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stones, over which no man hath lift up any iron: I leys, and in all the coasts of the great sea over and they offered thereon burnt-offerings unto against Lebanon, 'the Hittite, and the Amorite, the LORD, and sacrificed peace-offerings. the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and

32 And he wrote there upon the stones a the Jebusite, heard thereof; copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote in the 2 That they, mgathered themselves together, presence of the children of Israel.

to fight with Joshua, and with Israel, with one 33 And all Israel, and their elders, and offi- accord. cers, and their judges, stood on this side of the 31 And when the inhabitants of Gibeon ark, and on that side, before the priests the Le- P heard what Joshua had done unto Jericho and vites, which bare the ark of the covenant of the to Ai, Lord, as well the stranger, as he that was born 4. They did work wilily, and went and made among them; half of them over against mount as if they had been ambassadors, and took old Gerizim, and half of them over against mount sacks upon their asses, and wine boitles, old, Ebal: as Moses the servant of the Lord had and rent, and bound up; commanded before, that they should bless the 5 And old shoes and clouted, upon their feet, people of Israel.

and old garments upon them; and all the bread 34 And afterward he read all the words of of their provision was dry and mouldy. the law, 'the blessings and cursings, according 6 And they went to Joshua ? unto the camp to all that is written in the book of the law. at Gilgal, and said unto him, and to the men of

35 There was not a word of all that Moses Israel, We be come from a far country: now commanded, which Joshua read not before all therefore make ye a league with us. the congregation of Israel, with the women, 7 And the men of Israel said unto the r Hiand the little ones, and the strangers that vites, Peradventure ye dwell among us; and i were conversant among them.

how shall we make a league with you? CHAPTER IX.

8 And they said unto Joshua, i We are thy All the king of the Hittites, dmorites, Canaanites, Perizsites, Hiriles, and Jehu.

eervants. And Joshua said unto them, Who are sites, unite their forces against Joshua, 1, 2. The inhabitants of Gibeon hearing ye? and from whence come ye? what Joshua had done to Ai, sent ambassadors to him, feigwng themstives to come from a very distant tribe, requesting a friendly alliance with him, 3.-5. Their 9 And they said unto him, " From a very far Israelilih eksters are deceivel, an ninke league with them, wtich they contime country thy servants are come, because of the with an oath, 14, 15. After three laye they are informed that the Gibeonites be name of the Lord thy God: for we have heard Jong to the seven Canaanilish nations, yet they wpare their cities, 16, 17. The congregation murinurog because of this, the elders excuse themselves because of their the fame of him, and all that he did in Egypt. oath, 18, 19They purpose to make the Gibeonites slaves to the congregation, 20, 21. Joshua calls thein, and pronounces this sentence against them, 22, 23.

10 And w all that he did to the two kings of Thev vindicate themselves, and subunit to their lot, 24, 25. They are spared, and male hewers of wind and drawers ui water to the congregaúon, and to the altar, hon king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan,

the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan, to SiND it came to pass, when all the which was at Ashtaroth. I. Olyng. 675.

11 Wherefore our elders and all the inhabitJordan, in the hills, and in the val- ants of our country spake to us, saying, Take

26, 27. an. Exod. Isr. 40.

Ano ante

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Exod. 2. 21.-a Dextt. 27. 2, 8.- Deut. 31. 9, 35.-c Dent 31. 12.- Deut. 11 23 & 27. 12 - Dent 31. 11. Nehem 8. 3.- Deut. 2, 15, 15.& 220,21. & 30. 19. g Deut. 3L 12 --- Verse 33 - Hebrew, walked.-k Numb 34.6.- Exod. 3. 17. & 3.

23. Psa. 83 3,5.-n Heb. muth-oCh 10. 2 Sam. 21. 1,2-pCh. 6.27.-9 Ch 5. 10.-rth.11. 19.- Exol. 2. 32. Dent. 7. 2. 20. 16. Judg. 22- Deut. 2. 11 2 Kings 10.6.- Deut. 20. 15.-v Exod. 15. 14. Josh 2. 10.-W Namb. 21. 21, 33.

the Romans was called arbor infelix, and lignum infelix, without himself, he will not save him without himself; the unfortunate, ill-fated, or accursed tree.

and therefore man's own concurrence of will, and co-opeRaise thereon a great heap of stoncs] This was a com ration of power with God, are essentially necessary to mon custom through all antiquity in every country, as we his preservation and salvation. This co-operation is the have already seen in the case of Achan. Chap. vii. 20. grand condition, sine quâ non, on which God will help or

Verse 30. Then Joshua built an altar] This was done save. But is not this " endeavouring to meril salvation in obedience to the express command of God. Deut. xxvii. by our own works ?" No: for this is impossible, unless 4-8. See the notes there.

we could prove that all the mental and corporeal powers Verse 32. A copy of the law of Moses) on nown which we possess, came from and of ourselres, and that mishneh torath, the repetition of the law ; that is, a copy we held them independently of the power and beneficence of the blessings and curses, as commanded by Moseg---noi of our Creator; and that every act of these was of infinite a copy of the Decalogue, as some imagine; nor of the book value, to make it an equivalent for the heaven we wished of Deuteronomy, as others think; much less of the whole to purchase. Putting forth the hand to receive the alms Pentateuch, but merely of that part which contained the of a benevolent man, can never be considered a purchase blessings and curses, and which was to be read on this price for the bounty bestowed. For ever shall that word solemn occasion. See the note on Deut. xxvii. 3.

stand true in all its parts, Christ is the author of eternal Verse 33. Half of them over against mount Gerizim) salvation to all them that OBEY him. Heb. v. 9. See the arrangement of the whole of this business in the

NOTES ON CHAPTER IX. note and observations on Deut. xxvii. 26. And see also Verse 1. And it came to pass when all the kings-heard the notes on chap. xxviii. of the same book.

thereof) From this account, it appears that the capture Verse 35. With the women, and the little ones] It was and destruction of Jericho, and Ai, had been heard of 10 necessary that all should know, that they were under the the remotest parts of the land: that a general fear of the same obligation to obey--even the women are brought for- Israelitish arms prevailed; and that the different dynasward, not only because of their personal responsibility, but ties or petty governments into which the land was divided, because to them, way principally entrusted the education felt all their interests at stake, and determined to make the of the children.---The children also witness this solemn desence of their country a common cause. This was the transaction, that a salutary fear of offending God might be Inost prudent step they could take in their circumstances; early, diligently, and deeply impressed upon their hearts. I and therefore they entered into a confederation, in order to Thus every precaution is taken to ensure obedience to the arrest the progress of the Israelites. The great sea menDivine precepts, and consequentiy to promote the happiness tioned here, is the Mediterranean sea, the coasts of which of the people: for this, every ordinance of God is remark were inhabited by the Phænicians, Tyrians, Sidonians, able, as he ever causes the interest and duty of his follow- and Philistines. It is very likely that all these united ers to go hand in hand.

with the Canaanites, for their common safety. 1. It may be asked, seeing God promised to deliver Ai Verse 3. The inhabitants of Gibeon 'heard] These into the hands of the Israelites, why needed they to employ alone, did not join the confederation. Gibeon is supposed 80 many men, and so many stratagems, in order to its re to have been the capital of the Hivites. In the division duction? To this it may be answered, that God will have of the land it fell to the lot of Benjamin, chap. xvii. 25. man to put forth the wisdom and power with which he has and was after ward given to the priesls, chap. xxii. 17. endued him, in every important purpose of life;-that he see the note on chap. x. 2. endued him with those powers for this very end; and that Verse 4. They did work wilily) Finesse of this kind it would be inconsistent with his gracious design, 80 to is allowed by the conduct of all nations; and stratagems help man at any time, as to render the powers he had given in war are all considered as legal. Ninc-tenths of the him useless.

victories gained, are attributable to stratagem ; all sides 2. It is only in the use of lawful means that we have practice them, and therefore none can condemn them. any reason to expect God's blessing and help. One of Much time and labour have been lost in the inquiry, "Did the ancients has remarked, “Though God has made man not the Gibeonites tell lies ?" Certainly they did-and

us.

victuals s with you for the journey, and go to 16 | And it came to pass at the end of three meet them, and say unto them, We are your days after they had made a league with them, servants: therefore now make ye a league with that they heard that they were their neighbours;

and that they dwelt among them. 12 This our bread we took hot for our provi 17 And the children of Israel journeyed, and sion, out of our houses, on the day we came came unto their cities on the third day. Now forth to go unto you; but now, behold, it is dry, their cities were " Gibeon, and Chephirah, and and it is mouldy:

Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim. 13 And these bottles of wine, which we filled, 18 And the children of Israel smote them pot, were new; and, behold, they be rent: and these because the princes of the congregation had our garments, and our shoes, are become old by sworn unto them by the LORD God of Israel. reason of the very long journey.

And all the congregation murmured against the 14 And 'the men took of their victuals, ' and princes. asked not counsel at the mouth of the LORD. 19 But all the princes said unto all the con

15 And Joshua made peace with them, and gregation, We have sworn unto them by the made a league with them, to let them live: and LORD God of Israel: now therefore we may not the princes of the congregation sware unto touch them. them.

20 This we will do to them; we will even let

» Hob in your hand.-y Or, they received the men by reason of their victuals. Nucl. 27. 21. Isai. 30. 1, 2. See Sulg 1. 1. I Sam. 2. 10. & 23. 10, 11 & 30. &

2 Sam. 2 I. & 5. 19.-a Chap. 11. 19.2 Sara. 21. 2-b Ch. 18. 25, 26, Eina 2. c Ecclca. 5. 2 Pea 15. 4.

what is that to us? Does the word of God commend make the Israelites their friends. This part of their relathem for it? It does not. Are they held up to us as er tion was strictly true. amples ? surely no. They did what any other nation Verse 11. Wherefore our dders, &c.] All this, and would have done in their circumstances; and we have what follows 10 the end of ver. 13. was false, contrived nothing to do with their example. Had they come to the merely for the purpose of deceiving the Israelites; and Israelites, and simply submitted themselves without oppo- this they did to save their own lives; as they expected all sition, and without fraud, they had certainly fared much the inhabitants of Canaan to be put to the sword. better. Lying and hypocrisy, always defeat their own Verse 14. The men took of their victuals) This was purpose; and at best can succeed only for a short season. done, in all probability, in the way of friendship: for, Truih and honesty never wear out.

from time immemorial to the present day, eating together, Old sacks-and wine-bottles, old, &c.] They pretended in the Asiatic countries, is considered a token of unalterato have come from a very distant country, and that their ble friendship; and those who eat even salt together, feel sacks, and the goal-skins that served ihem for carrying themselves bound thereby in a perpetual covenant. But their wine and water, were worn out by the length of the the marginal reading of this clause should not be hastily journey.

rejected. Verse 5. Old shoes, and clouted] Their sandals, they And asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord] They pretended, had been worn out by long and difficult travel made the covenant with the Gibeonites, without consnltling, and they had been obliged to have them frequently ing God by Urim and Thummim, which was highly repalched during the way; their garments also being worn prehensible in them, as it was a stale transaction, in thin, and what remained of their bread, mouldy, and which the interests and honour of God their King were spoiled with age: or, as our old version has it, bored, intimately concerned. pierced with many holes by the vermin which had bred in Verse 15. Joshua made peace with them] Joshua it, through the length of the time i: had been in their agreed to receive them into a friendly connection with the sacks: and this is the most literal meaning of the original | Israelites; and to respect their lives and properties; and Sirpa nikhudim, which means spotted, or pierced with the elders of Israel bound themselves to the observance of many holes.

it, and confirmed it with an oath. As the same words are The old and clouded shocs, has been a subject of some used here as in ver. 6. we may suppose that the covenant controversy; the Hebrew word nisa baloth, signifies worn was made in the ordinary way, a sacrifice being offered on out, from 752 valah, to wcar away, and nnsop metullaoth, the occasion, and its blood poured out before the Lord. from wbu tula, to spot or patch, i. e. spotted with patches. See on Gen. xv. 10, &c. Our word clouted, in the Anglo-saxon geclutod, signifies Verse 16. At the end of three days) Gibcon is reputed sea med up, patched, from clut, a clout, rag, or small to be only about eight leagues distant from Gilgal, and ca piece of cloth, used for piecing or patching. But some this account the fraud might be easily discovered in the suppose, the word here comes from clouel, the diminutive time mentioned above. of clou, a small nail, with which the Gibeonites had forti Verse 17. The children of Isruel-came unto their fied the soles of their shoes, to prevent them from wearing citics] Probably when the fraud was discovered, Joshua out in so long a journey; but this seems very unlikely: sent out a detachment to examine their country, and to see and our old English term cloulcd, seamcd, or palched, what use could be made of it in the prosecution of their expresses the spirit of the Hebrew word.

war with the Canaanites. Some of the cities mentioned Verse 6. Make ye a league with us.] on 135 inn here, were afterward in great repule among the Israehtes; caritu lanu berith, cut, or divide the covenant sacrifice and God chose to make one of them, Kirjath-jearim, the with us.

From this it appears, that heathenism, at this residence of the ark of the covenant for renty years, in time, had its sacrifices; and covenants were ratified by the reigns of Saul and David. There is no evidence that sacrificing to, and invoking the objects of their adoration. the preserration of the Gibeonites was displeasing to Je

Verse 7. Peradventure ye dwell among us] It is hovah. strange, they should have had such a suspicion, as the Verse 18. All the congregation murmured] Merely Gibeonites had acted so artfwly: and it is as strange, that because they were deprived of the spoils of the Gibeonhaving such a suspicion, they acted with so little caution. ites. They had now got under the full influence of a

Verse 8. We are thy servants.] This appears to have predatory spirit ; God saw their proneness to this, and been the only answer they gave to the question of the Is- therefore, at particular times, totally interdicted the spoils raelitish elders, and this they gave to Joshua, not to them, of conquered cities, as in the case of Jericho. as they saw that Joshua was commander in chief of the Verse 19. We have sworn unto them! Although the host.

Israelites were deceived in this business, and the covenant Who are ye? and from whence come ye?! To these was made on a certain supposition, which was afterward questions, from such an authority, they felt themselves proved to have had no foundation in truth, and consequently obliged to give an explicit answer; and they do it very the whole engagement on the part of the deceired was artfully, by a mixture of truth, falsehood, and hypocrisy, hereby vitiated, and rendered null and void; yet, because

Verse 9. Because of the name of the Lord thy God] the elders had 'eaten with them, offered a corenant sacri. They pretend that they had undertaken this journey on a fice, and sworn by Jehovah, they did not consider themselves religious account; and seem to intimate, that they had the at liberty to break the terms of the agreement, as far as the highest respect for Jehovah, the object of the Israelites' lives of the Gibeonites were concerned. That their conworship; this was hypocrisy.

duct in this respect was highly pleasing to God, is evident We have heard the fame of him) This was true: the from this, that Joshua is nowhere reprehended for makwonders which God did in Egypt, and the discomfiture ing this covenant, and sparing the Gibeonites; and that of Sihon and Oy, had reached the whole land of Canaan; Saul, who four hundred years after this, thought himself and it was on this account, that the inhabitants of it were and the Israelites loosed from this obligation, and, in conpanic-struck. The Gibeonites knowing that they could sequence, oppressed and destroyed the Gibeonites, was not stand where such mighty forces had fallen, wished to punished for the breach of this treaty, being considered a

them live, lest d wrath be upon us, because of the 27 And Joshua P made them that day 9 hewoath which we sware unto them.

ers of wood and drawers of water for the con21 And the princes said unto them, Let them gregation, and for the altar of the LORD, even live; but let them be hewers of wood and unto this day, ' in the place which he should drawers of water unto all the congregation; as choose. the princes had promised them. 22 T And Joshua called for them, and he

CHAPTER X. spake unto them, saying, Wherefore have ye Aduni-zedek, king of Jerusalem, hearing of the capture of Ai, and that the Gibeon.

ites had made peace with Israel, calls to his assistance four other king, to fight beguiled us, saying, 6 We are very far from

against Gibeon, 1-4. They join forces, and encamp against Gibeon, 5. The Gibeon.

tes send to Joshua for suceuur, 6, who immaliately marches to their relief, receives you; when hye dwell among us?

encouragement from God, and falls mudicnly on the confederate forces, 7-9, and 23 Now therefore ye are i cursed, and there defeats then-they fly, and multitudes of them are slain by a miraculous shower

of hailstones, 10, 11. Joshua, finding that the day began to fail, prayed that the shall * none of you be freed from being bond sun and moon might stand still, that they might have time to pursue aud utterly

destroy these confeslernte forcer, 12 The sun auri moon stand still, and make that men, and Thewers of wood and drawers of

day as long as two, 13, 14. Joshua and the people return to their camp at Gilgal, water for the house of my God.

15. The five kings having taken shelter in a case at Makkelah, Joshua command

ed the people to roll great stones against the mouth of the cave, and ert a watch to 24 And they answered Joshua, and said, Be keep it, while Israel were pursung their enemies, 16-19. The Israelites return to cause it was certainly told thy servants, how

Makkedoh, bring forth the five king, they alny and hang them on five trees, 23–27.

The Burnelites take and destroy Mokkedok, 2, and Libnah, 29, 30, and Lachish, that the LORD thy God m commanded his ser 31, 32, and defeat Horam, king of Gezer, 3, and take Eglon, 31, 35, and Hebron,

31, 37, and Debir, 38, 39, and all the country of the hills, south, rale, and springs, vant Moses to give you all the land, and to and He whole country froin Kadesh-barnea to Gibeon, 40-42. 'They return destroy all the inhabitants of the land from be to Gilgal, 13. "

A. M. 2554.

B. C. 1450

zedek, king of Jerusalem, had an. Exod. Ter. 25 And now, behold, we are in thine hand: heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and

Anno ante as it seemeth good and right unto thee to do had utterly destroyed it; 'as he had 1. Olymp. 674. unto us, do.

done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to 26 And so he did unto them, and delivered · Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of them out of the hand of the children of Israel, Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were that they slew them not.

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lives because of you, and have done this thing Nowcit came to pass, when Adoni

41.

d See 2 Sam. 21. 1, 2, 6. Ezek. 13, 15, 18, 19. Zeeh. 3. 3, 4. Mal. 3. 5.- Dent. 29. Il-Verse 15.-6 Verse 6, 9.-h Verse 16.-i Genesis 9. 25.- Hebrew, not be cut off from you.

I Ver. A, 27.--m Exod. 2. 32. Deut. 7. 1,2-n Exod. 15. 14.- Gen. 16 6.-p Heb. gare, or, delivered to be. I Chron. 9. 9,2 Ezra 8.20-9 Ver. 21, B.- Deut. 12 6. 8 Ch. 6 2.– Ch. 8. 2, 4, 8-a Ch. 9. 15.

the violator of a most solemn oath, and covenant engage dictated to them those measures which they adopted; and ment. See 2 Sam. xxi. 2-9. and see Ezek. xvii. 18, 19. they plead this as the motive of their conduct. All these circumstances laid together, prove that the

Verse 25. We are in thine hand] Entirely in thy command to destroy the Canaanites was not so absolute power. as is generally supposed : and should be understood as As it seemeth good and right unto thee-do] Whatrather referring to the destruction of the political existence ever justice and mercy dictate to thee to do to us, that of the Canaanitish nations, than to the destruction of their perform. They expect justice, because they deceived the lides. See the notes on Deut. xx. 10. and 17.

Israelites; but they expect mercy also, because they were Verse 21. Hewers of wood and drawers of water] Per driven to use this expedient for fear of losing their lives. haps this is a sort of proverbial expression, signifying the The appeal to Joshua is full of delicacy and cogent argulowest state of servitude, though it may also be understood ment. literally. See below.

Verse 26. And so did he unto them] That is, he acted Verse 23. Now therefore ye are cursed] Does not this according to justice and mercy; he delivered them out of refer to what was pronounced by Noah, Gen. ix. 25. the hands of the people, so that they slew them not; here against Ham and his posterity? Did not the curse of Ham was mercy: and he made them hewers of wood and imply slavery, and nothing else? Cursed be Canaan, a drawers of water to the congregation, and to the altar of serrant of servants shall he beand does it not suffi God; here was justice. Thus Joshua did nothing but ciently appear that nothing else than perpetual slavery is what was good and right, not only in his own eyes, but implied in the curse of the Gibeonites? They were also in the eyes of the Lord. brought, no doubt, under tribute ; performed the meanest How long the Gibeonites were preserved as a distinct offices for the Israelites, being in the same circumstances people after this, we know not. That they existed in the with the servile class of Hindoos, called the Chetrees; had time of David, is evident from the circumstance mentioned their national importance annihilated, and yet were never on ver. 19. They are not mentioned after the captivity; permitted to incorporate themselves with the Israelites. and it is probable that they were nearly annihilated by the And we may reasonably suppose, that this was the purpose persecution raised up against them by Saul. Some supof God relative to all the Canaanitish nations : those who pose that the Gibeonites existed under the appellation of would not renounce their idolatry, &c. were to be extir Nethinim; but of this there is no decisive proof; the pated,-those who did, were to be preserved alive, on Nethinim were probably alaves of a different race. condition of becoming tributary, and serving as slaves. On what we meet with in this chapter, we may make See the note on Deut. xx. 17.

the following observations. Herders of wood and drawers of water] The disgrace 1. The Gibeonites told lies, in order to save their lives. of this state lay not in the laboriousness of it, but in its No expediency can justify this, nor are we called to attempt being the common employment of the females ; if the it. The Gibeonites were heathens, and we can expect ancient customs among the same people were such as pre- nothing better from them.-See note at the end of chap. ii. vail now: the most intelligent travellers in those countries, 2. They did not profit by their falsity: had they come in represent collecting wood for fuel, and carrying water, fairly, sought peace, and renounced their idolatry, they as the peculiar employment of the females. The Arab would have had life on honourable terms. As it was, they nomen of Barbary do so, according to Dr. Shaw. The barely escaped with their lives, and were utterly deprived daughters of the Turcomans, in Palestine, are employed, of their political liberty. Even the good that is sought by according to D'Arrieux, in fetching wood and water for unlawful means, has God's curse on it. the accommodation of their respective families. From

3. We need not be solicitous for the character of the Githese circumstances Mr. Harmer reasons thus : "The beonites here; they are neither our models, nor believers bitterness of the doom of the Gibeonites, does not seem to in the true God : and therefore pure religion is not conhave consisted in the laboriousness of the service enjoined cerned in their prevarication and falsity. them, for it was usual for women and children to perform 4. We see here of what solemn importance an oath what was required of them ; but its degrading them from was considered among the people of God; they swore to the characteristic employment of men, that of bearing their own hurt, and changed not. When once they had arms; and condemning them and their posterity for ever bound themselves to their Maker, they did not believe that to the employment of females. The not receiving them any changing circumstances could justify a departure from as allies was bitter ; the disarming them who had been so awful an obligation. Thus, reader, shouldsi thou fear a warriors, and condemning them to the employment of lie, and tremble at an oath. females, was worse; but the extending this degradation

NOTES ON CHAPTER X. to their posterity, was bitterest of all. It is no wonder, Verse 1: Adoni-zedek] This name signifies the lord that in these circumstances, they are said to have been of justice or righteousness: and it has been conjectured cursed." Obs. vol. iv. p. 297.

that the Canaanitish kings assumed this name in imitation Verse 24. We were sore afraid of our lives] Self- of that of the ancient patriarchal king of this city, Melpreservation, which is the most powerful law of nature, chizedek, whose name signifies king of righteousness, or

2 That they feared greatly, because Gibeon 7 So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he, and all was a great city, as one of the w royal cities, the people of war with him, and all the mighty and because it was greater than Ai, and all the men of valour. men thereof were mighty,

8 | And the Lord said unto Joshua, Fear 3 Wherefore Adoni-zedek, king of Jerusalem, them not: for I have delivered them into thine sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Pi- hand; there shall not a man of them stand beranı king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of fore thee. Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying, 9 Joshua therefore came unto them suddenly, 4 Come up unto me, and help me, that we and went up from

Gilgal all night, may smite Gibeon: * for it hath made peace with 10 And the LORD & discomfited them before Joshua, and with the children of Israel.

Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at 5 Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, Gibeon, and chased them along the way that the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the goeth up to Beth-horon, and smote them to king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king Azekah, and unto Makkedah. of Eglon, gathered themselves together, and 11 And it came to pass, as they fled from bewent up, they and all their host, and encamped fore Israel, and were in the going down to Bethbefore Gibeon, and made war against it.

horon, & that the LORD cast down great stones 6 | And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they to the camp to Gilgal, saying, Slack not thy died: they were more which died with hailstones, hand from thy servants; come up to us quickly, than they whom the children of Israel slew with and save us, and help us: for all the kings of the a sword. Amorites that dwell in the mountains are gath 12 | Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the ered together against us.

day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites

Exod. 15. 14, 15, 16. Deat. 11. 25.--w Heb. cities of the kingdonn.-X Ver. 1. Ch. 9. 15.-y Ch. 9. 2-z Ch. 5. 10. & 9.6.-a Ch. 8.1.- Ch. 11. 6. Judg. 4. 14.

c Ch. 15-d Judg. 1. 15 I Sun. 7. 10,12 PA 18 14. 1. 28. 2.- Ch 16,3,5

f Ch. 15. 36.-g Isa. 18. 13, 14. &77.17. laai. 30. 30. Ecclus. 46. 6. Res. 16. 2

ix. 13.

my righteous king: a supposition that is not improbable, ren upon them] Some have contended that siones, in the when the celebrity of Melchizedek is considered.

common acceptation of the word, are intended here: and Jerusalem) Oswin Yerushalam, this word has been that the term hailstones is only used to point out the cevariously explained--if it be compounded of obu shalam, lerity of their fall, and their quantity. That stones have peace, perfection, &c. and 77 ruah, he sau, it may signi- fallen from the clouds, if not from a greater height, is a ty the vision of peace-or, he shall see peace or perfection. most incontestable fact. That these have fallen in differ

Verse 2. As one of the royal cities] Not a regal city, ent parts of the world is also true-the East Indies, Ameribut great, well inhabited, and well fortified, as those cities ca, France, Germany, England, &c. have all witnessed which served for the royal residence, generally were. It this phenomenon: of such stones I have seen several frag. does not appear that the Gibeonites had any king—they ments; some considerable pieces may be seen in the Briiseem to have been a small, but powerful republic, all the ish Museum. That God might have cast down such stones men thereof were mighty, merely governed by their elders; as these on the Canaanites, there can be no doubt, because for, in their address to Joshua, chap. ix. 11. they mention his power is unlimited; and the whole account proves that no king, but simply state that they were sent by their el here there was a miraculous interference. But it is more ders and the inhabitants of their country-nor do we any likely that hailstones, in the proper sense of the word, are where read of their king, and therefore, we may naturally meant, as well as expressed, in the text. That God on suppose that they had none.

other occasions, has made use of hailstones, to destroy Verse 3. Hoham king of Hebron] This city was situ- both men and cattle, we have ample proof in the plague ated in the mountains, southward of Jerusalem, from which of hail that fell on the Egyptians.--See the note on Exod. it was about thirty miles distant. It fell to the tribe of

There is now before me a square of glass, taken Judah.

out of a south window in the house of Mr. Ball, of CrockPiram king of Jarmuth) There were two cities of this erton, in the parish of Longbridge Deverell, county of name; one belonged to the tribe of Issachar, see chap. xxi. Wilts, through which a hailstone passed in a shorter that 29. that mentioned here, fell to the tribe of Judah, see fell there June 1, 1780, at two o'clock, P. M. The hole is chap. xv. 34. It is supposed to have been about eighteen an obtuse ellipsis, or oral, and is cut as true as if it had miles distant from Jerusalem.

been done with a diamond : is three inches and a half in Japhia king of Lachish] This city is celebrated in diameter: a proof that the stone that pierced it, (which was Scripture: in that city Amaziah was slain by conspira- about eleven inches in circumference), came with incon; tors, 2 Kings, xiv. 19. It was besieged by Sennacherib, ceivable velocity, else the glass must have been shirered 2 Kings, xvii. 14, 17. and without effect by the king of to pieces. I have known a cannon-ball go through a Assyria, as we learn from Isa. xxxvii. 8. it was also be square of glass in the cabin window of a ship, and make sieged by the army of Nebuchadnezzar, See Jer. xxxiv. precisely the same kind of hole, without either shatlering 7. it also fell to the lot of Judah, Josh. xv. 39.

or even starting the glass. It is needless to add, that this Debir king of Eglon) Where this city was situated, is hail shower did great damage, breaking even trees in very uncertain; but we learn from chap. xv. 39. that it fell pieces, and destroying the vegetation through the whole to the lot of the tribe of Judah.

of its extent. But allowing that extraordinary showers Verse 5. The five kings of the Amorites) This a gene of hail have fallen in England or France, is it likely that ral name for the inhabitants of Canaan, otherwise called such showers ever fell in the Promised Land? These Canaanites--and it is very likely they had this appella- tainly have. Albertus Aquensis, one of the writers in the tion, because the Amorites were the most powerful tribe or collection, Gesta Dei per Francos, in describing the expenation in that country. The inhabitants of Jerusalem dition of Baldwin I. in the Holy Land, observes, that when were Jebusites, xv. 63. those of Hebron were Hittites, he and his army were in the Arabian mountains, in the Genesis xxiii. 2, 3. xxv. 9, 10. and the Gibeonites were vicinity of the Dead sea, they suffered incredibly from Hirites, Joshua ix. 7. and yet all these are called Amoriles horrible hail

, terrible frost, and indescribable rain and occasionally, probably for the reason already mentioned, snow, so that thirty of his men perished by them. His viz, because that tribe was numerous and powerful.

words are,

Sextâ rerò die monianis permensis, in et. Verse 7. Joshua-came unto them suddenly) This he tremo illorum cacumine ma.rima pertulerunt pericula, did by a forced march during the night: for he went up in GRANDINE horribili, in GLACIE terribili, in puria et from Gilgal all night ; from Gilgal to Gibeon was about nive INAUDITA, quorum immanitate, et horrore ingruen! eighteen or twenty miles; and having fallen so unexpect- ad triginta homines pedites, præ frigore, morttia sunt." edly on these confederate kings, they were immediately –Hist. Hieros. p. 307. I conclude therefore, that a showthrown into confusion.

er of hailstones may be meant; and that this shower, Verse 10. Slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon) though natural in itself, was supernaturally employed on Multitudes of them fell in the onset ; after which they this occasion, and miraculously directed to fall where it fled, and the Israelites pursued them by the way of Beth- did, and do the execution described. horon. There were two cities of this name, the

But I am ready to grant notwithstanding, that as a most lower, both in the tribe of Ephraim, and builded by She- stupendous miracle was in this instance wrought, in causa rah, the daughter of Ephraim, i 'Chron. vii. 24. The ing the sun and moon to stand still; there can be no doubt situation of these two cities is not exactly known.

that the shower of stones, which was also miraculous, To Azekah and unto Makkedah] These two cities might have been of real stones, as well as hailstones. Of were in the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 35—41.

late, this subject of the fall of real stones from the clouda, Verse 11. The Lord cast down great stones from hea- | has been very closely investigated, and not only the passi

566

66

upper and

before the children of Israel, and he said in the Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of k Ajasight of Israel, Sun, i stand thou still upon | lon.

h Isai. 23. 2. Hab. 3. 11. Ecclus. 10.4

i Heb. be silent.--k Judg. 12. 12.

bility of the fall of such stones from the clouds, or from and the testimony by which these facts are supported. As much higher regions, but the certainty of the case has it is as possible that God might have projected a shower been fully demonstrated. These substances are now, in of stones on these idolaters, even from the moon, as to arphilosophical language, denominated Eroliths, or air rest that planet in her course, I give the table, and leave stones; and the following table, constructed by M. Izarn, the Realer to decide in the present case, for Æroliths or a foreign chymist, exhibits a variety of facts of this kind, hailstones, as may seem to him most congruous to the fact shows the places and times in which these substances felt; I here related.

1

.

Substances.
Places where they fell.
Period of their fall.

Testimony.
Shower of stones
At Rome

Under Tullus Hostilius Livy.

Consuls, C. Martius and
Shower of stones
At Rome

J. Obsequens.

M. Torquatus
A very large stone .
Near the river Negos, Thrace

Second year of the 78th

Pliny.

Olympiad
Three large stones.
In Thrace.
Year before J. C. 452

Ch. of Count Marcellin.
Stone of 72 lbs.
Near Larissa, Macedonia January, 1706

Paul Lucas.
About 1,200 stones; one
120 lbs.
Near Padua, in Italy . . In 1510.

Carden, Varcit.
Another of 60 lbs..
Another of 59 lbs. .
On mount Vasier, Provence November 27, 1627

Gassendi.
Two large stones, weighing

Liponas, in Bresse 20 lbs.

September, 1753

De La Lande.
A stony mass
Niort, Normandy
In 1750

De La Lande.
A stone of 7 1-2 Ibs.
At Luce, in Le Maine
September 13, 1768

Bacheley.
A stone
At Aire, in Artois
In 1768.

Gurson de Boyaval.
A stone
In Le Cotentin.
In 1768.

Morand.
Extensive shower of stones Environs of Agen .

July 24, 1790.

St. Amand, Baudin, &c.
About 12 stones
Sienna, Tuscany
July, 1794

Earl of Bristol.
A large stone of 56 lbs.
Wold Cottage, Yorkshire December 13, 1795

Captain Topham.
A stone of 10 lbs. .
In Portugal
February 19, 1796

Southey.
A stone of about 120 lbs. Salé, department of the Rhone March 17, 1798 .

Le Lievre and De Drée. Shower of stones Benares, East Indies December 19, 1798

J. Lloyd Williams, Esq. Shower of stones .

At Plann, near Tabor,
Bohemia
July 3, 1753

B. De Born.
Mass of iron, 70 cubic fect. Arnerica

April 5, 1800

Philosophical Magazine. Mass of ditto, 40 quintals Abakauk, Siberia

Very old

Pallas, Chladni, &c.
Shower of stones.
Barboutan, near Roquefort July, 1789

Darcet, jun. Lomet, &c.
Large stone, 200 lbs.
Ensisheim, Upper Rhine November 7, 1492

Butenschoen. Two stones, 200 and 300 lbs. Near Verona ,

In 1762.

Acad. de Bourd.
A stone of 20 lbs.
Salés, near Ville Franche.
March 12, 1798

De Drée.
Several ditto, from 10 to 17 lbs./ Near L'Aigle, Normandy April 26 1803

Fourcrny. The stones generally appear luminous in their descent, , tion of the earth and moon, it will, on the known principle moving in oblique directions, with great velocities, and of gravitation, fall to the earth. 4. That a body may be commonly with a hissing noise. They are frequently projected from the lunar volcanoes beyond the moon's in. heard to explode, or burst, and seem to fly in pieces, the Huence, is not only possible, but very probable; for on cal. larger parts falling first. They often strike the earth with culation it is found, that four times the force usually given such force, as to sink several inches below the surface. to a twelve pounder, will be quite sufficient for this purThey are always different from the surrounding bodies, pose: it is to be observed, that the point of equilibrium is but in every case are similar to one another, being semi much nearer. the moon; and that a projectile from the metallic, coated with a thin black encrustation. They bear moon will not be so much retarded as one from the earth, strong marks of recent fusion. Chymists have found, on both on account of the moon's rarer atmosphere, and its less examining these stones, that they very nearly agree in attractive force. On this subject, see Mr. Haward's valtheir nature and composition, and in the proportions of uable paper in the Philosophical Transactions for 1802, their component parts. The stone which fell at Ensisheim, and Dr. Hutton's Dissertation in the new abridgment, part in Alsace, in 1492, and those which fell at L'Aigle, in xxi. It is highly probable, that the ancile, or sacred shield France, in 1903, yielded by the analysis of Fourcroy and that fell from heaven in the reign of Numa Pompilius, was Vauquelin, as in this table :

a stone of this sort. The description of its fall, as given

by Ovid, Fast. lib. iii. bears a striking resemblance to reENSISHEIM stone L'AIGLE stone

cent accounts of stones falling from the atmosphere, particfel! A. D. 1492. fell A. D. 1803.

ularly in the luminous appearance and hissing noise with 56 0

54
of silica

which it was accompanied.
30 0

36
-oxyd of iron

Dum loquiunr totum jam sol emorerat orbem,
12 0

9
-magnesia

El ravis thereo venit ab axe fragor.

Ter tonit me nube, tria fuyura misit:
24

3
-oxyd of nickel

Credite dicenti; mira, ad acta loquor.
35
-sulphur

Ex media cclum regione dehiscere cæpit:
14

1
- lime

Exce levi autun vervatum leniter aura

Decilit, * populo clunor ad anura venit
105 3
105

Tollit humo nuntis

Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est. Their specific gravities are generally about three or four It is very possible that the Palladium of Troy, and the times that of water, being heavier than common stones. Image of the Ephesian Diana, were stones which really From the above account, it is reasonable to conclude, that fell from the atmosphere: bearing some rude resemblance they have all the same origin. To account for this phe- i to the human form. See the IMPERIAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, nomenon, various hypotheses have appeared; we shall article Ærolith. mention three: 1. That they are little planets, which cir I believe it is generally agreed among philosophers, 1. culating in space, fall into the atmosphere, which by its That all these aërial stones, chymically analyzed, show the friction diminishes the velocity, so that they fall by their same properties : 2. That no stone found on our earth, posweight. 2. That they are concretions formed in the at sesses exactly the same properties, nor in the same promosphere. 3. That they are projected from lunar vol- portions. This is an extraordinary circumstance and decanoes. These are the most probable conjectures we can serves particular notice. meet with, and of these the two former possess a very small Verse 12. Then spake Joshua to the Lord] Though degree of probability; but there are very strong reasons in Joshua saw that the enemies of his people were put to favour of the last. Among the reasons we may notice the flight, yet he well knew that all which escaped would rally following: 1. Volcanoes in the moon have been observed again; and that he should be obliged to meet them once by means of the telescope. 2. The lunar volcanoes are inore in the field of battle if permitted now to escape; find. very high, and the surface of that globe suffers frequent ing that the day was drawing toward a close, he feared changes, as appears by the late observations of Schroeter. that he should not have tine sufficient to complete the de3. If a body be projected from the moon to a distance greal- struction of the confederale armies: in this moment, being er than that of the point of equilibrium, between the altrac- suddenly inspired with divine confidence, he requested the

Sumu sore oculos cum duce turba suos.

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