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they brought it into the house of Dagon, and shall not abide with us: for his hand is sore upon set it by Dagon.
us, and upon Dagon our god. 3 | And when they of Ashdod arose early on 8.1! They eent therefore, and gathered all the the morrow, behold, Dagon was • fallen upon lords of the Philistines unto them, and said, his face to the earth before the ark of the LORD. What shall we do with the ark of the God of And they took Dagon, and P set him in his place Israel? And they answered, Let the ark of the again.
God of Israel be carried about unto Gath. And 4 And when they arose early on the morrow they carried the ark of the God of Israel about morning, bel Id, Dagon was fallen upon his face thither. to the ground before the ark of the LORD; and 9. And it was so, that, after they had carried 9 the head of Dagon, and both the palms of his it about, " the hand of the LORD was against the hands, were cut off“ upon the threshold; only city * with a very great destruction: and y he " the slump of Dagon was left to him.
smote the men of the city, both small and great, 5 Therefore neither the priests of Dagon, nor and they had emerods in their secret parts. any that come into Dagon's house, tread on 10 T Therefore they sent the ark of God to the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod unto this day. Ekron. And it came to pass, as the ark of God
6 | But the hand of the LORD was heavy came to Ekron, that the Ekronites cried out, upon them of Ashdod, and he u destroyed them, saying, They have brought about the ark of the and smote them with emerods, even Ashdod, God of Israel to ? us, to slay us and our people. and the coasts thereof.
11 So they sent and gathered together all the 7 And when the men of Ashdod saw that it lords of the Philistines, and said, Send away the was so, they said, The ark of the God of Israel ark of the God of Israel, and let it go again to
n Judg. 16. 2- Isi. 19. 1. & 46. 1,2-p Isai. 46. 7-9 Jer. 50. 2. Ezek 6 4,6. Mic. L 7.- Ur, the fishy part - See Zeph. 1. 9.-1 Ver'? 11. Exod. 9. 3. Psa. 32.
4. Acts 13. 11.--u Ch.6.5. --v Deul 23. 27. P. 73. 66.-W Deut. 2. 15. Ch. 7. 13. & 12 15. -x Verve 11. ---y Verse 6. Psa. 78 65.—2 Heb. me, to slay me and my.
Verse 2. The house of Dagon) On this idol, which was rupted, this adoration of the thresholds of the churches supposed to be partly in a human form, and partly in that took place. of a fish, see the note on Judges xvi. 23. Some think that Verse 6. Smote them with emerods] The word Dybdy this idol was the same with Directo, Attergatis, the Venus âpalim, from Soy âphal, to be elevated, probably means the of Askelon, and the Moon. See Calmet's Dissertation on disease called the bleeding piles ; which appears to have the gods of the Philistines.
been accompanied with dysentery, bloody flux, and ulcerated The molide which induced the Philistines to set up the anus. ark in the temple of Dagon may be easily ascertained. It The Vulgate says, Et percussit in secretiori parte nawas customary in all nations to dedicate the spoils taken tium: “And he smote them in the more secret parts of their from an enemy to their gods:-1st, As a gratitude-offering, posteriors." To this the Psalmist is supposed to refer, for the help which they supposed them to have furnished; Psa. Ixxviii. 66. : He smote all his enemies in the HINDER and, 2dly, As a proof that their gods, i, e, the gods of the PARTS; he put them to a perpetuul reproach. Some copies conquerors, were more powerful than those of the con of the Septuagint have etesecev avrols Els Tas vavs, "heinquered. It was, no doubt, to insult the God of Israel, and flamed them in their ships ;” other copies have ets tus ídpas, to insult and terrify his people, that they placed his ark in “in their posteriors.” The Syriac is the same. The the temple of Dagon. When the Philistines had conquered Arabic enlarges : He smote them in their posteriors, so Saul, they hung up his armour in the temple of Ashtaroth, i that they were affected with a dysenteria." I suppose chap. xxxi. 10. And when David slew Goliath, he laid them to have been affected with enlargements of the up his sword in the tabernacle of the Lord, chap. xxl 8, hæmorrhoidal veins, from which there came, frequent 9. We have the remains of this custom in the depositing discharges of blood. of colours, standards, &c. taken from an enemy, in our The Septuagint and Vulgate make a very material adchurches; but whether this may be called superstition, or dition to this verse; Kai megov ons xwpas avrns aveoveoir a religious act, is hard to say. If τlue battle were the | μυες και εγενετο συγχυσις θανατου μεγαλη εν τη πολει'-Et Lord's, which few battles are, the dedication might be ebullierunt ville et agri in medio regionis illius; et nati right.
sunt mures, et facta est confusio mortis magna in civiVerse 3. They of Ashdod arose early on the morroro) tate. "And the cities and the fields of all that region burst Probably to perforin some act of their superstition in the up, and mice were produced, and there was the confusion temple of their idol.
of a great death in the city." This addition, Houbigant Dagon was fallen upon his face) This was one proof, contends, was originally in the Hebrew text; and this which they little expected, of the superiority of the God gives us the reason why golden mice were sent, as well as of Israel.
the images of the emerods, chap. vi. 4. when the ark was Set him in his place again.) Supposing his fall might restored. have been merely accidental.
Verse 7. His hand is sore upon us, and upon Dagon Verse 4. Only the stump of Dagon was left] Literally, our gou.] Here the end was completely answered: they only ? " dagon (i. e. the little fish,) was left.". It has now saw that they had not prevailed against Israel
, bealready been remarked, that Dagon had the head, arms, cause their god was more pourerful than Jehovah ; and and hands, of a man or woman; and that the rest of the they now feel how easily this God can confound and deidol was in the form of a fish, to which Horace is supposed stroy their whole nation. lo allude :
Verse 8. The lords of the Philistines] The word und Desingt in piscen, mulier formoedt onderne.
earney, which we translate lords, is rendered by the Chal“The upper part resembling a beautiful woman, the lower a fish."
dee vyno tureney, tyrants. The Syriac is the same. By All that was human in his form was broken off from the Vulgate and Septuagint, satrapas, satraps. Pales what resembled a fish. Here was a proof that the affair tine was divided into those five satrapies ; Ashdod, Ekron, was not accidental; and these proofs of God's power and Askelon, Gath, and Gaza. See Josh. xii. 9. But these authority prepared the way for his judgments.
were all federates; and acted under one general governVerse 5.' T'read on the threshold) Becalise the arms, ment, for which they assembled in council. &c. of Dagon were broken off hy his fall on the threshold, Let the ark-be carried aboul] They probably thought the threshold became sacred, and neither his priests nor his that their affliction rose from some natural cause; and, worshippers ever tread on the threshold; this it was or therefore, they wished the ark to be carried about from dered, in the divine providence, that, by a religious custom place to place, 10 see what the effects might be. If they of their own, they should perpetuate their disgrace, the in- found the same evil produced wherever it came, then they sufficiency of their worship, and the superiority of the God must conclude that it was a judgment from the God of of Israel.
Israel. It is supposed that the idolatrous Israelites, in the time Verse 9. The hand of the Lord was against the city] of Zephaniah, had adopted the worship of Dagon : and As it was at Ashdod, so it was at Gath. The Vulgale that, in this sense, chap. i. 9. is to be understood, In the says, Et computrescrbant prominenter ertales corum ; same day will I punish all those who leap upon the thres- which conveys the idea of a bloody fiux, dysentery, and hold. In order to go into such temples, and not tread on lcerated anus: and it adds, what is not to be found in the the threshold, the people must step or lcap over them; and Hebrew text, nor many of the versinns, except some traces in this way the above passage may be understood. Indeed, in the Septuagint, Et fecerunt sibi sedes pelliceas, “And the thresholds of the temples, in various places, were they made unio themselves seats of skins';" for the purdeemed so sacred that the people were accustomed to fall pose of sitting more easy, on account of the malady already down, and kiss them. When Christianity became cor- I mentioned.
B. c. 1140.
Matt. 24. Exod. n. 15. Dent. 16. 16.-e Lev. 5. 15, 16.- Ver. 9.-g See ver. 17,
his own place, that it slay - us not, and our peo- | emerods, and images of your mice that 'mar ple: for there was a deadly destruction through the land; and ye shall give glory unto
the God out all the city; • the hand of God was very of Israel: peradventure he will i'lighten his heavy there.
hand from off you, and from off m your gods, 12 And the men that died not, were smitten and from off your land. with the emerods: and the cry of the city went 6 Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, up to heaven.
as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their CHAPTER VI.
hearts? When he had wrought wonderfully After the ark had been even months in the land of the Philistinee, they consult their among them, pdid they not let the people gó,
priests ani diviners about sending it to Shiloh, 1,2 They alsise that it be sent lack with a trespass-ottering, of five golden ein«rods
, and five golden mice, 37They and they departed ? Alvise also that it be sent back on a new care, drawn by two mniich kune, from whoin 7 Now therefore make 'a new cart, and take their calves shall be tied up, an then conclude that if there cowe shall take the way of Beth sheroesh, as going to the Israeliuish bonder, then the Lord had two milch kine, son which there hath come no held of Joshua; and the men of 'Beth-shemesh take them and offer them to the calves home from them: rection, and tie kine inke the way of Beth shemnesb, 10--13. They stop in the yoke, and tie the kine to the cart, and bring their Lord for a barnt-offering, and cleave the wool of the cart to burn them; and make sundry other nitering, 14, 15. The offerings of the five lords of the 8 And take the ark of the Lord, and lay it Philistines, 16.-18. For 100 curiously looking into the ark, the men of Bethshemesh are smilien of the Lord, 19, 20. 'They send to the inhabitants of Kir.
upon the cart; and put the jewels of gold, Juch-jcarim, that they may take away the ark, 21.
which ye return him for a trespass-offering, in A. M. 2864.
ND the ark of the Lord was in a cotler by the side thereof: and send it away, 1. Olymp. 361. seven months.
9 And see, if it goeth up by the way of his 2 And the Philistines e called for own coast to u Beth-sheesh, then he hath the priests and the diviners, saying, What shall done us this great evil: but if not, then we we do to the ark of the LORD? tell us wherewith shall know that it is not his hand that smote us; we shall send it to his place.
it was a chance that happened to us. 3 And they said, If ye send away the ark of 10 | And the men did so; and took two milch the God of Israel, send it not d empty; but in kine, and tied them to the cart, and shut up their any wise return him a trespass-offering: then calves at home: ye shall be healed, and it shall be known to you 11 And they laid the ark of the LORD upon the why his hand is not removed from you.
cart, and the coffer with the mice of gold and 4 Then said they, What shall be the trespass-the images of their emerods. offering which we shall return to him? They 12 And the kine took the straight way to the answered, Five golden emerods, and five golden way of Beth-shemesh, and went along the highmice, according to the number of the lords way, lowing as they went, and turned not aside of the Philistines: for one plague was on " you to the right hand or to the left; and the lords of all, and on your lords.
the Philistines went after them unto the border 5 Wherefore ye shall make images of your of Beth-shemesh. a Heb. me not, and my-b Ver 6, 9. Gen. 41. 8. Exod. 7. 11. Dan. 2 2 & 5.7. Mal. 2. 2. John 9. 24.-) See ch. 5. 6, 11. Psa 39. 10.--In Ch. 5. 3, 4,7-p Exed. 1 18 Josh. 13. 3. Judges 3. 3.- Heb. them.-i Ch. 5. 6.- Josh 7. 19. Isai. 12. 12.
& 8 , - 12 Sain.
6.3.-3 Numbers 19.2-4 Verse 4, 5.-u Josh. 15. 10.-- 07, il-Verse 3 Verse 11. Send away the ark] It appears that it had Verse 6. Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts] been received at Ekron, for there was a deadly destruction They had heard how God punished the Egyptiang; and through the whole city. They, therefore, concluded that they are afraid of similar plagues. It appears that they the ark should be sent back to Shiloh.
had kept the ark long enough. Verse 12. The men that died not] Some, it seems, were Did they not let the people go] And has he not wrought smitten with instant death ; others with the hæmorrhoids ; wonderfully among us; and should we not send back his and there was a universal consternation; and the cry of ark ? the city went up to heaven: it was an exceeding great cry. Verse 7. Make a new cart) It was indecent and im
It does not appear that the Philistines had any correct proper to employ, in any part of the worship of God, ang knowledge of the nature of Jehovah, though they seemed thing that had before served for a common purpose. Every to acknowledge his supremacy. They imagined that thing in the worship of God is said to be sanctified; now every country, district, mountain, and valley, had its pecu- the general meaning of that word is, to separate a thing liar deity; who, in its place, was supreme over all others. from all carthly and common uses, and devote il solely to They thought, therefore, to appease Jehovah hy sending the service of God. him back his ark, or shrine; and, in order to be redeemed When David removed the ark from the house of Abinafrom their plagues, they send golden mice and emerods as dab, he put it on a new cart, 2 Sam. vi. 3. telesms, probably made under some particular configura Bring their calves home from them) So it appears that tions of the planets. See at the end of ch. vi.
their calves had been with them in the fields. This was a NOTES ON CHAPTER VI.
complete trial; unless they were supernaturally influVerse 2. The diriners) c'dop kosmim, from Dop ka-enced, they would not leave their calves; unless supersam, to presage or prognosticate. See Deut. xviii. 10. naturally directed, they would not leave their home, and In what iheir pretended art consisted we know not. take a way, unguided, which they had never gone before.
Verse 3. Send it not empty] As it appears ye have tres Verse 3. The jewels of gold) The word "52 keley, which passed against him, send him an offering for this trespass, our translators so often render jewels, signifies vessels, im.
Why his hand is not removed] The sense is, if you send plements, ornaments, &c. A jewel of gold has an odd him a trespass-offering, and ye be cured, then ye shall sound to those who always attach the idea of a precious know why his judgments have not been taken away from stone to the term. you, previously to this offering.
Verse 9. A chance that happened to us) The word anpa It is a common opinion, says Calmet, among all people, mikreh, from nap karah, to meet, or coalesce, signifies an that although the Supreme Being needs nothing of his event that naturally arises from such concurring causes as, creatures, yet he requires that they should consecrate to him in the order and nature of things, must produce it. all that they hare: for the saine argument that proves his Thus, a bad state of the atmosphere, putrid exhalations, independence, infinitude, and self-sufficiency, proves our | bad diet, occasioned by any general scarcity, might have dependence, and the obligation we are under to acknow, produced the disease in question; and to something of diis ledge him by offering him due marks of our gratitude and kind they would attribuie il, if the other evidences did not submission. Such sentiments were common among all concur. This gives us the proper notion of chance; and people; and God himself commands his people not to ap- shows us that it is a matter as dependent upon the dirine pear before him without an offering, Exod. xxvi. 15. providence, as any thing can be : in shori, that these oce None shall appear before me empty.
currences are parts of the divine government. Verse 4. Five golden emerods, and five golden mice] The word chance, though often improperly used to sig. The emerods had afflicted their bodies; the mice had mar- nify such an occurrence as is not under the divine governred their land. Both, they considered, as sent by God; ment, is, of itself, not only simple, but expressive: and and, by making an image of each, and sending them as a has nearly the meaning of the Hebrew word: it comes trespass-offering, they acknowledged this. See at the end. from the French cheoir, or escheoir, to fall oul, lo occur,
Verse 5. He will lighten his hand from off you) The to fall to. Hence our law-term escheat; any lands that whole land was afflicted; the ground was marred by the fall to the lord of the manor by forfeiture, or for want of mice, the common people and the lords afflicted by the heirs: i. e. there are the occurrences which naturally hæmorrhoids, and their gods broken in pieces.
throw the lands into the hands of the lord.
13 And they of Beth-shemesh were reaping 17 ? And these are the golden emerods which their wheat-harvest in the valley : and they the Philistines returned for a trespass-offering lifted up their eyes, and saw the ark, and re unto the LORD ; for Ashdod one, for Gaza one, joiced to see it.
for Askelon one, for Gath one, for Ekron one; 14 And the cart came into the field of Joshua, 18 And the golden mice, according to the a Beth-shemite, and stood there, where there number of all the cities of the Philistines belongwas a great stone: and they clave the wood of ing to the five lords, both of fenced cities, and the cart, and offered the kine a burnt-offering of country villages, even unto the great stone unto the Lord.
of Abel, whereon they set down the ark of the 15 And the Levites took down the ark of the LORD: which stone remaineth unto this day in LORD, and the coffer that was with it, wherein the field of Joshua, the Beth-shemite. the jewels of gold were, and put them on the 19 | And he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, great stone: and the men of Beth-shemesh because they had looked into the ark of the offered burnt-offerings and sacrificed sacrifices Lord, even he smote of the people fifty thousand the same day unto the Lord.
and threescore and ten men: and the people 16 And when the five lords of the Philistines lamented, because the Lord had smitten many had seen it, they returned to Ekron the same day. of the people with a great slaughter.
Josh. 13. 3.-y Verse 4.- Or, great etone.
A See Exod. 19.21. Numh. 4. 5, 15, 20. 2 Sam. 6, 7.
Verse 12. Lowing as they went) Calling for their calves. 2. The TARGUM of Jonathan is something similar to
To the right hand or to the left] Some think they were the Vulgate:-"And he smote ndy vada besabey ama, of placed where two roads met, one going to Ekron, the the elders of the people SEVENTY men; asapai ubekahala, other to Beth-shemcsh. It is possible that they were put and of the congregation FIFTY THOUSAND men." in such circumstances as these, for the greater certainty of 3. The SEPTUAGINT follows the Hebrew text:-Kat lie affair: to have turned from their own home, from their | επαταξεν εν αυτοις, εβδομηκοντα ανδρας, και πεντηκοντα calves, and known pasture, and to have taken the road to widiadas avopwv; "And he smote of them SEVENTY a strange country, must argue supernatural influence. men; and FIFTY THOUSAND men." Εκ του λαου, of the
The lords of the Philistines went after] They were so people; is added by some copies. jealous in this business, that they would trust no eyes but 4. The Syriac has forty-five thousand less! It is as their own. All this was wisely ordered, that there might follows: Reboot leleu. Rob Liso Lwoo be the fullest conviction of the being and interposition of Ai *wamacho Morio beâmo chamesho alapin weshaGod.
bêin gabrin; "And the Lord smote among the people Verse 14. They clave the wood of the cart) Both the FIVE thousand and SEVENTY men.” cart and the cattle, having been thus employed, could no 5. The ARABIC is nearly similar :-"And the LORD smote longer be devoted to any secular services; therefore, the among the people; and there died of them cell Sun's callle were sacrificed, and the cart was broken up for fuel Westes Five thousand and SEVENTY men. to consume the sacrifice.
We have no other versions from which we can receive Verse 15. The Levites took down) It appears there any farther light. were some of the tribe of Levi among the people of Beth 6. JOSEPHUS is different from all the rest, and has fifty shemesh : to them appertained the service of the tabernacle. thousand less: for he renders the place thus, Antiq. Iud.
Verse 17. These are the golden cmerods] Each of these lib. vi. cap. i. sect. 4. Opyn de kai xodos tov Osov METELOIV, cities, in what may be called its corporate capacity, sent | ώςε εβδομηκοντα των εκ της Βηθσαμης κωμης-βαλων απεκτεινεν. a golden emerod.
"But the displeasure and wrath of God pursued them so, Verse 18. And the golden mice] The desolation that that SEVENTY men of the village of Beth-shemesh, aphad been made through the land by these animals, had proaching the ark, which they were not worthy to touch, excited a general concern; and, it appears from the text
, not being priests,) were struck with lightning." Here we that all the cities of the Philistines, as well fenced as find the whole fifty thousand is omitted. without walls, sent a golden mouse as a trespass-offering. 7. Rabbi Solomon JARCHI, giving the opinion of other
Remaineth unto this day) Some think that the ark is rabbins as well as his own, says, “Our rabbins say SEVENTY intended, which continued on the stone of Abel for some men, and each of them was worth fifty thousand men; considerable time after it was placed there; and that the or fifty thousand, every one of whom was worth the memoranda, from which this book was afterward compiled, seventy of the Sanhedrim.” This only shows embarrasswere made before it was removed: but it is not likely that ment, but gives very little light. it remained any time exposed in the open field. There All these discordances, together with the utter improbafore, it is most natural to suppose that it is the stone of bility of the thing, lead us to suppose there must be a corAbel, which is here intended ; and so our translators have ruption in this place, either by adding or omitting. understood the place, and have used supplementary words Dr. Kennicolt has found three very reputable MSS. in to express this sentiment. Which stond remaineth unto which the words to Doon chameshim eleph ish, this day.
fifty thousand men, are wanting. The 1st, No. 84, a MS! Verse 19. He smote of the people fifty thousand and from Holland; the 2d, No. 210, one of the Parisian threescore and ten ment The present Hebrew text of this MSS.; the 3d, No. 419, a MS. belonging to Milan: all most extraordinary reading stands thus : vou-nya UN 2.7" three written about the beginning of the twelfth century;
w 75 buon ng boyau Dya vayach be anshey and numbered as above in Dr. K?s Bible. Beith-shemesh-oayach baâm shibcim ish, chamishim Perhaps the omission in these MSS. was occasioned by dleph ish: "And he smote among the men of Beth-she a mistake of the transcriber; which might have easily mesh, (because they had looked in:o the ark of Jehovah,) happened, because of the word wa ish, which occurs both and he smote among the people SEVENTY men, FIFTY THOU after Diyav shibcim, and after an eleph; for, having SAND men."
written the first, and taking his eye off when he recomFrom the manner in which the text stands, and from menced, he might have supposed he had written the latter, the great improbability of the thing, it is most likely that and so proceed, leaving the words in question out of his there is a corruption in this text, or that some explanatory copy. Two, three, or more persons might have been thus word is lost, or that the number fifty thousand has been deceived, and so produce the above MSS.; or the mistake, added by ignorance or design; it being very improbable once made, all the MSS. copied from that, would show that such a small village as Beth-shemesh should contain, the same omission. The common reading may be defended, or be capable of employing fifty thousand and seventy if we only suppose the omission of a single letter, the men in the fields at wheat harvest; much less that they particle of comparison a ke, like, as, or cqual to, before the could all peep into the ark on the stone of Abel, in the word Dupon chamashim: thus swans kechamashim; cornfield of Joshua.
the passage would then read—“And he smote of the people That the words are not naturally connected in the He SEVENTY men, equal to FIFTY THOUSAND men: that is, they brew text is evident; and they do not stand better in the were the elders or governors of the people.” Dersions.
Some solve the difficulty by translating,, " He slew 1. The VULGATE renders it thus :-Et percussit de SEVENTY men out of fifty thousand men. There are populo SEPTUAGINTA viros ; et QUINQUAGINTA MILLIA various other methods invented by learned men to remove plebis ; "And he smole of the chief) people sevENTY this difficulty, which I shall not stop to examine: all, howmen; and FIFTY THOUSAND of the common) people." ever, issue in this point, that only SEVENTY men were This distinction, I suppose, St. Jerom intended, between slain; and this is, without doubt, the most probable. The plebs and populus; which he might think was warranted FIFTY THOUSAND, therefore, must be an interpolation, or by the Duyxx anashim, and vw ish, of the Hebrew text. be understood in some such way as that mentioned above.
A M. 9984.
20 And the men of Beth-shemesh said, "Who of • Abinadab in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar is able to stand before this holy LORD God? and his son to keep the ark of the LORD. to whom shall he go up from us?
? And it came to pass, while the ark abode in 21 | And they sent messengers to the inhab- | Kirjath-jearim, that the time was long; for it itants of • Kirjath-jearim, saying, the Philistines was twenty years; and all the house of Israel have brought again the ark of the LORD; come lamented after the LORD. yo down, and fetch it up to you.
3 | And Samuel spake unto all the CHAPTER VII.
house of Israel, saying, If ye do 're- An Exod. Is. The men of Kirjat bring the ark from Beth-shemesh, and consecrate Elea turn unto the LORD with all your zar, the son of Abinadab, to keep it; and there it cameinued twenty years back hearts, then pui away the strange
1 Olymp 314 where they fast and pray, and comes wir sin, The listines de coupe gods and Ashtaroth from among you, and
for help; Samuel ;
prepare your hearts unto the LORD, and serve them to Bethear, 2-11 Samwel erects in store forma ne more under colonie bilet him only; and he will deliver you out of the 13, 14. Samuel acts as an itinerant judge in Israel, 15–17.
hand of the Philistines. AN
ND the men of Kirjath-jearim 4 Then the children of Israel did put away
came, and fetched up the ark of 1 Baalim and Ashtaroth, and served the LORD I Olymp. 361.
the LORD, and brought it into the house only.
and the Lord confunda the Philistines with thunder; Israel discomfit, and partie
An. Exod. Isr.
351. Ann ante
b 2 Sam. 6. 9. Mal 3. 2.- Josh. 18. 14. Judg. 18. 12 I Chron. 13. 5.6.-d Ch. 6. 21. Pan. 132. 6.-e 2 Sam. 6.4.- Deut. 30.2-10. 1 Kinga 8. 19. Isaiah 55. 7. Hos. 6. 1,
Joel 2 12.- Gen. 35. 2. Josh 24. 14,2h Judg. 2 13.-i 2 Chron. 30. 19. Job II. 13, 11-k Deut. 6. 13. & 10. 20. & 13. 1. Mall 4. 10. Luke 1.8.- 1 Juig 2 11
But the omission of the particle of similitude solves every both scorpions and crocodiles. This image is of the difficulty; and this would account for the reading in Jose- highest antiquity, and was formed probably long besore plus, as, in his recital, he would naturally leave out such the Christian era. an explanation of the worth of the seventy men, as his Tavernier observes, that something like what ia menRoman readers could not easily comprehend such com tioned in the text is practised among the Indians : for parisons.
when a pilgrim goes to one of the idol temples for a cure, With a great slaughter.] Seventy men slain, out of an he brings the figure of the member affected, made either inconsiderable village, in a harvest day, was certainly a of gold, silver, or copper, according to his circumstances, great slaughter.
which he offers to his god. This custom was common Verse 20. Who is able to stand] Why this exclama- among the heathens; and they consecrated to their gods tion? They knew that God had forbidden any to touch the monuments of their deliverance. From heathenisin his ark but the priests and Levites; but they now endea it was adopted by corrupt Christianity; and Theodord vour to throw that blame on God, as a being hard to be informs us thai, in his time, there might be seen about the pleased, which belonged solely to themselves.
tombs of the martyrs figures of eyes, hands, feet, and Verse 21. To the inhabitants of Kirjath-jearim) They other parts of the body, which represented those of the wished the ark away out of their village : but why they offerers which they supposed had been healed by the insent to this city instead of sending to Shiloh, does not ap tercession of those holy persons! This degrading superpear : probably, Shiloh had been destroyed by the Philis stition is continued among the Papists to the present day: lines, after the late defeat of Israel. This is most likely, I have seen at St. Winifrid's well, in Holyucell
, Flintas the ark was never more taken back to that place. shire, several stares, crutches, and handbarros, hung up
It was a very ancient usage when a plague, or other in different places, which were reported to be the votive calamity, infested a country, city, &c. for the magicians to offerings of the maimed, the halt, the withered, &c. who form an image of the destroyer, or of the things on had received their cure by the virtue of the saint! It is which the plague particularly rested, in gold, silver, ivory, true the crutches are such as no man or woman could ever wax, clay, &c. under certain configurations of the heav- walk with; and the barrous are such as most evidently ens; and to set this up in some proper place, that the evils never carried any human being. But they serve the purthus represented might be driven away. These conse poses of superstition, and keep up an idolatrous reverence crated images were the same that are called talismans, or for the well, and the legendary virgin. rather telesms, among the Asiatics. Mr. Locke calls the After all, I need not say that the system of judicial asdiviners talismans! but this is a pitiful mistake: the trology is vain, unfounded, absurd, and wicked. It, in image, not the fabricator, was called by this name. effect, presumes to take the government of the world out
I have seen several of these talismans, of different of the hands of an all-wise God, and to abandon it to ihe countries; and such images were probably the origin of most fortuitous and unconnected occurrences of life : for, all the forms of gods, which, in after times, were the ob the stars have their influences according to this pretended jects of religious worship. It is well known that Ireland science, conformably to the occurrences here below; eg is not infested with any venomous creature; no serpent if a child be born but one hour sooner or later than a parof any kind is found in it:
ticular configuration of the heavens, his destiny will be " No poison there infects, no scaly snake
widely different froin what it otherwise would have been; Lurks in the grase, nor load annoye the lake."
and as an almost infinite number of casualties may acceleThis has been attributed to a telesm, formed with certain rate or retard a birth, consequently the whole destiny of rites, under the sign Scorpio. Such opinions have been the man is influenced and ruled by these casualties: to say drawn from very ancient Pagan sources : e. g.
nothing of the absurdity, that those omnipotent stars never engraved with the figure of a scorpion, while the moon is can affect the infant while invested with a thin covering in the sign Scorpio, is said to cure those who are stung by of flesh in the womb of its parent. But the whole seieace this animal. Appollonius Tyaneus is said to have pre- is a tissue of absurdities. vented pies from infesting Antioch; and storks from
NOTES ON CHAPTER VII. appearing in Byzantium, by figures of those animals Verse 1. F'ctched up the ark] When these people reformed under certain constellations. A brazen scorpion, ceived the message of the Beth-shemites, they probably placed on a pillar in the city of Antioch, is said to have consulted Samuel, with whom was the counsel of the expelled all such animals from that country. And a cro Lord; and he had encouraged them to go and bring it up codile of lead is also said to have preserved Cairo from else they might have expected such destruction as hapthe depredations of those monsters. See Calmet.
pened to the Beth-shemites. Virgil refers to this custom, Æclogue viii. v. 80. where Sanctified Eleazar) Perhaps this sanctifying signifies he represents a person making two images, or telcsms, one no more than setting this man apart, simply to take care of war, another of clay; which were to represent an ah of the ark. sent person, who was to be alternately softened or hard Verse 2. It was twenty years) This chapter contains ened as the war or clay image was exposed to the fire. the transaetions of at least twenty years; but we know Limus ut hie durescit, et hæc ulcera liquescil
not the date of each event. Uno el eodem igni : sic nostro Daphnis anore. " As this clay hardens, and this wax softens, by one and of this judge sin
Verse 3. And Samuel spake) We have heard nothing
he served in the tabernacle. He was the same fire; so may Daphnis by my love."
now grown up, and established for a prophet in the land A beautiful marble figure of Osiris, about four inches of Israel. and a quarter high, now stands before me, all covered over If ye do return From your backsliding and idolatry. with hieroglyphics : he is standing, and holds in each With all your hearts] For onward services and prom hand a scorpion and a snake by the tails, and with eachfessions will avail nothing. foot he stands on the neck of a crocodile. This, I have Put away the strange gods] Destroy their images, no doubt, was a telesm, formed under some peculiar altars, and groves ; they are strange; you do not know configuration of the heavens, intended to drive away them as helpers, saviours, or defenders.
5 And Samuel said, m Gather all Israel to 11 And the men of Israel went out of MizMizpeh, and I will pray for you unto the Lord. peh, and pursued the Philistines, and smote
6 And they gathered together to Mizpeh, them, until they came under Beth-car. Þand drew water, and poured it out before the 12 Then Samuel - took a stone, and set it Lord, and · fasted on that day, and said there, between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name PWe have sinned against the LORD. And Sam- of it. Eben-ezer, saying, Hitherto hath the uel judged the children of Israel in Mizpeh. Lord helped us.
7 | And when the Philistines heard that the 13 1 So the Philistines were subdued, and children of Israel were gathered together to they came no more into the coast of Israel: Mizpeh, the lords of the Philistines went up and the hand of the Lord was against the Phiagainst Israel. And when the children of Israel | listines all the days of Samuel. heard it, they were afraid of the Philistines. 14 And the cities which the Philistines had
8 And the children of Israel said to Samuel, taken from Israel were restored to Israel, from * Cease not to cry unto the LORD our God for Ekron even unto Gath; and the coasts thereof us, that he will save us out of the hands of the did Israel deliver out of the hands of the PhilisPhilistines.
tines. And there was peace between Israel and 9 | And Samuel took a sucking, lamb, and the Amorites. offered it for a burnt-offering wholly unto the 15. || And Samuel bjudged Israel all the days LORD: and u Samuel cried unto the LORD for of his life. Israel; and the Lord heard him.
16 And he went from year to year A M.,2873– 10 And as Samuel was offering up the burnt-in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and B. C 1131 offering, the Philistines drew near to battle Mizpeh, and judged Israel in all those Ante 1. Olymp. against Israel: w but the Lord thundered with places. a great thunder on that day, upon the Philis 17 And his return was to Ramah; for there tines, and discomfited them; and they were was his house; and there he judged Israel; and smitten before Israel.
there he e built an altar unto the LORD.
ma Judges 201, Kings 6 B-n 2 Sam. 14. 14. - Neh. 9. 1, 2 Dan. 9. 3, 4, 5. Joel 2 12 - Julgea 10.10. I kings & 17 Psa. 106. 6.-9 Ecclue. 16. 14.-r Heb. Be not alent froin us from crying.- Isai. 37. 4.- Ecclus. 46. 16.-u Pea. 99. 6. Jer. 15. 1.-v Or, anstered.
w See Josh. 10. 10. Judg. 4. 15. & 5. 20. Ch. 2 10.2 Sam. 22. 14, 15. Ecclus 46. 17.-x Gen. 3. 18. & 31. 45. & 35. 14. Josh. 4. 9. & 24. 26.-y That is, The etone of help. Ch. 4 1.- Judg. 13. 1.- Ch. 13. 5.- Ver. 6. Ch. 12. 11. Judg. 2. 1&. e Heb. and he circuited - Ch. 8. 4.-e Judg. 21. 4.
Prepare your hearts) Let your hearts be straight and Though Samuel was not a priest, yet he offered this sleady.
sacrifice; or, he might have ordered Eleazar to offer it, And serre him only] Have no other religious service and still be said to have done it himself-Qui facit per but his; and obey his laws.
alterum, facit per se; "He who procures a thing to be He will deliver you] Vain are your own exertions : he done, may be said to do it himself." will deliver you in such way as to show that the excel His not sacrificing at the tabernacle was justified by the lence of the power is of himself alone.
necessity of the case : neither tabernacle nor ark was at Verse 4. Put away Baalim and Ashtaroth] These hand. were not two particular deitics, but two genera of idols ; Verse 10. The LORD thundered with a great thunder) the one masculine, BAALIM : the other feminine, Ashta: Literally, The Lord thundered with a great voice; he ROTH : both the words are in the plural number, and confounded them with a mighty tempest of thunder and signify all their gods and goddesses.
lightning; and, no doubt, slew many by the lightning. Verse 5. Gather all Israel to Mizpeh] This appears Verse 11. Under Beth-car.) We know not where this to have been an armed assembly: though, probably, col- place was: the Septuagint have Beth-chor ; the Targum, lected principally for religious and political purposes : but Beth-saron; and the Syriac and Arabic, Beth-jasan. Samuel knew that an unarmed multitude could not safely Verse 12. Called the name of it Eben-ezer] yn 12N be convened in the vicinity of the Philistines.
Eben ha-êzer, “The Stone of Help:" perhaps a pillar Verse 6. Drew water, and poured it out] It is not is meant by the word stone. easy to know what is meant by this: it is true that pour Verse 13. They came no more into the coast of Israel) ing out water, in the way of libation, was a religious Perhaps a more signal victory was never gained by Israel: ordinance among the Hebrews, Isa. xii. 3; and among the Lord had brought them low, almost to extermination; most other nations, particularly the Greeks and Romans, and now, by his miraculous interference, he lifts them who used not only water, but wine, milk, honey, and completely up, and humbles to the dust their proud opblood; as we find by Homer, Virgil, Euripides, Sopho-pressorg. God often suffers nations and individuals to be cles, Porphyry, and Lucian. Our Lord seems to allude brought to the lowest extremity, that he may show his to this ceremony, John vii. 37, 38; where see the note. mercy and goodness, by suddenly rescuing them from de
The Chaldce Paraphrast understands the place dif- struction, when all human help has most evidently failed. ferently ; for he translates : “And they poured out their Verse 14. The cities which the Philistines had taken) hearts in penitence, as waters, before the Lord.” That We are not informed of the particulars of these reprisals; deep penitential gorrow was represented under the notion but we may rest assured all this was not done in one day: of pouring out water we have a direct proof in the perhaps, the retaking of the cities was, by slow degrees, case of David, who says, Pea. xxii. 14. I am POURED through the space of several years. OUT LIKE WATER, my hearl is like wax; it is MELTED in There was peace between Israel and the Amorites.) the midst of my bowels. And to repentance, under this That is, all the remaining Canaanites kept quiet, and did very similitude, the prophet exhorts fallen Jerusalem. not attempt to molest the Israelites, when they found the Arise, cry out in the night : in the beginning of the Philistines, the most powerful of the ancient inhabitants watches POUR OUT thine HEART LIKE WATER before the of the land, broken and subdued before them. face of the Lord. Lam. ii. 9. David uses the same Verse 15. Samuel judged Israel all the days of his image, Psa. Ixii. 8. Trust in him at all timcs, yc people ; life.] Samuel is supposed to have lived one hundred POUR out your hearts before him. The same figure is years: he did not begin to judge Israel till he was about used by Hannah, in chap. i. 16. of this book, I am a forty years of age; and, if he was a hundred years of woman of a sorrowful spirit; I hare POURED OUT my soul age when he died, he must have been a judge sixty years, before the Lord. Perhaps the drawing and pouring out and consequently been in that office during the whole of of water, mentioned in the text, was done emblematically, Saul's reign! But that he had been dead before Saul's to represent the contrilion of their hearts.
last battle is evident, from the transactions of that king And Samuel judged] He gave them ordinances, heard with the witch of En-dor; and probably not long before. and redressed grievances, and taught them how to get re Samuel was the prophet of that time; declared the will conciled to God. The assembly, therefore, was held for of the Lord, and frequently directed both the civil and religio-politico-military purposes.
military transactions of the kingdom. Samuel seems, in Verse 7. The Philistines went up against Israel.) many respects, to have been considered the governor of They went to give them battle, before that, by continual the people, while Saul was only looked on as the general accessions of numbers, they should become too powerful. of the armies.
Verse 8. Cease not to cry unto the LORD] They had Verse 16. He went from year to year in circuit] When strong confidence in the intercession of Samuel, because he was at BETH-EL, the tribe of Ephraim, and all the they knew he was a holy man of God.
northern parts of the country, could attend him; when at Verse 9. Samuel took a sucking lamb] This sucking Gilgal, the tribe of Benjamin, and those beyond Jordan, larnb must have been eight days under its mother before might have easy access to him; and when ai Mizpen, he it could be offered, as the law says, Lev, xxii. 27.
was within reach of Judah, Simeon, and Gad; but Ramah