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22 And it shall be, when their fathers or their , went and returned unto their inheritance, and brethren come unto us to complain, that we will repaired the cities, and dwelt in them. say unto them, Be favourable unto them for 24 And the children of Israel departed thence our sakes; because we reserved not to each at that time, every man to his tribe, and to his man his wife in the war: for ye did not give family, and they went out from thence every unto them at this time, that ye should be guilty. man to his inheritance.

23 And the children of Benjamin did so, and 25 e In those days there was no king in Israel: took them wives, according to their number, of every nian did that which was right in his own them that danced, whom they caught: and they eyes.


c Or, gratify us in time. - See Chap. 20. 48.

e Ch. 17. 6. & 18. 1. & 19. 1.- Deut. 12. 8. Ch. 17. 6.

Verse 21. And catch you every man his wife] That Let no man suppose that the sacred writer, by relating the is, let rach man of the two hundred Benjamites seize and atrocities in this and the preceding chapters, justifies the carry off a woman, whom he is, from that hour, to con actions themselves : by no means. Indeed they cannot be sider as his wife.

justified; and the writer, by relating them, gives the Verse 22. Be favourable unto them] They promise to strongest proof of the authenticity of the whole, by such use their influence with the men of Shiloh, to induce them an impartial relation of facts as was highly to the discredit to consent to a connexion, thus fraudulently obtained; and of his country. which the necessity of the case appeared to them to justify. I have already referred to the rape of the Sabine vir

We reserred not to each man his wife in the war] The gins. The story is told by Livy, Hist. lib. i. cap. 9. the subreading of the Vulgate is very remarkable :- Miseremini stance of which is as follows X-Romulus, having opened corum, non enim rapuerunt eas jure bellantium atque an asylum at his new-built city of Rome for all kinds of victorum, sed rogantibus ut acciperent, non dedistis, et persons, the number of men who flocked to his standard à restrâ parle peccatum est ; "Pardon them, for they have was soon very considerable; but, as they had few women, not taken them as victors take captives in war; but when or, as Livy says, penuria mulierum, a dearth of women, they requested you to give them, you did not; therefore he sent to all the neighbouring states to invite them to the fault is your own. "Here it is intimated that applica- make intermarriages with his people. Not one of the tion had been made to the people of Shiloh to furnish these tribes around him received the proposal; and some of tro hundred Benjamites with wives, and that they had them insulted his ambassadors, and said, Ecquod feminis refused : and it was this refusal that induced the Benja- quoque asylum aperuissent ?' Id enim demum compar mites to seize and carry them off. Does not St. Jerom, connubium fore: “Why have you not also opened an the translator, refer to the history of the rape of the Sabiné asylum for WOMEN, which would have afforded you suitvirgins? See below. Houbigant translates the Hebrew able matches ?" This exasperated Romulus, but he conthus: Veniam quæso illis date; non enim ad bellum cealed his resentment; and, having published that he induxerant suam quisque uxorem ; et nisi eas illis nunc tended a great feast in Neptune Equestor, invited all the concedetis, delicti rei eritis; "Pardon them, I beseech neighbouring tribes to come to it; they did so, and were you, for they have not each taken his wife to the war,; received by the Romans with the greatest cordiality and and, unless you now give these to them, you will sin.” friendship. The Sabines, with their wives and children, This intimates that, as the Benjamites had not taken their came in great numbers; and each Roman citizen enterwives with them to the war, where some, if not all of tained a stranger. When the games began, and each was them, might have escaped, and the Israelites found them intent on the spectacles before them, at a signal given, the in the cities, and put them all to the sword; therefore the young Romans rushed in among the Sabine women, and people of Shiloh should give up those two hundred young each carried off one; whom, however, they used in the women to them for wives; and if they did not, it would kindest manner, marrying them according to their own be a sin, the circumstances of the case being considered. rites, with due solemnity, and admitting them to all

the Our translation seems to give, as a reason to the men of rights and privileges of the new commonwealth. The Shiloh why they should pardon this rape, that, as they had number carried off on this occasion amounted to near not permitted the women to live in their war with Benjamin, seven hundred: but this act of violence produced disastherefore these men are now destitute: and the concession trous wars between the Romans and the Sabines, which which they wish them to make, may be considered as more were at last happily terminated by the mediation of the of an obligation to the Israelites ihan to the Benjamites. very women whose rape had been the cause of their comIt is an obscure sentence; and the reader, if not pleased mencement. The story may be seen at

in Livy, with what is laid down, may endeavour to satisfy himself Plutarch, and others. with others, which he may find in different versions and Thus ends the Book of Judges ; a work which, while commentators. The Vulgate gives a good sense to the it introduces the history of Samuel, and that of the kings passage; but probably Houbigant comes nearest to the of Judah and Israel, forms, in some sort, a supplement to meaning:

the Book of Joshua; and furnishes the only account we Verse 23. They went and returned unto their inherit- have of those times of anarchy and confusion, which exance) It appears that the Benjamites acted in the most tended nearly from the times of the elders, who survived honourable way by the women whom they had thus vio- Joshua, to the establishment of the Jewish monarchy, unlently carried off; and we may rest assured they took them der Saul, David, and their successors. For other uses of to an inheritance at least equal to their own; for it does not this book, see the preface. appear that any part of the lands of the Benjamites were alienated from them: and the six hundred men in question

Masoretic Notes on the Book of Judges. share), for the present, the inheritance of many thousands. The number of verses in this book is six hundred and

Verse 24. Every man to his tribe] Though this must eighteen. have been four months after the war with Benjamin, chap. Its Masoretic chapters are fourteen. xx. 47. yet it appears the armies did not disband till they And its middle verse is ver. 8. of chap. x. And that had got the remnant of Benjamin settled, as is here related. year they vezed and oppressed the children of Israel, &c. Verse 25. In those days there was no king in Israel] MILLBROOK, December 1, 1817.






As to the transactions recorded in is, they are variously placed. In the book itself there is no other notation of time than merely this, that the things came to pass in the days when the Judges ruled: therefore, some have placed these transactions under Ehud, others under Gideon, others under Baruk, others under Abimelech, and others under Shamgar. This last is the opinion of Archbishop Ussher; and most chronologers adopt it. The book is evidently an appendir to the Book of Judges, and contains a perfect history in itself; and, therefore, should not be inserted in any part of that book. It also seems as an introduction to the books of Samuel, in which the history of David is contained, ås it gives the genealogy of this prince. It is also not without its use in matters which respect the Gospel, as it ascertains the line by which Jesus Christ came.

As to the author, he is as uncertain as the time. It has been attributed to Hezekiah, to Ezra, and to Samuel; and it is most likely that the author of the two books of Samuel was also the writer of this little book, as it seems necessary to complete his plan of the history of David. See the Preface to the First Book of Samuel.

The sum of the history contained in this book is the following:-A man of Beth-lehem, named Elimelech, with his wife Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, left his own country in the time of a famine, and went to sojourn in the land of Moab. There he died; and Naomi married her two sons to two Moabitish women: Mahlon married Ruth, who is the chief subject of this book : and Chilion married one named Orpah. In about ten years both these brethren died: and Naomi, accompanied by her two daughters-in-law, set out to return to the land of Judah, she bar. ing heard that plenty was again restored to her country. On the way, she besought her daughters to return to their own country and kindred. Orpah took her advice; and, after an affectionate parting, returned; but Ruth insisted on accompanying her mother-in-law. They arrived in Beth-lehem, about the time of harvest; and Ruth went into the fields to glean for their support. The ground on which she was accidentally employed belonged to Boaz, one of the relatives of Elimelech, her father-in-law: who, finding who she was, ordered her to be kindly treated, and appointed her both meat and drink with his own servants. Finding that she was by marriage his kinsuoman, he purposed to take her to wife, if a nearer kinsman, who was then living, should refuse. He was accordingly applied to, refused to take Ruth, and surrendered his right to her, according to the custom of those times, at the gate of Beth-lehem, before the elders of the city. Boaz then took her to wife, by whom she had Obed, who was father to Jesse, the father of David.

To the questions, Who was Boaz? and who was Ruth ? no satisfactory answer can be given. All we know, for certain, is that Boaz was an Ephraimite, of Beth-lehem; and Ruth a Moabitess, and consequently educated a heathen. But what we want in certainty, several have attempted to supply by conjecture: with them Boaz was the same as Ibzan, Judges xii. 8—10. and Ruth was the daughter of Eglon, king of Moab. This is the opinion maintained by the Chaldee Targum, on this book; to which I shall, in the course of the

notes, have farther occasion to refer. The rabbins say that Elimelech was brother to Salmon, who married Rahab; and that Naomi was his niece. The genealogy of David, as stated in this book, is as follows: A. M. 2236. Judah,


Salmon, who married Rahab;
Ezron, called also Hezron,

Boaz, who married Ruth;
Aram, called also Ram,

Obed, who begat Jesse,

A. M. 2919. David born. This chronology is according to Archbishop Ussher : and includes, from Judah to David, siz hundred and seventy years.




Year before the common Year of Christ, 1196.-Year from the Flood, 1162. -Year before the first Olympiad, 410.-Creation from Tierl, or September, 218.-Thia

chronology is apua be supposiuon that Obed was forty years of age at the birth of Jaw; and Jesse Gily at the birth i David.

A. M. 223
B. C. 1176


7 Wherefore she went forth out of the place Elimclech, his wife Naomi, and their two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, flee from a where she was, and her two daughters-in-law famine in the land of Israel, and go to sojourn in Moab, 1, 2 Here his two sons married; ani, in the space of ten years, both their father and they died, 3—6.

with her; and they went on the way to return Naomi sels out on her return to her own country, accompanied by her daughters unto the land of Judah. in-law, Orpah and Ruth; whom the endeavours to persuade to return to their own perple, 7--13. Orpah returns, but Ruth accompanies her mother-in-law, 14-18. 8 And Naomi said unto her two daughters-inThey arrive at Beth-lehem in the trne of the barley-harvest, 19--22.

law, k Go, return each to her mother's house : A M. 2318.

COW B. C. 1156.

, as ye have An Exod. ler. when the judges bruled, that dealt with m the dead, and with me.

30.3. Anno ante

there was a famine in the land.' And 9 The LORD grant you that ye may find "rest, 1. Olymp. 110 a certain man of a Beth-lehem-judah each of you in the house of her husband. Then went to sojourn in the country of Moab, he, and she kissed them; and they lifted up their voice, his wife, and his two sons.

and wept. 2 And the name of the man was Elimelech, 10 And they said unto her, Surely we will reand the name of his wife Naomi, and the name of turn with thee unto thy people. his two sons Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites 11 And Naomi said, Turn again, my daughof Beth-lehem-judah. And they came into the ters: why will ye go with me? are there yet country of Moab, and continued there.

any more sons in my womb, o that they may be 3 And Elimelech, Naomi's husband, died, and your husbands? she was left, and her two sons.

12 Turn again, my daughters; go your way; 4 And they took them wives of the women of for I am too old to have a husband. If I should Moab; the name of the one was Orpah, and the say, I have hope, Pif I should have a husband name of the other Ruth: and they dwelt there also to-night, and should also bear sons, about ten years.

13 Would ye 'tarry for them till they were 5 And Mahlon and Chilion died also both of grown? would ye stay for them from having them; and the woman was left of her two sons husbands? nay, my daughters; for it grieveth and her husband.

me much for your sakes, that i the hand of the 6 | Then she arose with her daugh- LORD is gone out against me. An. Ered ls. ters-in-law, that she might return from 14 And they lifted up their voice, and wept

Anno ane the country of Moab: for she had heard in again: and Orpah u kissed her mother-in-law; 1. Olymp. 109. the country of Moab how that the LORD but Ruth clave unto her, had - visited his people in i giving them bread. 15 And she said, Behold, thy sister-in-law is

a Judg. 2 16.- Heb. judged.- See Gen. 12 10. & 26. 1. 2 Kings 8.1. - Julg. m Ver 5. Ch. 2. 20.-n Ch. 3.1.-o Gen. 38. 11. Deut. 35. 5.-p Or, if I were with 17.8 - Set Gen. 35 19. - Julg. 5. 30.-g Reh, sorte - Exod. 1 31 Luke 1. 68. a husband. - Heb. hope.-s lleb. I have much bitterneas - Julg2. 15. Job 19. 21.

Pua. 32. 4. & 38. 2. J. 9, 10.--u Ecclus. 12. 9.-* Prov. 17. 17. & 18. 24.

word of the Lord, and joined affinity with strange peoVerse 1. When the judges ruled) We know not under ple, therefore their days were cut off. It is very likely what judge this happened ; some say under Ehud, others that there is more here ihan conjecture. under Shamgar. See the preface.

Verse 6. She had heard] By the mouth of an angel, There was a famine) Probably occasioned by the says the Targum, depredations of the Philistines, Ammonites, &c. carrying "The Lord had risited his people] “Because of the off the corn as soon as it was ripe; or destroying it on the righteousness of Ibzan the judge, and because of the supfield.

plications of pious Boaz." Targum. The Targum says, "God has decreed ten grievous It is imagined, and not without probability, that Mahlon famines to take place in the world, to punish the inhabit- and Chilion are the same with Joash and Saraph, menants of the earth, before the coming of Messiah the King. tioned i Chron. iv. 22. where the Hebrew should be thus The first, in the days of Adam; the second, in the duys of translated, And Joash and Seraph, who married in Moab, Lamech; the third, in the days of Abraham; the fourth, and dweli in Lehem. See the Tiebreu. in the days of Isaac; the fifth, in the days of Jacob; the Verse 11. Are there yet any more sons] This was sirth, in the days of Boaz, who is called Abtsan, (Ibzan,) spoken in allusion to the custom that when a married the Just, of Beth-lehem-judah; the serenth, in the days of brother died, without leaving posterity, his brother should David, king of Israel ; the eighth, in the days of Elijah the take his widow; and the children of such a marriage prophet; the ninth, in the days of Elishah, in Samaria; were accounted the children of the deceased brother. the tenth is yet to come; and it is not a farine of bread or There is something very persuasive and affecting in the of water, but of hearing the word of prophecy from the address of Naomi to her daughters-in-law :- let us obmouth of the Lord; and even now this farnine is grievous serve the particulars. in the land of Israel."

1. She intimates that she had no other sons to give Verse 2. Elimelech] That is, God is my king.

them. Naomi] Beautiful, or amiable.

2. That she was not with child; so there could be no Mahlon) Infirmity.

expectation. Chilion) Finished, completed.

3. That she was too old to have a husband. Verse 3. Elimelech-died] Probably a short time after 4. That though she should marry that night, and have his arrival in Moab.

children, yet they.could not wait till such sons were marVerse 4. And they took them wives] The Targum very ringeable : she, therefore, begs them to return to their own properly observes, that they transgressed the decree of the country, where they might be comfortably settled among word of the Lord, and took to themselves strange women. their own kindred.

Verse 5. And Mahlon and Chilion died] The Targum Verse 14. And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law] The adds, And because they transgressed the deeree of the Septuagint add, Kai crespeyev els rov daov avrns, And Vol. I.--84


I P. 132. 15. Mart. 6. 11.-See Josh. 215. 2 Tim. 1. 16, 17, 18.

onlere them to use her well, 3-16. She returnia in the evenng to Nacm, and trib

A ,

315. Anno ante

in Ch. 4. 21.-n Callou Booz. Matt. 1. 5.-o Lev. 19. 9. Deut. 21. 19.

gone back unto her people, and unto wher gods: 21. I went out full, i and the Lord hath brought * return thou aster thy sister-in-law.

me home again empty: why then call ye me 16 And Ruth said, Entreat ’ me not to leave Naomi, seeing the Lord hath testified against thee, or to return from following after thee: for me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me? whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou 22 So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moablodgest, I will lodge : 4 thy people shall be my itess, her daughter-in-law, with her, which repeople, and thy God my God.

turned out of the country of Moab: and they 17 Where thou diest, will I die, and there will came to Beth-lehem k in the beginning of barI be buried : 6 the Lord do so to me, and more ley-harvest. also, if aught but death part thee and me.

CHAPTER II. 18 When she saw that she was steadfastly Ruth ge to glean in the field of Noaz, 1--3. Bonz firda her, and inquiries who ste

is, 1--7. He speaks kindly to her, gives her person I fellos ha trapers, and minded to go with her, then she left speaking unto her.

her of her fare; from whom she receives encuaragement and advice, 17-21 19 | So they two went until they came to ND Naomi had a ' kinsman of her Ad. Exod ls. Beth-lehem. And it came to pass, when they

I Olyrop. 40. were come to Beth-lehem, that call the city wealth, of the family of Elimelech; was moved about them, and they said, ' Is this and his name was in Boaz." Naomi ?

2 And Ruth the Moabitess said unto Naomi, 20 And she said unto them, Call me not & Nao- Let me now go to the field, and oglean eare of mi, call me h Mara: for the Almighty hath dealt corn after him in whose sight I shall find grace. very bitterly with me.

And she said unto her, Go, my daughter. w Judg. 11. 21. - See Josh. 24. 15, 19. 2 Kings 2 2 Luke 21. 28-y Or, Be not e Matt 21. 10.- See Isaiah 22 7. Lam. 2 15.- That is, pleasant-h That i, against me.-22 Kings 2. 2, 1, 6,-a Ch. 2. 11, 12.- 1 Sam. 3. 17. & 25. 22. 2 San bitter - Job I. 21.-* Exod. 9. 31, 32 Uh. 2 2 2 Sum 21. 9.- Ca 32, 12 19. 13. 2 Kinga 6. 31. - c Acts 21. 14.- Heb strengthened herself, returned to her own people. The Vulgate, Syriac, and for, as he fled from the face of the famine, he would na. Arabic, are to the same purpose.

turally take his property with him; and on this Naomi Verse 15. Gone back-unto her gods) They were subsisted till her return to Beth-lehem, which she might probably both idolaters: their having been proselytes is not have thought of till all was spent. an unfounded conjecture. Chemosh was the grand idol Verse 22. In the beginning of barley-harrest.) This of the Moabites. The conversion of Ruth probably com was in the beginning of spring, for the barley-harvest inenced at this time.

began immediately after the passover ; and that feast was Verse 16. And Ruth said] A more perfect surrender held the 15th of the month Nisan, which corresponds was never made of friendly feelings to a friend: I will nearly with our March. not leave thee; I will follow thee: I will lodge where The Targum says, “They came to Beth-lehem on that thou lodgest; take the same fare with which thou meet-day in which the children of Ísrael began to mow the sheaf cst :--thy people shall be my people; I most cheerfully of barley which was to be waved before the Lord." This abandon my own country, and determine to end my days circumstance is the more distinctly marked, because of in thine. I will also, henceforth, have no god but thy Ruth's gleaning, mentioned in the succeeding chapter. God; and be joined with thee in worship as I am in al 1. The native, the amiable simplicity in which the story fection and consanguinity. I will cleave unto thee even of the preceding chapter is told, is a proof of jts genuineunto death, die where thou diest, and be buried, if possi- ness. There are several sympathetic circumstances reble, in the same grave. This was a most extraordinary corded here which no forger could have invented. There attachment, and evidently without any secular motive. is too much of nature to admit any thing of art.

The 'Targum adds several things to this conversation 2. On the marriage of Orpah and Ruth, and the wish between Naomi and Ruth: I shall subjoin them. of Naomi that they might find rest in the house of their Ruth said, Entreat me not to leave thee, for I desire to be husbands, there are some pious and sensible observations come a prosclyte." And Naomi said, Weare command in Mr. Ness' History and Mystery of the Book of Ruth; ed to keep the sabbath, and other holy days; and on it from which I shall lay the following extract before my not to travel more than two thousand cubits. And Ruth readers : said, “Whither thou goest, I will go." And Naomi "A married estate is a state of rest: so it is called here, said, We are commanded not to lodge with the Gentiles. and in chap. iii. 1. Hence marriage is called portus juRuth answered, "Where thou lodgesl, I will lodge.” | rentutis, the port or haren of young people; whose affecAnd Naomi said, We are commanded to observe the tions, while unmarried, are continually floating, or tossed one hundred and thirteen precepts. Ruth answered, to and fro, like a ship upon the waters, till they come into What thy people observe, that will I observe; as if they this happy harbour. There is a natural propension in had been my people of old. And Naomi said, We are most persons toward nuptial communion; as all created commanded not to worship with any strang, worship: beings have a natural tendency toward their proper centre; Ruth answered, “Thy God shall be my God.” Naomi (lere sursùm, et grave deorsum,) and are restless out of said, We have four kinds of capital punishments for it: so the rabbins say, Requiret vir costam suam, et recriminals ; stoning, burning, beheading, and hanging: quiret fæmina sedem suam, “The man is restless while Ruth answered, In whatsoever manner thou diest, I he misses his rib that was taken out of his side, and the will die.” Naomi said, We have a house of burial. woman is restless till she get under the man's arm, from Ruth answered, “And there will I be buried.”

whence she was taken.' Oh! look up to God then, ye It is very likely that some such conversation as this unmarried ones, and cry with good Naomi, The Lord! took place between the elders and those who were becom-grant me rest, (for my roving atfections,) in the house of ing proselytes. This verse is famous among those who some good consort, that I may live in peace and plenty, strive to dirine by the Bible. I should relate the particu- with content and comfort, all my days. Know that your lars, but am afraid they might lead to a continuance of the marriage is. (of all your civil affairs,) of the greatesi impractice.

portance, having an influence upon your whole life. It is Verse 17. The Lord do so to me, and more] May he either your making or marring in this world; 'tis like a inflict any of those punishments on me, and any worse stratagem in war, wherein a miscarriage cannot be repunishment, if I part from thee till death.

called when we will; for we marry for life. I am thine, that she was true to her engagement; for Naomi was nourished in the house of Boaz in her old age, and became short song; sed longum habet epiphonema, but it hath &

and thou art mine, breris quidem canliuncula est, is a the fosterer and nurse of their son Obed, chap. iv. 15, 16. long under-song. So an error here is irrecoverable; you

Verse 19. All the city was moved about them) It ap have need of Argus' hundred eyes, to look withal before pears that Naomi was not only well known, but highly I you leap.” This is good advice :--but who, among the respected also, at Beth-lehem; a proof that Elimelech was persons concerned, will have grace enough to take it? of high consideration in that place.

NOTES ON CHAPTER II. Verse 20. Call me Maraj That is, bilter ; one whose Verse 1. A mighty man of wealth] We have already life is grievous to her.

seen that some suppose Boaz to have been one of the judges The Almighty] 170 Shaddy, he who is self-sufficient of Israel: he was, no doubt, a man of considerable property. has taken away



Verse 2. Glean cars of corn] The word glean comes Verse 21. I went out full] Having a husband, and tro from the French glaner, to gather ears, or grains of corn.

This was formerly a general custom in England and Ire. The LORD hath brought me home again empty] Having land: the poor went into the fields and collected the strag. lost all three by death. It is also likely that Elimelech gling ears of corn after the reapers ; and it was long suptook considerable property with him into the land of Moab; I posed that this was their right, and that the law recog



And it appears

and supports

sons :

3 And she went, and came, and gleaned in the and drink of that which the young men have field after the reapers: and her phap was to drawn. light on a part of the field belonging unto Boaz, 10 Then she fell on her face, and bowed herwho was of the kindred of Elimelech.

self to the ground, and said unto him, Why have 4 1 And, behold, Boaz came from Beth-lehem I found grace in thine eyes, that thou shouldest and said unto the reapers, 9 The Lord be with take knowledge of me, seeing. I am a stranger ? you. And they answered him, The Lord bless 11 And Boaz answered and said unto her, It thee.

hath fully been showed me, all that thou hast 5 Then said Boaz unto his servant that wa

was done unto thy mother-in-law since the death of set over the reapers, Whose damsel is this? thine husband; and how thou hast left thy father

6 And the servant that was set over the reap- and thy mother, and the land of thy nativity, and ers answered and said, It is the Moabitish dam- art come unto a people which thou knewest not sel - that came back with Naomi out of the heretofore. country of Moab.

12 u The Lord recompense thy work, and a 7 And she said, I pray you, let me glean and full reward be given thee of the LORD God of gather after the reapers among the sheaves: so Israel, under whose wings thou art come to she came, and hath continued even from the trust. morning until now, that she tarried a little in 13 Then she said, wLet ’ me find favour in the house.

thy sight, my lord; for that thou hast comforted 8 Then said Boaz unto Ruth, Hearest thou me, and for that thou hast spoken y friendly unto not, my daughter ? Go not to glean in another thine handmaid, ? though I'be not like unto one field, neither go from hence, but abide here fast of thine handmaidens. by my maidens:

14 And Boaz said unto her, At meal-time come 9 Let thine eyes be on the field that they do thou hither, and eat of the bread, and dip thy reap, and go thou after them: have I not charged morsel in the vinegar. And she sat beside the the young men that they shall not touch thee? reapers: and he reached her parched corn, and and when thou art athirst, go unto the vessels, she did eat, and a was sufficed, and left.


Heb hap happenel-Pex 12.7, 8. Latke l. 22 2 Thess 3 16.-r Ch. 1. 22.
Sam 25. 2- Ch.1, 14, 16, 17.-ul San. 21. 19.--v Ch. 1. 16. Psa 17.8. &

36. 7. & 57. 1. & 63. 7.-w Or, I find favour.- Geneais 33. 15. 1 Sam 1. 18. y Heb. to the heart. Gen. 31. 3. Judg. 19. 3.-2 1 Sam. 25. 41.- Ver. 18.

nized it. But although it has been an old custom, I find This scene is well described; and the person who acts that it is now settled by a solemn judgment of the court of as orerseer is here called Baoilevs, king, and his staff is Common Pleas, that a right to glean in the harvest-field called ornitpov, a sceptre; and he stands in mute dignity, cannot be claimed by any person at common law: see Lau merely to see that the work is well done, and that each Dictionary, article gleaning. Any person may permit performs his task : and there appear to me to be gleaners or prevent it in his own grounds. By the Irish acts, 25 in the description-riz, the boys who gather the handfuls Hen. VIII. c. 1. and 28 Hen. VIII. c. 24. gleaning and after the three binders. See the Greek. leasing are so restricted as to he, in fact, prohibited in that Verse 7. That she tarried a little in the house.] It part of the United Kingdom. See the note on Lev. xix. 10. seems as if the reapers were now resting in their tent; and

Afler him in whose sight I shall find grace] She did that Ruth had just gone in with them, jo take her rest also. not mean Boaz: but she purposed to go out where they Verse 8. Abide here fast by my maidens] These were were now reaping, and glean after any person who might probably employed in making bands, and laying on them permit her, or use her in a friendly manner. The words enough to form a sheaf, which the binders would tie and seem to intimate that, notwithstanding the law of Moses, form into shocks or thraves. When the maidens had gaththe gleaners might be prevented by the owner of the field. ered up the scattered handfuls thrown down by the reapers,

Verse 3. And her hap was] Só she was accidentally, Ruth picked up any straggling heads or ears which they or providentially, led to that part of the cultivated country had left. which belonged to Boaz.

Verse 9. The young men that they shall not touch thee] Verse 4. Boaz came from Beth-lehem] This salutation | This was peculiarly necessary, as she was a stranger, and between Boaz and his reapers is worthy of particular re unprotected. gard; he said, Dyin Yehovah immakem, “Jehovah Verse 10. Then she fell on her face] Prostrated herbe with you!" They said, :777771 Yebrekeka Yehorah, sell, as was the custom in the East when inferiors ap“May Jehovah bless thee!” Can a pious mind read these proached those of superior rank. The Targum adds to godly salutations without wishing for a return of those the conversation between Ruth and Boaz : How, says simple pimitive times? The words may be thus para- she, have I obtained grace in thy sight, that thou shouldst phrased: “May God be with you to preserve you from acknowledge me who am a stranger, and one of the daughaccidents, and strengthen you to accomplish your work!".

ters of Moab, of whom it is said the unclean shall not enter "May God bless THEE with the increase of the field, and into the congregation of the Lord ? And Boaz angwered, grace to use his bounty to the glory of the giver!"

It has been certainly told me by the word of the wise, that Verse 5. His servant that was set over the reapers) what the Lord hath decreed he has not decreed concerning This was a kind of steward, or hind, who had the under the women, but the men. And it has been surely said to management of the estate. Some think that an officer of me by, prophecy, that kings and prophets shall proceed this kind is intended in the description given by Homer of from thee because of the good which thou hast done,” &c. the labourers of a harvest-field, as represented by Vulcan Verse 12. The LORD recompense thy work] The dution one compartment of the shield which he made for ful respect which thou hast paid to thy husband, and thy tenAchilles :

der and affectionate attachment to thy aged mother-in-law. Εν δ'ετιθει τεμενος βαθυληϊον ενθα δ' εριθοι

And a full repard be given thee) 'This is spoken with “Ημων, οξειας δρεπανας εν χερσιν εχοντες

great modesty and piety: the kindness I show thee is little Δραγματα δ' αλλα μετ' ογμον επητριμα πιπτον ερας

in comparison of thy desert; God alone can give thee a full Αλλα δ' αμαλλοδετηρες εν ελλεόανοισι δεοντο.

reward for thy kindness to thy husband and mother-inΤρεις δ' αρ αμαλλοδετηρες εφεςασαν αυταρ οπισθε

law; and he will do it, because thou art come to trust Παιδες δραγμευοντες, εν αγκαλιδεσσι φεροντες,

under his wings; to become a proselyte to his religion. Ασπερχες παρεχον βασιλευς δ' εν τοισι σιωπη

The metaphor is taken from the young of fowls ; who, Σκηπτρον εχων εςηκει επ' ογμου γηθοσυνος κηρ. seeing a bird of prey, run to their mother to be covered by Κηρυκες δ' απανευθεν υπο ορυϊ δαιτα πενοντο. .

her wings from danger; and also take shelter from storms, Βουν δ' ιερευσαντες μεγαν, αμφεπον αι δε γυναικες

tempests, cold, &c. It is evident from this, that Ruth had Δειπνον εριθοισιν, λευκο αλφιτα πολλα παλυνον. already attached herself to the Jewish religion.

Iliad xviii. v. 550.

Verse 13. Not like unto one of thine handmaidens]

I am as unworthy of thy regards as any of thy own maid-
Crowded with corn, in which the reapers toil'd,
Fach with a sharp-tooth esckle in his hand.

servants; and yet thou showest me distinguished kindness. Along the furrow here, the harvest fell

Verse 14. Dip thy morsel in the vinegar] The pon la frequent handlule; there, they bound the sheaven Three binlers of the sheaves their wilury task

chomets, which we here translate vinegar, seems to have All plied industrious; and behind then boys

been some refreshing kind of acid sauce used by the reapers Attended, filling with the car their arins, And offering still their bundles to be bound

to dip their bread in, which both cooled and refreshed them. Arnid then, staff in hand, the master rood,

Vinegar, robb of fruits, &c. are used for this purpose in the Enjoying, mute, the order of the field: while sbaded by an onk apart, his train

East to the present day. And the custom of the Arabs, Prepared the banqnet ; a well thriven oz

according to Dr. Shaw, is to dip the bread and hand to-
New olain, and the attenrlant maidens mir'd
Large ripper for the hinde, of whitest four,

gether into these cooling and refreshing articles.


There too he formed the likeness of a held

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