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the seventh day, before the sun went down, / my wife into the chamber. But her father would What is sweeter than honey ? and what is not suffer him to go in. stronger than a lion ? And he said unto them, 2 And her father said, I ' verily thought that If ye had not ploughed with my heifer, ye had thou hadst utterly hated'her; therefore I gave not found out my riddle.

her to thy #companion: is not her younger sis19 1 And - the Spirit of the Lord came upon ter fairer than she ? · take her, I pray thee, him, and he went down to Ashkelon, and slew instead of her. thirty men of them, and took their ń spoil, and 3. | And Samson said concerning them, "Now gave change of garments unto them which ex- shall I be more blameless than the Philistines, pounded the ridule. And his anger was kindled, though I do them a displeasure. and he went up to his father's house.

4. And Samson went and caught three hun20 But Samson's wise o was given to his com- dred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned panion, whom he had used as P his friend. tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst CHAPTER XV.

between two tails.

5 And when he had set the brands on fire, he Samson, going to visit his wife, finds her bestowed on another, 1, 2 He is incensed, wife and her father, 6. He is süll incensed, makes a great slaughter among the metines, and burnt up both the shocks, and also For more and barns, the corn of the tulistinen, They burn Saucen let them go into the standing corn of the Philismen of Judah tind Samm), and deliver him into their hands, S 3. The Spirit the standing corn, with the vineyards and and therewith kills a thousand wen, 11–16. He'is sorely fatigued; and, being olives. thirty, God miraculously produces water from an opening of the ground in I thi; and he is refreshed, 17-19. He judges Israel in the time of the Philis

6 Then the Philistines said, Who hath done

this? And they answered, Samson, the son-inUT it came to pass within a while law of the Timnite, because he had taken his

vest, that Samson visited his ? wife the Philistines came up, and burnt her and her 1. Olymp. 359. with a kid ; and he said, I will go in to father with fire. m Ch. 2 10 & 13. 25.- Or, apparel.--. Ch. 15. 2-p John 3. 2.-- Ch. 14.2 1 Heb. let her be thine.--u Or, Now shall I be blameless from the Philistines,

though, &c. --- Or, torches. --w Ch. 14. 15.

tines twenty years, 20. A M. 2469.

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r Ch. 14. 16. Ch. 14. 20.

Plautus.

corn.

Martial.

Hoc faciunt nimio ne luru obtusior usus,

Verse 18. If ye had not ploughed with my heifer] If my others what they pretend to wish should be a secret to the wife had not been unfaithful to my bed, she would not have whole world! Ifå man never let his secret out of his own been unfaithful to my secret: and you, being her para- bosom, it is impossible that he should ever be betrayed. mours, your interest was more precious to her than that of her husband. She has betrayed me through her attach

NOTES ON CHAPTER XV. ment to you.

Verse 1. Visited his wife with a kid] On her betrayCalmet has properly remarked, in quoting the Septua- ing him, he had, no doubt, left her in great disgust. After gint, that to plough with one's heifer, or to plough in an some time his affection appears to have returned ; and, other man's ground, are delicate turns of expression, used taking a kid, or perhaps a faron, as a present, he goes to both by the Greeks and Latins, as well as the Hebrews, make reconciliation, and finds her given to his brideman: to point out a wife's infidelities.

probably the person to whom she betrayed his riddle. Thus Theognis, Gnom. v. 581.

Verse 2. Thou hadst utterly hated her] As he was Εχθαιρω δε γυναικα περιόρoμoν, ανδρα τε μαργον, conscious she had given him great cause so to do. Ος την αλλοτριων βουλετ' αρουραν αρουν.

Her younger sister] The father appears to have been “I detest a woman who gads about: and also a libidinous perfectly sincere in this offer. man: and whosoever wishes to plough in another man's

Verse 4. Went and caught three hundred fores) There ground.”

has been much controversy concerning the meaning of Fundum alienum arat, incultum familiarem deserit.

the term Obywu shuâlim ; some supposing it to meen "He ploughs another's farm, and leaves his own heritage fores, or jackals; and others, handsful, or sheates of

Much of the force of the objections against the uncultivated."

common version will be diminished by the following conMilo domi non est, peregre at Milone profecto Arra vacant, uzor non minus inde parit.

siderations : “Milo is not at home; and Milo, being from home, his

1. Foxes, or jackals, are common and gregarious in that field lies uncultivated : his wife, nevertheless, continues country: to breed; and brings forth children"

2. Ii is not hinted that Samson collected them alone; There is the same metaphor in the following lines of he might have employed several hands in this work. Virgil:

3. It is not said he collected them all in one day; he

might have employed several days, as well as many per. Sil genitali arvo, sulcosque oblimet inertes. Geor, ill. v. 133. sons, to furnish him with these means of vengeance. In this sense Samson's words were understood by the 4. In other countries, where ferocious beasts were less Septuagint, by the Syriac, and by Rabbi Levi. See numerous, great multitudes have been exhibited at once. BOCHART, Hierozoic, p. 1. lib. ii. cap. 41. col. 406.

Sylla, in a public show to the Roman citizens, exhibited The metaphor was a common one; and we need seek one hundred lions ; Cæsar, four hundred: and Pompey, for no other interpretation of the words of Samson. nearly six hundred. The emperor Probus let loose in

Verse 19. The Spirit of the LORD came upon him) the theatre, at one time, one thousand ostriches, one thou"The spirit of fortitude from before the Lord.Targum. sand stays, one thousand wild boars, one thousand does, He was inspired with unusual courage ; and he felt strength and a countless multitude of other wild animals: ai proportioned to his wishes.

another time he exhibited one hundred leopards from Ho-slew thirty menand took their spoils] He took Libya, one hundred from Syria, and three hundred bears their hykes, their kumjas, and caflans, and gave them to See Flavius Vopiscus, in the life of Probus, cap. xix. the thirty persons who, by unfair means, had solved his beginning with Dedit Romanis ctiam voluptates, &c. riddle : thus they had what our version calls thirty sheets, That foxes, or the creature called shual, were plenty in and thirty changes of raiment. See the note on ver. 12. Judea, is evident, from their frequent mention in Scrip

Verse 20. But Samson's wife was given to his com- ture, and from several places bearing their name. l. It panion) This was the same kind of person who is called appears they were so numerous, that even their cubs the friend of the bridegroom, John W. 29.

And it is very

ruined the vineyards, see Cant. ii. 15. Take us the fores, likely that she loved this person better than she loved her the little fores, that spoil our vines. Jeremiah complains husband ; and went to him as soon as Samson had gone that the fores had occupied the mountains of Judea, Lam. to his father's house at Zorah. She might, however, have v. 18. They are mentioned as making incursions into thought hereelf abandoned by him; and, therefore, took enclosures, &c. Neh. iv. 3. Ezekiel compares the numeanother : this appears to have been the persuasion of her rous false prophets to these animals, chap. xii. 4. In father, chap. xv. 2. But her betraying his secret and his Josh. xv. 28. we find a place called Hazer Shual, the interests to his enemies, was a full proof he was not very court of the fores: and in chap. xix. 42. a place called dear to her ; though, to persuale him to the contrary, she Shaalabim, " the foxes;" no doubt from the number of shed many crocodile tears: see ver. 16. He could not those animals in that district. And mention is made of the keep his own secret; and he was fool enough to suppose land of Shual, or of the for, 1 Sam. xii. 17. thai another would be more faithful to him than he was to The creature called shual' is represented by travellers himself. Multitudes complain of the treachery of friends and naturalists who have been in Juden, as an animal bebetraying their secrets, &c. never considering that they iween a wolf and a fox. Hasselquist, who was on the themselves have been their first betrayers, in confiding to spot, and saw many of them, calls it the little eastern fosi

7 | And Samson said unto them, Though ye we will bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their have done this, yet will I be avenged of you, and hand: but surely we will not kill thee. And after that I will cease.

they bound him with two new cords, and brought 8 And he smote them hip and thigh with a him up from the rock. great slaughter: and he went down and dwelt 14 1. And when he came unto Lehi, the Philisin the top of the rock Etam.

tines shouted against him: and 4 the Spirit of 9 | Then the Philistines went up, and pitched the Lord came mightily upon him; and the in Judah, and spread themselves in Lehi. cords that were upon his arms became as flax

10 And the men of Judah said, Why are ye that was burnt with fire, and his bands b loosed come up against us? And they answered, To from off' his hands. bind Samson are we come up, to do to him as he 15 And he found a new jaw-bone of an ass, hath done to us.

and put forth his hand and took it, and 4 slew 11 Then three thousand men of Judah y went a thousand men therewith. to the top of the rock Etain, and said to Sam 16 And Samson said, With the jaw-bone of son, Knowest thou not that the Philistines are an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the jaw of an

rulers over us? what is this that thou hast ass have I slain a thousand men. done unto us? And he said unto them, As they 17 And it came to pass, when he had made an did unto me, so have I done unto them.

end of speaking, that he cast away the jaw-bone 12 And they said unto him, We are come down out of his hand,and called that place 'Ramath-lehi. to bind thee,

that we may deliver thee into the 18 And he was sore athirst, and called on the hand of the Philistines. And Samson said unto LORD, and said, & Thou hast given this great dethem, Swear unto me, that ye will not fall upon liverance into the hand of thy servant: and now me yourselves.

shall I die for thirst, and fall into the hand of the 13. And they spake unto him, saying, No; but uncircumcised?

x Ver. 19.- Het went down.- Ch. 11. 4.-a Ch. 3. 10 & 14. 6. --- Heb. were

melted-e Heb. moiet: Ch. 3. 31. Lev. 26. 8. Josh. 23. 10.

e Heba heap, iwo heaps - That is, the listing up of the jaw-bone, or casting

away of the jaw-bune.-- Pra, 3. 7.

ed;

They are frequent in the East; and often destroy infirm and then bruise them to death. Some translate heaps persons and children.

upon heaps ; others, he smote horsemen and footmen ; Dr. Kennicott, however, objects to the common inter- others, he wounded them from their legs to their thighs, pretation ; and gives reasons, some of which are far from &c. &c. See the different versions. Some think, in being destitute of weight. "The three hundred foxes," their running away from him, he kicked them down, and says he, “caught by Samson, have been so frequently the then trod them to death; thus his leg or thigh, was against subject of banter and ridicule, that we should consider their hip: hence the expression. whether the words may not admit a more rational inter The top of the rock Etam.] It is very likely that this is pretation : for, besides the improbability arising here from the same place as that mentioned i Chron. iv. 32.; it was the number of these foxes, the use made of them is also in the tribe of Simeon, and on the borders of Dan; and very strange. If these animals were tied tail to tail, they probably a fortified place. would probably pull contrary ways, and consequently Verse 10. To bind Samson are we come up] It stand still; whereas a firebrand, tied to the tail of each fox seems they did not wish to come to an open rupture with singly, would have been far more likely to answer the the Israelites; provided they would deliver up him who purpose here intended. To obviate these difficulties, it has was the cause of their disasters. been well remarked, that the word Obyw shualim, here Verse 11. Three thousand men of Judah went] It aptranslated fores, signifies also handsful, Ezek. xiii. 19. pears evidently from this that Samson was strongly posthandsful of barley, if we leave out that one letter i vau, and they thought that no less than three thousand men which has been inserted or omitted elsewhere, almost at were necessary to reduce him. pleasure. No less than seven Hebrew MSS. want that Verse 12. That ye will not fall upon me yourselves.) letter here, and read Dibyo shoalim. Admitting this ver- He could not bear the thought of contending with, and sion, we see that Samson took three hundred handsful, or slaying his own countrymen; for there is no doubt that he sheaves of corn, and one hundred and fifty firebrands : could have as easily rescued himself from their hands, as that he turned the sheaves end to end, and put a firebrand from those of the Philistines. between the two ends, in the midst; and then, setting the Verse 13. They bound him with two new cords) Probbrands on fire, sent the fire into the standing corn of the ably his hands with one, and his legs with the other. Philistines. The same word is now used iwice in one Verse 14. When he came unto Lchi] This was the chapter, (Ezek. xiii. 4. and 19.) in the former verse signi- name of the place to which they brought him, either to put fying fores, in the latter, handsful: and in 1 Kings xx. him to death, or keep him in perpetual confinement. 10. where we render it handsful, it is alwe}", foxes, in Shouted against him] His capture was a matter of the Greek version."-Remarks on Select Passages. public rejoicing.

The reasoning of Dr. Kennicott, in the first part of this Verse 15. He found a new jaw-bone of an ass) I rather criticism has already been answered; other parts shall be think that the word onto teriah, which we translate new, considered below. Though there are seven MSS. which and the margin moist, should be understood as signifying agree in the reading contended for by Dr. Kennicott, yet the tabid, or pulrid state of the ass from which this jawall the versions are on the other side. I see no improba- bone was taken. He found there a dead ass, in a state of bility in the common version.

putrefaction; on which account he could the more easily Turned tail to tuil] Had he put a firebrand to each, separate the jaw from its integuments: this was a circumwhich Dr. Kennicote thinks more reasonable, the creature, stance proper to be recorded by the historian, and a mark naturally terrified at fire, would have instantly taken to of the providence of God. But, were we to understand it cover; and thus the design of Samson would have been of a fresh jaw-bone, very lately separated from the head frustrated; but tying two of them together by their tails, of an ass, the circumstance does not seem worthy of being they would frequently thwart each other in running, pull recorded. hither and thither, and thus make the greater devasta With the jaw-bone of an ass, heaps upon heaps) I cantion. Had he tied them all together, the confusion would not see the propriety of this rendering of the Hebrew words have been so great that no execution could have been Dinnon non prin masa belechi huchamor, chamor, chadone.

moratayim : I believe it should be translated thus:Verse 6. Burnt her and her father] This was proba "With the jaw-bone of this ass, an ass (the foal) of two bly done to appease Samson : as they saw he had been unjustly treated both by his wife and her father ; therefore “With the jaw-bone of this ass I have slain a thousand they destroyed them both, that they might cause his wrath men. to cease from them. And this indeed seems intimated in This appears to have been a triumphal song on the occathe following verse: And Samson said, Though ye have sion; and the words are variously rendered both by the done this, yel will I be arenged of you ; that is, I am not versions and by expositors. yet satisfied ; ye have done me greai wrongs, I must have Verse 17. Ramath-lchi.] The lifting up, or casting proportionate redress ; then I shall rest satisfied.

quay, of the jaw-bone. Lehi was the name of the place Verse 8. He smote them hip and thigh] This also is before ; Ramath was now added to it here: he lifted up variously understood; but the general meaning seems the jaw-bone against his enemies, and slew them. plain; he appears to have had no kind of defensive wea Verse 18. I die for thirst) The natural consequence pon, therefore he was obliged to grapple with them; and, of the excessive fatigue he had gone through in this enaccording to the custom of wrestlers, trip up their feet, I counter. VOL. I.--82

649

asses;

promise her money if she will obtain from Samson the secret in which his strength lay, 5. By various artifices, she at last obtains this; and communicates it to the

He prays to God to strengthen him, and

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19 But God clave a hollow place that was in passed him in, and laid wait for him all night in the jaw, and there carne water thereout; and the gate of the city, and were p quiet all the when he had drunk, i his spirit came again, and night, saying, In the morning, when it is day, we he revived: wherefore he called the name there- shall kill him. of En-hakkore, which is in Lehi unto this day. 3 And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at

20 1 And he judged Israel m in the days of the midnight, and took the doors of the gate of the Philistines twenty years.

city, and the two posts, and went away with CHAPTER XVI.

them, a bar and all, and put them upon his shoulSamson comes to Gaza: thry lay wait for him; he rises liy night, and carries away

ders, and carried them up to the top of a hill the city gaten, 1-3. Falls in love with Dellah, 4. The lords of the Philisu.es that is before Hebron. Philistines, who wrote him, bin, pinto his pea, and content in te stindo in the loved a woman in the valley of Sorek, whose

4 T And it came to pass asterward, that he sport; when, being weary, he requests to be placed between the iwo pillars which name was Delilah. supporte I the roof of the bouse, on which Diree thousand men and women were stationer to see mun make part, 22-27

5 And the lords of the Philistines came up

the Philistines, and a vast mulutule of the people, are slain, B.-30. His relatives

unto her, and said unto her, .Entice him, and come and take away his bals, and bury il, 31.

see wherein his great strength lieth, and by THEN went Samson to Gaza, and what means we may prevail against him, that unto her.

give thee, every one of us, eleven hundred pieces 1. Olymp. 314

2. And it was told the Gazites, say- of silver. ing, Samson is come hither. And they com

6 And Delilah said to Samson, Tell me, I pray h Or, Lehi.- 1 Gen. 6. 27. Isal 40. 29.-k That is, the well of him that called, n Heb. a woman a harlot-o l Sam. 23. 26. Pra, 11% 10, 11, 12, Acts 9.4. or, cricd. Psa 31. 6.- He seems to have fulged southwest Ixcael duzing twenty p Heb, silent -9 Heb, with the bar.- Or, by the brook--Ch. 14. 15. See Prov. 2 years of their servitule of the Philistines-m Ch. 13. 1.

16-19. & 5. 3-11. & 6. 24, 25, 26. & 7. 21, 22, 23. -- Or, humble. Verse 19. God clave a hollow place that was in the jau) observation does not accord with the time of harrest about nya nun asher balechi, " that was in Lehi:" that is, there Rome, and in Italy; but it perfectly accords with the lime was a hollow place in this Lehi, and God caused a foun- of harvest in Palestine, which was at least as early as tain to spring up in it. Because the place was hollow, it April. Nor does the circumstance of the fox wrapped in was capable of containing the water that rose up in it, and hay, which being set on fire, and he let loose, bear any thus of becoming a well.

proper reserblance to the foxes let loose in the circus, En-hakkore) The well of the implorer: this name he with burning brands on their backs. gave to the spot where the water rose, in order to perpetu These learned men, therefore, conclude, that it is much ate the bounty of God in affording him this miraculous more natural to suppose that the Romans derived the cussupply.

tom from Judea ; where, probably, the burning of the PhiWhich is in Lchi unto this day.) Consequently not IN listines' corn might, for some time, have been annually the jaw-bone of the ass; a most unfortunate rendering. commemorated.

Verse 20. He judged Israel-twenty years.] In the The whole account is certainly very singular; and has margin it is said, He seems to have judged southwest Is. not a very satisfactory solution in the old man's tale, as rael during twenty years of their servitude of the Phi- related by the Roman poet. listines, chap xiv. 1. Instead of now onwyêsrim shanah, All public institutions have had their origin in facts ; "twenty years," the Jerusalem Talmud has new Dark and if," through the lapse of time, or loss of records, the arbâim shanah, “forty years;" but this reading is not ac- original facts be lost; we may legitimately look for them knowledged by any MS. or version. According to Calmet, in cases where there is so near a resemblance as in that the twenty years of the judicature of Samson began the above. eighteenth year of the subjection of Israel to the Philig

NOTES ON CHAPTER XVI. tines; and these twenty years are included in the judicature Verse 1. Then went Samson to Gaza, and sat there of the high priest Eli.

a harlot] The Chaldee, as in the former case, render The burning of the Philistines' corn by the means of the clause thus: Samson saw there a woman, an innfoxes and firebrands, is a very remarkable circumstance; keeper : perhaps the word zonah is to be taken here in and there is a story told by Ovid, in the 4th book of his its double sense; one who keeps a house for the entertainFasti, that bears å striking similitude to this; and is sup. ment of travellers, and who also prostitutes her person. posed by some learned men to allude to Samson and his Gaza was situated near the Mediterranean sea, and was fores. The poet is at a loss to account for this custom ; one of the most southern cities of Palestine. It has been but brings in an old man of Carseolum, with what must supposed by some to have derived its name from the trea. have appeared to himself a very unsatisfactory solution. sures deposited there by Cambyses, king of the Persians; The passage begins as follows :

because, they say, Gaza, in Persian, signifies treasure: Tertia post Hyndas cun lurerit orta remotas

80 Pomponius Mela, and others. But it is more likely to Carcere pariitos Circus habebit 08.

be a Hebrew word, and this cily to have derived its name, Cur igitur in or inclis ardentia izdis Terga ferant vulpes, causa docenda mihi?

aniy azatha, from 719 azah, strength; it being a strong

or well-fortified place. The substance of the whole account, which is too long to The Hebrew ý ain, in this word, is, by the Septuagint, be transcribed, is this: it was a custom in Rome, celebrated the Arabic, and the Vulgate, rendered G; hence, instead in the month of April, to let loose a number of fo.res in the of ázatha, with a strong guttural breathing, we have Gaza, circus, with lighted flambeaux on their backs; and the Ro- a name by which this town could not be recognized by an man people took pleasure in seeing these animals run about ancient Hebrew. till roasted to deaih by the flames with which they were en Verse 2. They compassed him in) They shut up all the veloped. The poet wishes to know what the origin of this avenues, secured the gates, and set persons in ambush near custom was; and is thus informed by an old man of the them, that they might attack him on his leaving the city city of Carseolum: "A frolicksome young lad, about ten early the next morning. years of age, found a fox near a thicket, who had stolen Verse 3. Took the doors of the gate) Though Samson away many fowls from the neighbouring roosts. Having was a very strong man, yet we do not find that he was a enveloped his body with hay and straw, he sei it on fire, giant ; consequently, we may conjecture that the gates of and lei the fox loose. The animal, in order to avoid the the city were not very large, as he took at once the doors, fames, took to the standing corn which was then ready for the lrco posts, and the bar with him. The cities of those the sickle; and the wind driving the flames with double days would appear to disadvantage among modern rilviolence, the crops were every where consumed. Though lages. this transaction is long since gone by, the commemoration A hill-before Hebron] Poesibly there were two Heof it still remains ; for, by a law of this city, every fox that brons : it could not be the city generally understood by the is taken is burnt to death. Thus the nation awards to the word Hebron, as that was about twenty miles distant from foxes the punishment of being burnt alive, for the destruc- Gaza; unless we suppose that pand by al peney Chetion of the ripe corn formerly occasioned by one of these bron, is to be understood of the road leading to Hebron. animals."

He carried all to the top of that hill which was on the road Both Serrarius and Bochart reject this origin of the leading to Hebron. custom given by Ovid; and insist that the custom took its Verse 4. He loved a woman in the valley of Sorek) rise from the burning of the Philistines' corn by Samson's Some think Samson took this woman for his wife; others foxes. The origin ascribed to the custom by the Carseo- that he had her as a concubine. It appears she was a Philian, they consider as too frivolous and unimportant to be listine; and, however strong his love was for her, she seems commemorated by a national festival. The time of the I to have had none for him. He always matched impro

Vil Ovid. Fastor. lib. iv, ver. 679.

man.

thee, wherein thy great strength lieth, and said unto her, If thou weavest the seven locks wherewith thou mightest be bound to afflict of my head with the web. thee.

14 ́And she fastened it with the pin, and said 7 And Samson said unto her, If they bind me unto him, The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. with seven green 'withes that were never And he awaked out of his sleep, and went away dried, then shall I be weak, and be as " another with the pin of the beam, and with the web.

15 | And she said unto him, How canst thou 8 Then the lords of the Philistines brought say, I love thee, when thine heart is not with up to her seven green withes which had not me? thou hast mocked me these three times, been dried, and she bound him with them. and hast not told me wherein thy great strength

9 Now there were men lying in wait, abiding lieth. with her in the chamber. And she said unto 16 And it came to pass, when she pressed him him, The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. daily with her words, and urged him, so that his And he brake the withes, as a thread of tow soul was e vexed unto death, is broken when it s toucheth the fire. So his 17 That he o told her all' his heari, and said strength was not known.

unto her, . There hath not come a razor upon 10 And Delilah said unto Samson, Behold, mine head; for I have been a Nazarite unto God thou hast mocked me, and told me lies: now tell from my mother's womb: if I be shaven, then me, I pray thee, wherewith thou mightest be my strength will go from me, and I shall become bound.

weak, and be like any other man. 11 And he said unto her, If thou bind me fast 18 And when Delilah saw that he had told with new ropes that never were occupied, then her all his heart, she sent and called for the shall I be weak, and be as another man.

lords of the Philistines, saying, Come up this 12 Delilah therefore took new ropes, and once, for he hath showed me all his heart. bound him therewith, and said unto him, The Then the lords of the Philistines came up unto Philistines be upon thee, Samson. And there her, and brought money in their hand. were liers in wait abiding in the chamber. And 19 4 And she made him sleep upon her knees: he brake them off his arms like a thread. and she called for a man, and caused him to

13 And Delilah said unto Samson, Hitherto shave off the seven locks of his head; and she bethou hast mocked me, and told me lies: tell me gan to afflict him, and his strength went from him. wherewith thou mightest be bound. And he 20 And she said, The Philistines be upon u Or, new corde.- Heb moist.-w Heb. one-Heb. emelletk.-, Heb.

i Chap. 14. 16.-a fleb. shortened. - Micah 7. 6.-e Numbers 6. 5. Ch.

wherewith work hath not been done.

13. 5.- Prov. 7. 26, 27.

perly; and he was cursed in all his matches. Where the seven being a number of perfection among the Hebrews, valley, or brook, of Sorek was, is vot easy to be ascer his hair being divided into seven locks, might more partained. Eusebius and Jerom say, it lay southward of Eleu- ticularly point out the perfection designed by his Nazárite theropolis--but where was Eleutheropolis ? Ancient wri- state. ters lake all their measurements from this city ; but, as it Every person must see that this verse ends abruptly, and is nowhere mentioned in the Scriptures, it is impossible to does not contain a full sense. Houbigant has particularly fix its station, for we know not its ancient name.

noticed this, and corrected the text from the Septuagint, Verse 5. See wherein his grcal strength lieth] They the reading of which I shall here subjoin: Eav upayns tas saw that his stature was not remarkable, and that, never επτα σειρας της κεφαλης μου συν τω οι ασματι, και εγκρουσης theless, he had most extraordinary strength; therefore they tu maooa). Eis TOV Torxov, kar coouar as les twv avOpwawr supposed that it was the effect of some charm, or amulet. | ασθενης Και εγενετο εν τω κοιμασθαι αυτου, και έλαβε Δαλιδα The lords of the Philistines were the five following: Gaza, τας επτα σειρας της κεφαλής αυτου, και υφανεν εν τω διασματι, Gath, Askelon, Ekron, and Ashdod. All these considered και επηξεν τω πασσαλώ εις τον τοιχον-If thou shalt weave Samson as a public enemy; and they promise this bad the seven locks of my head with the web, and shall fasten woman a large sum of money if she will obtain from him them with the pin in the wall, I shall become weak, like the important secret wherein his strength lay, that, de- other men: and so it was, that, when he slept, Dalida priving him of this supernaiural power, they might be took the seven looks of his head, and wore them with the able to reduce him to bondage.

web, and fastened it with the pin to the wall, and said Verse 7. Seren green uithes] That is, any kind of unto him, &c. All the words printed here in italic, are pliant, tough wood, twisted in the form of a cord, or rope. wanting in the present Hebrew copies; but are preserved Such are used in many countries, formed out of osiers, in the Septuagint, and are most obviously necessary to hazle, &c. And in Ireland, very long and strong ropes complete the sense : else Delilah appears to do something are made of the fibres of bog wood, or the larger roots of that she is not ordered to do, and to omit what she was the fir, which is often digged up in the bogs, or mosses, of commanded. that country. But the Septuagint, by translating the He Verse 16. His soul was vexed unto death] What a conbrew Ons Diy yetherim lachim by vevpars øypars, and summate fool was this strong man! Might he not have the Vulgate by nerviceis funibus, understand these bonds seen, from what already took place, that Belilah intended to be cords made of the nerves of cattle; or perhaps rather his ruin? After trifling with her, and lying thrice, he at out of raw hides : this also makes an exceeding strong cord. last commits to her his fatal secret; and thus became a In some countries they take the skin of the horse, cut it traitor to himself, and to his God. Well may we adopt lengthwise from the hide into thongs about two inches the sensible observation of Calmet on this passnge :-La broad; and, after having laid them in salt for some time, foiblesse du cour de Samson, dans toute cette histoire, take them out for use. This practice is frequent in the est encore plus etonnante que la force de son corps. "The country parts of Ireland; and both customs, the wooden weakness of Samson's heart, in the whole of this history, cord, and that made of the raw or green hide, are among is yet more astonishing than the strength of his body." the most ancient perhaps in the world. Among the Irish Verse 17. If I be sharen, then my strength will go from peasantry this latter species of cord is called the tug; and me) The miraculous strength of Samson must not be supis chiefly used for agricultural purposes ; particularly for posed to reside either in his hair, or in his muscles ; but drawing the plough and the harrow, instead of the iron in that relation in which he stood to God, as a Nazarite; chains used in other countries.

such a person being bound, by a solemn vow, to walk in Verse 9. Men lying in wail] They probably did not a strict conformity to the laws of his Maker. It was a appear, as Samson immediately broke his bonds when this part of the Nazarite's vow to permit no razor to pass on bad woman said, The Philistines be upon thee,

his head, and his long hair was the mark of his NazaVerse 11. If they bind me fast with new ropes) Samson reate, and of his vow to God. When Samson permitted wishes to keep up the opinion which the Philistínes held: his hair to be shorn off, he renounced and broke his Nazar viz. that his mighty strength was the effect of some charm; vow; in consequence of which God abandoned him; and, and therefore he says, Seren green withes which had not therefore, we are told, in ver. 20. that the Lord was debeen dricd; new ropes thal were never occupied ; ucare parted from him. the seven locks of my hair with the web, &c. the green Verse 19. She began to afflict him) She had probably withes, the new ropes, and the number seven, are such tied his hands, slily, while he was asleep; and after hav. inatters as would naturally be expected in a charm or spell. ing cut off his hair, she hegan to insuli him, before she

Verse 13. The seven locks of my head] Probably Sam- called the Philistines, to try whether he were really reson had his long hair plaited into seven divisions : and, as duced to a state of weakness. Finding he could not dis. his vow of a Nazarite obliged him to wear his hair, so engage himself, she called the Philistines; and ho, being

were

k

thee, Samson. And he awoke out of his sleep, pillars whereupon the house standeth, that I and said, I will go out as at other times before, may lean upon them. and shake myself. And he wist not that the 27 Now the house was full of men and woLORD was departed from him.

men; and all the lords of the Philistines verc 21 | But the Philistines took him, and put there: and there were upon the “roof about out his eyes, and brought him down to Gaza, three thousand men and women, that beheld and bound him with fetters of brass; and he did while Samson made sport. grind in the prison-house.

29 And Samson called unto the LORD, and 22 Howbeit the hair of his head began to said, O LORD God, remember me, I pray thee, grow again, & after he was shaven.

and strengthen me, I pray thee, only this once, 23 1 Then the lords of the Philistines gather- o God, that I may be at once avenged of the ed them together for to offer a great sacrifice Philistines for my iwo eyes. unto Dagon their god, and to rejoice: for they 29 And Samson took hold of the two middle said, Our god hath delivered Samson our ene-pillars upon which the house stood, and on my into our hand.

which it was borne up, of the one with his right 24 And when the people saw him, they hand, and of the other with his left. praised their god; for they said, Our god hath 30 And Samson said, Let P me die with the delivered into our hands our enemy, and the de- Philistines. And he bowed himself with all his stroyer of our country, i which slew many of us. might; and the house fell upon the lords, and 25 And it came to pass, when their hearts upon all the people that were therein. So the

merry, that they said, Call for Samson, dead which he slew at his death were more than that he may make us sport. And they called they which he slew in his life. for Samson out of the prison-house; and he 31 Then his brethren and all the house of his I made them sport: and they set him between father came down, and took him, and brought the pillars.

him up, and a buried him between Zorah and 26 | And Samson said unto the lad that held Eshtaol, in the burying-place of Manoah his him by the hand, Suffer me that I may feel the father. And he judged Israel twenty years. Namb. 14. 9, 42, 43. Josh. 7. 12. 1 Sam. 16. 14. & 18. 12 & 28. 15, 16. 2 Chron. i Heb. and who multiplied our slain.-k Ch.9. 27.-1 Heb. before then.-In Deat. 2. 15.2-1 Heb. bored out-g Or, as when he was shaven.--. Dan 5.4.

8.-n Jer. 15. 15.-o Or, he leaned on thein.-p Heb. my soul.- Ch 13 alarmed, rose up, thinking he could exert himself as before, make will account for the weariness which gave him the and shake himself; i. e. disengage himself from his honds pretence to ask for leave to lean against the pillars. and his enemies :--but he wist not that the Lord was de Some think he was brought out to be a laughing-stock; parted from him ; for, as Delilah had cut off his locks and that he was variously insulted by the Philistines; while he was asleep, he had not yet perceived that they hence the version of the Septuagint, kai epparisov avtov, were gone.

and they buffeted him. Josephus, Antiq. Jud. lib. v. c. 8. Verse 21. Put out his eyes) Thus was the lust of the 8. 12. says, He was brought out, opus evußpowery attov eye, in looking after, and gazing on strange women, pun mapa Tov TOTOV, that they might insult him in their

cups. ished. As the Philistines did not know that his strength Verse 27. Now the house was full of men] It was might not return, they put out his eyes, that he might either the prison-house, house of assembly, or a temple never be able to plan any enterprise against them.

of Dagon, raised on pillars, open on all sides, and flatHe did grind in the prison-house.) Before the inven: roofed, so that it could accommodate a multitude of people tion of wind and water-mills, the grain was at first bruised top: between two stones; afterward ground in hand-mills. Verse 28. Samson called unto the Lord] It was in This is practised in China, and in different parts of the consequence of his faith in God, that he should be strengthEast, still; and women and slares are the persons who are ened to overthrow his enemies, and the enemies of his obliged to turn these mills.

country, that he is mentioned, Heb. xi. among those who Such instruments were anciently used in this country, were remarkable for their faith. and called querns, from the Anglo-Saxon Ir peorn, and Verse 29. The two middle pillars upon which the Ispyrn, Créorn, and Cwyrn, which has the signification house stood] Much learned labour has been lost on the of a mill; hence Is peorn stan, Crocorn stan, a millstone: attempt to prove, that a building like this might stand on and as quern conveys the notion of grinding, hence two pillars. But what need of this? There might have I peornteo, Creornteth, the dentes molares, or grinders, been as many pillars here, as were in the temple of Diana, in the jaws of animals.' This clause of the verse is thus at Ephesus; and yet the two centre pillars be the key of translated in the Saxon Octateuch :-And da Philistei the building: these being, once pulled down, the whole gefenzon hino rona- 1 geleddon hine apeg-to heora house would necessarily fall. birig. J on cpeanterna belucon-heton hine grindan Verse 30. So the dead which he sleu] We are informed at hina handcpyrne. “And the Philistines laid their that the house was full of men and women ; and about fangs, (seized) him soon, and led him away to their burgh, three thousand of both sexes on the top: now, as the (city) and shut him up in prison, and made him grind at whole house was pulled down; consequently, the princi: their hand-querne." 'So late as half a century ago, I pal part of all these was slain; and among them we find have seen these querns or hand-mills in these kingdoms. there were the lords of the Philistines. The death of

Verse 22. The hair of his head began to grow again] these, with so many of the inferior chiefs of the people, And may we not suppose that, sensible of his sin and folly, was such a crush to the Philistine ascendancy, that they he renewed his Nazar row to the Lord; in consequence troubled Israel no more for several years; and did not of which his supernatural strength was again restored ? even attempt to hinder Samson's relatives from taking

Verse 23. Unto Dagon their god] Diodorus Siculus away and burying his dead body. describes their god thus: Το μεν πρόσωπον εχει γυναικος, το

Verse 31. He judged Israel trenty years.] It is diffiδ' αλλο σωμα παν ιχθυος. .

It had the head of a woman, cult to ascertain the time of Samson's magistracy, and the but all the rest of the body resembled a fish." Dagon was extent of country over which he presided. His jurisdiecalled Derceto among the heathens.

tion seems to have been very limited; and to have extendHorace, in the following piece, especially in the third ed no farther than over those parts of the tribe of Dan and fourth lines, seems to have in view the image of contiguous to the land of the Philistines. This is what Dagon.

our margin intimates on ver. 20. of chap. xv. Many Humano capiti cervicem pictor squinam Pingere si velit; et rarias inducere plurnas

suppose that both he and Eli were contemporaries; SamUnique collatis menbrig; ut turpiter atrum

son being rather an erecutor of the divine justice upon Desinat in piscem mulier formosa sperne; Spectatur ad misai, risum teneatia amici.--De Art Post. v.

the enemies of his people, than an administrator of the Suppose a painter to a human head

civil and religious laws of the Hebrews. Allowing Eli Should join a horse's neck; and wildly spread

and Samson to have been contemporaries, this latter part The various plumage of the featberel kind er limbs of different beasts, absurdly join'd;

might have been entirely committed to the care of Eli. Or if he gave to view a beauteous maid Above the rcial, with every charm array'd,

1. Samson does not appear to have left any posterity. Should a foul fish her lower parts infold,

His amours with the different women mentioned in the Would you not smile such pictures to behold 2-Francie.

history were unproductive as to issue : had he married, Verse 25. Call for Samson, that he may make us according to the laws of his country, he would have been sport.) What the sport was we cannot tell; probably it both a more useful, and a more happy man; and not have was an exhibition of his prodigious strength. This seems to be intimated by what is said, ver. 22. of the restoration

come to a violent death. of his hair ; and the exertions which he was obliged to l body that in size and bulk greatly surpasses the ordinary

2. We seldom find much mental energy dwelling in a 652

on the

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