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9 | And it was so, that when he had turned 20 And when Samuel had * caused all the tribes his back to go from Samuel, God gave him of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin another heart: and all those signs came to pass was taken. that day.

21 When he had caused the tribe of Benja10 And m when they came thither to the hill, min to come near by their families, the family of behold, n a company of prophets met him; and Matri was taken, and Saul the son of Kish was • the Spirit of God came upon him, and he pro-taken: and when they sought him, he could not phesied among them.

be found. 11 And it came to pass, when all that knew 22 Therefore they s inquired of the LORD sarhim beforetime saw that, behold, he prophesied ther, if the man should yet come thither. And among the prophets, then the people said P one the Lord answered, Behold, he hath hid himself to another, What is this that is come unto the among the stuff. son of Kish? . Is Saul also among the prophets? 23 And they ran and fetched him thence: and

12 And one of the same place answered and when he stood among the people, ' he was higher said, But who is their father? Therefore it than any of the people from his shoulders and became a proverb, Is Saul also among the pro- upward. phets?

24 And Samuel said to all the people, See ye 13 And when he had made an end of prophe- him whom the LORD hath chosen, that there is sying, he came to the high place.

none like him among all the people? And all the 14'T And Saul's uncle said unto him and to people shouted, and said, "God save the king ! his servant, Whither went ye? And he said, 25 Then Samuel told the people d the manner To seek the asses: and when we saw that they of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid were nowhere, we came to Samuel.

it up before the LORD. And Samuel sent all the 15 And Saul's uncle said, Tell me, I pray people away, every man to his house. thee, what Samuel said unto you.

26 | And Saul 'also went home to Gibeah; 16 And Saul said unto his uncle, He told us and there went with him a band of men, whose plainly that the asses were found.' But of the hearts God had touched. matter of the kingdom, whereof Samuel spake, 27 But the children of Belial said, How he told him not.

shall this man save us? And they despised him, 17 | And Samuel called the people together and brought him no presents. But i he held Tunto the LORD "to Mizpeh; 18 And said unto the children of Israel, Thus

CHAPTER XI. saith the LORD God of Israel, I brought up Israel Nahashe king of the Ammonites, besieges Jabesh-gilead, and proposer to its inhabit. out of Egypt, and delivered you out of the hand

ants the most degrading conditions

of peace, 1, 2. They apply to their brethren for

help, 3, 4. Saul hears of their distress; takes a yoke of oxen, hews them in pieces, of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of all

and sends them throughout the coasts of Israel, with the threat that all who did not kingdoms, and of them that oppressed you: of which, he is soon at the heart of an army of three hundred and thirty thousand

men, 5–8. He sends to Jabesh-gilead, and promises help, 9, 10. Saul attacks the 19 . And ye have this day rejected your God, Ammonites next morning, and gives them a total overthrow, 11. The people are who himself saved you out of all your adversi

greatly encourage and propose to put to death those who were opposed to Saul's

goverument; bal this he prevents, 12, 13. Samuel leads the people to Gilgal; they and ye have said unto offer sacrifices, and renew the kingdom to Saul, 14, 15.

WHEN Nahash the Ammonite came An. Exol. Ls. present yourselves before the LORD by your tribes, up, and by your thousands.

gilead: and all the men of Jabesh said

I Olymp. 319.

his peace.

come to his standard, should have his cattle served in like manner; in consequence

him, Nay, but set a king over us. Now

therefore Tub, and

encamped against Jabesh

396.

Anno ante

k Heb. shoulder-1 Heb. turned-m Ver. 5.-n Ch. 19. 20.-o Ver. 6.-p Heb. a man to his neighbour.- Chap. 19. 2. Matt. 13. 51, 55. John 7. 15. Acis 4. 13.

Heb from thence - lail. 51. 13. John 6. 45. & 7. 16.-Judg. 11. 11. & 2.1 Ch. IL 15. - Chap. 7.5,6 - Judges 6.8, 9.-w Chap. 8. 7, 19. & 12 12-x Joshua 7. 14, 16, 17. Acts 1. 24, 26.

y Chap. 23. 2, 4, 10, 11.-Chap: 9. 2-a 2 Samuel 21. 6.- I Kings 1. 35, 39. 2 Kings 11. 12. -c Heb. Let the king live-See Deat. 17. 14, &c. Chap. 8. 11. e Juug 20. 14. Chap. 11. 4.- Chap. II. 12.-& Deut. 13. 13.-h 2 Sam. 8. 2 1 Kings 4. 21 & 10. 25. 2 Chron. 17. 5. Pra 72 10. Matt 2 11.-i Or, he was as though ho had been deaf.-k Ch. 12. 12.- Judg. 21. &

from the Lord, and deliver them to thee. It is likely that melech, “May the king live;" and so all the versions, (the these seven days referred to the time in which Samuel came Targum excepted,) which says, May the king prosper! to Saul to Gilgal, offered sacrifices, and confirmed the Verse 25. The manner of the kingdom] It is the same kingdom to him, after he had defeated the Ammonites : see word as in chap. viii. 9; and doubtless the same thing is chap. xi. 14, 15.

implied as is there related. But possibly there was some Verse 10.' Behold, a company of prophets) See on kind of compact, or covenant, between them and Saul; ver. 5, &c.

and this was the thing that was written in a book, and Verse 12. But who is their father ?) The Septuagint, in laid up before the Lord, probably near the ark. its principal editions, adds, ov Kais; is it not Kish} This Verse 26. A band of men! Not a military band, as I makes the sense more complete.

imagine, but some select friends, or companions, who Verse 13. He came to the high place.) I suppose this to were personally attached to him. Others think, that all mean the place where Saul's father lived; as it is evident the men fit to bear arms are intended : but this seems inthe next verse shows him to be at home.

consistent with the life that Saul led for some time afterVerse 14. Saul's uncle] The word 27 dod, signifies a ward; for he appears to have gone into his agricultural beloved one, love, a lover, friend, &c.; and is the same as concerns, and waited for a call from the divine providence. David. It is supposed to mean uncle here; but I think it See the next chap. ver. 5. means some familiar friend.

Verse 27. Brought him no presents.] They gave him Verse 18. I brought up Israel out of Egypt] These no proofs that they acknowledged either the divine appointare similar to the upbraidings in chap. viii. 7, &c. ment, or his authority. The Arab chiefs are to this day,

Verse 19. Present yourselvesby your tribes] It appears when on a march, or excursion of any kind, supplied with that, in order to find out the proper person who should be every necessary by the free-will offerings, or presents, of made their king, they must determine by lot : 1. The tribes. the people, in the villages or places where they encamp. 2. The thousands, or grand divisions, by families. 3. Saul was now a public character, and had a right to supThe smaller divisions by families. And, 4. The individual. port from the public. These sons of Belial refused to bear When the lot was cast for the tribe, Benjamin was taken; their part; they brought him no presents. He marked it; when for the thousand, the division of Matri was taken; but, at present, held his peace: he was as if he were deaf when for the family, the family of Kish was taken ; when so says the text. He was prudent, anıl did not immedifor the individual, Saul, the son of Kish, was taken. ately assume all the consequence to which his office enti

Verse 21. When they sought him, he could not be tled him. It is probable, however, that tribute is meant found.) Through modesty, or fear, he had secreted himself. by the word present. The people, in general, finding they

Verse 22. The LORD answered] What a continual ac had now a king, took it for granted that they must pay cess to God! and what condescension in his attention to tribute or taxes to him. This was a part of the manner all their requests!

of the king which Samuel had shown them; the great The stuf' among which he had secreted himself may majority had done so, but certain refractory people refused mean the carts, baggage, &c. brought by the people to to pay any thing, on the pretence that such a person as Mizpeh.

Saul could not be a deliverer of Israel. How, say they, Verse 24. God save the king !] There is no such word shall this man save us ? here; no, nor in the whole Bible: nor is it countenanced

NOTES ON CHAPTER XI. by any of the versions. The words which we thus trans Verse 1. Nahash the Ammonite) In the Vulgate this late here, and elsewhere, are simply gbon 1 yechi ham. I chapter begins thus: Et factum est quasi post mensem,

unto Nahash, * Make a covenant with us, and thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thouwe will serve thee.

sand. 2 And Nahach the Ammonite answered them, 9 And they said unto the messengers that On this condition will I make a covenant with came, Thus shall ye say unto the men of Jabeshyou, that I may thrust out all your right eyes, gilead, Tomorrow, by that time the sun be hot, and lay it for ó a reproach upon all Israel. ye shall have a help. And the messengers came

3 And the elders of Jabesh said unto him, and showed it to the men of Jabesh; and they •Give us seven days' respite, that we may send were glad. messengers unto all the coasts of Israel: and 10 Therefore the men of Jabesh said, Tothen, if there be no man to save us, we will come morrow y we will come out unto you, and ye out to thee.

shall do with us all that seemeth good unto you. 4 1 Then came the messengers P to Gibeah 11 And it was so on the morrow, that - Saul of Saul, and told the tidings in the ears of the put the people in three companies; and they people: and 9 all the people lifted up their voices, came into the midst of the host in the morning and wept.

watch, and slew the Ammonites until the heat 5 And, behold, Saul came after the herd out of the day: and it came to pass, that they which of the field; and Saul said, What aileth the remained were scattered, so that two of them people that they weep? And they told him the were not left together. tidings of the men of Jabesh.

12 | And the people said unto Samuel, Who 6 ' And the Spirit of God came upon Saul is he that said, Shall Saul reign over use bring when he heard those tidings, and his anger was the men, that we may put them to death. kindled greatly.

13 And Saul said, « There shall not a man be 7 And he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed put to death this day: for to-day • the Lord hath them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the wrought salvation in Israel. coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, 14 | Then said Samuel to the people, Come, and saying, Whosoever cometh not forth after

Saul let us gofto Gilgal, and renew the kingdom there. and after Samuel, so shall it be done unto his 15 And all the people went to Gilgal; and oxen. And the fear of the LORD fell on the there they made Saul king & before the LORD in people, and they came out " with one consent. Gilgal; and "there they sacrificed sacrifices of

8 And when he numbered them in Bezek, peace-offerings before the LORD; and there Saul, the children w of Israel were three hundred and all the men of Israel, rejoiced greatly.

1 Judg 21. 5, 8, 10.-11 Heb. as one man. Judg. 20. 1.- Judg. 1.5-5 9 Sała. Ch. 17. 35.- Heb. Forbear us.-p Ch. 10. 26. & 15. 31. 2 Sam 21.6.- Judg, 24. 26. 9.-- Or, deliverance - Verse 3 -- 2 See Chap. 31. 11.-a Jude 7. 16. - Ch. & 21.2.- Judges 3. 10. & 6. 31. & IL 2. & 13. 3. & 14. 6. Chap. 10. 1o. & 16. 13. 10. 27.-c See Luke 19. 3.- 2 Sam. 19. 27.-- Exod. 11. 13, 30. Cb 19. 5.- Ch.

m Gen. 25. 2. Exod. 23. 32. 1 Kings 20. 31. Job 11. 4. Ezek 17 13.-n Geu. 31. 14.

& Judges 19. 23

10.8.- Ch. 10. 17.- Ch. 10 &

"And it came to pass about a month after.” This addi- himself strongly excited to attempt the relief of his bretion appears also in the principal copies of the Septuagint; thren. though it is wanting in the Complutensian edition, both in And his anger was kindled greatly.) I believe this the Greek and Latin, and is not acknowledged by any of means no more than that his courage was greatly ercited: the Oriental versions. But it is in Josephus; and proba- he felt himself strong for fight, and confident of success. bly was inserted from him into some copies of the Septu Verse 7. He took a yoke of oxen] The sending the agint, and thence into the Vulgate. It appears to be of pieces of the oxen was an act similar to that of the Levile, very little authority.

Judg. xix. 29. where see the note. And both customs are We know little about Nahash; there was a king of similar to the sending about of the bloody cross, to call the this name among the Ammonites in the time of David, ? clans to battle, practised by the ancient Highlanders of Sam. x. 2. but probably not the same person. Nahash Scotland. See end of this chapter. might have been a common name of the Ammonitish kings. Verse 8. The children of Ísrael were three hundred

Make a corenant with us) They found they were in no thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand.) This condition to risk a war; and they wish to have peace, and was a vast army; but the Septuagint make it even moredesire to know his conditions.

"All the men of Israel were eakacias xiradas, six hunVerse 2. I may thrust out all your right cycs] This dred thousand; and the men of Judah, Boounovra xedra cruel condition would serve at once as a badge of their adas, seventy thousand, Josephus goes yet higher with slavery; and a means of incapacitating them from being the number of the Israelites : He found the number of effective warriors. Theodoret observes, “He who oppos- those whom he had gathered together to be Bounkorra es his shield to the enemy with his left hand, thereby hides pvpradus, seven hundred thousand." Those of the tribe his left eye, and looks at his enemy with his right eye: of Judah he makes seventy thousand, with the Septuagint. he, therefore, who plucks out that right eye, makes men These numbers are not all right; and I suspect even the useless in war.” Josephus gives the same reason. Hebrew text to be exaggerated, by the mistake or design

Verse 3. Give us seven days' respite) Promises of this of some ancient scribe. kind are frequently made by besieged places; “We will Verse 10. To-morrow we will come out unto you) They surrender if not relieved in so many days;" and such con- concealed the information they had received of Saul's ditions are generally received by the besiegers.

promised assistance. They did come out unto them; but Verse 4. Then came the messengers to Gibeah) It does it was in a different manner to what the Ammonites exnot appear that the people of Jabesh-gilead knew any pected. thing of Saul's appointment to the kingdom: for the mes Verse 11. Put the people in three companies) Intendsage is not directed to him, but to the people.

ing to attack the Ammonites in three different points; and The people lifted up their voices and inept.) They saw to give his own men more room to act. no hope of deliverance; and they expected that their re In the morning watch] He probably began his march proach would be laid on all Israel.

in the evening, passed Jordan in the night, and reached Verse 5. Saul came after the herd] He had been bred the camp of the Ammonites by day-break. up to an agricultural life: and, after his consecration, he That two of them were not lejí together.] This proves returned to it, waiting for a call of divine providence, that the rout was complete. which he considered he had now received in the message Verse 12. Who is he that said, Shall Saul reign) Now from Jabesh-gilead.

flushed with victory, and proud of their leader, they wish It has often been remarked, that mighty kings, and ac to give him a proof of their attachment, by slaying, even complished generals, have been chosen from among those in cool blood, the persons who were at first averse from his who were engaged in agricultural concerns. In these being intrusied with the supreme power! The common observations one fact is lost sight of: riz. That in ancient soldier is scarcely ever inspired by his victory to acts of times, agriculture was the only employment. Trade and magnanimity; he has shed blood, he wishes to shed more! commerce were scarcely known; therefore, all descriptions Verse 13. There shall not a man be put to death) This of official dignities must be chosen out of this class; there was as much to Saul's credit, as the lately proposed was none other to choose them from. We need not wonder measure was to the discredit of his soldiers. at these words of the poet:

Verse 14. Rencu the kingdom] The unction of Saul, Jura dabat populie, posito modo consul aratro;

in the first instance, was a very private act; and, his being Pascebatque suas ipse senator, oves. The consul, having now laid aside his plough, gives laws to the people;

appointed to be king, was not known to the people in genAnd the senator himself feeds his own sheep.

eral. He had now shown himself worthy to command the

Ocid, Faet. lib. 1. 1. 204, 207. people; and Samuel takes advantage of this circumstance Verse 6. The Spirit of God came upon Saul] He felt I to gain the general consent in his favour. Josephus says

A Bensiamue have hearkene dermelo

Anno ante

CHAPTER XII.

6 | And Samuel said unto the people, ' It is Samuel, grown old, testifies his integrity before the people; which they confinn, 1 ---5.

the LORD that w advanced Moses and Aaron, He reproves them for their ingrantude ani disbedience; and gives a sunmary and that brought your fathers up out of the land of the history of their fathers, 6.12. He exhor them to future obedience; and calin

for a sian from heaven to confirm his authority, and to show them their dison of Egypt. be bence. Gosen de an extraorary thunder and rain, 13.-16. He wuns thein 7 Now therefore stand still, that I may reaagunst i lolatry ; an exhorts to obelence, and promises to interce le for them, 21.-2. Suns up their duty, ani concludes with a solemn waruu, 21, 25. son with you before the LORD of all the ý righteAo. Exod. lsr. ND Samuel said unto all Israel, ous acts of the Lord, which he did to you and

to your fathers. I. Olymp 319.

I your voice in all that ye said unto 8 - When Jacob was come into Egypt, and me, and have made a king over you.

your fathers cried unto the LORD, then the 2 And now, behold, the king, 'walketh before LORD sent Moses and Aaron, which brought you: m and I am old and gray-headed; and, be- forth your fathers out of Egypt, and made them hold, my sons are with you: and I have walked dwell in this place. before you from my childhood unto this day. 9 And when they a forgat the LORD their

3 Behold, here I am: witness against me be- God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, fore the Lord, and before o his anointed ;P whose captain of the host of Hazor, and into the hand ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or of the Philistines, and into the hand of the whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppress- king 6 of Moab, and they fought against them. ed ? or of whose hand have I received any a bribe 10 And they cried unto the LORD, and said, ' to blind mine eyes therewith? and I will re - We have sinned, because we have forsaken store it you.

the LORD, i and have served Baalim and Ashta4 And they said, Thou hast not defrauded roth: but now deliver us out of the hand of us, nor oppressed us, neither hast thou taken our enemies, and we will serve thee. aught of any man's hand.

11 And the LORD sent Jerubbaal, and Bedan, 5 And he said unto them, The LORD is wit- and m Jephthah, and - Samuel, and delivered ness against you, and his anointed is witness you out of the hand of your enemies on every this day, that ye have not found aught win my side, and ye dwelled safe. hand. And they answered, He is witness. 12 And when ye saw that · Nahash, the king

I Ch.8 5, 19, 20. - Ch. 10 21 & 11. 14, 15.- Numb. 27. 17. Ch. 8. 2.-m Clu w Or, made - Isaiah 1. 18. & 5. 3, 4. Mic. 6. 2, 3.-y Heb. righteousness, or & 1,5.-n Écclus 46. 19. - Ver 5 Ch 10. 1. & 21. 6. 2 Sam. L. 14, 16. -p Numb. benefits. Judg. 5. 11.-2 Heb. with. -a Gen. 46. 5, 6-b Exod. 2. 23.-c Exod 3 10. 16. 15. Aels 2). 33. 1 Thess. 2 5.-9 Het ransom.-r Or, that I should hide mine & 4 16.- Judges 37-e Indges 1. 2.-- Judges 10. 7. & 13.1.- Indges 3 12 eyes at him.- Deut. 16. 19.- Jolin 18. 38. Acts 23. 9. & 2. 16, 20.-u Exod. h Jodges 10. 10. - Judges 2. 13 - Judges 10. 15, 16.-1 Judges 6. 14,22- Judgas 22 4.- Mic. 6. 4.

11. 1- Ch. 1. 339 Ch. 11. 1.

that Saul was anointed a second time at this convoca in some degree lessening the cruelty of the mutilation, tion,

which would be increased if it were caused by revenge or Verse 15. There they made Saul king] It is likely, wantonness; though Nahash declares it to be a reproach from these words, that Saul was anointed a second time: upon all Israel." he was now publicly acknowledged, and there was no

NOTES ON CHAPTER XII. gainsayer. Thus far Saul acted well

, and the kingdom Verse 1. And Samuel said] It is very likely that it seemed to be confirmed in his hand; but soon, through im was at this public meeting that Samuel delivered the folprudence, he lost it.

lowing address : no other time seems to be given for it; Os the custom referred to in ver. 7. I am favoured with and this is the most proper that could be chosen. the following observations by a learned correspondent: Verse 2. My sons are with you] It is generally agreed

“It is considered that the authenticity of records respect that these words intimate that Samuel had deprived ihem ing a peculiar people cannot be better illustrated, or the of their public employ; and reduced them to a level with fidelity of the historian more clearly ascertained, than by the common people. proving that the manners and customs recorded are in uni Have walked before you from my childhood) He had son with, or bear resemblance to, the manners and customs been a long, steady, and immaculate servant of the public. of ancient nations of the same antiquity; or, what may be Verse 3. "Witness against me] Did ever a minister of more correct, in a similar state of improvement; and the state, in any part of the world, resign bis office with so much records of such rites and customs may possibly acquire an self-consciousness of integrity, backed with the universal additional mark of authenticity, when the similarity is not approbation of the public? Ko man was oppressed under 60 exact as to adınit a presumption, that the customs of his government; no man defrauded! He had accumulated one nation were merely copied from the other.

no riches for himself; he had procured none for his friends : “Mr. Walter Scott, in the third canto of the Lady of nor had one needy depeudant been provided for out of the the Lake, describes the rites, incantations, and impreca- public purse. He might have pardoned his own sons, tions, used prior to the fiery cross being circulated, to sum who had acted improperly, before he quitted the governmon the rough warriors of ancient times to the service of ment: but, though he was the most tender of parents, he their chief; and, in the first note of this canto, he alludes would not; but abandoned them to national justice, with to this ancient custom, which, in comparatively modern only a tacit solicitation of mercy : Behold, my sons are with times, has been practised in Scotland; and proves that a you! They have acted improperly; I deprived them of similar punishment of death or destruction of the houses their authority; they are amenable to you for their past for disobeying the summons, was inflicted by the ancient conduct: I have walked uprightly and disinterestedly Scandinavians, as recorded by Olaus Magnus, in his His- among you; they have not followed my steps, --but can tory of the Goths. A custom, still more in point than the you forgive them for their father's sake? As a minister one cited, may be found to have existed in a more ancient of justice, he abandons them to their fate; as a tender nation; whose history is supposed the most, if not the only, father, he indirectly and modestly pleads for them, on the authentic narrative of deeds of ancient times; and which ground of his own services. Had he not acted thus, in so records the sanguinary manners of uncultivated na- both these relations, he would have been unworthy of that tions. See the preceding chapter; eight first verses. The character which he so deservedly bears. similarity of the custom is to be found in the seventh verse : Verse 4. They said, Thou hast not defrauded] Of with the Highlanders, a goat was slain; with the Israel- what minister or governor can any nation under heaven ites, an ox. The exhibition of a cross, stained with the say such things ! blood of the sacrificed animal, was the summons of the Verse 7. Now therefore stand still] I have arraigned former, while part of the animal was the mandate of the myself before God and you : I now arraign you before latter. Disobedience in the one nation was punished with God. the death of the parties; and burning of their dwellings in Verse 8. The LORD sent Moses and Aaron] He shows the other; the punishment more simple, and more allusive them that, through all their history, God had ever raised to the sacrificed emblem, the forfeiture or destruction of them up deliverers, when their necessities required such their oxen. It is not difficult to judge whether the com interference. parison be correct.

Verse 9. The hand of Sisera] See these transactions “The first verses record the sanguinary practice of an in the Book of Judges, as marked in the margin: and see cient times ; which, to many, appear merely as the gratifi- the notes on those passages. cation of revenge, or as proofs of victory; yet, when it is Verse 11. Jerubbaal] i. e. Gideon, and Bedan : instead considered that the right eye must chiefly aid the warrior of Bedan, whose name occurs nowhere else as a judge or in aiming at his adversary, whether the weapon be of an- deliverer of Israel, the Septuagint have Barak; the cient or modern warfare; here arises a military reason cor- same reading is found in the Syriac and Arabic. The roborative of the truth of history for the deprivation, and / Targum has Samson. Many commentators are of this

of the children of Ammon, came against you, | die not: for we have added unto all our sins this Pye said unto me, Nay; but a king shall reign evil, to ask us a king. over us; when the LORD your God was your 20 | And Samuel said unto the people, Fear king.

not: ye have done all this wickedness; yet turn 13 Now therefore behold the king whom not aside from following the LORD, but serve the ye have chosen, and whom ye have desired! Lord with all your heart; and, behold, the LORD hath set á king over 21 And turn ye not aside: 6 for then should you.

ye go after vain things, which cannot profit nor 14 If ye will · fear the LORD, and serve him, deliver; for they are vain: and obey his voice, and not rebel against the 22 Fór h the LORD will not forsake his people

commandment of the LORD, then shall both ye, i for his great name's sake : because it hath and also the king that reigneth over "you, con- pleased the LORD to make you his people. tinue following the LORD your God:

23 Moreover, as for me, God forbid that I 15 But if ye will not 'obey the voice of the should sin against the LORD linceasing to LORD, but rebel against the commandment of the pray for you: but • I will teach you the good LORD, then shall the hand of the LORD be against and the right way: you, y as it was against your fathers.

24 P Only fear the LORD, and serve him in 16 Now, therefore, 'stand and see this great truth with all your heart: for a consider how thing which the LORD will do before your eyes, 'great things he hath done for you.

17 Is it not a wheat-harvest to-day? I will 25 But if ye shall still do wickedly, 'ye shall call unto the LORD, and he shall send thunder be consumed, both ye and your king. and rain; that ye may perceive and see that

CHAPTER XIII. your wickedness is great, which ye have done Saul chooses a body of troops, 1,2 Jonathan smites a garrison of the Philistinen, 3,4 in the sight of the LORD, in asking you a

The Philistines gather together an immense host against Israel, 5. The Israelite

are afraid; and some hide themselves in cares, and others flee over Jordan, 6,2 king.

Samuel delaying his coming, Saul offers sacrifice, 8.9. Samuel comes and reproma

him, and Saul excuses himsell, 10–12 Samuel shows him that God has rejected 18 1 So Samuel called unto the LORD; and

him from being captain over his people, 13, 14. Samuel departs; and Saul and the LORD sent thunder and rain that day : and Jonathan, with sie hundred men, abide in Gibeah, 15, 16, The Philisunee scad cat

foraging companies, and waste the land, 17, 18. Desolate state of the Israelitist d all the people greatly feared the LORD and army, having no weapons of defence against tbeir enemies, 19-2. Samuel.

VAUL
he had reigned two years over

1 Olymp 318 for thy servants unto the LORD thy God, that we Israel, p Ch. 8. 3, 19.- Judg. 8. 2. Ch 8. 7. & 10. 19.- Ch. 10. 24. Ch. 8. 5. & 9. h 1 Kings 6. 13. Psal. 94. 14.- Josh. 7. 9. Ps. 106. & Jer. 14. 21. Ezek a 9,14 20.- Hos 13. 11.-u Josh. 21. 14. Pea. 81. 13, 14.- Heb. mouth.-w Heb. be after. * Deut. 7. 7, 8 & 14.2 Mal I. 2.-1 Heb. from ceasing-m Acts 12. 5. Rom. 1. %

Lev. S. 14, 15, &c. Deut. 28. 15, &c. Josh. 24. 20.--y Verse 9.-2 Exod. 14. 13, 31. Col. 1. 9. 2 Tim. 1. 3.-n Psa. 34. IL Prov. 4. 11.-01 Kings 8. 36. 2 Charon 6 27. a Prov. 1.- Joah. 10. 12 Ch. 7.9, 10. Jam 5. 16, 17, 18 - Ch. 8. 7.- Exod. Jer. 6. 16.-p Eccles. 12 13 -- Isai 5 12.-r Or, what a great thing, &c. - Deel. 14. 31. See Ezra 10.9,- Exod. 9. 23. & 10. 17. Jam. 5. 15. I Jolin 5. 16.- Deut. 11. 10. 21. Psa. 126. 2, 3.- Joshua 24. 20. - Deul. 28. 36.-v Hebrew, ils son of one 16.- Jer. 16. 19. Hab. 2 18. 1 Cor. 8. 4.

year in his reigning.

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19 And all the people said unto Samuel, • Pray Sale reigned one year; and when an Eastle

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opinion: but Calmet' thinks that Jair is ded, who past God would pass by, provided they would be obedient judged Israel twenty-three years, Judg. x. 3.

in future. Instead of Samuel, the Syriac and Arabic have Sam Verse 21. Afler vain things] That is, idols : which he son: and it is most natural to suppose that Samuel does calls here innn ha-tohu, the same expression found Gen. not mention himself in this place." St. Paul's authority i. 2. The earth was un tohu ; it was waste, empty, and confirms these alterations: the time would fail me, said formless : so idols; they are confusion, and things of be, to tell of Gideon, of Barak, of Samson, of Jephthah, nought ; for an idol is nothing in the world. of David, &c.

Verse 22. The LORD will not forsake his people) He Verse 12. When ye sau that Nahash] This was not will not, as yet, cast you off, though you have deserved it the first time they had demanded a king; see chap. viii. 5. His purpose, in preserving them in their land and reliBut at the crisis mentioned here, they became more im- gion, was not yet accomplished. It was not, however, portunate; and it was in consequence of this that the for their sake that he would not cast them off, but for his kingdom was a second time confirmed to Saul. Saul own great name's sake. He drew his reasons from himawas elected at Mizpeh; he was confirmed at Gilgal. self.

Verse 14. If ye will fear the LORD, &c.] On condition Verse 23. God forbid that I should sin! They had that ye rebel no more, God will take you and your king carnestly begged him, ver. 19. to pray to God for them, under his merciful protection; and he and his kingdom that they might not die; and he tells them that he should shall be confirmed and continued.

consider himself a sinner, should he cease to be their inVerse 16. This great thing] This unusual occurrence.

Verse 17. Is it not wheat-harvest to-day?] That is, this But I will teach you the good and the right way) I is the time of wheat-harvest. According to St. Jerom, will show you, as long as I am with you, what true reliwho spent several years in the promised land, this harvest gion is: it is the way to happiness and heaven. It is commenced about the end of June, or beginning of July; right, there is no crookedness in it: it is good, there is no in which he says he never saw rain in Judea. Nunquam evil in it. cnim in fine mensis Junii, sive in mense Julio, in his Verse 24. Only fear the Lord] Know, respect, and provinciis, maximèque in Judeâ, pluvias vidimus. reverence him. Hier, in Amos iv. 7. where he refers to this very history. Serve him] Consider him your Lord and Master ; conWhat occurred now, hardly ever occurs there but in the sider yourselves his servants. winter months.

In truth] Be ever honest, ever sincere:-with all your Verse 18. The LORD sent thunder and rain that day) heart: have every affection engaged in the work of obeThis was totally unusual; and, as it came at the call of dience; act not merely from a principle of duty, but also Samucl, was a most evident miracle.

from a pious, affectionate sense of obligation. Act toward Greatly feared the LORD] They dreaded his terrible your God as an affectionate child should act toward a tenmajesty: and they feared Samuel, perceiving that he had der and loving parent. Bo much power with God.

Consider how great things) Review the history of your Verse 19. Pray for thy servants-that we die nol) As fathers ; review your own life ; see what interpositions they knew they had rebelled against God, they saw that of power, mercy, goodness, and truth, in your behalf! they had every thing to fear from his justice and power. Has he not daily loaded you with his benefits?

We have added unto all our sins this evil] It is no sin Verse 25. shall be consumed] If ye do wickedly, to have a king; a good king is one of the greatest bless you shall be destroyed; your kingdom destroyed, and ings of God's

providence : but it is a sin to put a man in your king destroyed. Here they had set before them life the place of God. Is it not strange that they did not now and death, good and evil. Never was a people more fully attempt to repair their fault! They might have done it, warned ; and never did a people profit less by the warnbut they did not : they acknowledged their sin, but did not ing: and they continue to this day monuments of God's put it away. This is the general way of mankind. “God justice and forbearance. Reader, What art thou ? Perhaps help us, we are all sinners !" is the general language of à similar monument. all people: but, though to be a sinner is to be in the most

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII. solemn and awful circumstances; yet they are contented Verse 1. Saul reigned one year] A great deal of learned to bear the character, heedless of the consequences ! labour has been employed and lost on this verse, to recon

Verse 20. Ye have done all this wickedness] That is, cile it to propriety and common sense. I shall not recount although ye have done all this wickedness : what was the meanings put on it. I think this clause belongs to the

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2 Saul chose him three thousand to the land of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he

men of Israel; whereof two thousand was yet in Gilgal, and all the people b followed 1 Olymp. 317. were with Saul in Michmash and in him trembling.

mount Beth-el, and a thousand were 8° And he tarried seven days, according to with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the set time that Samuel had appointed : bụt the rest of the people he sent every man to his Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people tent,

were scattered from him. 3 | And Jonathan smote * the garrison of the 9 And Saul said, Bring hither a burnt-offerPhilistines that was in Geba; and the Philis- ing to me, and peace-offerings. And he offered tines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet the burnt-offering. throughout all the land, saying, Let the He 10 And it came to pass, that as soon as he had brews hear.

made an end of offering the burnt-offering, be4. And all Israel heard say that Saul had hold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that him, that he might a salute him. Israel also 2 was had in abomination with the 11 1 And Samuel said, What hast thou done? Philistines. And the people were called toge- And Saul said, Because I saw that the people ther after Saul to Gilgal.

were scattered from me, and that thou camest 5 | And the Philistines gathered themselves not within the days appointed, and that the Phitogether to fight with Israel, thirty thousand listines gathered themselves together at Michchariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people mash; as the sand which is on the seashore in multi 12 Therefore, said I, The Philistines will Lude; and they came up, and pitched in Mich- come down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have mash, eastward from Beth-aven.

not made supplication unto the LORD: I forced 6 T. When the men of Israel saw that they myself, therefore, and offered a burnt-offering. were in a strait, (for the people were distressed,) 13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done then the people a did hide themselves in caves, foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandand in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, ment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded and in pits.

thee: for now would the LORD have established 7 And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan thy kingdom upon Israel for ever.

w Ch. 10. 25.-* Ch. 10 5.-y Or, the hill. Heb. did sink. Gen. 31. 30.

Eso 5. 2.- Judges 6. 2.

b Heb. trembled after him.-c Ch. 10. 8. - Heb. Bless him.-- Heb. entreated

the face.-f 2 Chron. 16. 9.- Ch. 15. 11.

preceding chapter; either as a part of the whole, or a Verse 6. The people did hide themselves] They, being chronological note added afterward. As if the writer had few in number, and totally unarmed as to swords and said, These things (related in chap, xii.) took place in the spears, were terrified at the very numerous and well-apfirst year of Saul's reign: and then he proceeds in the pointed army of the Philistines. Judea was full of rocks, next place to tell us what took place in the second year; caves, thickets, &c. where people might shelter themselves the tico most remarkable years of Saul's reign. In the from their enemies. While some hid themselves, others first, he is appointed, anointed, and twice confirmed-viz. fed beyond Jordan; and those who did cleave to Saul folat Mizpch, and at Gilgal. In the second, Israel is brought | lowed him trembling. into the lowest state of degradation by the Philistines; Verse 8. He tarried seven days, according to the set Saul acts unconstitutionaily, and is rejected from being time] Samuel

, in the beginning, had told Saul to wait king. These things were worthy of an especial chrono seven days; and he would come to him, and show him logical note.

what to do, chap. x. 8. What is here said cannot be And when he had reigned] This should begin the chap- understood of that appointment, but of a different one. ter, and be read thus : And when Saul had reigned two Samuel had at this time promised to come to him within years over Israel, he chose him three thousand," &c. The seven days; and he kept his word, for we find him there Septuagint has left the clause out of the text entirely, and before the day was ended : but, as Saul found he did not begins the chapter thus : “And Saul chose to himself three come at the beginning of the seventh day, he became im. thousand men out of the men of Israel."

patient, took the whole business into his own hand, and Verse 2. Two thousand were with Saul] Saul, no acted the parts of prophei, priest, and king; and thus he doubt, meditated the redemption of his country from the attempted a most essential change in the Israelitish conPhilistines; and, having chosen three thousand men, he stitution. In it the king, the prophet, and the priest, are, thought best to divide them into companies, and send one in their nature, perfectly distinct." What such a rash peragainst the Philistine garrison at Michmash ; another, son might have done, if he had not been deprived of his against that at Beth-el; and the third, against that at authority, who can tell ? But his conduct on this occasion Gibeah : he perhaps hoped, by surprising these garrisons, sufficiently justifies that deprivation. That he was a rash to get swords and spears for his men; of which we find, and headstrong man, is also proved by his senseless adju(ver. 22.) they were entirely destitute.

ration of the people about food, chap. xiv. 24; and his Verse 3. Jonathan smote] He appears to have taken unfeeling resolution to put ihe brave Jonathan, his own this garrison by surprise ; for his men had no arms for a son, to death, because he had unwittingly acted contrary regular battle, or taking the place by storm. This is the to this adjuration, ver. 44. Saul appears to have been a first place in which this brave and excellent man appears; brave and honest man; but he had few of those qualities a man who bears one of the most amiable characters in which are proper for a king, or the governor of a people. the Bible.

Verse 9.' And he offered the burnt-offering.) This was Let the Hebrews hear] Probably this means the people most perfectly unconstitutional : he had no authority to who dwelt beyond Jordan; who might very naturally be offer, or cause to be offered, any of the Lord's sacrifices. termed here onayn ha-abarim, from 93y âbar, " he passed Verse 10. Behold, Samuel came] Samuel was puncover," those who are beyond the river Jordan : as Abra- tual to his appointment; one hour longer of delay would ham was called may Abery, because he dwelt beyond the have prevented every evil, and by it no good would have river Euphrates.

been lost. How often are the effects of precipitation fatal! Verse 4. The people were called together] The smiting Verse 11. And Saul said] Here he offers three excuses of this garrison was the commencement of a war; and, for his conduct :-1. The people were fast leaving his in effect, the shaking off of the Philistinian yoke; and now standard.-2. Samuel did not come at the time gyvos lethe people found that they must stand together, and fight moad. At the very commencement of the time he did for their lives.

not come, but within that time he did come.-3. The PhiVerse 5. Thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand listines were coming fast upon him. Saul should have horsemen) There is no proportion here between the cha- waited out the time; and, at 'all events, he should not have riots and the cavalry. The largest armies ever brought gone contrary to the counsel of the Lord. into the field, even by mighty emperors, never were fur Verse 12. I forced myself) It was with great reluctance nished with thirty thousand chariots.

that I did what I did. În all this Saul was sincere : but I believe Dvsu shaloshim, THIRTY," to be a false he was rash, and regardless of the precept of the Lord; reading for why shalosh, “THREE.” The Syriac has which precept or command he most évidently had received, ghasilay lelotho alpheyn ; and the Arabic, el millor ver. 13. And one part of this precept was, that the Lord thalathato alf; both signify THREE thousand and this should tell him what he should do. Without this inforwas a fair proportion to the horsemen. This is most likely mation, in an affair under the immediate cognizance of to be the true reading.

God, he should have taken no step. VOL. I.-88

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