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THE BOOK

OF

Ꭻ U D . G E S.

Year before the common Year of Christ, 1443.Julian Period, 3271.—

Year from the Flood, 901.— Year before the first Olympiad, 667.–Creation from Tiszi, or

September, 2561.

A new

CHAPTER I.

4 And Judah went up; and the Lord delivered Ater the death of Joshua, the Israelites purpose to attack the remaining Canaanites; the Canaanites and the Perizzites into their Lack the Canannites and Perizzitea, kill one thousand of them, tako Adoni-bezek hand: and they slew of them in a Bezek ten prisoner, cut off his thumbs and great toes, and bring him to Jerusalem, where he dies, 3-7. Jerusalem conquere, &

with the Canaanites under the thousand men. direction of Caleb, 10, 11. Kirjatir-sepler taken by Othniel, on which he receives, as a reward, Achaan, the daughter of Caleb, and with her a south land with springs

5 And they found Adoni-bezek in Bezek: and of water, bla 15. The Keniten dwell among the people, 16. Judah and Simeon they fought against him, and they slew the 9. Of the Benjamítes, house of Joseph, uibe Manasseh, &c. 21-17. The Is

Canaanites and the Perizzites. Taelites pot the Canaanites to tribute, 3. Of the tribes of Ephraim, Zebulun, 6 But Adoni-bezek fled; and they pursued Asher, and Naphtali, 23-3. The Amorites force the children of Dan into the mountains, 34-36.

after him, and caught him, and cut off his thumbs A. M. 2561. OW B. C. 1443. An. Exod. Isr. came

7 And Adoni-bezek said, Threescore and ten Anno ante Israel - asked the LORD, saying, Who kings, having their thumbs and their great 1. Olymp. 657. shall go up for us against the Canaan- toes cut off," gathered their meat under my ites first, to fight against them ?

table: 6 as I have done, so God hath requited 2 And the Lord said, Judah shall go up; be- me. And they brought him to Jerusalem, and hold, I have delivered the land into his hand. there he died.

3 And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, 8 | Now h the children of Judah had fought Come up with me into

my lot, that we may fight against Jerusalem, and had taken it, and smitten against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go it with the edge of the sword, and set the city with thee into thy lot. So Simeon went with him. on fire.

Now after the death of Joshua, it and his great toes.

a Namb. 27. 2. Ch. 20. 18.- Gen. 49. 8-c Ver. 17.-0 I Sam. 11. 8.-e Heb.

the thumbs of their hands and of their feet.

( Or, gleaned.-g Lev. 24. 19. 1 Sam. 15. 33. James 2. 13.

h See Josh. 15. 63.

NOTES ON CHAPTER I.

va, the guardian of the city, to Jupiter Eleutherius, and Verse 1. Now after the days of Joshua] How long all the gods of Greece, that the Athenians had never done after the death of Joshua this happened, we cannot tell : it such things. It was a custom among those Romans, who is probable that it was not long. The enemies of the did not like a military life, to cut off their own thumbs, Israelites, finding their champion dead, would naturally that they might not be capable of serving in the army. avail themselves of their unsettled state, and make incur- Sometimes the parents cut off the thumbs of their children, sions on the country.

that they might not be called into the army. According to Who shall go up?] Joshua had left no successor ; and Suetonius, in Vit. August. c. 24. a Roman knight who every thing relative to the movements of this people must had cut off the thumbs of his two sons, to prevent them from be determined either by caprice, or an especial direction of being called to a military life, was, by the order of Augusthe Lord.

tus, publicly sold, both he and his property. These are the Verse 2. The Lord said, Judah shall go up] They words of Suetonius :-Equitem Romanum, quod duobus had inquired of the Lord, by Phinehas, the high priest; and filiis adolescentibus, causa detrectandi sacramenti ; polhe had communicated to them the divine counsel. lices amputasset, ipsum bonaque subjecit hastæ. Calmet

Verse 3. Come up with me into my lot) It appears that remarks, that the Italian language has preserved a term, the portions of Judah and Simeon had not been cleared of poltrone, which signifies one whose thumb is cut off, 16 the Canaanites; or, that these were the parts which were designate a soldier destitute of courage and valour. We now particularly invaded.

use poltron to signify a dastardly fellow, without consiVerse 5. And they found Adoni-bezek] The word dering the import of the original. There have been found NSD matsa, "he found,” is used to express a hostile encoun- frequent instances of persons maiming themselves, that. ter between two parties; to attack, surprise

, &c. This is they might be incapacitated for military duty; I have probably its meaning here. Adoni-bezek is literally the heard an instance in which a knavish soldier discharged lord of Bezek. It is very probable that the different his gun through his hand, that he might be discharged Canaanitish tribes were governed by a sort of chieftains, from his regiment. The cutting off of the thumbs was similar to those among the clans of the ancient Scottish probably designed for a double purpose: 1. To incapaciHighlanders. Bezek is gaid by some to have been in the iate them for war: and, 2. To brand them as cowards. tribe of Judah. Eusebius and St. Jerome mention two Gathered their meat under my table] I think this was villages of this name, not in the tribe of Judah, but about a proverbial mode of expression, to signify reduction to the seventeen miles from Sichem.

meanest servitude: for it is not at all likely that seventy Verse 6. Cut off his thumbs] That he might never be kings, many of whom must have been contemporaries, able to draw his boss, or handle his sword ; and great toes, were placed under the table of the king of Bezek, and there that he might never be able to pursue, or escape from, an fed; as in the houses of poor persons, the dogs are fed with adversary.

crumbs and offal, under the table of their owners. Verse 7. Threescore and ten kings] Chieftains, heads So God hath requited me] The king of Bezek seems to of tribes, or military officers. For the word king cannot have had the knowledge of the true God, and a proper be taken here in its proper and usual sense.

notion of a divine providence. He now feels himself Haring their thumbs and their great toes cut off ] That reduced to that state to which he had cruelly reduced this was an ancient mode of treating enemies, we learn others. Those acts in him, were acts of tyrannous cruelty : from Ælian, who tells us, Var. Hisl. 1. ii. c. 9. that “the the act toward him was an act of retributive justice. Athenians, ai the instigation of Cleon, son of Cleanetus, And there he died] He continued at Jerusalem in a made a decree that all the inhabitants of the island of servile and degraded condition till the day of his death. Ægina should have the thumb cut off from the right How long he lived after his disgrace, we know not. hand, so that they might ever after be disabled from hold Verse 3. Had fought against Jerusalem] We read ing a spear; yet might handle an oar.” This is considered this verse in a parenthesis, because we suppose that it by Ælian an act of great cruelty; and he wishes to Miner- refers to the taking of this city by Joshua, for, as he had

1

9 i And afterward the children of Judah went 16 1. And the children of the Kenite, Moses' down to fight against the Canaanites, that dwelt father-in-law, went up out of the city of palm in the mountain, and in the south, and in the trees with the children of Judah into the wilkvalley.

derness of Judah, which lieth in the south of 10 | And Judah went out against the Canaan Arad; "and they went and dwelt among the ites that dwelt in Hebron: (now the name of people. Hebron before was Kirjath-arba:) and they 17 1 ~ And Judah went with Simeon his broslew Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai.

ther, and they slew the Canaanites that inhabit11 T " And from thence he went against the ed Zephath, and utterly destroyed it. And the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir name of the city was called > Hormah. before was Kirjath-sepher:

18 Also Judah took y Gaza with the coast 12 n And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, and sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah Ekron with the coast thereof. my daughter to wife.

19 And : the Lord was with Judah; and he 13 And Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb's drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but younger brother, took it: and he gave him Ach could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, sah his daughter to wile.

because they had chariots of iron. 14 P And it came to pass, when she came to 20 ° And they gave Hebron unto Caleb, as him, that she moved him to ask of her father a Moses said: and he expelled thence the three field: and she lighted from off her ass; and Caleb sons of Anak. said unto her, What wilt thou?

21 T . And the children of Benjamin did not 15 And she said unto him, "Give me a bless-drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusaing: for thou hast given me a south land; give lem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children me also springs of water. And Caleb gave her of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day, the upper springs and the nether springs.

22 | And the house of Joseph, they also went

i Josh. 10. 36. & 11. 21. & 15, 13.- Or, low country.- Josh, 14. 15. & 15. 13, 14-m Joe'. 15. 15.---n Josh. 15. 16, 17.- Ch39-p Josh. 15. 19, 19.-r Gen. 3. 11.- Ch. 4. 11, 17. 1 Sam. 15. 6. 1 Chron. 2. 55. Jer. 35 2- Deul. 34. 3.- Numb.

21.1.- Vumb 10.32.--- Ver. 3.- Numb. 12 3. Josh. 19.4.- Josh. 11. 22- Ver. 2. 2 Kings 18. 1.-a Or, he porressed the mountain - Jiah. 17. 16, 18.-c Nusb. 14 2. Deut. 1. 36. Josh. 14. 9, 13. & 15. 13, 14.-d See Josh. 15. 63. & 18 &

conquered its armies and slew its king, Josh. x. 25. it is

va, ουδε τα ορια αυτης και την Ακκαρων, ουδε τα ορια αυτης probable that he took the city: yet we find that the Jebu την Αζωτον, ουδε τα περισπορια αυτης και την Κυριος μετα sites still dwelt in in, Josh. xv. 63. and that the men of Lovoa. “But Judah did not possess Gaza, nor the coasts Judah could not drive them out, which probably refers to thereof; neither Askelon, nor the coasts thereof; neither the strong hold or fortress on mount Zion, which the Ekron, nor the coasts thereof; neither Azotus, nor its adJebusites held till the days of David, who took it, and jacent places : and the Lord was with Judah.” This is totally destroyed the Jebusites. See 2 Sam. v. 6-9. and the reading of the Vatican and other copies of the Septua1 Chron. xi. 4-8. It is possible that the Jebusites, who gint: but the Alexandrian MS. and the text of the Comhad been discomfited by Joshua, had again become sutti- plutensian and Antwerp Polyglotts, agree more nearly ciently strong to possess themselves of Jerusalem; and that with the Hebrew text. St. Augustin and Procopius they were now defeated, and the city itself set on fire: but,. read the same as the Vatican MS. and Josephus expressly that they still were able to keep possession of their strong says, that the Israelites took only Askeon and Azotus, fort on mount Zion, which appears to have been the cita but did not take Gaza nor Ekron: and the whole history del of Jerusalem.

shows that these cities were not in the possession of the Verse 9. The Canaanites, that drcell in the mountain] Israelites, but of the Philistines: and if the Israelites did The territories of the tribe of Judah lay in the most take them at this time, as the Hebrew text states, they cersouthern part of the promised land, which was very tainly lost them in a very short time after. mountainous; though, toward the west, it had many fine Verse 19. And the Lord was with Judah, and he drade plains. In some of these the Canaanites had dwelt; and out the inhabitants of the mountain ; but could not drive the expedition marked here, was for the purpose of finally out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chari. expelling them. But probably this is a recapitulation of ots of iron.] Strange! were the iron chariols too strong what is related, Josh. chap. x. 36. xi. 21. xv. 13.

for Omnipotence? The whole of this verse is improperly Verse 12–15. And Caleb, &c.) See this whole account, rendered. The first clause, The Lord was with Lidah, which is placed here by way of recapitulation, in Joshua, should terminate the 18th verse; and this gives the reason xv. 13–19. and the explanatory notes there.

for the success of this tribe; The Lord was with Iudah, Verse 16. The children of the Kenite, Moses' father and therefore he slew the Canaanites that inhabited in-law] For an account of Jethro, the father-in-law phalh, &c. &c. Here, then, is a complete period : the reMoses, see Exod. xviii. 1-27. Numb. x. 29, &c. maining part of the verse either refers to a different time,

The city of palm trees] This seems to have been some or to the rebellion of Judah against the Lord, which caused place near Jericho, which city is expressly called the city him to withdraw his support. Therefore, the Lord was of palın trees, Deut. xxxiv. 3.; and though destroyed by with Judah, and these were the effects of his protection : Joshua, it might have some suburbs remaining, where but afterward, when the children of Israel did evil in the these harmless people had taken up their residence. sight of the Lord, and served Baalim, &c. God was no

The Keniles, the descendants of Jethro, the father-in-longer with them, and their enemies were left to be pricks law of Moses, were always attached to the Israelites : in their eyes, and thorns in their side, as God himself hai they remained with them, says Calmet, during their wan said. derings in the wilderness, and accompanied them to the This is the turn given to the verse by Jonathan ben Uz. promised land. They received there a lot with the tribe ziel, the Chaldee paraphrast ; “And the WORD of Jehoof Judah, and remained in the city of palm trees during vah was in the support of the house of Judah; and they the life of Joshua: but after his death, not contented with extirpated the inhabitants of the mountains : but afterward, their portion, or molested by the original inhabitants, they WHEN THEY SINNED, they were not able to extirpate the united with the tribe of Judah, and went with them to inhabitants of the plain country, because they had chariots attack Arad. After the conquest of that country, the

of iron.

They were now left to their own strength; Keniles established themselves there, and remained in it and their adversaries prevailed against them. till the days of Saul, mingled with the Amalekites. When Verse 20. They garc Hebron unto Caleh] See this this king received a commandment from God to destroy whole transaction explained, Josh. xiv. 12, &c. the Amalekites, he sent a message to the Kenites to depart Verse 21. The Jebusites dwell with the children of from among them, as God would not destroy them with Benjamin Jerusalem was situated partly in the tribe of the Amalekites. From them came Hemath, who was the Judah, and partly in the tribe of Benjamin ; the northfather of the house of Rechab, 1 Chron. ii. 55. and the ern part belonging to the latter tribe, the southern to the Rechabites, of whom we have a remarkable account, Jer. former. The Jibusites had their strongest position in the xxxv. 1, &c.

part that belonged to Benjamin; and from this place they Verse 17. The city was called Hormah.] This appears were not wholly expelled till the days of David. See the to be the same transaction mentioned Numb. xxi. 1, &c. notes on ver. 8.' What is said here of Benjamin, is said where see the notes.

of Judah, Josh. xv. 63. There must be an interchange Verse 18. Judah took Gaze-and Askelon--and Ek of the names in one or other of these places. ron] There is a most remarkable variation here in the Unto this day.) As the Jebuaites dwelt in Jerusalem Septuagint: I shall set down the verse: Kai ouk eknpo- till the days of David, by whom they were driven out ; νομησεν Ιουδας την Γαζαν, ουδε τα ορια αυτης. ουδε την Ασκαλω- and the author of the Book of Judges states thern to have

es dwelteithere and azebuluth drive out the in- A up from acaball to Bochim, and

Anno ante

c Geu. 17. 7.

up against Beth-el: •and the Lord was with | habitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zithem.

don, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Hel23 And the house of Joseph'sent to descry Beth-bah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob; el. (Now the name of the city before wus ! Luz.) 32 But the Asherites " dwelt among the Ca

24 And the spies saw a inan come forth out naanites, the inhabitants of the land: for they of the city, and they said unto him, Show us, we did not drive them out. pray thee, the entrance into the city, hand we 33 1 Neither did Naphtali drive out the inwill show thee mercy,

habitants of Beth-shemesh, nor the inhabitants 25 And when he showed them the entrance of Beth-anath; but he p dwelt among the Cainto the city, they smote the city with the edge paanites, the inhabitants of the land: nevertheof the sword; but they let go the man and all less the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh and of his family.

Beth-anath r became tributaries unto them. 26 And the man went into the land of the 34 | And the Amorites forced the children of Hittites, and built a city, and called the name Dan into the mountain: for they would not sufthereof 'Luz: which is the name thereof unto fer them to come down to the valley, this day.

35 But the Amorites would dwell in mount 27 Ti Neither did Manasseh drive out the in- Heres « in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim: yet the habitants of Beth-shean and her towns, nor hand of the house of Joseph prevailed, so that Taanach and her towns, nor the inhabitants of they became tributaries. Dor and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Ible 36 And the coast of the Amorites was from am and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Me u the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, and giddo and her towns: but the Canaanites would upward. dwell in that land.

CHAPTER II. 28 And it came to pass, when Israel was An angel comes to the Israelites at Bochim, and gives them various reproofs, at which

they are greatly affectul, 1-5. They served the Lent during the days of Joshua, strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, and the elders who neceved him, 6, 7. Joshua having died, and that genera and did not utterly drive them out.

tion, the people resulted from the true God aubervel idols, 8-13. The Lord being

angry, delivered then into the handle of spoilers, and they were greatly distressed, 14, 29 T * Neither did Ephraim drive out the Ca 15. Ageneral account of the method which God used in reclain them, by sending

them ju lges whom they frequently discleyad, 16-19. Therefore God let the vari naanites that dwelt in Gezer ; but the Canaan

Ous nauuws of the laud to plugue and punish them, 20–3. ites dwelt in Gezer among them

ND an angel of the an. Exol. Isr. 48

up habitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Na- said, I made you to go up out of

1. Olymp. 667. halol; but the Canaanites dwelt among them, Egypt, and have brought you unto the land and became tributaries.

which I sware unto your fathers: and I said, I 31 | - Neither did Asher drive out the in- will never break my covenant with you. e Ver. 19.- Josh. 21 & 7.2 Ch. 18. 2-8 Gen. 28. 19.-h Josh. 2. 12, 14.- Josh. Josh. 19. 33–p Yer, 32 - Ver. 30.- Josh. 19. 42- Hebr. 148 heavy: 17. 11, 12, 13.- Joah. 16. 10. 1 Kings 9. 16.-1 Joh. 19. 15.-in Josh. 19. 24-30. u Nunb. 31. 1. Josh. 15. 3.- Or, Maalchakrabbim. Or, mesecnger.-- Ver. 5.

Pa 106. 31, 35. been in possession of Jerusalem when he wrote; there were so powerful that the Danites could not totally expel fore, this book was written before the reign of David. them : they were, however, laid under tribute, and thus the

Verse 22. The house of Joseph, they also went up house of Joseph had the sovereignty. The Septuagint have against Beth-el] That is, the tribe of Ephraim, and the sought out a literal meaning for the names of several of half-tribe of Manasseh, who dwelt beyond Jordan. Beth- these places, and they render the verse thus : And the el was not taken by Joshua, though he took Ai, which | Amorites began to dwell in the mount of Tiles, in which was nigh to it.

there are beurs, and in which there are foxes.” Thus they Instead of gor na beith Yoseph, "the house of Joseph,” | translate Hercs, Aijalon, and Shaalbim. ten of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. and six of De Rossi's have Verse 36. Ahrabbim! Of Scorpions ; probably so called on a beney Yoseph, "the children of Joseph;" and from the number of those animals in that place. duis is the reading of both the Septuagint and Arabic, as From the rock, and upward.] The Vulgate understands well as of two copies in the Hexapla of Origen. by y'so selâ, a rock, the city Pelra, which was the capital

Verse 23. Beth-el-the name of the city before was of Arabia Petraa, Luz.] Concerning this city and its names, see the notes The whole of this chapter appears to be designed as a on Gen. xxviii. 19.

sort of supplement to those places in the Book of Joshua, Verse 24. Show usthe entrance into the city] Taken which are referred to in the notes, and in the margin: nor in whatever light we choose, the conduct of this man was is there any thing in it worthy of especial remark. We execrable. He was a traitor to his country, and he was every where see the same fickle character in the Israelites ; accessary to the destruction of the lives and property of and the goodness and long-suffering of God toward them. his fellow-citizens, which he most sinfully betrayed, in | An especial Proridence guides their steps; and a fatherly order to save his own. According to the rules and laws hand chastises them for their transgressions. They are of war, the children of Judah might avail themselves of obliged to live in the midst of their eneinies, often straitened, such men and their information; but this does not lessen, but never overcome so as to lose the land which God

gave on the side of this traitor, the turpitude of the action. them as their portion. We should learn wisdom from what

Verse 26. The land of the Hittites] Probably some they have suffered; and confidence in the protection and place beyond the land of Canaan, in Arabia, whither this providence of God, from their support: because these things people emigrated when expelled by Joshua. The man were written for our learning. himself appears to have been a Hittite; and, to perpetuate Few can be persuaded that adversity is a blessing; but the name of his city, he called the new one which he now without it how little should we learn! He, who in the founded Luz, this being the ancient name of Beth-el. school of affliction has his mind turned toward God, Verse 27. Bcth-shean] Called by the Septuagint Ekv

** Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,

Sermons in stones, uw good in erery thing" OwTodis, Scythopolis, or the city of the Scythians. On these towns see the notes, Josh. xvii. 12, 13.

NOTES ON CHAPTER II. Verse 29. Neither did Ephraim] See the notes on the Verse 1. An angel of the Lord] In the preceding chapparallel passages, Josh. xvi. 5--10.

ter we have a summary of several things which took place Verse 30. Neither did Zebulun drive out] See on shortly after the death of Joshua ; especially during the Josh. xix. 10-15.

time in which the elders lived, (that is, the men who were Verse 31. Neither did Asher] See on Josh. xix. 24—31. contemporary with Joshua, but survived him,) and while

Accho Supposed to be the city of Ptolemais, near to the people continued faithful to the Lord. In this chapter, mount Carrel.

and some parts of the following, we have an account of the Verse 33. Neither did Naphtali] See the notes on same people abandoned by their God, and reduced to the Josh. xix. 32-39.

heaviest calamities, because they had broken their covenant Verse 34. The Amorites forced the children of Dan, with their Maker. This chapter, and the eight first verses &c.] Just as the ancient Britons were driven into the of the next, may be considered as an epitome of the whole mnowtaing of Wales by the Romans; and the native In- book; in which we see, on one hand, the armies of the Is. dians driven back into the woods by the British settlers in raelites; and on the other, the punishment inflicted on them America.

by the Lord; their repentance, and return to their allegiVersc 35. The Amorites would dwell in mount Heres] ance; the long-suffering of God, and his mercy showed in They perhaps agreed to dwell in the mountainous country, pardoning their backslidings, and delivering them out of being unable to maintain themselves on the plain; and yet I the hands of their enemies.

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2 And d ye shall make no league with the in 11 And the children of Israel did evil in the habitants of this land: "ye shall throw down sight of the LORD, and served Baalim : their altars: ' but ye have not obeyed my voice: 12 And they · forsook the LORD God of their why have ye done this?

fathere, which brought them out of the land of 3 Wherefore I also said, I will not drive them Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of out from before you; but they shall be t as thorns the people that were round about them, and in your sides, and b'their gods shall be a i snare bowed themselves unto them, and provoked the

LORD to anger. 4 And it came to pass, when the angel of the 13 And they forsook the LORD, " and served Lord spake these words unto all the children of Baal and Ashtaroth. Israel, that the people lifted up their voice, and 14 1 * And the anger of the LORD was hot wept.

against Israel, and he y delivered them into the 5 And they called the name of the place k Bo- hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold chim: and they sacrificed there unto the LORD. them into the hands of their enemies round about,

6 | And when i Joshua had let the people go, so that they 4 could not any longer stand before the children of Israel went every man unto his their enemies. inheritance to possess the land.

15 Whithersoever they went out, the hand of 7 m And the people served the Lord all the the LORD was against them for evil, as the LORD days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders had said, and as the Lord had sworn unto that outlived 'Joshua, who had seen all the them: and they were greatly distressed. great works of the Lord, that he did for Israel. 16 | Nevertheless the LORD raised A M 591

8 And • Joshua the son of Nun, the servant up judges, which delivered them out B. C. 1413 of the Lord, died, being a hundred and ten years of the hand of those that spoiled them. old.

17 And yet they would not hearken unto their 9 P And they buried him in the border of his judges, but they went a whoring after other inheritance, in Timnath-heres, in the mount of gods, and bowed themselves unto them: they Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash. turned quickly out of the way which their father's

10 | And also all that generation walked in, obeying the commandments of the were gathered unto their fathers : Lord; but they did not go.

and there arose another generation 18 And when the Lord raised them up judges, 1. Olymp. 638. after them, which knew not the LORD, then the Lord was with the judge, and delive nor yet the works which he had done for Israel. ered them out of the hand of their enemies all

1095.

A. M. rir. 2590.
B C. cır. 1111.
An. Exol. Isr.

cir. 77 Anno ante

d Deut. 7, 2-e Deut. 12.3. - f Verse 20. Pea. 105.31.-g Josh. 2. 13.-h Ch. 3. 6. I Exod. 2. 33. & 31. 12. Dent. 7. 16. Psa. 106.30.-k That is, weepers.- Josh. 22. 6. & 21. 28.- Josh. 21. 31.-n Heb prolonged days after Joshua.- Josh. 24. 29.

Josh. 21, 30.-r Josh. 19. 50. & 2. 30. Tunath serah. - Exod 5.2. 1 Sam. 2. 12.
Chron. 28.9. Jer. 9.3. & 22. 16. Gal. 4. 8. 2 Thess. 1. 8. Tit. I. 16.

t Deut 31. 16.-. Den:. 6. 14.- Exod. 20. 5.-w Ch 3.7.& 10. 6. Pre 105 36. -* Ch. 3. & Psa. 106, 10, 11, 12, 2 Kings 17. 20.-2 Ch 38. & 4. 2 Pea 44. 12 lai. 50. 1.-a Lev. 2. 37. Josh 7, 12, 13.–6 Lev. 3. Deut. - Ch 2. 9, 10, 15. 1 Sam. 12 IL Acts 13. 20.- Heb. sapod.- Exod. 34, 15, 16 Lev. 17. 7. rJosh. 1. 5.

The angel of the Lord, mentioned here, is variously in the Lord was provoked to anger: and this was the reason terpreted; some think it was Phinehas, the high priest, why they were delivered into the hands of their enemies. which is possible; and others, that it was a prophet sent This is the sum of their history to the time in which the to the place where they were now assembled, with an ex angel delivers his message. traordinary commission from God, to reprove them for their Verse 8. Joshua-died] See the notes on Josh. xxiv. sins, and to show them the reason why God had not rooted | 29, 30. out their enemies from the land ; this is the opinion of the Verse 11. Served Baalim] The word Dibya baâlim, Chaldee paraphrast, consequently of the ancient Jews : signifies lords. Their false gods they considered supernaothers think that an angel

, properly such, is intended; and tural rulers, or gorernors ; each having his peculiar disseveral are of opinion that it was the Angel of the covenant, trict and office : but when they wished to express a particu. the Captain of the Lord's host, which had appeared untó lar Sya baâl, they generally added some particular epithet, Joshua, chap. v. 14, and no less than the Lord Jesus Christ as Baal-zephon, Baal-peor, Baal-zebub, Baal-shamayiin, himself. I think it more probable that some extraordinary &c. as Calmet has well observed. The two former were human messenger is meant; as such messengers, and in adored by the Moabites ; Baal-zebub by the Ekronites : deed prophets, apostles, &c. are frequently termed angels, Baal-berith was honoured at Shechem; and Baal-shathat is, messengers of the Lord. The person here men- mayim, the lord or ruler of the heavens, was adored among tioned appears to have been a resident at Gilgal, and to the Phænicians, Syrians, Chaldeans, &c. And whenhave come to Bochim on this express errand.

ever the word Baal is used without an epithet, this is the I will never break my covenant] Nor did God ever break god that is intended ; and propably among all these peoit. A covenant is never broken but by him who violates ple meant the sun. the conditions of it; when any of the contracting parties Verse 12. Which brought them out of the land of violates any of the conditions, the covenant is then broken, Egypt) This was one of the highest aggravations of and by that party alone; and the conditions on the other their offence; they forsook the God who brought them out side are null and void.

of Egypt; a place in which they endured the most grievous Verse 3. I will not drive them out from before you) oppression, and were subjected to the most degrading serTheir transgressions, and breach of the covenant, were the vitude ; from which they never could have rescued themreasons why they were not put in entire possession of the selves: and they were delivered by such a signal display promised land. See note at the end of this chapter. of the power, justice, and mercy of God, as should never

Verse 5. They called the name of that place Bochim) have been forgotten; because the most stupendous that bad The word Dua bokim, signifies weepings, or lamenta ever been exhibited. They forsook him; and served idols, tions ; and is translated by the Septuagint Klavouwv, or as destitute of real being as of influence and power. Klavõuaves, bewailings ; and it is supposed that the place Verse 13. Served Baal and Ashtaroth.] In a general derived its name from these lamentations of the people. way, probably, Baal and Ashtaroth mean the sun and Some think the place itself, where the people were now moon; but in many cases Ashtaroth seems to have been assembled, was Shilo, now named Bochim, because of the the same among the Canaanites, as Venus was among above circumstance. It should be observed, that the angel the Greeks and Romans; and to have been worshipped speaks here in the person of God, by whom he was sent; with the same obscene rites. as the prophets frequently do.

Verse 14. The hands of spoilers] Probably marauding Verse 6. When Joshua had let the people go] The au parties of the Canaanites, making frequent incursions in thor of this book is giving here a history of the people, their lands, carrying away cattle, spoiling their crops, &c. from the division of the land by Joshua, to the time in Verse 15. The hand of the Lord was against them) which the angel speaks. Joshua divided the land to them The power which before protected them when obedient, by lot; recommended obedience to God, which they so was now turned against them, because of their disobedience. lemnly promised; and they continued faithful during his They not only had not God with them, but they had God life, and during the lives of those who had been his contem- against them. poraries, but who had survived him. When all that gen Verse 16. The Lord raised up judges] That is, leaders, eration who had seen the wondrous works of God in their generals, and governors, raised up by an especial appointbehalf had died, then the succeeding generation, who knew ment of the Lord, to deliver them from, and avenge them not the Lord, who had not seen his wondrous works, for- on, their adversaries. See the prefacc. sook his worship, and worshipped Baalim and Ashtaroth, Verse 17. Went a whoring after other gods] Idolatry, the gods of the nations among whom they lived; and thus or the worship of strange gods, is frequently termed adul

the days of the judge: for it repented the Lord Israel by them; (even as many of Israel as had because of their groanings, by reason of them not known all the wars of Canaan: that oppressed them, and vexed them.

2 Only that the generations of the children of 19 And it came to pass, " when the judge was Israel might know to teach them war, at the dead, that they returned, and corrupted thein- least such as before knew nothing thereof :) selves more than their fathers, in following other 3 Namelyj, 'five lords of the Philistines, and gods to serve them, and to bow down unto them; all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the they k ceased not from their own doings, nor Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from from their subborn way.

mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Ha20 TAnd the anger of the LORD was hot math. against Israel; and he said, Because that this 4. And they were to prove Israel by them, to people hath transgressed my covenant which I know whether they would hearken unto the comcommanded their fathers, and have not heark- mandments of the LORD, which he commanded ened unto my voice;

their

fathers by the hand of Moses. 21 -I also will not henceforth drive out any 5 [. And the children of Israel dwelt among from before them of the nations which Joshua the Canaanites, Hittites, and Amorites, and Peleft when he died:

rizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites: 22 • That through them I may P prove Israel, 6 And "they took their daughters to be their whether they will keep the way of the Lord, to wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, walk therein, as their fathers did keep it, or not. and served their gods.

23 Therefore the LORD 'left those nations, 7 And the children of Israel did evil in the without driving them out hastily: neither de- sight of the LORD, and forgat the Lord their God, livered he them into the hand of Joshua.

y and served Baalim and the groves. CHAPTER III.

8 | Therefore the anger of the Lord 4; M291

was hot against Israel, and he a sold An Exod. Iss. An account of the nations that were left to prove larael, 1-4. Blow the people pro them into the hand of Chushan-rishvoked the lond, 5–7. They are delwed Into the power of the king of Mesupula erer he discomfit like king of Mes patania, delivereds cal and into the best children of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim

to this daten te sljedelikathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the lomp. 657. the king of boab, by whom they are enslave righteen years, 12-14. They are

eight years. delivered by Ehut, who kills Elon, king of Moab, and slays ten thousand Moab iter, and the land us four core years, 15-30.

9 And when the children of Israel A. M. 2599. TOW these are the nations dcried unto the LORD, the LORD raised An Exod. Ist. 86

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See Gen. 6. 6. Deut. 32. 36. Psa. 105. 44. 45.-h Ch. 3. 12. & 1 1. & 2-i Or, were corrupt.- lleb. tey let nothing fall their.- Ver. 14.-r Joch. 23. 16.

Josh B3. 13.-0 Ch. 3.1.1-p Deut. 8.2.16. & 13. 3. -> Ori suffered— Ch. 2. 21, 22 Josh 13 3.-Ch 2 24

v Psa. 106. 35.-w Exod. 34. 16. Dent. 7.3.-x Ch 2. 11.--y Ch. 4 13.-2 Exod. 31 13. Deut. 16. 21. Ch. 6. 25.--a Ch 2 14- Hab. 3.1.-c Heb. Aramnararain. d Ver. 15 & Ch 4.3 & 6. 7. & 10. 10. 1 Sam. 12. 10. Neb. 9. 27. Psa. 22. 5. & 106. 44. & 107, 13, 19.- CH 2 16.-- Heb, suriour.

tery, fornication, and whoredom, in the Sacred Writings. once; and thus gave the Israelites time to increase : and As many of their idolatrous practices were accompanied by continuing the ancient inhabitants, prevented the land with impure riles, the term was not only metaphorically, from running into waste, and the wild beasts from multibut literally proper.

plying; both of which must have infallibly taken place, Verse 18. The Lord was with the judgc) God himself had God driven out all the old inhahitants at once, before was king, and the judge was his representative.

the Israelites were sufficiently numerous to occupy the It repented the Lord) He changed his purpose toward whole of the land. them: he purposed to destroy them, because of their sin ; These observations are important, as they contain the they repented, and turned io him, and he changed this reason why God did not expel the Canaanites. God gave purpose. The purpose was to destroy them if they did the Israelites a grant of the whole land, and promised to not repent ; when they did repent, his not destroying them drive out their enemies from before thein, if they continued was quite consistent with his purpose.

faithful. While they continued faithful, God did continue Verse 19. When the judge wus dead] It appears that, to fulfil his promise ; their borders were enlarged, and their in general, the office of the judge was for life.

enemies fle before them. When they rebelled against the Their stubborn way) 'Their hard or dificult way. Most Lord, he abandoned them; and their enemies prevailed sinners go through great tribulation, in order to get to eter- against them. Of this, their frequent lapses and miscarnal perdition: they would have had less pain in their way riages, with God's repeated interpositions in their behalf, to heaven.

are ample evidence. One or two solitary instances mighi Verse 20. The anger of the Lord was hot] They were not be considered as sufficient proof; but by these numeas fuel by their transgressions; and the displeasure of rous instances, the fact is established. Each rebellion the Lord was as a fire, about to kindle and consume that against God produced a consequent disaster in their affairs; fuel.

each true humiliation was invariably followed by an espeVerse 21. I will not henceforth drire out) As a people, cial divine interposition in their behalf

. These afforded they never had personal courage, discipline, or hardihood, continual proof of God's being, providence, and grace. sufficient to stand before their enemies: the advantages | The whole economy is wondrous, and the effects impresthey gained were by the peculiar interference of God. This sive and convincing. The people were not hastily put in they had while obedient; when they ceased to obey, his possession of the promised land because of their infidelity. strong arm was no longer stretched out in their behalf; Can the infidels controvert this stateinent ? I not, then therefore their enemies continued to possess the land which their argument against dirine revelation, from "the fail God purposed to give them as their inheritance for ever. ure of positive promises and oaths,” falls to the ground,

Verse 22. That through them I may prore Israel] They have not only in this, but in all other respects, lost There appeared to be no other way to induce this people to all their props. acknowledge the true God but by permitting them to fall

"il Iplete and prostrate all their system lica,

Cursug its tole; and, as it cursus, dies." into straits from which they could not be delivered but by has especial providence. These words are spoken after the

NOTES ON CHAPTER UI. manner of men; and the metaphor is taken from the case Verse 1. Non these are the nations] The nations left to of a master or father, who distrusts the fidelity or obedience prove the Israelites were-the fire lordships, or satrapies, of his servant or son, and places them in such circum of the Philistines; viz. Gath, Askelon, Ashdod, Ekron, blances that, by their good or evil conduct, they may justify and Gaza; the Sillonians, the Ilirites of Lebanon, Baalhis suspicions, or give him proofs of their fidelity hermon, &c. with the remains of the Canaanites, viz. the

Verse 23. Without driving them out hastily) Had God Hiltites, Amoriles, Perizzites, and Jebusites. expelled all the ancient inhabitants at once, we plainly Those who were left to be proved were those Israelites sce, from the subsequent conduct of the people, that they that had not seen all the vars of Canaan. would soon have abandoned his worship; and in their Verse 2. That- Israel might know to teach them war] prosperity forgotten their deliverer. He drove out at first This was another reason why the Canaanites were left in as many as were necessary, in order to afford the people, the land, that the Israelites might not forget military disas they were then, a sufficiency of room to settle in: as cipline; but habituate themselves to the use of arms, that the tribes increased in population, they were to extend they might always be able to defend themselves against themselves to the uttermost of their assigned borders, and their fots. Had they been faithful to God, they would expel all the remaining inhabitants. On these accounts have had no need of learning the art of war; but now God did not expel the aboriginal inhabitants hastily, or at larms became a sort of necessary substitute for that spiritVol. I.-78

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