment, is extremely shekel, amount to about 301. sterling. A wedge of gold) A tongue of gold, a press leshon

stance, that strengthens the supposition that ihe children zahab, what we commonly call an ingol of gold, a cor

were not included, is the command of the Lord, ver. 15.

"He that is taken with the accursed thing, shall be turnt ruption of the word lingot, signifying a little tongue-of) with fire, he and all that he hath.Now all that he hath fifty shekels iceight. These fifty shekels, in weight 29

may certainly refer to his goods, and not to his children; oz. 1541 gr. at 21. 58. 24 , j per sh. would be worti about and his punishment, and ihe destruction of his property, 1131. (s. 101.

would answer every purpose of public justice, both as a pun. This verse gives us a notable instance of the progress ishment and preventive of the crime; and both mercy and of sin. !. It enters by the eye; 2. Sinks into the heart; | justice require, that the innocent shall not suffer with the 3. Actuates the hand; and 4. Lea is to secrecy and dis-guilty, unless, in very extraordinary cases, where God simulation. I saio, &c. I coveled, &c. I took and hid may permit the righteous or the innocent, to be involved them in the earth. Thus says St. James: “When lust in those public calamities, by which the ungodly are step! (evil desire) is conceived, it bringeth forth sin; and when away from the face of the earth: but in the case before 13, sin is finished, it bringeih forth death,” chap. i. 15. no necessity of this kind is urged; and therefore I cou

Verse 24. Joshua-look Achan-and all that he had]clude, that Achan alone suffered, and that his repentanee He, and his cattle and substance, were brought to the valley and confession were genuine and sincere; and that while to be consumed; his sons and his daughters (probably) 10 JUSTICE required his life, MERCY was extended to the sala witness the judgments of God inflicted on their disobedient vation of his soul. parent.--See ver. 25.

Verse 26. They raised orer him a great heap of słones) Verse 23. Why hast thou troubled us?) Here is a refer- The burial-places, both of heroes and eminent culpa ence to the meaning of Achan's or Achar's name, unngy no were anciently thus distinguished; and transactions of this meh ACAR-tanu ; and as sy âcar is used here, and not kind gave rise to those great piles of stones called cairas, 1sy acan, and the valley is called the Valley of Acar, and that are so frequently to be met with, especially in northnot the Valley of Acan, hence some have supposed that ern countries. Acar was his proper name, as it is read in 1 Chron. ii. 7. in some MSS, and ancient versions. See the note on From the whole of this account, we may see the er. ver. 17.

ceeding sinfulness of sin, and the great danger of not withAnd all Israel stoned him with slones, and burned them standing its first approaches. By corciousness, many with fire, after they had stoned them with stones.) With lives and many souls have been destroyed; and yet the great de erence to the judgment of others, I ask, Can it be living lay it not to heart! Wbo fears the lore of money, fairly proved from the text, that the sons and daughters provided he can get riches? Through the intensiiy of this of Achan were stoned to death, and burnt, as well as their desire, every part of the surface of ihe earth, and as far as father? The text certainly leaves it doubtful, but seems possible its bowels, are ransacked in order to get wealth; rather to intimate, that Achan alone was sioned, and that and God alone can tell, who sees all things, to how many his substance was burnt with fire. The reading of the private crimes, frauds and dissimulalions, this gives birth; present HEBREW text is--they stoned him wilh slones, and by which the wrath of God is brought down upon the burnt them with fire, after they had stoned them with community at large! Who is an enemy to his country? stones. The singular number being used in the first The sinner against his God. An open foe may be resisted clause of the verse, and the plural in the last, leaves the and repelled, because he is known : but the corelous man, matter doubtful.

The VULGATE is very clear; Lapida- who, as far as his personal safety will admit, is outraging vitquc eum omnis Israel ; et cuncta que illius erant, igne all the requisitions of justice, is an unseen pestilenee, sor. consumpta sunt-"All Israel stoned him; and all that he ing the seeds of desolation and ruin in society. Achan's had was consumed with fire.” The SEPTUAGINT add this covetousness, which led him to break ice law of God, had and the first clause of the next verse together : kai el.80- nearly proved the destruction of the laraelitish campi nor βολησαν αυτον λιθοις πας Ισραηλ, και επεστησαν αυτω σωρον | would the Lord turn away from his displeasure :: the di0w pevar-And all Israel stoned him with stones, and evil was detected, and the criminal punished.

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a Dent. L. 21. & 7. 16. & 31. 8. Ch. 1. 9.b Ch. 6. 2- Ch. 6. 21-Deul. 20. 14.


4 And he commanded them, saying, Behold,

eye shall lie in wait against the city, even behind The Lord eucoirages Joahna, and prom ses to deliver Ai into his hande: an instructs him how he is to proceel against it, 1, 2 ventana takes thing isang the city: go not very far from the city, but be ye

The inen lipa thenelves according to the we lirection, P-13. The all ready : kimg { Ai attacks the Israrlites, wher, feigning to be benten, f'y before him ; in con.

5 And I and all the people that are with me, sequence of which all the troops or Ai issue out and pure ile Istuebes 14-17. Josbin, at the command of GI, elretches out his spear towan! Ai, an then fire

will approach unto the city: and it shall come to thousand men that he had place in amburch in the valley, rier up, enter the city, and set it on fire , 19. Then Jostina ani his men tre ugainsi theme of di, pass, when they come out against us, as at the in the rear ling the men of die ete defe oli lower hos enkeur pricer, tive city first, that we will fee before them,

6 (For they will come out after us) ill we and hang the king of di, 27-29. Jochea bujhs an alur to God on moaint Eul, and stilsson in copy of the law of love, 1922. The ch lern, oficers, and julges have drawn them from the city : for they will against meine Email, and read all the blossings and curses of the law, according to say, They flee before us, as at the first: therethe command of Moses, 335.

fore we will flee before them. An Exot. la. ND LORD said unto Joshua, ? ye shall rise up from the ambush, 1. Olymp. 675

mayed: take all the people of war with deliver it into your hand. thee, and arise, go up to Ai: see, I have given 8 And it shall be, when ye have taken the city, into thy hand the king of Ai, and his people, and that ye shall set the city on fire: according to his city, and his land:

the commandment of the Lord shall ye do. h See, 2 And thou shalt do to Ai and her king as thou I have commanded you. didst unto e Jericho and her king : only the spoil 9 || Joshua therefore sent them forth : and thereof, and the cattle thereof, shall ye take for they went to lie in ambush, and abode between a prey unto yourselves : lay thee an ambush for Beth-el and Ai, on the west side of Ai: but the city behind it.

Joshua lodged that night among the people. 3 | So Joshua arose, and all the people of war, 10 And Joshua rose up early in the morning, to go up against Ai: and Joshua chose out thirty and numbered the people, and went up, he and thousand mighty men of valour, and sent them the elders of Israel, before the people to Ai. away by night.

11 And all the people, even the people of war

e Judg. 20. 29. - Julg. 20. 32 - Heb. pullue-h 2 Sam 13. 28.-i Verse 5. Reader, is the face of God turned against thee, because the north side of the city, for we find him among them of some private transgression ? Are not thy circumstances when the men of Ai issued out, ver. 15. though he was the and family suffering in consequence of something in thy night before in the valley on the west side, where the amprivate life? O search and try thy ways, return to God, buscade lay, ver. 13. 7. That as Ai was bui a small city, and humble thyself before him, lest thy iniquity instantly containing only twelve thousand inhabitants, it would have find thee out.

been absurd to have employed an army of several hundred NOTES ON CHAPTER VIII.

thousand men against them. 8. This is confirmed by the Verse 1. Fear not] The iniquity being now purged away: opinion of the spies, chap. vii. ver. 3. who, from the smallbecause of which God had turned his hand against Israel, ness of the place, the fewness of its inhabitants, and the there was now no cause to dread any other disaster; and panic-struck state in which they found them, judged that therefore Joshua is ordered to take courage.

ihree thousand troops would be quite sufficient to reduce the Take all the people of war with thee] From the letter place. 9. That it appears this judgment was correctly of this verse it appears, that all that were capable of carry- enough formed, as the whole population of the place ing arms, were to march out of the camp on this occasion: amounted only io twelve thousand persons, as we have althirty thousand chosen men formed an ambuscade in one ready seen, ver. 25. 10. That even a less force might have place; five thousand he placed in another, who had all been suficient for the reduction of this place, bad they been gained their positions in the night season: with the rest of supplied with ba!tering-rams, and such like instruments, the army he appeared the next morning before Ai, which which it does not appear the Israelites possessed. 11. Thał the men of that city would naturally suppose were the whole this is the reason why Joshua employed the statagems dea of the Israelitish forces; and consequently be the more em tailed in this chapter, for having no proper instruments or buldened to come out and attack them. But some think machines by means of which he might hope to take the that thirty thousand men were the whole that were employ, city by assault; and to reduce it by famine, which was quite ed on this occasion : five thousand of whom were placed possible, would have consumed iso much time, he used the as an ambuscade on the west side of the city, between leigned flight, ver. 19. 10 draw the inhabitants from the city, Beth-el and Ai, ver. 12. and with the rest he appeared be that the ambush, ver. 12, 15. might then enter, and take fore the city in the morning. The king of Ai seeing but possession of it. 12. That had he advanced with a greater about twenty-five thousand coming against him, and being force against the city, the inhabitants would have had no determined to defend his city and crown to the last extremi confidence in risking a battle, and consequently would have ty, though he had but twelve thousand persons in the whole kept within their walls, which would have defeated the de. city, ver. 25. scarcely one half of whom we can suppose to sign of the Israelites, which was to get them from the city. be effective men, he was determined to risk a battle; and 13. That all these circumstances considered, thirty thouaccordingly issued out, and was defeated by the stratagem sand men, disposed as above, were amply suflicient for de mentioned in the preceding part of this chapter.

reduction of the city; and were the whole of the Israelitis! Several eminent commentators are of opinion, that the troops which were employed on the occasion. whole Israelitish force was employed on this occasion, be Verse 8. Ye shall set the city on fire] Probably this cause of what is said in the first verse : hoat this is not at all means no more than that they should kindle a fire in the city, likely. 1. It appears that but thirty thousand were chosen the smoke of which should be an indication that they had out of the whole camp for this expedition, the rest being taken it. For as the spoils of the city were to be divided drawn up in readiness, should their co-operation be neces among the people, had they at this time set fire to the city sary. See verses 3 and 10. 2. That all the people were itself, all the property must have been consumed, for the mustered, in order to make this selection, ver. 1. 3. That five thousand men did not wait to save any thing, as they these thirty thousand were sent off by night, ver. 3. Joshua immediately issued out to attack the men of Ai in the rear. himself continuing in the camp a part of that night, ver. 9. Verse 10. Numbered the people] DYNON 20" rayiphwith the design to put himself at the head of the army next kod et haâm, he visited the people, that is, inspected their morning. 4. That of the thirty thousand men, fire thousand ranks, to see whether every thing were in perfect readiness, were directed to lie in ambush between Beth-el and Ai, on that, in case they should be needed, they inight be led on to the west side of the city, ver. 12. the twenty-five thousand the attack. There is no doubt that Joshua had left the rest having taken a position on the north side of the city, ver. 11. of the army so disposed and ready, part of which had pro5. That the whole of the troops employed against Ai on bably advanced toward Ai, that he might easily receive this occasion, were those on the north and west, ver. 13. reinforcements, in case of any disaster to the thirty thouwhich we know from the preceding verses, were composed sand which had advanced against the city: and this conof thirty thousand chosen men. 6. That Joshua went in sideration will serve to remove a part of the difficulty which the course of the night, probably before day-break, into the arises from the 1st, 3d, and 10th verses, collated with other vallev, between Belh-el and Ai, where the ambuscade of parts of this chapter. Had he brought all his troops in five thousand men was placed, ver. 13. and gave them the sight, the people of Ai would not have attempted to risk a proper directions how they were to proceed, and agreed on batile, and would consequently have kept within their walls, the sign he was to give ihem, at the moment he wished from which it was the object of Joshua to decoy them. them to ac, see ver. 18. and that after having done so, he see the preceding observations, particularly the 10ih, 11th, put himself at the head of the twenty-five thousand men on and 12th. Vol. I.-71


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that were with him went up, and drew nigh, and 21 And when Joshua and all Israel saw that came before the city, and pitched on the north side the ambush had taken the city, and that the of Ai: now there was a valley between them smoke of the city ascended, then they turned and Ai.

again, and slew the men of Ai. 12 And he took about five thousand men, and 22 And the others issued out of the city against eet them to lie in ambush between Beth-el and them: so they were in the midst of Israel, some Ai, on the west side k of the city:

on this side, and some on that side: and they 13 And when they had set the people, even smote them, so that they plet none of them reall the host that was on the north of the city, main or escape. and i their liers in wait on the west of the city, Jo 23 And the king of Ai they took alive, and shua went that night into the midst of the valley: brought him to Joshua.

14 T And it came to pass, when the king of 24 And it came to pass, when Israel had made Ai saw it, that they hasted and rose up early; an end of slaying all the inhabitants of Ai in the and the men of the city went out against Israel field, in the wilderness wherein they chased to battle, he and all his people, at a time appoint- them; and when they were all fallen on the edge ed, before the plain; but he wist not that there of the sword, until they were consumed, that all were liers in ambush against him behind the city. the Israelites returned unto Ai, and smote it 15 And Joshua and all Israel"

made as if they with the edge of the sword. were beaten before them; and fled by the way 25, And so it was, that all that fell that day, of the wilderness.

both of men and women, were twelve thousand, 16 And all the people that were in Ai were even all the men of Ai. called together to pursue after them: and they 26 For Joshua drew not his hand back, wherepursued after Joshua, and were drawn away with he stretched out the spear, until he had utfrom the city.

terly destroyed all the inhabitants of Ai. 17 And there was not a man left in Aior Beth 27 ! Only the cattle and the spoil of that city el, that went not out after Israel: and they left Israel took for a prey unto themselves, accordthe city open, and pursued after Israel.

ing unto the word of the Lord, which he com13 And the LORD said unto Joshua, Stretch manded Joshua. out the spear that is in thy hand toward Ai; for 28 And Joshua burnt Ai, and made it an heap I will give it into thine hand. And Joshua for ever, even a desolation unto this day. stretched out the spear that he had in his hand 29 · And the king of Ai he hanged on a tree toward the city.

until eventide: and as soon as the sun was 19 And the ambush arose quickly out of their down, Joshua commanded that they should take place, and they ran as soon as he had stretched his carcass down from the tree, and cast it at out his hand: and they entered into the city, and the entering of the gate of the city, and raise took it, and hasted and set the city on fire. thereon a great heap of stones, that remaineth

20 And when the men of Ai looked behind unto this day. them, they saw, and behold, the smoke of the 30 Then Joshua built an altar unto the LORD city ascended up to heaven, and they had no God of Israel, * in mount Ebal,

power to flee this way or that way: and the 31 As Moses the servant of the LORD compeople that fled to the wilderness, turned back manded the childten of Israel, as it is written in upon the pursuere.

the book of the law of Moses, an altar of whole

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k Or, of Ai.--1 Heb, their lying in wait. Verse 4.-m Judg. 20. 34. Eccles. 9. 12.

Judg. 20. 36, &c.-o flebhand.-p Deut. 7. 2.-r Numb 31. 72, 25.- Ver. 2

t Deut. 12. 16.-- Ch. 10. 28. Psa. 107. 10. 110. 5.- Dext. 21. 2 Ch 97.

w Ch. 7. 28. & 10. 27.- Deut. 27. 4, 5.-y Exod. 20. 6. Deul. 17. 5, 6.

Verse 17. There was not a man left in Ai or Beth-el] implied that Joshua continued in prayer to God for the It is very likely, that the principal strength of Beth-el had success of his troops; nor did he cease till the armies of Ai been previously brought into Ai, as the strongest place to were annihilated, and the city taken and destroyed. The make a stand in: Beth-el being but about three miles dis Hebrew word 1973 kidon, which we render spear, is rentant from Ai, and probably not greatly fortified. Therefore dered by the Vulgate clypeum, buckler; and it must le Ai contained, on this occasion, All the men of Beth-cl, all owned, íhat it seems to have this signification in several the warriors of that city, as well as its own troops and in passages of Scripture. See 1 Sam. xvii. 6. and 45. Job habitants. Others think, that the Bethelites, seeing the Is xxxix. 23. but it is clear enough also, that it means & raelites fly, sallied out of their city as against a coinmon spear, or some kind of offensive armour, in other places. enemy, but that finding the men of Ai discomfited, and the See Job xli. 29. Jerem, vi. 23. I cannot therefore Junk city taken, they returned to Beth-el, which Joshua did not that it has any metaphorical meaning, such as that afrikar think proper to attack at this time. From Judges i. 24. we led to the holding up of Moses's hands, Exod. xvii. 10–12. find that Beth-el was then a walled city, in the hands of which is generally allowed to have a spiriwal meaning, the Canaanites, and was taken by the house of Joseph. though it might be understood as the act of Joshua is here;

Verse 18. Stretch out the spear] It is very probable that and to this meaning an indirect glance is given in the nete Joshua had a flag or ensign at the end of his spear, which on the above place. But however the place in Exodus mar might be easily seen at a considerable distance; and that be understood, that before us does noi appear to have any the unfurling or waring of this, was the sign agreed metaphorical or equivocal meaning-Joshua continued to on between him and the ambush.-See ver. 13. and the hold up or stretch out his spear, and did not slack frrp preceding observations on ver. 1. observation 6. and on the pursuit, till the forces of Ai were utterly discomfiied. seeing this flug or ensign unfurled, the men who lay in Verse 27. Only the cattle and the spoill' In the case of ambush arose, and entered the city: making the fire pre- Jericho, these were all consigned to desiruction, and thereviously agreed on.-See ver. 8.

fore it was criminal to take any thing pertaining to the Verse 19. Set the city on fire.] See on ver. 8.

city, as we have already seen; but in the case before us the Verse 20. They had no pover to flee this way or that caitle and spoils were expressly given to the conquerors ty way) They were in utter consternation; they saw that the order of God. See ver. 2. the city was taken they found themselves in the midst of Verse 29. Unto this day.) This last clause vas probably their foes--that their wives, children, and property, had added by a later hand. fallen a prey to their enemies, in consequence of which, Verse 29. The king of Ai he hanged on a tree) He they were so utterly panic-struck, as to be incapable of had gone out at the head of his men, and had been taken making any resistance.

prisoner, ver. 23. and the battle being over, he was ordered Verse 24. Returned unto Ai, and smole it with the to be hanged, probably after having been strangled, or in edge of the sword.) This must refer to the women, child some way deprived of life, as in the case mentioned, chap ren, ail old persons left behind; for it is likely that all the x. 26. for in those times it was not customary to hang effective men had sallied out when they imagined the Is- people alive. raelites bad fled. See ver. 16.

As soon as the sun was doron] It was not lawful to let Verse 26. Joshua drew not his hand back] He was not the bodies remain all night upon the tree. See the note a only the general, but the standard-bearer or ensign, of Deut. xxi. 23. The Septuagint say, the king of Ai v his own army; and continued in this employment during hanged 671 Juday didvyov, upon a double tree, which pro the whole of the batile. See on ver. 13. Some commen- ably means a forked tree, or something in the form of a tators understand this, and ver. 19. figuratively, as if they | cross. The cree on which criminals were hanged among


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