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7. 24. Ch. 12. 7.-m Till 1415. Ver. 23

10 1 And Joshua at that time turned back, cattle, the children of Israel took for a prey unto and took Hazor, and smote the king thereof themselves; but every man they smote with the with the sword: 'for Hazor beforetime was the edge of the sword, until they had destroyed head of all those kingdoms.

them, neither left they any to breathe. 11 And they smote all the souls that were 15. As the Lord commanded Moses his sertherein with the edge of the sword, utterly de- vant, so d did Moses cominand Joshua, and so stroying them: there was not any left to breathe; did Joshua ;' he left nothing undone of all that and 'he burnt Hazor with fire.

the Lord commanded Moses. 12 And all the cities of those kings, 16 So Joshua took all that land, the hills, Ad. Exo1tur. and all the kings of them, did Joshua and all the south country, hand all the land of

Andre 1. take, and smote them with the edge of Goshen, and the valley, and the plain, and the Olyin. 671 Guds the sword, and he utterly destroyed mountain of Israel, and the valley of the same; them, a as Moses, the servant of the LORD, com 17 i Eren from * the mount Halak, that goeth manded.

up to Seir, even unto Baal-gad in the valley of 13 But as for the cities that stood still in Lebanon under mount Hermon: and all their their strength, Israel burned none of them, save kings he took, and smote them, and slew them. Hazor only; thal did Joshua burn.

18 m Joshua made war a long time with all 14 And all the spoil of these cities, and the those things. Heb. any breath -- Nanh 3352 Deut. 7.2 & 20. 16, 17.-b Heb, on their herp. g Ch. 12 8.-h Ch. 10. 41. - Ch. 12. 7.- Or, the smooth mountain - Deut.

c Erod 31.11, 12 - Deut. 7. 2- Ch. 1. 7.--f Heb. he removed nothing. Trojan war: and both it and its inhabitants are frequently commentators: and it is not easy to assign such a menning mentioned by Homer, as exce in works of skill and to the place, as may appear in all respects satisfactory. utility, and abounding in wealth :

1. If we consider this verse and the 21st, to have been addΕνθ' εσαν οι πεπλοι παμποικιλοι, εργα γυναικων

ed after the times in which the kingdom of Israel and Σιδονιων.

Iliad. vi. ver. 289. Judah were divided, the difficulty is at once removed. There lay the bestures of n vulgar art,

2. The difficulty will be removed, if we consider that mounSidonian mids embroiler'd etory pirt.

Pope. Αργυρεον κρητηρα τετυγμενον εξ δ' αρα μετρα

tain and valley are put here for mountains and valleys, Χανδανεν, αυταρ καλλει ενικα πασαν επ' αιαν

and that these include all the mountains and valleys, which Πολλον, επει Σιδονες πολυδαιδαλοι ήσκησαν.

were not in the lot that fell to the tribe of Judah. Or, 3. Iliad. xxiii. ver. 741.

If by mountain of Israel, we understand Beth-el, where A silver urn, that full size measures held,

God appeared to Jacob, afterward called Israel, and promBy none in reight or workmanship excrud;

ised him the land of Canaan, a part of the difficulty will be Sidonian arijas taught the frame lo chine Elał rate, with artifice dirine.


removed. But the first opinion seems best founded; for Εκ μεν Σιδωνος πολυχαλκου ευχομαι ειναι

there is incontestable evidence that several notes have been

Odyss. xv. 424. added to this book since the days of Joshua. See the I am of Sidon, famous for her wealth.

Preface. The art of making glass is attributed by Pliny to this Verse 17. From the mount Halak] All the mountamous city. Sidon artifex vitri, Hist. Nat. I. v. c. 19.

country that extends from the south of the land of Canaan Misrephoth-maim] Or Misrephoth of the waters. What toward Seir unto Baal-gad, which lies at the foot of this place was, is unknown; but Calmet conjectures it to mount Libanus, or Hermon, called by some the mountains be the same with Sarepta, a city of Phenicia, contiguous of Separation, which serve as a limit between the land of to Sidon. The word signifies the burning of the waters, Canaan and that of Seir, see chap. xi. 7. or inflammation--probably it was a place noted for its The rallcy of Lebanon) The whole extent of the plain hot springs; this idea seems to have struck Luther, as which is on the south, and (probably) north of mount Libhe translates it, die warme wasser-the hot waters.

Calmet conjectures that Cælo-Syria is here meant. Verse 9. He houghed their horses) The Hebrew word Verse 18. Joshua made war a long time] The whole py akar, which we render to hough, or hamstring, sig- of these conquests was not effected in one campaign: it nifies to wound, cut, or lop off. It is very likely that it probably required six or seren years. There are some means here, not only an act by which they were rendered chronological notices in this book, and in Deuteronomy, uscless, but by which they were destroyed; as God had by which the exact time may be nearly ascertained. Caleb purposed that his people should not possess any cattle of was forty years old when he was sent from Kadesh-barthis kind, that a warlike and enterprising spirit might not nea by Moses, to search out the land, about A. M. 2514; be cultivated among them; and that, when obliged to de and at the end of this war he was eighty-five years old, fend themselves and their country, they might be led to compare chap. xiv. 10. with Numb. xiii. and Deut. i. condepend upon God for protection and victory. On the same sequently the war ended in 2559, which had begun by the ground, God had forbidden the kings of Israel to multiply passage of Jordan, on the tenth day of the first month of horses, Deut. xvii. 16. See the note there, containing the the year 2554. From this date to the end of 2559, we find reasons on which this prohibition was founded.

exactly six years: the first of which Joshua seems to have Burnt their chariots] As these could have been of no employed in the conquest of the south part of the land of use without the horses.

Canaan, and the other five in the conquest of all the terriVerse 10. Took Hazor) See on verse the first.

tories situated on the north of that country. See Dodd. Verse 13. The cities that stood still in their strength] Calmet computes this differently, and allows the term of The word on telam, which we translate their strength, seven years for the conquest of the whole land. and the margin, their heap, has been understood two ways. was forty years old when sent from Kadesh-barnea to spy 1. As signifying those cities which had made peace with out the land. At the conclusion of the war he was eightythe Israelites, when conditions of peace were offered, ac five years old, as himself says, chap. xiv. ver. 10. From cording to the command of the law; and consequently, this sum of eighty-five subtract forty, his age when he were not destroyed. Such as the cities of the Hivites, see went from Kadesh-barnea, and the thirty-eight years which ver. 19. 2. The cities which were situated upon hills and he spent in the wilderness after his return, and there will mountains, which, when taken, might be retained with remain the sum of seren years, which was the time spent little difficulty. In this sense the place is understood by in the conquest of the land. the Vulgate, as pointing out the cities, quæ erant in colli 1. By protracting the war, the Canaanites had time to bus et tumulis sitæ, which were situated on hills and emi-repent, having sufficient opportu ty to discern the hand nences. As the cities of the plain might be easily attacked of Jehovah. 2. Agriculture was carried on, and thus proand carried, Joshua destroyed them, Hazor excepted : but vision was made even for the support of the conquerors : as those on mountains, hills, or other eminences, might for had the land been subdued and wasted at once, tillage be retained with little trouble, prudence would dictate their must have been stopped, and famine would have ensued. preservation, as places of refuge in any insurrection of the 3. Wild beasts would have multiplied upon them, and the people, or invasion of their adversaries. The passage in land have been desolated by their means. 4. Had these Jeremiah, chap. xxx. 18. Jerusalem shall be builded on conquests been more rapid, the people of Israel would have her own heap, ibn telah, if understood as above, con ys been less affected, and less instructed, by miracles that had an easy and clear sense : Jerusalem shall be re-established passed in such quick succession before their eyes; and as in on her own HILL.

this case they would have obtained the dominion with comVerse 14. All the spoil of these cities- Israel took] paratively little exertion, they might have felt themselves With the exception of those things which had been em less interested in the preservation of an inheritance, lo obployed for idolatrous purposes, see Deut. vii. 25.

tain which, they had been but at little trouble and little Verse 16. The mountain of, Israel, and the valley of expense. What we labour under the divine blessing, to the same] This place has given considerable trouble to l acquire, we are careful to retain: but what comes lightly,


" Caleb

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territories, 1-6

in number thirty-one, 7-9 An. Exod. Isr.

41-17. Anno ante I.


Ch. 15. 46.- Nimb. 31, 2, &c.- Nurnb. 26. 53. Ch. 14. & 15. & 16. & 17. & 18. & 19.-v Ch. 14. 15. & 21. 44. & 22. 1. & 23. 1. Ver. 18.-w Numb. 21. 24.-x Deut. 8. 8, 9.

19 There was not a city that made peace with other side Jordan, toward the rising of the the children of Israel, save a the Hivites, the in- sun, w from the river Arnon *unto mount Herhabitants of Gibeon: all other they took in battle. mon, and all the plain on the east :

20 For .it was of the LORD to harden their 2 Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in hearts, that they should come against Israel in Heshbon, and ruled from Aroer, which is upon battle, that he might destroy them utterly, and the bank of the river Arnon, and from the midthat they might have no favour, but that he dle of the river, and from half Gilead, even unto might destroy them, P as the Lord commanded the river Jabbok, which is the border of the Moses.

children of Ammon; 21 | And at that time came Joshua, and cut 3 And from the plain to the sea of Chinneoff the Anakims from the mountains, from He- roth on the east, and unto the sea of the plain, bron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all the even the Salt sea on the east, a the way to Bethmountains of Judah, and from all the mountains jeshimoth; and from the south under · Ashof Israel: Joshua destroyed them utterly with doth-pisgah: their cities.

4 And the coast of Og king of Bashan, 22 There was none of the Anakims left in the which was of 'the remnant of the giants, 6 that land of the children of Israel: only in Gaza, in dwelt at Ashtaroth and at Edrei, Gath, * and in Ashdod, there remained.

5 And reigned in mount Hermon, i and in 23 | So Joshua took the whole land, - accord- Salcah, and in all Bashan, kunto the border of ing to all that the Lord said unto

Moses; and the Geshurites, and the Maachathites, and half Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel, Gilead, the border of Sihon king of Heshbon.

according to their divisions, by their tribes. 6 1 Them did Moses the servant of the LORD And the land rested from war.

and the children of Israel smite : and Moses CHAPTER XII.

the servant of the Lord gave it for a possession A list of the kings on the east of Jordan which were conquered by Moses, with their A list of those on the west side of Jordan, conquered by Joshua, half tribe of Manasseh.

unto the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the COW these are the kings of the 7 | And these are the kings of the country

land, which the children of Israel n which Joshua and the children of Israel smote Olymn. 674-668.

smote, and possessed their land on the on this side Jordan, on the west, from Baal-gad n Ch. 9.3, 7.- Deut. 2 30. Judg. 14. 1. 1 Sam. 2. 25. 1 Kings 12 15. Rom. 9. 18. Numb. 21. 24. Deut. 2. 33, 36. & 3. 6, 16.- Deat. 3. 17.-a Ch 13 20 , p Deut. 20. 16, 17.- Numb. 13. 22, 33. Deut. 1. 28. Ch. 15. 13, 14.-r 1 Sam. 17. 4.

, a 49.-- Namb. 21. 36. Deut. 3. 4,10 - Deut. 3. IL Ch. 13. 12- Deul 14- Dest 3. 8-i Degt. 3. 10. Ch. 13. 11. -k Deal 3 14.- Numb 21. 24, 3- Nut 2

23, 33 Deut. 3, 11, 12 Ch. 13. &- Ch. IL 17. generally goes lightly. God obliged them to put forth being now conquered, which God designed the Israelites their own strength in this work, and only blessed and should possess at this time. prospered ther, while they were workers together with ACCORDING to the apostle, Hebr. iv. &, &c. Joshua himhim. See the note on chap. xiii. ver. 6.

self was a type of Christ : the promised land, of the king. Verse 20. It was of the Lord to harden their hearts] dom of heaven; the victories which he gained, of the They had sinned against all the light they had received, victory and triumph of Christ; and the rest he procured and God left them justly to the hardness, obstinacy, and for Israel

, of the state of blessedness at the right hand of pride of their own hearts, for as they chose to retain their God. In this light we should view the whole bistory, in idolatry, God was determined that they should be cut off. order to derive those advantages from it, which, as a porFor as no city made peace with the Israelites but Gibeon tion of the revelation of God, it was intended to convey. and some other of the Hivites, ver. 19. it became therefore Those who finally reign with Christ, are they who necessary to destroy them, for their refusal to make peace through his grace, conquer the world, the devil, and the was the proof that they wilfully persisted in their idolatry. flesh; for it is only of those who thus orercome that he

Verse 21. Cut off the Anakims-from Hebron, from says, “They shall sit with me on my throne, as I have Debir) This is evidently a recapitulation of the military overcome, and sat down with the Father, on the Father's operations detailed, chap. x. ver. 36-41.

throne." Rev. iii. 21. Reader, art thou a conqueror. Destroyed-their cities] That is, those of the Anakim;

NOTES ON CHAPTER XII. for from ver. 13. we learn that Joshua preserved certain Verse 1. From the river Arnon unto mount Hermon) other cities.

Arnon was the boundary of all the southern coast of the Verse 22. In Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod] The land occupied by the Israelites beyond Jordan; and the whole race of the Anakim was extirpated in this war, ex mountains of Hermon were the boundaries on the north. cept those who had taken refuge in the above cities, which Arnon takes its rise in the mountains of Gilead, and har. belonged to the Philistines; and in which some of the de ing run a long way from north to south, falls into the scendants of Anak were found even in the days of David. Dead sea, near the same place into which Jordan dis

Verse 23. So Joshua took the whole land] All the charges itself. country described here, and in the preceding chapter. Be And all the plain on the east] All the land from the sides the multitudes that perished in this war, many of the plains of Moab to mount Hermon. Canaanites took refuge in the confines of the land, and in Verse 2. From Aroer) Aroer was situated on the vesithe neighbouring nations. Some suppose that a party of ern side of the river Arnon, in the middle of the valley, these fugitive Canaanites made themselves masters of through which this river takes its course. The kingdom Lower Égypt, and founded a dynasty there, known by the of Sinon extended from the river Arnon, and the city of name of the Shepherd Kings; but it is more probable, that Aroer on the south, to the river Jabbok on the north. the Shepherds occupied Egypt, long before the time that And from half Gilead] The mountains of Gilead exJacob went thither to sojourn. li is said they founded tended from north to south, from mount Hermon toward T'ingris or Tangier, where, according to Procopius, they the source of the river Arnon, which was about the mids! erected two white pillars, with an inscription in the Phæni of the extent of the kingdom of Sihon ; thus Sibon is cian language, of which this is the translation: WE ARE said to have possessed the half of Gilead, that is, the half THE PERSONS WHO HAVE FLED FROM THE FACE OF Joshua of the mountains, and of the country which bore the name THE PLUNDERER, THE SON OF Nave, or Nun. See Bo- of Gilead, on the east of his territories. chart, Phaleg and Canaan, lib. i. c. xxiv. col. 476. Many, River Jabbok] This river has its source in the mounno doubt, settled in different parts of Africa, in Asia Minor, tains of Gilead ; and running from east to west, falls into in Greece, and in the different islands of the Ægean and Jordan. It bounds the territories of Sihon on the north; Mediterranean sea : it is supposed also, that colonies of this and those of the Ammonites on the south. people were spread over different parts of Germany and Verse 3. The sea of Chinneroth] Or, Gernesareth, Sclavonia, &c. but their descendants are now so confound the same as the lake or sea of Tiberias. ed with the nations of the earth, as no longer to retain their The Salt sea on the east) 75on d'yam hameles, which original name, or to be discernible.

is here translated, the Salt sea, is understood by others to And Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel] mean the sea of the city Melać. Where can we find any He claimed no peculiar jurisdiction over it; his own family thing that can be called a salt sea on the east of the lake had no peculiar share of it, and himself only the ruined of Gennesareth ? Some think that the lake Asphaltites, city of Timnath-serah, in the tribe of Ephraim, which he called also the Dead sea, sea of the Desert, sea of Sadors, was obliged to rebuild. See chap. xix. 49, 50. and see his and Salt sea, is here intended. character at the end of the book.

Beth-jeshimoth] A city near the Dead sea, in the plains And the land rosted from war.) Tho whole territory of Moab.

dállamnenking of Libnah, one; the king of N Windoshura was old and stricka

A. M. 2560.
B. C. 1411.

Anno ante

in the valley of Lebanon, even unto the mount 18 The king of Aphek, one; the king of Law Halak, that goeth up to Seir; which Joshua sharon, one; Pgave unto the tribes of Israel, for a posses 19 The king of Madon, one; the king of sion, according to their divisions ;

Hazor, one; 8 "In the mountains, and in the valleys, and 20 The king of a Shimron-meron, one; the in the plains, and in the springs, and in the king of Achshaph, one ; wilderness, and in the south country; ' the Hit 21 The king of Taanach, one; the king of tites, the Amorites, and the Canaanites, the Megiddo, one; Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; 22 The king of Kedesh, one; the king of

9 • The king of Jericho, one; the king of Ai, Jokneam of Carmel, one; which is beside Beth-el, one;

23 The king of Dor, in the coast of Dor, 10 u The king of Jerusalem, one; the king of one; the king of the nations of Gilgal, one: Hebron, one;

24 The king of Tirzah, one: all the kings 11 The king of Jarmuth, one; the king of thirty and one. Lachish, one;

CHAPTER XIII. 12 The king of Eglon, one; "the king of Joshna being old, the Lord informs him of the larul yet remaining to be possesses), .

Of the unconquered land among the Philistinen, 2, 3. Among the Canaanites, SiGezer, one;

donius, ant Amorites, 4, 5. The inhabitants of the hill country, and the Selonk 13 w The king of Debir, one; the king of Ge ans, to be driven out, 6. The land on the east side of Jonan, that was to be divuled

among the tribe of Reuben and Gadi, and the ball tribe of Mananch, 7.-12. The der, one;

Gresshurites and Manchathites not expelled, 13. The tribe of Levi receive no inheric 14 Thé king of Hormah, one; the king of

ance, 14. The portanona of Reuben described, 15--23 The possessions of God,

24-R The ponsessions of the half trile Manassch, 29–31." Recapitulation of Arad, one;

the mbjects contained in this chapter, 32, 33.

en in years; and the an. Exol. Is. 47. 16 The king of Makkedah, one; "the king unto him, Thou art old and stricken 1. Olymp. 668. of Beth-el, one;

in years, and there remaineth yet 17 The king of Tappuah, one; the a king of very much land i to be possessed. Hepher, one;

2'This is the land that yet remaineth: 1 all o Gen. 14. 6. & 32. 3. Dent. 2. 1, 4.-p Ch 11. 2.-- Ch. 10. 40. & 11. 16.-r Exod. a 1 Kings 4. 10.-b Or, Sharon. Isai 33.9.- Ch. 11. 10. Ch. 11. 1. & 19. 15. 4 8 6 3 3 Ch. 9. 1.-çCh 6 2-tỦh. 8 2-1 Ch. 10, 3- Ch. 10. - Ch. e Ch 19. 37.– Ch. 11. 2.- Gen. 4 1, 2 Isai. 9. 1.- Sce Ch. 14. 10. & , 10. 8.- Ch. 10. 29.-y Ch. 10. 28.-2 Ch. 8. 17. Judg. 1. 22.

i Heb. lo poseess il. Deut. 31. 2- Julg. 3. 1.-Joel 3. 4. Ashdoth-pisgah] Supposed to be a city at the foot of Jokneam of Carmel] This city is said to have been at mount Pisgah.

the foot of mount Carmel, near the river Belus, in the Verse 4. Coast of Og king of Bashan] Concerning tribe of Zebulon, chap. xix. 11. It was given to the Lethis person, see the notes on Deut. iii. 11. and on Numb. vites, chap. xxi. 34. xxi. 35, &c.

Verse 23. The king of Dor] The city of this name The remnant of the giants] Or Rephaim. See the fell to the lot of the children of Manasseh, chap. xvii. 11. notes on Gen. vi. 4. xiv. 5. and Deut. ii. 7, 11.

Bochart observes that it was one of the oldest royal cities Verse 5. The border of the Geshurites) The country in Phænicia. The Canaanites held it, Judg. i. 21. Antioof Bashan, in the days of Moses and Joshua, extended chus Sydetes besieged it in after times, but could not make from the river Jabbok, on the south, to the frontiers of the himself master of it. See Bochart. Canaan, lib. i. c. 28. Geshurites and Maachathites, on the north, to the foot of and Dodd. the mountains of Hermon.

The king of the nations of Gilgal] This is supposed Verse 7. From Baal-gad] A repetition of what is to mean the higher Galilee, surnamed Galilee of the mentioned chap. xi. 17.

Gentiles, or nations, as the Hebrew word o'u goyim, Verse 9. The king of Jericho, &c.] On this and the means. On this ground it should be read king of Galifollowing verses, see the notes on chap. x. 1—3.

lee of the nations. Others suppose it is the same country Verse 13. The king of Geder] "Probably the same with that of which Tidal was king, see Gen. xiv. 1. The with Gedor, chap. xv. 36, &c. it was situated in the tribe place is very uncertain, and commentators have rendered of Judah.

it more so by their conjectures. Verse 14. The king of Hormah] Supposed to be the Verse 24. King of Tirzah] This city appears to have place where the Israelites were defeated by the Canaan- been, for a long time, the capital of the kingdom of Israel, ites. See Numb. xiv. 45. and which probably was and the residence of its kings. See 1 Kings xiv. 17. xv. called Hormah, onn chormah, or destruction, from this 21, 33. Its situation cannot be exactly ascertained ; but it circumstance.

is supposed to have been situated on a mountain, about Verse 15. Adullam) A city belonging to the tribe of three leagues south of Samaria. Judah, chap. xv. 35. In a cave, at this place, David often All the kings thirty and one] The Septuagint say secreted himself, during his persecution by Saul, 1 Sam. ELKOOI evvca twenty-nine, and yet set down but twentyxxii. 1.

eight, as they confound or omit the kings of Beth-el, LaVerse 17. Tappuah] There were two places of this sharon, and Madon. name, one in the tribe of Judah, chap. xv. 34. and another So many kings in so small a territory, shows that their in the tribe of Ephraim on the borders of Manasseh : but kingdoms must have been very small indeed. The kings which of the two is meant here, cannot be ascertained. of Beth-el and Ai, had but about 12,000 subjects in the See the note on chap. xv. 53.

whole; but in ancient times, all kings had very small Hepher] The same, according to Calmet, as Hophra in territories. Every village or town had its chief; and this the tribe of Benjamin, chap. xviii. 23.

chief was independent of his neighbours, and exercised Verse 18. Aphek) There were several cities of this regal power in his own district. In reading all ancient name; one in the tribe of Asher, chap. xix. 30. another in histories, as well as the Bible, this circumstance must be the tribe of Judah, 1 Sam. iv. 1. and xxxix. 1. and a kept constantly in view ; for we ought to consider, that in third in Syria, 1 Kings xx. 26. and 2 Kings xiii. 17. those times, both kings and kingdoms were but a faint rewhich of the two former is here intended, cannot be as semblance of those now. certained.

Great Britain, in ancient times, was divided into many Lasharon] There is no city of this name known. kingdoms: in the time of the Sarons, it was divided into Some consider the blamed in the word mes la-sharon, seven, hence called the Saxon heptarchy. But when Juto be the sign of the genitive case ; and in this sense lius Cæsar first entered this island, he found four kings in it appears to have been understood by the Vulgate, which Kent alone; Cingentorix, Corvilius, Tarimagulus, and translates Rex Saron, the king of Sharon. This was Segonar. Hence we need not wonder at the numbers we rather a district than a city, and is celebrated in the read of in the land of Canaan. Ancient Gaul was thus Scriptures for its fertility, Isa. xxxiii. 9. xxxv. 2. Some divided : and the great number of sovereign princes, secusuppose it was the same with Saron, near Lydda, men lar bishops, landgraves, dukes, &c. &c. in Germany, are tioned in Acta ix. 35.

the modern remains of those ancient divisions. Verse 20. Shimron-meron] See on chap. xi. 1.

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII. Verse 21. Taanach) A city in the half tribe of Ma Verse 1. Joshua was old] He is generally reputed to naseh, in the west of Jordan, not far from the frontiers have been at this time about a hundred years of age : he of Zebulon, chap. xxvii. 11. This city was assigned to had spent about seven years in the conquest of the land, the Levites, chap. xxi. 25.

and is supposed to have employed about one year in diVerse 22. Kedesh] There was a city of this name in viding is, and he died about ten years after, aged one hunthe tribe of Naphtali

, chap. xix. 37. It was given to the dred and ten years. It is very likely that he intended to Levites, and was one of the cities of refuge, chap. xx. 7. subdue the whole land, before he made the division of it

the borders of the Philistines, and all + Ge- lot unto the Israelites, for an inheritance, as I' shuri,

have commanded thee. 3 - From Sihor, which is before Egypt, even 7 Now therefore divide this land for an inunto the borders of Ekron northward, which is heritance unto the nine tribes, and the half tribe counted to the Canaanite: °five lords of the of' Manasseh, Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdoth 8 With whom the Reubenites and the Gadites ites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and the Ek- have received their inheritance, which Moses ronites; also the Avites:

gave them, beyond Jordan eastward, eren as 4 From the south, all the land of the Canaan-Moses the servant of the LORD gave them; ites, and . Mearah that is beside the Sidonians, 9 From Arver, that is upon the bank of the "unto Aphek, to the borders of the Amorites: river Arnon, and the city that is in the midst of

5 And the land of the Giblites, and all Leba- the river, 2 and all the plain of Medeba unto non, toward the sunrising, from u Baal-gad unto Dibon; mount Hermon, unto the entering into Ha 10 And a all the cities of Sihon king of the math.

Amorites, which reigned in Heshbon, unto the 6 All the inhabitants of the hill country, from border of the children of Ammon; Lebanon unto Misrephoth-maim, and all the 11 b And Gilead, and the border of the Geshur. Sidoniars, them w will' I drive out from before ites, and Maachathites, and all mount Hermon, the children of Israel: only * divide thou it by and all Bashan unto Salcah;

m Ver. 18. 2 Sam. 3. 3. & 13. 37, 38-n Jer. 2. 18.-0 Judg. 3. 3. 1 Sam. 6. 4, 16. u Ch. 12 7.-Ch. 11. 8.—w Set Ch. B. 13. Judg 2 21, 2-1 Ch 14 1,2 Zeph 2 5.- Deul 2 2.- Or, the case. -- Ch. 19. 30. See Judg. 1. 34. - 1 y Numb. 3. Deut. 3. 12, 13. Ch 2 1-2 Verse 16. Namb 21.30 - Noad 2 Kings 5. 18. Psa 31. 7. Ezek. 2.9.

24, 25 -6 Chap 12 5. among the tribes; but God did not think proper to liave the Hirites. The Avites seem to have been a very inconthis done. So unfaithful were the Israelites, that he ap- siderable tribe, who dwelt in some of the skirts of Palespears to have purposed that some of the ancient inhabit tine. They had been originally deprived of their comtry ants should still remain, to keep them in check; and that by the Caphtorim; and though they lived as a distinct the respective tribes should have some labour, to drive out people, they had never afterward arrived to any authority. from their allotted borders the remains of the Canaanitish Verse 4.' The land of the Canaanites) This lay on nations.

the south of the country of the Philistines, toward the sea There remaineth yet very much land to be possessed.] coast. That is, very much when compared with that on the other Mearah] Supposed to be the city Maralha, on the Mediside Jordan, which was all that could as yet be said to be terranean sea. Calmet. Or the river Majora, which falls in the hands of the Israelites.

into the Mediterranean sea, between Sidon and Berytus. Verse 2. The borders of the Philistines, and all Ge See Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. x. c. 20. shuri] The borders of the Philistines, may mean the land Aphek] See on chap. xii. 18. which they possessed on the sea coast, southwest of the To the borders of the Amorites] Though the term land of Canaan. There were several places named Ge- Amorite, is sometimes used to designate the inhabitants shuri, but that spoken of here was probably the region on in general, of the land of Canaan; yet it must be connd. the south of Canaan, toward Arabia, or toward Egypt. ered in a much more restricted sense in this place. As no Calmet. Cellarius supposes it to have been a country in Amorites are known to have dwelt in this quarter, Calmet the vicinity of the Amalekites.

supposes we should read Aramites, or Syrians. Joshua Verse 3. From Sihor, which is before Egypt] Sup- says he, proceeds from Sidon to Aphck, a city of Syria, posed by some to be the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, near between Heliopolis and Babylon, where was the temple to the Arabian desert: called also the river of Egypt, of the Venus of Aphek ; and which is spoken of in 1 Kings Numb. xxxiv. 5. Jer. ii. 18. On this subject an intelli xx. 26. 2 Kings xii. 18. as the capital of the kings gent friend favours me with the following opinion : of Syria. From this, Joshua passes on to the fronuers

“The river Sihor is supposed by some to be the Nile, of the Syrians, toward Gebal or Gabala, which, accordor a branch of it. Others think it the same as what is ing to Ptolemy, was situated in Phænicia. This conjeefrequently called the river of Egypt, which lay before, ture of Calmei is not supported by any authority, either or toward the borders of Egypt; which arose out of the from the ancient Versions, or MSS. Houbigant, howmountains of Paran, and ran westward, falling into that ever, approves of it: the emendation is simple, as it conbay of the Mediterranean which lies south of ihc land of sists in the interchange of only two letters in the saine the Philistines. This river is often mentioned as the boun-word; 1997 ha-aramey, for ex. ha-amorty. dary of the Israelites to the southwest, as Euphrates, the Verse 5. The land of the Giblites) This people dvelt great rirer, was on the northeast.

beyond the precincts of the land of Canaan, on the east “ There was a desert, or considerable distance between of Tyre and Sidon. See Ezek. xxvii. 9. Psal. lxxi. & what is called the river of Egypt, and the isthmus of their capital was named Gebal. See Dodd. Suez. Solomon reigned to the borders of Egypt; i. e. An Lebanon] See on chap. xi. 17. to this desert; but not in Egyp, nor to the river Nile. Verse 6. Misrephoth-maim) See on chap. xi. 7.

“Upon the whole, (though there are difficulties in the Them will I drive out) That is, if the Israelites conmatter) I incline to think that the river in question was tinued to be obedient; but they did not, and therefore they not the Nile. Sihor (black) might, from some circum never fully possessed the whole of that land, which, on stances, be applied to another river as well as the Nile: this condition alone, God had promised them: the Sido though some places in Isaiah and Jeremiah seem to re nians were never expelled by the Israelites; and wers strict it to the Nile." J. C.

only brought into a state of comparative subjection, in the Ekron northward] Ekron was one of the five lord-days of David and Solomon. ships of the Philistines, and the most northern of all the Son have taken upon them to deny the authentieity of districts they possessed. Baal-zebub, its idol, is famous Divine revelation, relative to this business, “because, in Scripture, see 2 Kings i. 2, &c. The fire lordships of say they, “God is stated to have absolutely promised that the Philistines, were Gaza, Ashdod, Askalon, Gath, and Joshua should conquer the whole land, and put the Israel Ekron. There is no proof that ever the Israelites pos ites in possession of it.” This is a total mistake. 1. God sessed Ekron ; though, from chap. xvi. 11. some think it never absolutely, i. e. unconditionally, promised to put was originally given tó Judah, but the text does not say them in possession of this land. The promise of their 80; it only states, that the border of the tribe of Judah, possessing the whole, was suspended on their fidelity to went out UNTO THE SIDs of Ekron. From chap. xix. 43. God. They were not faithful, and therefore God was not we learn that it was a part of the lot of Dan, but it does bound by his promise to give them any part of the land not appear to have been possessed by any of those tribes. after their first'act of national defection from his worship.

Counted to the Canaanite] It is generally allowed, 2. God never said that Joshua should conquer the whole that the original possessors of this country were the de- land, and gire it to them; the promise was simply this, scendants of Canaan, the youngest son of Ham. The “Thou shalt bring them into the land, and thou shalt diPhilistines sprung from Misraim the second son of Ham, vide it among them :" both of which he did, and procured and having dispossessed the Avim from the places they them footing by his conquests, sufficient to have enabled held in this land, dwelt in their stead. See Gen. x. 13, 14. ) them to establish themselves in it for ever. 3. It was

Five lords of the Philistines] These dynasties are fe never gaid, Thou shalt conquer it all, and then diride it; mous in the Scriptures for their successful wars against no. Several of the tribes, after their quota was allotted the Israelites, of whom they were almost the perpetual them, were obliged to drive out the ancient inhabitants. scourge.

See on chap. xi. 18. Also the Avites] These must not be confounded with Verse 7. The nine tribes, and the half tribe of Manas


12 All the kingdom of Og in Bashan, which ter their families, the cities and the villages reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, who reinain- thereof. ed of othe remnant of the giants: d for these 24 | And Moses gave inheritance unto the did Moses smite, and cast them out.

tribe of Gad, even unto the children of Gad ac13 Nevertheless the children of Israel expelled cording to their families. e not the Geshurites nor the Maachathites: but 25 * And their coast was Jazer, and all the the Geshurites and the Maachathites dwell cities of Gilead, sand hall the land of the chilamong the Israelites until this day:

dren of Ammon, unto Aroer that is before 14 Only unto the tribe of Levi he gave none y Rabbah; inheritance; the sacritices of the LORD God of 26 And from Heshbon unto Ramath-mizpeh, Israel, made by fire, are their inheritance, 5 as and Betonim; and from Mahanaim unto the borhe said unto them.

der of Debir; 15 | And Moses gave unto the tribe of the 27 And in the valley, - Beth-aram, and Bethchildren of Reuben inheritance according to nimrah, a and Succoth, and Zaphon, the rest of their families.

the kingdom of Sihon, king of Heshbon, Jordan 16 And their coast was " from Aroer, that is and his border, even unto the edge b of the sea on the bank of the river Arnon, i and the city of Chinneroth, on the other side Jordan eastthat is in the midst of the river, kand all the ward. plain by Medeba;

28 This is the inheritance of the children of 17 Heshbon, and all the cities that are in the Gad after their families, the cities, and their plain; Dibon, and Bamoth-baal, and Bethbaal- villages. meon,

29 T. And Moses gave inheritance unto the 18 in

And Jahaza, and Kedemoth, and Me- half tribe of Manasseh: and this was the posphaath,

session of the half tribe of the children of Ma19 » And Kirjathaim, and Sibmah, and Za- nasseh by their families. reth-shahar in the mount of the valley,

30 And their coast was from Mahanaim, all 20 And Beth-peor, and PAshdoth-pisgah, "and Bashan, all the kingdom of Og, king of Bashan, Beth-jeshimoth;

and « all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, 21 And all the cities of the plain, and all the threescore cities. kingdom of Sihon, king of the Amorites, which 31 And half Gilead, and d Ashtaroth, and reigned in Heshbon, whom Moses smote e with Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, the princes of Midian, Evi, and Rekem, and were pertaining unto the children of Machir the Zur, and Hur, and Reba, which were dukes of son of Manasseh, eren to the one half of the Sihon, dwelling in the country,

children of Machir by their families. 22 Balaam also the son of Beor, the sooth 32 These are the countries which Moses did sayer, did the children of Israel slay with the distribute for inheritance in the plains of Moab, sword among them that were slain by them. on the other side Jordan, by Jericho, eastward.

23 And the border of the children of Reuben 33 " But unto the tribe of Levi, Moses gave was Jordan, and the border thereof. This was not any inheritance, the Lord God of Israel was the inheritance of the children of Reuben af- their inheritance, 6 as he said unto them.

c Deut 3. IL. Ch. 121- Nunb. 21. 21, 35.- Ver. 11.-- Numb. 19. 20, 23, 24. Ch. 141.3, 1.- Ver. 33.- Ch. 12. 2-i Nomb. 21. N- Num. 21. 30. 'Ver. 9. 1 Or, the high places of Baal, and house of Baal-meon: See Naub. 32. 38. a Numb. 4. 2- Num. 32 37- Numb). 32. 38.-p Deut. 3. 17, Ch. 12. 3. 9 01, springs of Pisgah, or, the hill, -r Deut. 3. 10.

* Numb. 21 21.- Numb. 31. 8.--u Numb. 22.5 & 31. 8-v Or, dipiner. w Numb. 32 35 -- Compare Sumb, 21, 26, 27, 29, with Deut. 2. 19. & Jul 11, 13, 15, &cy 2 Sam. 1 1. & 12 26.-2 Numb. 32. 36.-a Gea. 3. 17. I Kings 7. 16. b Kutnb 31 11.-c Numh. 32. 11. I Chron. 2. 3.- Ch. 12 4.- Numb. 3. 30, 10. (Ver 14 Ch. 18. 7.- Numb. 18. 20. Deut. 10. 9. & 19. 1, 2

sch] The other half tribe of Manasseh, with the two tribes Verse 25. Half the land of the children of Ammon) of Reuben and Gad, had got their inheritance on the other This probably was land which had been taken from the side of Jordan, in the land formerly belonging to Og king Ammonites by Sihon, king of the Amorites; and which of Bashan, and Sihon king of the Amorites.

the Israelites possessed by right of conquest. For although Verse 9. From Aroer] See on chap. xii. 2.

the Israelites were forbidden to take the land of the AnVerse 11. Border of the Geshurites) See on chap. xii. 5. monites, Deut. ii. 37. yet this part, as having been united

Verse 17. Bamoth-baal] The high places of Baal, pro to the territories of Sihon, they might possess, when they bably so called from altars erected on hills, for the impure defeated that king, and subdued his kingdom. worship of this Canaanitish Priapus.

Verse 26. Ramath-Mizpch] The same as RamathVerse 13. Jahaza) A city near Medeba and Dibon. It gilead. It was one of the cities of refuge, chap. xx. 8. W13 given to the Levites, 1 Chron. vi. 78.

Dent. iv. 47. Kedemoth) Mentioned Deut. ii. 26. supposed to have Mahanaimn] Situated on the northern side of the brook been situated beyond the river Arnon.

Jabbok; celebrated for the vision of the two camps of anMephaath) Situated on the frontiers of Moab, on the gels, which Jacob had there : see Gen. xxxii. 2. eastern part of the desert. It was given to the Levites, Verse 27. Belh-aram] This city was rebuilt by Herod, chap. xxi. 37.

and called Lirius : in honour of Liria, the wife of AuVerse 19. Kirjathaim] This city, according to Eusebius, gustus. Josephus calls it Julias: Julia being the name was nine miles distant from Medleba, toward the east. It which the Greeks cominonly give to Livia.--Calmet. passed from the Emim to the Moabites ; from the Moab Succoth] A place between Jabbok and Jordan ; where ites to the Arnorites; and from the Amorites to the Israel Jacob pitched his tents, from which circumstance it obites, Gen. xiv. 5. Deut. ii. 20. Calmet supposes the Reu- tained its name, see Gen. xxxiii. 17. benites poessegged it till the time they were carried away by Verse 29. The half tribe of Munassch] When the the Assyrians; and then the Monbites appear to have taken tribes of Reuben and Gad requested to have their settlepossession of it anew, as he collects from Jer. xlviii. and ment on the east side of Jordan, it does not appear that Ezek. XXV.

any part of the tribe of Manasseh requested to be settled Sibmah] A place remarkable for its vines.--See Isa. xvi. in the same place. But as this tribe was numerous, and 8, 9. Jerein. xlviii. 32.

had much caitle, Moses thought proper to appoint one half Zircth-shahar, in the mount of the valley! This pro- of it to remain on the east of Jordan, and the other to go bably means a lown situated on or near to a hill, in some over and settle on the west side of that river. flat country.

Verse 30. The towns of Jair] These were sixty cities, Verse 20. Beth-peor] The house or temple of Peor, they are mentioned afterward, and in 1 Chron. ii. 21, &c. situated at the foot of a mountain of the same name.-See They are the same with the Haroth-jair, mentioned Numb. Numb. xxv. 3.

xxxii. 41. Jair was the son of Seguh, grandson of Esron Verge 21. The princes of Midian) See the history of or Hezron, and great grandson of Machir by his grandthis war, Numb. xxxi. 1, &c. and from that place, this and mother's side, who married Hezron of the tribe of Judah. the following verse seem to be borrowed; for the introduc See his gencalogy I Chron. ii. 21-24. tion of the death of Balram here, seems quite irrelevant. Verse 32. Which Moses did distribute] Moses had set

Verse 23. The cities and the villages) By villages, tled every thing relative to these tribes before his death, Din chatserim, it is likely that moveable villages or having appointed them to possess the territories of Og, tents are meant; such as are in use among the Bedouin king of Bashan, and Sihon, king of the Amoriteg. Arabs-places where they were accustomed to feed and For particulars on this chapter, the reader, if he judge pen their cattle.

it of consequence, may consult' Calmet. Vol. 1.-73


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