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LORD's tabernacle dwelleth, and take possession with our burnt-offerings, and with our sacrifices, among us: but rebel not against the LORD, nor and with our peace-offerings; that your children rebel against us, in building you an altar beside may not say to our children in time to come, Ye the altar of the LORD our God.

have no part in the LORD. 20 h Did not Achan the son of Zerah commit 28 Therefore said we, that it shall be, when a trespass in the accursed thing, and wrath fell they should so say to us or to our generations in on all the congregation of Israel ? and that man time to come, that we may say again, Behold perished not alone in his iniquity.

the pattern of the altar of the Lord, which our 21 1 Then the children of Reuben and the fathers made, not for burnt-offerings, nor for children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh, sacrifices; but it is a witness between us and you. answered, and said unto the heads of the thou 29 God forbid that we should rebel against sands of Israel,

the LORD, and turn this day from following the 22 The LORD God of gods, the LORD God of LORD, P to build an altar for burnt-offerings, for gods, he kķnoweth, and Israel he shall know; if meat-offerings, or for sacrifices, beside the altar it be in rebellion, or if in transgression against of the LORD our God that is before his taberthe LORD, (save us not this day,

nacle. 23 That we have built us an altar to turn from 30 | And when Phinehas the priest, and the following the LORD, or if to offer thereon burnt- princes of the congregation and heads of the offering or meat-offering, or if to offer peace-thousands of Israel which were with him, heard offerings thereon, let the LORD himself irequire the words that the children of Reuben, and the

children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh 24 And if we have not rather done it for fear spake, it pleased them. of this thing, saying,

m In time to come your 31 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest children might speak unto our children, saying, said unto the children of Reuben, and to the What have ye to do with the LORD God of Israel children of Gad, and to the children of Manas

25 For the LORD hath made Jordan a border seh, This day we perceive that the Lord is between us and you, ye children of Reuben and ramong us, because ye have not committed this children of Gad, ye have no part in the LORD: trespass against the Lord: now ye have deso shall your children make our children cease livered the children of Israel out of the hand of from fearing the LORD.

the Lord. 26 Therefore we said, Let us now prepare to 32 | And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the build us an altar; not for burnt-offering, nor for priest and the princes, returned from the chilsacrifice;

dren of Reuben, and from the children of Gad, 27 But that it may be n a witness between us out of the land of Gilead, unto the land of Caand you, and our generations after us, that we naan, to the children of Israel, and brought them might do the service of the LORD before him word again.

it ;

h Ch. 7. 1, 5.- Deut. 10. 17. - 1 Kings 8. 39. Job 10.7. & 23 10. Pea. 44. 21. & 139. 1, 2 Jer. 12. 2. 2 Cor. 11. 11, 31.- Deut. 18. 19. 1 Sam. 20. 16. --m Hcb. In-mor. TOL.

n Gen. 31. 48. Ch. 24. 27. Ver. 31.- Deut. 12. 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 26, 27.-p Deut 12. 13, 11-9 Heb. it was good in their eyes.-r Lev. 26. 11, 12 2 Chron. 15. 2 . Heb. Then

he, through his zeal for the glory of God, was the means been changed: and in the succeeding part of their defence of preventing;

they show, that their practice corresponded with their creed. Verse 19. If the land of your possession be unclean] The repetition of these solemn names by the Reubenites, The generous mind of Phinehas, led him to form this &c. shows their deep concern for the honour of God, and excuse for them. If ye suppose that this land is impure, their anxiety to wipe off the reproach which they consider as not having been originally included in the covenani, and cast on them by the supposition that they had been capable ye think that ye cannot expect the blessing of God, unless of defection from the pure worship of God, or of disaffecye have an aliar, sacrifices, &c. then pass ye over unto the tion to their brethren. land of the possession of the Lord, wherein the Lord's Save us not this day] This was putting the affair to tabernacle dwelleth, the only legitimate place where sac the most solemn issue, and nothing but the utmost conrifices and offerings can be made. We will divide this land sciousness of their own integrity, could have induced them with you, and rather straiten ourselves, than that you to make such an appeal, and call for such a decision. “Let should conceive yourselves to be under any necessity of God the Judge cause us to perish this day, if in principle erecting a new altar, besides the allar of the Lord ourấod. or practice we have knowingly departed from him.”

Verse 20. Did not Achan the son of Zerah] Your sin Verse 24. For fear of this thing]. The motive that will not be merely against yourselves : your transgressions actuated us, was directly the reverse of that of which we will bring down the wrath of God upon all the people ; this have been suspected. was the case in the transgression of Achan; he alone Verse 26. Ån altar ; not for burnt-offering, nor for Binned, and yet God, on that account, turned his face sacrifice) Because this would have been in flat opposiagainst the whole congregation, so that they fell before tion to the Law, Levit. xvii. 8, 9. Deut. xii. 4, 5, 6, 10, their enemies. We cannot, therefore, be unconcerned spec- | 11, 13, 14. which most positively forbad any sacrifice or tators of your transgression, we may all be implicated in offering to be made in any other place than that one which its criminality; let this, and the dishonour which we the Lord should choose. Therefore the altar builded by the apprehend is done to our God, plead our excuse, and vin- Reubenites, &c. was for no religious purpose, but merely dicate the necessity of the present warlike appearance to serve as a testimony that they were one people with which we make before you. See the history of Achan, those on the west of Jordan, having the same religious and referred to here, chap. vii. and the notes there.

civil constitution, and bound by the same interests to keep Verse 21. Then the children of Reuben-answered) that constitution inviolate. Though conscious of their own innocency, they permitted Verse 29. God forbid that we should rebel] These Phinehas to finish his discourse, though composed of little words not only express their strong abhorrence of this else than accusations, there was a decency in this, and crime, but also show, that without God, they could do no such a full proof of good breeding, as does them the highest good thing; and that they depended upon him for that credit. There are many public assemblies in the present strength by which alone they could abstain from evil. day, which lay claim to the highest refinement, who might Verse 31. We perceive that the Lord is among us] Or, take a very useful lesson from these Reubenites and their according to the Targum of Jonathan-" This day we associates.

know that the majesty of Jehovah dwelleth among us, beVerse 22. The Lord God of gods) The original words cause ye have not committed this prevarication against the are exceedingly emphatic, and cannot be easily translated, WORD of the Lord, and thus ye have delivered the chil; MIT DSX SX Él Elohim Yehovah, are the three principal dren of Israel from the hand of the WORD of the Lord.” names by which the supreme God was known among the They rejoice to find them innocent, and that there is no Hebrews, and may be thus translated, the strong God, ground of quarrel between the children of the same fami: Elohim Jehovah, which is nearly the version of Luther; ly. And from this they draw a very favourable conclusion, Der starcte Gott der Werr, "The Strong God the LORD." And the Reubenites, by using these, in their very solemn ligious worship, so he would abide with them as their proappeal, expressed at once their strong, unshaken faith in tector and their portion : and as they were his friends, they the God of Israel; and by this they fully showed the

depu- take it for granted that he will

deliver them from the hands tation from the ten tribes, that their religious creed had not of their enemies. VOL. I.-75

593

An. Exod. Lar. 48.

Anno ante

33 And the thing pleased the children of Is- | their elders, and for their heads, and for their rael; and the children of Israel blessed God, judges, and for their officers, and said unto them, and did not intend to go up against them in bat- I am old and stricken in age: tle, to destroy the land wherein the children of 3 And ye have seen all that the LORD your Reuben and Gad dwelt.

God hath done unto all these nations because of 34 And the children of Reuben and the chil- you; for the LORD your God is he that hath dren of Gad called the altar u Ed: for it shall fought for you. be a witness between us that the Lord is God. 4° Behold, « I have divided unto you by lot CHAPTER XXIII.

these nations that remain, to be an inheritance

for your tribes from Jordan, with all the nations Joshua being old, calls for the rulers, and different heads of the Israelites, 1,2; to whom he relates how God had put them in possession of the proinised land, 3, 4; from

that I have cut off, even unto the great sea which all their remaining enemies should be expelled, 5. 'Exhorts them to be faith westward. ful to God, and to avoid all connexions with the idolatrous ratione, 6-8. Encourages them with the strongest promises, that no enerny shoull ever be able to prevail 5 | And the LORD your God, he shall expel against them, if they continued to love the Lord their God, 9-11. Lays also before them the consequences of disbedience, 12, 13. Shows them, that as all God's

them from before you, and drive them from out promises hul been fulfilled to them, while they were obedient, w his threatenings of your sight; and ye shall possess their land they should be utterly destroyel from off the good land, 14–16.

as the LORD your God hath promised unto you. AN ND it came to pass a long time 6 Be ye therefore very courageous to keep I Olymp. 667.

after that the LORD had given and to do all that is written in the book of the

rest unto Israel from all their ene- law of Moses,' that ye turn not aside therefrom mies round about, that Joshua w waxed old and to the right hand or to the left; *stricken in age:

7 That ye & come not among these nations, 2 And Joshua y called for all Israel and for these that remain among you; neither make tl Chron. 29. 20. Veh. 8. 6. Dan. 2. 19. Luke 2.28. -u That is, a witness: Ho Ch 24. the sunset.-o Exol. 23.30. & 33.2. & 31. 11. Deut. 11. 23. Ch. 13. 6.- Numb. 33. 53 27.- Ch. 21. 44. & 22.4.--w Ch. 13. 1. - Het), come into days.-y Deut. 31. 3. Ch. e Ch. 1.7.- Deut. 5.32&B 14- Exol. 23. 33. Deut. 7. 2, 3. Prov. 4. 14. Eph. 24. 1. I Chron. 28. 1.- Exod. 14. 14. Ch. 10. 14. 12.- Ch. 13. 2,618.10.-b Heb. at 5. 11.- Exol. B. 13. Par. 16. 4. Jer. 5. 7. Zeph. 1.5. See Numb. 32. 38.

Verse 33. And did not intend to go up against them this advice, would it not lead to a total indifference about in battle) That is, they now relinguished the intention of religion ?" Not at all: for in the things which concern going against them in battle; as this explanation proved the essentials of Christianity, both in doctrine and practhere was no cause for the measure.

tice, we should ever feel zealously affected, and earnestly Verse 34. Called the altar Ed] The word ED 0 contend for the faith oncc delirered to the saints. which signifies witness or testimony, is not found in the

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIII. common editions of the Hebrew Bible, and is supplied in Verse 1. A long time after that the Lord had given Italics by our translators, at least in our modern copies; rest] This is supposed to have been in the last, or one for in the first edilion of this translation, it stands in the hundred and tenth year of the life of Joshua, about thirtext without any note of this kind : and it is found in seve teen or fourteen years after the conquest of Canaan, and ral of Kennicoit's and de Rossi's MSS. and also in the seven after the division of the land among the tribes. Syriac and Arabic. Several also of the early printed Verse 2. Joshua called for all Israel] There are four editions of the Hebrew Bible, have the word y either in degrees of civil distinction mentioned here. 1. Dupi Zithe text or in the margin; and it must be allowed to be ne- kenim, the elders or senate, the PRINCES of the tribes. 2. cessary to complete the sense. It is very probable that an D'UN Rashim, or Rashey Aboth, the CHIEFs, or HEADS inscription was put on this altar, which pointed out the of families. 3. D'UD Shophilim, the JUDGES who interpurposes for which it was erected.

preted, and decided according to the law. 4. Du ShoFrom the contents of this chapter, we learn that the terim, the OFFICERS, serjeants, &c. who executed the deIsraelites were dreadfully alarmed at the prospect of a cisions of the Judges. Whether this assembly was held at schism in their own body, both as it related to ccclesiasti Timnath-serah, where Joshua lived, or at Shiloh, where cal and civil matters. A few observations on this subject the ark was, or at Shechem, as in chap. xxiv. 1. we canmay not be useless.

not tell. Some think that the meeting here, and that menSchism in religion is a dangerous thing; and should be tioned in chap. xxiv. were the same; and if so, Shechern carefully avoided by all who fear God. But this word was the place of assembling; but it is more likely that the should be well understood. Exioua, in theology, is gene- two chapters treat of two distinct assemblies, whether held rally allowed to signify a rent in, or departure from, the at the same place or not. doctrine and practice of the apostles, especially among

Verse 3. For the Lord your God is he that hath fought those who had been previously united in that doctrine and for you] There is much both of piety and modesty in this practice. A departure from human institutions in reli address. It was natural for the Israelites to look on their gion, is no schism, for this reason, that the word of God veteran, wornout general, who had led them on from conalone is the sufficient rule of the faith and practice of quest to conquest, with profound respect: and to be ready Christians: and as to human institutions, forms, modes, to say, “Had we not had such a commander, we had never &c. those of one party may be as good as those of another. got possession of this good land.". Joshua corrects this

When the majority of a nation agrees in some particular opinion, and shows them, that all their enemies had been forms and modes in their religious service; no conscien- defeated, because the Lord their God had fought for them; rious man will lightly depart from these : nor depart at all, that the battle was the Lord's and not his; and that God unless he find, that they are not only not authorized by the alone should have the glory: word of God, but repugnant to it. It is an object greatly Verse 4. I have dividedthese nations that remain) to be desired, that a whole people, living under the same The whole of the promised land had been portioned out, as laws, may, as much as possible, glorify God, not only with well those parts which had not yet been conquered, as those one heart, but also with one mouth.

from which the ancient inhabitants had been expelled. But there may be a dissent from established forms, The Canaanitish armies had long ago been broken in without schism: for if that dissent make no rent in the pieces, so that they could make no head against the Israeldoctrine or practice of Christianity, as laid down in the ites; but in many districts the old inhabitants remained, New Testament, it is an abuse of terms to call it a schism : more through the supineness of the Israelites than through besides, there may be a dissent among religious people re their own bravery. lative to certain points, both in creed and practice, which, From Jordan-unto the great sea] All the land that not affecting the essentials of Christianity, nor having any lay between the river Jordan, from Phiala, where it rose, direct tendency to alienate the affections of Christians from: to the southern extremity of the Dead sea; and to the each other, cannot be called a schism—but when profess- Mediterranean sea, through the whole extent of its coast, ing Christians separate from each other, to set up one needs opposite to Jordan. less or non-essential form, &c. in the place of others, Verse 5. And drive them-out-and ye shall possess) which they call needless or non-essential, they are highly The same Hebrew word yr yarash, is used here, to sig. culpable. This not only produces no good, but tends to nify, to crpel from an inheritance, and to succeed those much evil-for both parties, in order to make the points of thus expelled." Ye shall disinherit them from your sight, their difference of sufficient consequence to justify their dis- and ye shall inherit their land. Bention, magnify these non-essential matters beyond all Verse 6. Be ye therefore very courageous to keep and to reason, and sometimes, beyond conscience itself; and thus, do, &c.] It requires no small courage to keep a sound mint and cummin are tithed, while the weightier matters creed in the midst of scoffers ; and not less to maintain a of the law, judgment and the love of God, are utterly ne- godly practice among the profane and profligate. glected. If Christians either cannot, or 'will not, think That is written in the book] By the word of God alore alike on all points, surely they can agree to disagree, and his followers are bound. Nothing is to be received as an let each go to heaven his own way. "But should we take article of faith, which God has not spoken.

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mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to 15 Therefore it shall come to pass, that as yourselves unto them:

LORD your God promised you: so shall the LORD 8 But cleave unto the LORD your God, as bring upon you all evil things, until he have ye have done unto this day.

destroyed you from off this good land which the 91 For in the LORD hath driven out from before Lord your God hath given you. you great nations and strong: but as for you, 16 When ye have transgressed the covenant . no man hath been able to stand before you unto of the LORD your God, which he commanded you, this day,

and have gone and served other gods, and bowed 10 One man of you shall chase a thousand: yourselves to them; then shall the anger of the for the LORD your God, he it is that fighteth for LORD be kindled against you, and ye shall perish you, as he hath promised you.

quickly from off the good land which he hath 11 . Take good heed therefore unto ' your- given unto you. selves, that ye love the LORD your God.

CHAPTER XXIV. 12 | Else if ye do in any wise.go back, and Joshna gathere all the tribes together at Shechern, 1 ; and given them a history of God's cleave unto the remnant of these nations, even

Aaron, and their fathers in Egypt, 5.6His julgents on the Egyptians, 7. On the these that remain among you, and shall i make Am vrites, 8. Their deliverance from Balak anu Balaun, 9.10. Their conqiests in the marriages with them, and go in unto them, and promised land, anul their establishment in the passion of it, 11--13. Exhorts them

to abolish idolatry, and informs them of his anil his family's rewoluriou to serre Jeho they to you:

vah, 14,15. The periple solemnly prornire to sprve the Lord alone, and mention hw

Inerciful deitlingu trwar's them, 16.-13. Joshua Blue them the holiness of Gul, and 13 Know for a certainty that the LORD your the danger of apostasy, 19, 20. The people avain promise olmalience, 21. Joshga calis God will no more drive out any of these nations them to witness against theinselves, that they hd proniu to worship tol alone,

and exhorts them to put away the strange Bols, 22, 2. They promise obedience, 24 from before you; but they shall be snares and Joshua makes a covenant with the people, write it in a bok, wlp a stone 15 A

memorial or it, and dismiss the people, 25--23. Jeshua's death, 29, and burial, 30. traps unto you, and scourges in your sides, and Tht people continue faithful during that generation, 31, They bury the boules of thorns in your eyes, until ye perish from off this Joseph io Shechem, 32. Eleazar, the hugli priest, dies also, 33. you.

tribes of

I Olymp. 667. 14 And, behold, this day w I am going the way and called for the elders of lerael, and for their of all the earth: and ye know in all your hearts heads, and for their judges, and for their officers; and in all your souls, that * not one thing hath and they presented themselves before God. failed of all the good things which the LORD your 2 | And Joshua said unto all the people, Thus God spake concerning you: all are come to pass saith the Lord God of Israel, Your fathers unto you, and not one thing hath failed thereof. dwelt on the other side of the food in old time,

good land which the LORD your God hath given ANDIJoshua gathered all the 4, sed etiam

Or, For il ye will cleate, &c.-- Deut. 10. 20. & 11. 22. & 13. 4. ch. 225-1 Or,
Then the LORD ill drine Deul IL 2.-- Ch. 1. 5.-oler. 26. 8. Deut. 32 30.
Sce Jalg. 331 & 15. 15. 2 Sanu 23.8.--p Exod. 14. 11. & 2.27. Deul, 3. 22.-- Ch.
22 5 - Heb. your souls. Heb. 10.38, 39.2 Pet. 2. 20, 21.-- Deat. 7. 3.

u Judg. 2, 3.--v Exod. 23.33 Numb. 33. 35. Deut. 7. 16. 1 Kings 11.4.- Kings 2.2 Sex Ilh. 9. 27.-- Ch. 21. 45. Luke 21. 33-y Dent. 28 63.- Lev. 26. 16. Deut. 23. 15. 16, &c. Jug.3 3, 12 & 4. 1. 2.& 6. 1. & 10.6, 7. & 13. 1. 2 Chron. 36. 16, 17. a Gen. 35. 4.- Ch. 23. 2.--c1 Sam. 10. 19. Geu. 11. 36, 31. Julith 5. 6. 7.

Verse 7. Come not among these nations] Have no Verse 15. So shall the Lord bring upon you all evil civil or social contracts with them, see ver. 12. as these things) His faithfulness in fulfilling his promises, is a will infallibly lead to spiritual affinities—in consequence proof that he will as faithfully accomplish his threatenings : of which, ye will make honourable mention of the name for the veracity of God is equally pledged for both. of their gods, swear by them, as the judges of your motives Verse 16. Ve shall perish quickly from off the good and actions, serve thein in their abominable rites, and bou land] The following note from Mr. John Trapp is very yourselres unto them, as your creators and preservers ; | judicious : "This judgment Joshua inculcates ver. 13, 15. thus giving the whole worship of God to idols. And all and here; because he knew it would be a very grievous this will follow from simply coming among them. He thing to them to forego so goodly a land, so lately gotten, who walks in the counsel of the ungodly will soon stand and so short a while enjoyed. In the beginning of a in the way of sinners, and shortly sit in the seat of the speech, ta non, the milder affections, suit besi : but ioward scornful Nemo repentè fuit turpissimus. No man rises the end, Ta naon, passionate and piercing passages, accordto the highest stages of iniquity but by degrees. NERO ing to the orator. This rule Joshua observes, being Er himself, under the instructions of Seneca, was a promising utroque Cæsar, no less an orator, than a warrior." youth.

In all this exhortation, we see how closely Joshua copies Verse 10. One man of you shall chase a thousand] Do the example of his great master Moses. See Lev. xxvi. not remain inactive, on the supposition that you must be 7, 8, 14, &c. Deut. xxviii, 7. xxii. 30. He was tenderly much more numerous before you can drive out your ene concerned for the welfare of the people ; and with a deeply Inies ; for it is the Lord that shall drive out nations great affected heart, he spoke to their hearts. No people ever were and strong: and under his direction and influence, one of more fairly and fully warned, and no people profited less by you shall chase a thousand.

it. The threatenings pronounced here, were accomplished in Verse 1l. Take good heed-unto yourselves, that ye the Babylonish captivity; but more fully in their general love the Lord) O'nu D35 lenaphshotaicem, Take heed To dispersion since the crucifixion of our Lord. And should YOUR SOULS, literally; but up nephesh, and we nefs, not every Christian fear when he reads, If God spared both in Hebrew and Arabic, signify the whole self, as well not the natural branches, take heed that he spare not thee! as soul and life; both soul and body must be joined in this Surely a worldly, carnal, and godless Christian, has no work, for it is written, Thou shalt lore the Lord thy God more reason to expect indulgence from the justice of God, with all thy heart-soul--mind-and strength.

than a profligate Jew. We have a goodly land, but the Verse 12. Else if ye do-go back] The soldier who justice of God can decree a captivity from it

, or a state of draws back, when going to meet the enemy, forfeits his bondage in it. The privileges that are abused are thereby life. These were the Lord's soldiers, and if they drew forfeited. And this is as applicable to the individual, as to bask, they drew back unto perdition : their lives being for the whole system. feited by their infidelity. Verse 13. They shall be snares) nos lepach, a net, or

NOTES ON CHAPTER XXIV. a gin, set by the artful fowler, to catch heedless birds. Verse 1. Joshua gathered all the tribes] This must

And traps) po mokesh, any snare, toil, or trap, placed have been a different assembly from that mentioned in on the ground, to catch the unwary traveller, or wild beast, the preceding chapter, though probably held not long after by the foot.

the former. Scourges in your sides, and thorns in your eyes) No To Shechem] As it is immediatly added, that they prething can be conceived more vexatious and distressing sented themselves before God, this must mean the taberthan a continual goad in the side, or thorn in the eye. nacle ; but at this time, the tabernacle was not at Shechem, They will drive you into obedience to their false gods, and but at Shiloh. The Septuagint appear to have been struck put out the eyes of your understandings by their idola with this difficulty, and therefore read Entw, Shiloh, both tries. And God will preserve them, merely to distress and here and in ver. 25. though the Aldine and Complutenpunish you.

sian editions have Evxcu, Sychem, in both places. Many Verse 14. The way of all the earth) I am about to die suppose that this is the original reading, and that Shechem -I am going into the grave.

has crept into the text instead of Shiloh. Perhaps there Not one thing hath failed, &c.) God had so remarkably is more of imaginary than real difficulty in the text. As and literally fulfilled his promises, that not one of his ene- Joshua was now old and incapable of travelling, he cermies could state, that even the smallest of them had not had tainly had a right to assemble the representatives of the its most literal accomplishment: this all Israel could testify. I tribes wherever he found most convenient; and to bring

even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Girfather of Nachor: and they served other gods. gashites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; and I

3 And' I took your father Abraham from the delivered them into your hand. other side of the Hood, and led him throughout 12 And d I sent the hornet before you, which all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, drave them out from before you, even the two and & gave him Isaac.

kings of the Amorites; but e not with thy sword, 4 And I gave unto Isaac, h Jacob and Esau: nor with thy bow. and I gave unto Esau mount Seir, to possess 13 And I have given you a land for which ye it; k but Jacob and his children went down into did not labour, and cities which ye built not, Egypt.

and ye dwell in them; of the vineyards and olive5 il sent Moses also and Aaron, and m! yards which ye planted not, do ye eat. plagued Egypt, according to that which I did 14 TE Now therefore fear the LORD, and serve among them: and afterward I brought you out him in sincerity and in truth: and i put away

6 And I brought your fathers out of Egypt: the gods which your fathers served on the other and oye came unto the sea; P and the Egyptians side of the flood, and kin Egypt; and serve ye pursued after your fathers with chariots and the Lord. horsemen unto the Red sea.

15 And if it seem evil unto you to serve the 7 And when they cried unto the LORD, he LORD, 1 choose you this day whom ye will serve; put darkness between you and the Egyptians, whether m the gods which your fathers served, i and brought the sea upon them, and covered that were on the other side of the flood, or the them: and your eyes have seen what I have gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: done in Egypt: and ye dwelt in the wilderness but as for me and my house, we will serve the 'a long season.

LORD. 8 And I brought you into the land of the Am 16 And the people answered and said, God orites, which dwelt on the other side Jordan; forbid that we should forsake the LORD, to serve w and they fought with you: and I gave them other gods; into your hand, that ye might possess their land; 17 For the Lord our God, he it is that brought and I destroyed them from before you.

us up, and our fathers, out of the land of Egypt, 9 Then - Balak, the son of Zippor, king of from the house of bondage, and which did those Moab, arose and warred against Israel, and sent great signs in our sight, and preserved us in all and called Balaam, the son of Beor, to curse you: the way wherein we went, and among all the

10 - But I would not hearken unto Balaam; people through whom we passed:

therefore he blessed you still: so I delivered 18 And the LORD drave out from before us all you out of his hand.

the people, even the Amorites which dwelt in 11 And ye went over Jordan, and came unto the land: therefore will we also serve the LORD; Jericho: and · the men of Jericho fought against for he is our God. you, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the 19 And Joshua said unto the people, p Ye can

e Gen 31. 53.- Gen. 12. 1. Acta 7.2, 3.-5 Gen. 21. 2, 3. Psa. 127. 3.--h Gen 25. b Ch. 3. 14, 17. & 4. 10, 11, 12-cCh. 6. 1. & 10. 1. & 11.1.- Exod. 23. Deut 21, 25, 26. - Gen. 35. 8. Deut. 25.-- Gen 46.1,6. Acts 7. 15.-1 Exod. 3. 10.-m Ezel 7. 20 - 41. 3, 6.- Deut. 6. 10, 11. Ch. 11. 13.-- Deul 10.12 1 Sam 12 1 7.28. & 9.& 10 & 12.- Exol. 12 37,51,- Exod. 14. 2-p Exod. 14.9.-r Exod. h Gen. 17. 1. & 20. 5. Deut. 18. 13. Psa. 119. 1. 2 Cor. 1. 12. Eph. 6. 21.- Ver 2,2 11. 10.- Exol. 14.20.-- Exod. 14.27,20 - Deut. 4.31. & 29.2 - Ch. 5.6.-- Numb. Lev. 17. 7. Ezek. 20. 18.- Ezek. 20. 7, 8 & 23.3.- See Ruth 1. 15.1 Kings 18. 2.21, 33. Deut. 2. 32. & 3.1.-- See Judg. 11. 25.--y Numb. 22. 5. Deut. 23. 4. 21. Ezek. 20.39. John 6. 67..-m Ver. 14. -- Exod. 23. 24, 32, 3 & 34. 15. Deal 13. . Deut. 23. 5. Numb. 23. 11, 20. & 21. 10.

7. & 29. 18. Judg. 6. 10.0 Gen. 18. 19.-- Matt. 6. 24. the ark of the covenant to the place of assembling; and Put away the gods, &c.] From this exhortation of this was probably done on this occasion. Sychem is a Joshua, we learn of what sort the gods were, to the worplace famous in the patriarchal history. Here Abraham set- ship of whom these Israelites were still attached. 1. Those tled on his first coming into the land of Canaan, Gen. xii. which their fathers worshipped on the other side of the 6, 7. and here the patriarchs were buried, Acts vii. 17. And flood : i. e. the gods of the CHALDEANS, fire, light, the sun. as Sychem lay between Ebal and Gerizim, where Joshua 2. Those of the EGYPTIANS, Apis, Anubis, the ape, serhad before made a covenant with the people, chap. viii. 30, pents, vegetables, &c. Those of the CANAANITES, MOAB&c. the very circumstance of the place would undoubtedly ITES, &c. Baal-pcor, or Priapus, Astarte, or Venus, &c. be friendly to the solemnity of the present occasion. Shuck- &c.' All these he refers to in this and the following verse.

ford supposes, that the covenant was made at Shechem, and See at the conclusion of ver. 33. that the people went to Shiloh to confirm it before the Lord. How astonishing is this, that after all God had done for Mr. Mede thinks the Ephraimites had a proseucha, or tem- them, and all the miracles they had seen, there should still porary oratory, or house of prayer, at Shechem, whither be found among them both idols and idolaters! But that the people resorted for divine worship, when they could it was so, we have the fullest evidence, both here and in not get to the tabernacle ; and that this is what is called ver. 23. Amos v. 26. and in Acts vii. 41. But what excuse before the Lord: but this conjecture seems not at all likely, can be made for such stupid, not to say brutish, blindness? God having forbidden this kind of worship.

Probably they thought they could the better represent the Verse 2. On the other side of the flood] The river divine nature, by using symbols and images ; and that Euphrates.

they professed to worship God, through the medium of They served other gods] Probably Abraham, as well these. At least, this is what has been alleged in behalf of as Terah his father, was an idolater, till he received the a gross class of Christians, who are notorious for image call of God to leave that land. See on Gen. xi. 31. xii. 1. worship. But, on such conduct, God will never look with And for the rest of the history referred to here, see the any allowance, where he has given his word and testimony: notes on the parallel passages in the margin.

Verse 15. Choose you this day whom ye will serte) Verse 9. Then Balak-arose and varred against Is-Joshua well knew that all service that was not free and rael] This circumstance is not related in Numb. xxii. roluntary, could be only deceit and hypocrisy; and that nor does it appear in that history, that the Moabites at God loveth a cheerful girer. He therefore calls upon the tacked the Israelites; and probably the warring here men- people to make their choice, for God himself would not tioned, means no more than his attempts to destroy them force them--they must serve him with all their heart, if by the curses of Balaam, and the wiles of the Midianitish they served him at all. As to himself and family, he shows

them that their choice was already fixed, for they had taken Verse 11. The men of Jericho fought against you) JEHOVAH for their portion. See the notes on chap. ii. and chap. vi. 1, &c. The people Verse 16. God forbid that we should forsake the Lord) of Jericho are said to have fought against the Israelites, That they were now sincere, cannot be reasonably double because they opposed them by shutting their gates, &c.ed; for they served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and though they did not attempt to meet them in the field. the elders that outlived him, ver. 31. but afterward, they

Verse 12. I sent the hornet before you] See the note turned aside, and did serve other gods. “It is ordinary," on Exod. xxiii. 28. Verse 14. Fear the Lord) Reverence him as the sole with the stream-to be of the same religion with their su

says Mr. Trapp, "for the many-headed multitude to turn object of your religious worship. Serve him] Perform his will by obeying his commands.

periors: thus, at Rome, in DIOCLESIAN's time, they were

pugans; in 'CONSTANTINE's, Christians; in CONSTANTIIn sincerily] Having your whole heart engaged in his NUS', Arians; in Julian's, apostates ; and in Joviniax's, worship.

Christians again! And all this within less than the age And in truth) According to the directions he has given of a man. It is therefore a good thing that the heart be you in his infallible word.

established with grace.”

women.

not serve the LORD: for he is a "holy God; heit hath heard all the words of the LORD which is 'a

jealous God; • he will not forgive your he spake unto us: it shall be therefore a witness transgressions nor your sins.

unto you, lest ye deny your God. 20 i If ye forsake the LORD, and serve strange 29 So ' Joshua let the people depart, every gods, then he will turn and do you hurt, and man unto his inheritance. consume you, after that he hath done you good. 29 And it came to pass, after these things,

21 And the people said unto Joshua, Nay; but that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the we will serve the LORD.

LORD, died, being a hundred and ten years old. 22 And Joshua said unto the people, Ye are 30 And they buried him in the border of his witnesses against yourselves that wye have inheritance in i Timnath-serah, which is in mount chosen you the Lord, to serve him. And they Ephraim, on the north side of the hill of Gaash. said, We are witnesses.

31 And * Israel served the Lord all the days 23 Now therefore { put away, said he, the of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that strange gods which are among you, and incline overlived Joshua, and which had in known all your heart unto the Lord God of Israel. the works of the LORD, that he had done for

24 And the people said unto Joshua, The LORD Israel. our God will we serve, and his voice will we 32 And the bones of Joseph, which the chilobey.

dren of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried 25 So Joshua y made a covenant with the they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which people that day, and set them a statute and an Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, the father ordinance ? in Shechem.

of Shechem, for a hundred P pieces of silver: 26 T And Joshua * wrote these words in the and it became the inheritance of the children of book of the law of God, and took a great stone, Joseph. and set it up there, I under an oak, that was 33 T And Eleazar the son of Aaron died; and by the sanctuary of the LORD.

they buried him in a hill that pertained to 27 And Joshua said unto all the people, Be- - Phinehas, his son, which was given him in hold, this stone shall be e a witness unto us; for mount Ephraim.

r Lev. 19. 2 1 Sam. 6. 2. P8a. 99.5, 9. Jsai. 5. 16.-. Exod. 20. 5.- Exod. 2. 21. u 1 Chron. 23. 9. 2 Chron. 15. 2. Ezra 8. 22. Imal. 1. 28. & 65. 11, 12. Jer. 17. 13.- Ch. 2. 15. Isai. 63. 10 Acts 7. 12-w Pa 119. 173.- Ver. 14. Gen 35. 2 Judg. 10. 16. 1 Sam 7.3-y See Exod. 15. 25. 2 Kings 11. 17.-2 Ver. 26.-a Deut. 31. 21.- Sce Judg. 9.6.

See Gen. 18. Ch. 4. 3.0 Gen. 35. 4.-e See Geg. 31. 48, 82. Deut. 31. 19, 21, 26. Ch. 22. 27, 28, 34.- Deut. 32. 1.- Judg, 26.-h Judg. 2. 8.-i Ch. 19. 50. Judg. 2. 9.-- Judg. 2. 7.-1 Heb. prolonged Uleir days after Joshua.-- See Deut. 11. 2 & 3L 13 - Gen. 50. 25. Exod. 13. 19.-0 Gen. 3. 19,-p Or, lambs.-r Exod. 6. 25. Judg. 20. 28.

Verse 19. Ye cannot serve the Lord: for he is a holy is, the stone itself, from its permanency, shall be, in all God] If we are to take this literally, we cannot blame the succeeding ages, as competent and as substantial a witness, Israelites for their defection from the worship of the true as one who had been present at the transaction, and heard God; for if it was impossible to them to serve God, they all the words, which, on both sides, were spoken on the could not but come short of his kingdom: but surely this occasion. was not the case. Instead of bain x5 lo tuclu, ye CANNOT Verse 28. So Joshua] After this verse the Septuagint serde, &c. some eminent critics read 1500 ns lo tecallu, ye insert ver. 31. shall not CEASE to serve, &c. This is a very ingenious Verse 29. Joshua the son of Nun-died] This event emendation, but there is not one MS. in all the collection probably took place shortly after this public assembly; for of Kennicott and De Rossi to support it. However, it ap- he was old and stricken in years, when he held the pears very possible that the first rau in 15ain did not make assembly mentioned chap. xxiii. 1. and, as his work was à part of the word originally. If the common reading be now all done, and his soul ripened for a state of blessedpreferred, the meaning of the place must be, “Ye cannot ness, God took him to himself, being one hundred and ten serve the Lord, for he is holy and jealous, unless ye put years of age; exactly the same age as that of the patriarch away the gods which your fathers served beyond the flood. Joseph. See Gen. 1. 26. For he is a jealous God, and will not give to, nor divide Verse 30. And they buried him in T'imnath-serah) his glory with, any other. He is a holy God, and will not This was his own inheritance, as we have seen chap. xix. have his people defiled with the impure worship of the 50. The Septuagint add here, " And they put with him Gentiles.'

there, in the tomb, in which they buried him, the knives of Verse 21. And the people said, Nay, but we will serde, stone with which he circumcised the children of Israel &c.) So they understood the words of Joshua to imply in Gilgal, according as the Lord commanded, when he no moral impossibility on their side ; and had they earnest- brought them out of Egypt, and they are there unto this ly sought the gracious assistance of God, they would have day." St. Augustine quotes the same passage in his thircontinued steady in his covenant.

tieth question on the book of Joshua; which, in all probaVerse 22. Ye are witnesses against yourselves) Ye bility, he took from some copy of the Septuagint. It is very have been sufficiently apprised of the difficulties in your strange that there is no account of any public mourning way-of God's holiness-your own weakness and incon- for the death of this eminent general; probably, as he was sistency-the need you have of divine help, and the awful buried in his own inheritance, he had forbidden all funeral consequences of apostasy: and now ye deliberately make pomp, and, it is likely, was privately interred. your choice. -Remember then, that ye are witnesses Verse 31. And Israel served the Lord, &c.] Though against yourselves; and your own conscience will be wit there was private idolatry among them, for they had ness, judge, and erecutioner ; or, as one terms it, index, strange gods, yet there was no public idolatry all the days juder, vindex.

of Joshua and of the elders that overlived Joshua; most of Verse 23. Now therefore put away] As you have pro- whom must have been advanced in years at the death of mised to reform, begin instantly the work of reformation. this great man. Hence Calmet supposes that the whole A man's promise to serve God, soon loses its moral hold of of this time might amount to about fifteen years. It has his conscience, if he do not instantaneously begin to put it already been noted that this verse is placed by the Sepin practice. The grace that enables him to promise, is that, tuagint after ver. 29. by the strength of which he is to begin the performance. Verse 32. And the bones of Joseph) See the note on

Verse 25. Joshua made a covenant] Literally, Joshua Gen. I. 25. and on Exod. xiii. 19.' 'This burying of the cut the covenant, alluding to the sacrifice offered on the oc bones of Joseph probably took place when the conquest of casion.

the land was completed, and each tribe had received its And set them a statute and an ordinance] He made a inheritance; for it is not likely that this was deferred till solemn and public act of the whole, which was signed and after the death of Joshua. witnessed by himself and the people, in the presence of Verse 33. And Eleazar-died] Probably about the Jehovah; and having done so, he wrote the words of the same time, or soon after Joshua; though some think he covenant in the book of the law of God, probably in some outlived him six years. Thus, nearly all the persons who part of the skin, constituting the great roll

, on which the had witnessed the miracles of God in the wilderness, were laws of God were written; and of which there were some gathered to their fathers; and their descendants left in blank columns to spare. Having done this, he took a great possession of the great inheritance, with the law of God stone, and get it up under an oak—that this might be the in their hands; and the bright example of their illustrious nyed, or witness, that at such a time and place, this cove ancestors before their eyes. It must be added, that they nant was made, the terms of which might be found written possessed every advantage necessary to make them a great, in the book of the law, which was laid up beside the ark. a wise, and a holy people. How they used, or rather, how See Deat. xxxi. 26.

they abused these advantages, their subsequent history, Verse 27. This stone-hath heard all the words] That I given in the sacred books, amply testifies.

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