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14 . But now thy kingdom shall not continue: 1 that there was neither sword nor spear found ! the LORD hath sought him a man after his own in the hand of any of the people that were with heart, and the LORD hath

commanded him to be Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with captain over his people, because thou hast not Jonathan his son was there found. kept that which the LORD commanded thee. 23 . And the garrison of the Philistines went

15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from out to the passage of Michmash. Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul

CHAPTER XIV. numbered the people that were present with Jonathan and his armour-benrer purpose to stlack a garrison of the Philistine, 1. him, I about six hundred men.

Saul and his army, with Ahính the pricat, larry in Gibeah, 2, 3. Jonathan plana

his attack of the Philistine garrison, 1-10 He and Mis armour-bearer climb over 16 And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the rock; attack and rout the garrison, 11-15. Saul and has company, seeing confora

in the Philistine

hoat, come out against them; as dál the men who had hilden the people that were present with them, abode in selves; and the Philistines are defeated, 16-2 San kays every man bruker a corre im Gibeah of Benjamin: but the Philistines en

who shall eat food optil the evening; in consequence of which the people are sorely

distressed, 21-2. Jonathan, noi hearing the adjuration, eats a little hooey, wtuck camped in Michmash.

he found on the ground, 21-30. The Phibiscines being defeated, the people reis on

the spoil, and begin to eat flesh without previously bleeding the animals, which San! 17 || And the spoilers came out of the camp endeavours to prevent,?!--34. He builds an altar there, 35. Inquirea of the Land of the Philistines in three companies: one com

if he may purse the Philistines by night, but receives 90 answer, 35, 37. Attributes

this to some sin committed by some anknown person ; makes inquiry by lot; and pany turned unto the way that leadeth to " Oph funds that Jonathan had taste the honey, on which, he purposes to put him to death rah, unto the land of Shual:

38--14. The people interpose, and rescue Jonathan, 45. Saul highte against the

Moabites, Ammonites, and Amalekites, 46-49. An account of the lamay of 18 And another company turned the way to

Saul, 49-52 • Beth-horon: and another company turned to NOW

OW w it came to pass upon a day; B. 107 the way of the border that looketh to the valley that Jonathan the son of Saul said An Exod. Is. of P Zeboim, toward the wilderness.

unto the young man that bare his ar19 | Now 9 there was no smith found through- mour, Come, and let us go over to the 1. Olyap. Sil out al

the land of Israel: for the Philistines Philistines garrison, that is on the other side. said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or But he told not his father. spears:

2 And Saul tarried in the uttermost part of 20 But all the Israelites went down to the Gibeah, under a pomegranate tree which is in Philistines, to sharpen every man his share, and Migron: and the people that were with him his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock.

were * about six hundred men; 21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and 3 And , Ahiah, the son of Ahitub, : I-chabod's for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the axes, and to sharpen the goads.

LORD's priest in Shiloh, - wearing an ephod. And 22 So it came to pass, in the day of battle, the people knew not that Jonathan was gone. bCbap. 15. 28. - Psa. 89. 20. Acts 13. 2.-k Heb. found.-1 Ch. 14. 2- Heb r Heb. e Ale sith mouths. - Heb. to set.- So Judge. 5. 8-Chap. 14. 1, Gebah. ver. 3.-n Joshua 18. B.- Joshua 16. 3. & 18. 13, 14.-p Nehemiah 11. 34 v Or, standing camp -w Or, there was a day. - Ch.13 15.- Ch. 2 9, n, a. q See 2 Kings 24. 14. Jer. 21. I.

called Ahimelech.- Ch. 4. 21. Ch. 2. B. Verse 14. The LORD had sought him a man after his nor spear] But if the Israelites enjoyed such profound own heart] That this man was David, is sufficiently clear peace, and undisturbed dominion under Samuel, how is it from the sequel. But, in what sense was he a man after that they were totally destitute of arms, a state which arGod's own heart?

Ångwer-In his strict attention to the gues the lowest circumstances of oppression and vassalage ? law and worship of God; in his admitting, in the whole In answer to this we may observe, that the bow and the of his conduct, that God was King in Israel, and that he sling were the principal arms of the Israelites; for these himself was but his vicegerent; in never attempting to al- they needed no smith: the most barbarous nations, who ter any of those laws, or in the least change the Israelitish have never seen iron, have nevertheless bous and arrors; constitution. In all his public official conduct he acted the arrow heads generally made of flint. Arrows of this according to the divine mind, and fulfilled the will of his kind are found among the inhabitants of the South-sea Maker: thus was he a man after God's own heart. In islands; and even axes, and different implements of war, reference to his private, or personal moral conduct, the all made of stone, cut and polished by stone, are frequent word is never used. This is the sense alone in which the among them. The arms of the aboriginal Irish have been word is used here and elsewhere;

and it is unfair and of this kind : I have frequently seen heads of ares and arwicked to put another meaning on it, in order to ridicule rows of stone, which have been dug up out of the ground; the revelation of God, as certain infidels have done. and formed with considerable taste and elegance. The

Verse 15. And Samuel arose] Though David, in the former, the common people term thunderbolts ; the latter, divine purpose, is appointed to be captain over the people, elf-stones. yet Saul is not to be removed from the government during Now, it is possible that the Israelites had still bous and his life; Samuel, therefore, accompanies him to Gibeah, arrows; these they could have without the smith: and it to give him the requisite help in this conjuncture.

is as likely that they had slings; and for these they needed About six hundred men.) The whole of the Israelitish none. But then these were missiles ; if they came into army at this time; and not one sword or spear among them! close fight, they would avail them nothing: for attacks of

Verse 17. The spoilers came out The Philistines, find this kind they would require swords and spears; of these ing that the Israelites durst not hazard a battle, divided none were found but with Saul and Jonathan. their army into three bands; and sent them in three differ We see, in this chapter, Israel brought to as low a state ent directions, to pillage and destroy the country. Jona as they were under Eli; when they were totally discomthan profited by this circumstance, and attacked the re- fited, their priests slain, their ark'taken, and the judge mains of the army at Michmash; as we shall see in the dead. After that they rose by the strong hand of God; succeeding chapter.

and in this way they are now to rise, principally by means Verse 19. Now there was no smith found] It is very of David, whose history will soon commence. likely that, in the former wars, the Philistines carried away all the smiths from Israel, as Porsenna did in the peace

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIV. which he granted to the Romans; not permitting any iron Verse 1. Come, and let us go over] This action of to be forged except for the purposes of agriculture: Ne Jonathan was totally contrary to the laws of war; no ferro, nisi in agriculturâ uterentur. The Chaldeans military operation should be undertaken without the did the same to the Jews, in the time of Nebuchadnezzar : knowledge and command of the general. But it is likely they carried away all the artificers, 2 Kings xxiv. 14. Jer. that he was led to this by a divine influence. xxiv. 1. xxix. 2. And in the same manner did Cyrus treat The armour-bearer is the origin of what we call esquire, the Lydians. Herod. lib. i. c. 145. See several examples from escu, old French, a shield:

armiger is the Latin, from in Calmet.

arma, weapons, and gero, I bear. In the times of chivalry, Verse 20. But all the Israelites went down to the Phi- the armiger, or esquire, was the servant of the knight, listines) We find from this that they did not grant them who went after him, and carried his lance, shield, &c. It is as much as Porsenna did to the Romans; he permitted the now, strange to tell, a title of honour! people to manufacture the implements of husbandry. Verse 2. Under a pomegranate trec) Under Rimmon,

Verse 21. Yet they had a file) The Hebrew noso pe- which not only signifies a pomegranate tree, but also a {sirah, from aro patsar, to rub hard, is translated very strong rock, in which six hundred Benjamites took sheldifferently by the versions, and by critics. Our translation ter, Judg. xx. 45. Probably it was in this very rock that may be as likely as any: they permitted them the use of Saul and his six hundred men now lay hidden. files, (I believe the word means grindstone,) to restore the blunted edges of their tridents, ares, and goads.

Verse 3. Ahiah, the son of Ahitub) Phinehas, son of

Eli the high priest, had two sons, Ahitub and Ichabod; the Verse 22. In the day of battle--there was neither sword / latter was born when the ark was taken, and his mother

4 And between the passages, by which Jona 14 And that first slaughter, which Jonathan than sought to go over

unto the Philistines' and his armour-bearer made, was about twenty garrison, there was a sharp rock on the one men, within as it were ha half-acre of land, side, and a sharp rock on the other side: and which a yoke of oxen might plough. the name of the one was Bozez, and the name 15 | And i there was trembling in the host, in of the other Seneh.

the field, and among all the people: the garrison, 5 The fore-front of the one was situate north- and « the spoilers, they also trembled, and the ward over against Michmash, and the other earth quaked: so it was la very great tremsouthward over against Gibeah.

bling. 6 And Jonathan said to the young man that 16 And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of bare his armour, Come, and let us go over unto Benjamin looked: and, behold, the multitude the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be melted away, and they'n went on beating down that the LORD will work for us: for there is no one another. restraint to the LORD, a to save by many or by 17 | Then said Saul unto the people that were few.

with him, Number now, and see who is gone 7 And his armour-bearer said unto him, Do from us. And when they had numbered, behold, all that is in thine heart: turn thee; behold, I Jonathan and his armour-bearer were not there. am with thee according to thy heart.

18 And Saul said unto Ahiah, Bring hither 8 Then said Jonathan, Behold, we will pass the ark of God. For the ark of God was at that over unto these men, and we will discover our time with the children of Israel. selves unto them.

19 And it came to pass, while Saul • talked 9 If they say thus unto us, Tarry until we unto the priest, that the P noise that was in the come to you; then we will stand still in our place, host of the Philistines went on and increased : and will not go up unto them.

and Saul said unto the priest, Withdraw thine 10 But if they say thus, Come up unto us; hand. then we will go up: fork the Lord hath deliver 20 And Saul and all the people that were with ed them into our hand : and this shall be a sign him 9 assembled themselves, and they came to unto us.

the battle; and, behold, ' every man's sword 11 And both of them discovered themselves was against his fellow, and there was a very unto the garrison of the Philistines: and the Phi- great discomfiture. listines said, Behold, the Hebrews come forth 21 Moreover, the Hebrews that were with the out of the holes where they had hid themselves. Philistines before that time, which went up with

12 And the men of the garrison answered them into the camp from the country round Jonathan and his armour-bearer, and said, Come about, even they also turned to be with the Isup to us, and we will show you a thing. And raelites that were with Saul and Jonathan. Jonathan said unto his armour-bearer, Come up 22 Likewise all the men of Israel which had after me: for the Lord hath delivered them into hid themselves in mount Ephraim, when they the hand of Israel.

heard that the Philistines fled, even they also 13 And Jonathan climbed up upon his hands followed hard after them in battle. and upon his feet, and his armour-bearer after 23 So the LORD saved Israel that day : and him; and they fell before Jonathan; and his ar- the battle passed over u unto Beth-aven. mour-bearer slew after him.

24 T And the men of Israel were distressed

b Chap. 13. 2-C Heb tooth.Judges 7. 4, 7. 2 Chron. 14. 11. 1 Mac. 3. 18. e Heb be still. - 1 Mac 4.30. - See Gen. 24. 14. Judg: 7. II.- Or, half a fur. row of an acre of land. Judg. 7.21.-i 2 Kings 7. 7. Job 18. 11.

k Ch. 13. 17.-1 Heb. a trembling of God-m Gen. 35. 5.-- Ver. 20.- Nurub. 27. 21.-- Or, tumult.-- Heb. were cried together.-- Judg. 7. 2. 2 Chron. 20. 23. + Ch. 13 6.– Exol. 14 3, Psa H. 6, 7, Hoa 1. 7.– Ch. 13. 5.

9, &c.

died immediately after. Ahiah is also called Abimelech, versal, and most extraordinary. The trembling of the chap. xxii. 9.

earth is probably not to be taken literally, but as a metaWearing an ephod] That is, performing the functions hpor for a greai commotion in the country; though God of the high priest. This man does not appear to have might have interposed in an extraordinary manner, and been with Saul, when he offered the sacrifices, chap. xiii. produced a real earthquake; but their being panic-struck

was sufficient to produce all the requisite confusion and Verse 4. The name of the one was Bozez] Slippery; dismay. and the name of the other Seneh, treading down. Targum. Verse 16. The watchmen of Saul] Those who were

Verse 6. Let us go over] Moved, doubtless, by a di sent out as scouts to observe the motions of the army. vine impulse.

Melted away] There was no order in the Philistinian There is no restraint to the LORD] This is a fine sen camp; and the people were dispersing in all directions. timent; and where there is a promise of defence and sup- The Vulgate has, El ecce multitudo prostrata, "And beport, the weakest, in the face of the strongest enemy, may hold the multitude were prostrate;" many lay dead upon rely on it with the utmost confidence.

the field, partly by the sword of Jonathan and his armourVerse 7. Behold, I am with thee) I shall accompany bearer, and partly by the swords of each other, ver. 20. thee whithersoever thou goest ; and share all thy dangers. Verse 17. Number now] Saul perceived that the Phi

Verse 9. If they say thus unto us] Jonathan had no listines were routed, but could not tell by what meang : doubt asked this as a sign from God; exactly as Eliezer, supposing that it must be by some of his own troops, he the servant of Abraham, did, Gen. xxiv. 12.

called a muster to see who and how many were absent. Verse 12. Come up to us, and we will show you a thing] Verse 18. Bring hither the ark of God] He wished This was the favourable sign which Jonathan had request to inquire what use he should make of the present favouraed. The Philistines seem to have meant, Come, and we ble circumstances; and to proceed in the business as God will show you how well fortified we are; and how able to should direct. quell all the attacks of your countrymen.

Verse 19. While Saul talked unto the priest] Before Verse 13. Jonathan climbed up] It seems he had a he had made an end of consulting him, the increasing noise part of the rock still to get over. When he gol over he of the panic-struck Philistines called his attention : and, began to slay the guards, which were about twenty in num- finding there was no time to lose, he immediately collested ber: these were a sort of outpost, or advanced guard to his men and fell on them. the garrison.

Verse 21. The Hebrews that were with the Philistines) sler after him] Jonathan knocked them down, and We may understand such as they held in bondage, or who the armour-bearer despatched them. This seems to be the were their servants. Instead of Hebrews, the Septuagint meaning,

read óc doudon, the slaves; from which it is evident that, Verse 14. A half-acre of land] The ancients measured instead of Dinar Abarim, Hebrews, they found in their land by the quantum which a yoke of oxen could plough text Ouray abadim, servants. But this reading is not in a day. The original is obscure, and is variously under-countenanced by any other version, nor by any MS. yet stood. It is probably a proverbial expression for a very discovered. small space.

Verse 22. The menwhich had hid themselves) See Verse 15. There was trembling in the host] They chap. xiii. 6. were terrified and panic-struck; the people in general round The Vulgate and the Septuagint add here, And there about: those in the garrison, the spoilers, and the whole were with Saul about ten thousand men : bui this is supcountry, were struck with terror; the commotion was uni- | ported by no other authority.

that day; for Saul had'adjured the people, gay, every man his ox, and every man his sheep, ing, Cursed be the man that eateth any food and slay them here, and eat; and sin not against until evening, that I may be avenged on mine the Lord in eating with the blood. And all the enemies. So none of the people tasted any food. people brought every man his ox with him that

25 w And all they of the land came to a wood; night, and slew them there. and there was a honey upon the ground.

35 | And Saul • built an altar unto the LORD: 26 And when the people were come into the o the same was the first altar that he built unto wood, behold, the honey dropped; but no man the Lord. put his hand to his mouth: for the people feared 36 And Saul said, Let us go down after the the oath.

Philistines by night, and spoil them until the 27 But Jonathan heard not when his father morning light, and let us not leave a man of charged the people with the oath: wherefore them. And they said, Do whateoever seemeth he put forth the end of the rod that was in his good unto thee. Then said the priest, Let us hand, and dipped it in a honeycomb, and put his draw near hither unto God. hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlight 37 | And Saul asked counsel of God, Shall I ened.

go down after the Philistines ? wilt thou deliver 29 Then answered one of the people, and said, them into the hand of Israel? But he anThy father straightly charged the people with swered him not that day. an oath, saying, Cursed be the man that eateth 38 | And Saul said,' ' Draw ye near hither any food this day. And the people were y faint. all the 6 chief of the people, and know and see

29 Then said Jonathan, My father hath trou- wherein this ein hath been this day : bled the land : see, I pray you, how mine eyes 39 For, b as the LORD liveth, which saveth have been enlightened, because I tasted a little Israel, though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall of this honey.

surely die. But there was not a man among all 30 How much more, if haply the people had the people that answered him. eaten freely to-day of the spoil of their enemies 40 Then said he unto all Israel, Be ye on one which they found? for had there not been now a side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the much greater slaughter among the Philistines ? | other side. And the people said unto Saul, Do

31 T And they smote the Philistines that day what seemeth good unto thee. from Michmash'to Aijalon: and the people were 41 Therefore Saul said unto the LORD God of

Israel, Give ka perfect lot. And Saul and 32 And the people flew upon the spoil, and Jonathan were taken: but the people mescaped. took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them 42 And Saul said, Cast lots between me and on the ground: and the people did eat them with Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken. the blood.

43 Then Saul said to Jonathan, - Tell me 33 Then they told Saul, saying, Behold, the what thou hast done. And Jonathan told him, people sin against the Lord, in that they eat and said, "I did but taste a little honey with the with the blood. And he said, Ye have trans- end of the rod that was in mine hand, and, lo, gressed: roll a great stone unto me this day. I must die.

34 And Saul said, Disperse yourselves among 44 And Saul answered, p God do so, and more the people, and say unto them, Bring me hither also : 9 for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan.

very faint.

Josh. 6. 26.-w Deut. 9. 28. Matt. 3. 5.-x Exod. 3. 8. Numb. 13. 27. Matt. 3. 4. y Or, weary.--2 Lev. 3. 17. & 7. 26. & 17. 10. & 19. 20. Deut. 12. 16, 23, 24.-a Or, deali treccherously-b Heb. in his hand.-c Ch.7. 17. - Heb. that allar he began to build unto the LORD.

e Ch. 2. 6.- Joshua 7. 14. Chap. 10. 17.-g Heb. corners. Judges 202 h 2 Samuel 12. 5.- Or, ahoto the innocent.-- Prop. 16. 33. Acts 1, 2 -- JO 7. 16. Chapter 10. 20, 21,--m Heb. went forth.--n Joshua 7. 19- Vente 22. p Ruth 1. 17.-- Verse 39.

Verse 24. Saul had adjured the people] He was afraid, Verse 37. He answered him not that day.) Why was if they waited to refresh themselves, the Philistines would this answer delayed? Surely Jonathan's eating the boescape out of their hands; and, therefore, he made the ney was no sin. This could not have excited God's taking any food till sunset a capital crime. This was the displeasure. And yet the lot found out Jonathan ! Bat did very means of defeating his own intention ; for, as the this argue that he had incurred guilt in the sight of God ? people were exhausted for want of food, they could not I answer, it did not; for Jonathan was delivered, by the continue the pursuit of their enemies: had it not been for hority of the people, from his father's rash curse : no this foolish adjuration, there had been a greater slaughter propitiation is offered for his supposed transgression, to of the Philistines, ver. 30.

induce God to pardon it: nor do we find any displeasure Verse 25. There was honcy upon the ground] There of God manifested on the occasion. See below. were many wild bees in that country; and Judea is ex Verse 41. LORD God of Israel, give a perfect lot.) pressly said to be a land flowing with milk and honcy. Both the Vulgate and Septuagint add much to this verse

Verse 26. The honey dropped] It seems to have dropped - And Saul said to the Lord God of Israel, Lord God from the trees on the ground. Honey deus, as they are of Israel, give judgment. Why is it that thou hast not called, are not uncommon in most countries.' And this ap- answered thy servant to-day? If the iniquity be in me pears to have been something of this kind.

or Jonathan my son, make it manifest. Or, if this iniVerse 27. His cyes were enlightened] Hunger and fa- quity be in thy people, give sanclification ? tigue affect and dim the sight: on taking food, this affection Verse 42. And Jonathan was taken.) The object of is immediately removed. This most people know to be a the inquiry most evidently was, “Who has gone contrary fact.

to the king's adjuration to-day ?" The answer to that Verse 31. They smole the Philistines-from Michmash must be, JONATHAN. But was this a proof of the divine to Aijalon) This distance, Calinet states, to be three or displeasure against the man? By no means: the holy four leagues.

oracle told the truth; but neither that oracle, nor the God Verse 32. The people did eat them with the blood.] who gave it, fixed any blame upon Jonathan: and his own They were faint through hunger, and did not take time to conscience acquits him. He seeks not pardon from God, bleed the cattle on which they fed. This was another bad because he is conscious he had not transgressed. But effect of Saul's rash adjuration.

why did not God answer the priest that day? Because Verse 33. Roll a great stone unto me) Probably this he did not think it proper to send the people, by night, in means that they should set up an altar to the Lord, on pursuit of the vanquished Philistines. 'Saul's motive was which the animals might be properly slain; and the blood perfectly vindictive: Let us go down after the Philistines poured out upon the earth : and a large stone was erected by night, and spoil them unto the morning light, and let for an altar.

us not leave a man of them; that is, Let us burn, waste, Verse 35. Saul built an altar! And this, we are in- destroy, and slay all before us! Was it right to indulge a formed, was the first he had built : Samuel, as prophet

, disposition of this kind, which would have led to the dehad hitherto erected the altars ; and Saul thought he had struction of many innocent country people, and of many sufficient authority to erect one himself, without the Israelites, who resided among the Philistines? Besides, prophet, as he had once offered sacrifice without him. was there not a most manifest reason in the people why

Verse 36. Then said the priest] It is evident, that God could not be among them? Multitudes of them were Ahiah doubted the propriety of pursuing the Philistines defiled in a very solemn manner; they had eaten the flesh that night, and, as a reverse of fortune might be ruinous with the blood : and, however sacrifices might be offered after such a victory, he wished to have specific directions to atone for this transgression of the law, they must confrom the Lord.

tinue unclean till the evening. Here were reasons

45 And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jona- | Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the than die, who hath wrought this great salvation hands of them that spoiled them. in Israel? God forbid : 'as the LORD liveth, 49 9. Now w the sons of Saul were Jonathan, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the and Ishui, and Melchi-shua; and the names of ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. his two daughters were these; the name of the So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not. first-born Merab, and the name of the younger

46 Then Saul went up from following the Michal: Philistines: and the Philistines went to their 50 And the name of Saul's wife was Ahiown place.

noam, the daughter of Ahimaaz: and the name 47 '| So Saul took the kingdom over Israel, of the captain of his host was * Abner, the son and fought against all his enemies on every side, of Ner, Saul's uncle. against Moab, and against the children of 51 And Kish was the father of Saul; and • Ammon, and against Edom, and against the Ner, the father of Abner, was the son of Abiel. kings of · Zobah, and against the Philistines: 52 And there was sore war against the Phiand whithersoever he turned himself, he vexed listines all the days of Saul: and when Saul them.

saw any strong man, or any valiant man, he 43 And he gathered a host, and 'smote the took him unto him.

r2 Samuel 14. 11. 1 Kings 1. 52 Luke 21. 18.- Chapter 11. 11.

t 2 Samuel 10. 6.

u Or, trought mightily.-v Ch. 15. 3, 7.-w Ch. 31. 2 I Chron. & 33.

x Heb. Abiner.-y Ch. 9. 1.-2 Ch. & II.

that night.


enough, why God would not go on with the people for sees you, speaks in a faint tone, and affects a delicate

languid air. Verse 44. And Saul answered-thou shall surely die, “He thanked his friend for imparting so much of his Jonathan.) To save thy rash oath! So must John Bap- experience in the ways of women; and begged he would List's head be taken off as the desire of an impure woman;

farther instruct him in regard to what age was most eligibecause a Herod had sworn to give her whatever she ble. His friend answering, said, 'Make choice of a young might request ! Unfeeling brute! However, the king was girl; for the company of an old woman sickens and debilio But what said the people, who were the JURY?

tates a man. The sages say, there are the fairest prospects Verse 45. And the PEOPLE said) Shall Jonathan of happiness and safety with women from fourteen to twendie, who bath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God ty years of age; from twenty to thirty, they are peaceable forbid! As the Lord'liveth, there shall not one hair of his and quick; from thirty to forty they covet children and head fall to the ground." Here was a righteous and im- wealth; from forty to fifty they are ambitious of fame, and partial jury, who brought in a verdict according to the are full of tricks and hypocrisy: but a wife turned of fifty evidence. No man should die but for a breach of the law is the plague of a man's life, and the destruction of his of God: but Jonathan hath not broken any law of God; reputation and fortune.' 'The hermit then made inquiry therefore, Jonathan should not die. And because he as to her person. Says the friend, "The most valuable should not, therefore he shall not.

properties in a wife are virtue and good nature ; so that He hath wrought with God this day.) God has been she who possesses not these qualities, (though beautiful commander in chief; Jonathan has acted under his direc as an angel,) will prove a curse for life. But a woman tions.

of a good disposition, be she ever so ugly, is an inestimable So the people rescued Jonathan] And God testified no treasure.' displeasure ; and perhaps he permitted all this that he "To shorten the story—the hermit, after a long search, might correct Saul's propensity to rashness and precipi- had the good fortune to marry a girl well connected, and tancy. To help to correct this propensity in any of my of an amiable turn of mind. readers, I will subjoin to the end of this chapter a very " He was then impatient to have children ; but, seeing instructive fable from the Persian.

no appearance of his hopes being fulfilled, he incessantly Verse 47. So Saul took the kingdom] The Targum prayed God to bestow upon him a son.. At length his wife appears to give the meaning of this expression : “Saul became pregnant; the hermit, filled with delight, was alprospered in his government over Israel." And the proofs ways talking about his son. One day, says he to his wife, of this prosperity are immediately subjoined.

'I now hope we shall soon have a sweet, beautiful boy, Fought against all his enemies] Of the wars which and I will give him a suitable name. I shall take great are mentioned here we have no particulars : they must pleasure in lahouring to furnish means for his education ; have endured a long time; and have been, at least in ge- and I will teach him so to tread in the paths of righteousneral, successful.

ness, that he shall become a guide to the faithful." Verse 48. Smote the Amalekites] This war is men " At length his wife was delivered of a fine boy; he retioned in the following chapter.

turned thanks to God, and made grateful offerings. Day Verse 49. Nor the sons of Saul] We do not find Ish- and night was he about the cradle; so that his whole time bosheth here. Calmet says, it was because he was 190 was spent in nursing. young, and did not go with him to the war ; for he men “One day the mother, upon going to the bath, committed tions only those who were with him." Why then men

the infant to the father's care, entreating him not to stir tion his daughters and his wife? Did they go with him from the cradle till she came back. to the war?

“The wife was hardly departed before the king who Verse 52. When Saul saw any strong man] This then reigned sent for the husband. Since it was impossiwas very politic. He thus continued to recruit his army ble to delay obeying the royal summons, he went to court, with strong and effective men.

after having entrusted the child to the care of a favourite On verse 45, I have referred to an instructive fable, en mongoose, * which had been bred up in the family. No titled, The Fatal Effects of Precipitation,” from the sooner was he out of sight than a large snake made his Ayar Danush of Abul Fuzl. It is as follows:

appearance, and was crawling toward the cradle : when ""A hermis, after long experience of the uncomfortable- the mongoose saw the child's life in danger, he instantly ness of a solitary life, had a mind to become a husband, seized the snake by the back of the neck, and destroyed it. and consulted on the occasion a person well acquainted Soon after, when the hermit returned from court, the monwith that state.

goose, who had been wallowing in the snake's blood, con" His friend told him the resolution was judicious, there scious of the good he had done, ran out to meet his master. being many advantages resulting from matrimony. That The master, seeing the mongoose stained with blood, imit subdued unlawful desires, which are continually ob-agined he had killed the child : and, without making any truding themselves upon the imagination in a state of farther reflection or inquiry, struck the poor little faithful celibacy: moreover, that justice requires us to perpetuate animal such a blow with his stick, that he instantly expired. in our posterity those blessings which we have received When he came into the house, and saw the child safe, and from our ancestors; besides, that a virtuous woman is the the snake dead by the side of the cradle, he smote his ornament of a man's house, and the comfort of his life. breast for grief, accusing himself of rashness and ingratiBut, says he, be careful in making your choice.

tude toward the mongoose.

While he was uttering these “The hermit asked him of what condition she should be? He replied, "Take the daughter of a religious,

• The mongoz of Oriental writers, is the viverra ichneumon of Linnæus: it in friendly man, whom you may make your confidant upon wilt hair, with a fine down underneath: a sharp pointed nose, exceedingly tright eyes

very beautiful animal, about the size of a small cal, of a gray or ash colour, longish all occasions. But have nothing

to say with three kinds med long sharp teeth. It is the inveterate foc of Kerpents of all kinds domesticated of women: a widow, if she is always extolling her de affectionate I had one of these beautiful animals that and to attend me in my study: ceased husband; neither a woman whose relations have leap on my knee while engaged at my table ; and sleep there for two houn at a time! conferred favours upon you ; nor one who, whenever she I to bear the winter's cold of our climate.-AC


ites to remove from among the Amalekites, 6.

412 Anno ante

SA The Lord bent me to antint thee over against Egypt.

t Ver. 35. Ch. 16. 1.


depart, get you down from among the AmalekSamuel sends Saul to destroy the Arnalekites, and all their cubstance, 1-2. Saul ites, lest l' destroy you with them: for & ye collecis an immense army, and comes against their city, 4, 5.

He smile the Amalekites, col take showed kindness to all the children of lerael, their king Ague, prisoner, and save the best of the spoil, 7--9. The Lord is displeased, and sends Samuel to reprove him, 10, 11. The conversation between Samuel and when they came up out of Egypt. So the KenSaul, in which the latter endeavours to justify his conduct, 12-23. He is convinced that he has done wrong, and asks parlou, 21–31. Samuel causes Agag lo be slain;

ites departed from among the Amalekites. for which he assigns the reasons, 32-35

7 1 And Saul smote the Amalekites from An. Exod. lør. AMUEL also said unto Saul, Havilah until thou comest to Shur, that is 1. Olymp. 303.

to be king over his people, over Israel: 8 And he took Agag the ting of the Amanow therefore hearken thou unto the voice of the lekites alive, and mutterly destroyed all the words of the Lord.

people with the edge of the sword. 2 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I remember 9 But Saul and the people " spared Agay, and that which Amalek did to Israel, 'b how he laid the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of wait for him in the way, when he came up from the fatlings, and the lambs, and all that was Egypt.

good, and would not utterly destroy them; but 3 Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly de- every thing that was vile and refuse, that they stroy all that they have, and spare them not; destroyed utterly. but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, 10 | Then came the word of the Lord unto ox and sheep, camel and ass.

Samuel, saying, 4 And Saul gathered the people together, and 11 p. It repenteth me that I have set up Saul numbered them in Telaim, two hundred thou- to be king: for he is turned back from followsand footmen, and ten thousand men of Judah.

ing me and hath not performed my command5 And Saul came to a city of Amalek, and ments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried a laid wait in the valley.

unto the Lord all night. 6 | And Saul said unto the Kenites, # Go, 12 | And when Samuel rose early to meet a Chap 9, 16. —- Exol. 17. 8, 14. Numbers 24. 20. Deut. 25. 17, 18, 19.-c Lev. Chapter 14. 48.-i Genesis 2 11. & 25. 19.-- Genesis 16. 7.- Skel Klage 2 27, 28, 29. Joskana 6. 17, 21. - Or, fought. - Nurnberu 24. 21. Judges l. 16. & 4. 34, 35, &c.-m See Chap. 30. 1.-n Ver. 3, 15. - Or, of the sound sort.-P ve Il-Geueis 18. 25. & 19. 12, 14. Rev. 18. 4.-g Exod. 18. 10, 19. Numbers 10. 35. Gen. 6 6,72 San. 24. 16. --r Josh. 22 16. I Kinga 9. 6.-- Ch. 13. 13. Ver. 39 29, 32 woful lamentations, in comes his wife: who having learned have distinctly repeated to thyself the twenty-four letters the cause of his distress, blames him for his want of reflec- of the alphabet." Reader, if thou have no higher a cortion. He confesses his indiscretion ; but begs her not to rective, use this. Do nothing rashly ; remember, the eye add reproaches to his distress, as reproof could now avail of God is ever upon thee: a man, in an unguarded monothing. “True,' says she, "advice can be of no service in ment, may do what may bring himself to an untimely end. the present instance ; but I want to rouse your mind to re

NOTES ON CHAPTER XV. flection, that you may reap instruction from your misfor Verse 1. The Lord sent me to anoint thec] This gave tunes. Shame and repentance are the sure consequences him a right to say what immediately follows. of precipitation and want of reflection ; which is well ex Verse 2. I remember that which Amalek did] The Amemplified in the story of the king and the hawk.'

alekites were a people of Arabia Petrea, who had occupied "I have heard that a king of Persia had a favourite a tract of country on the frontiers of Egypt and Palestine. hawk. Being one day on a hunting party, with his hawk They had acted with great cruelty toward the Israelites on upon his hand, a deer started up before him; he let the their coming out of Egypt. See Numb. xvii. &, &c. and hawk fly, and followed it with great eagerness, till at the notes there. length the deer was taken. The courtiers were all left be They came upon them when they were faint and weary, hind in the chase. The king, being thirsty, rode about in and smote the hindmost of the peoplethose who were too quest of water, till, having reached the foot of a mountain, weak to keep up with the rest." See Deut. xxv. 18. And he discovered some water trickling down in drops from God then purposed that Amalek, as a nation, should be the rock. He took a little cup out of his quiver, and held blotted out from under heaven : which purpose was now it to catch the water. Just when the cup was filled, and he fulfilled by Saul upward of four hundred years afterward! was going to drink, the hawk shook his pinions, and over Verse 3. Slay both man and woman) Nothing could set the cup. The king was vexed at the accident, and justify such an exterminating decree but the absolute auagain applied the cup to the hole in the rock: when the thority of God. This was given; all the reasons of it we cup was replenished, and he was lifting it to his mouth, do not know ; but this we know well, the Judge of all the the hawk clapped his wings and threw it down ; at which earth doth right. This war was not for plunder; for the king was so enraged that he Aung the bird with such God commanded that all the property, as well as all the force against the ground that he killed it.

people, should be destroyed. At this time the table-decker came up: he took a nap Verse 4. Two hundred thousandand ten thousand] kin out of his budget, wiped the cup, and was going to give the Septuagint in the London Polyglott, have FOUR the king some water to drink. The king said he had a HUNDRED thousand companies of Israel, and THIRTY thougreat inclination to taste the pure water that distilled through sand companies of Judah. The Coder Alexandrinus the rock : but not having patience to wait for its being col- has ten thousand of each. The Complutensian Polylected by drops, he ordered the table-decker to go to the glott has twO HUNDRED thousand companies of Istad, top of the mountain and fill the cup at the fountain head. and ten thousand of Judah. And Josephus has rouR

""The table-decker having reached the top of the moun HUNDRED thousand of Israel, and THIRTY thousand of tain, saw a large dragon lying dead at the spring; and Judah. All the other versions are the same with the Hehis poisonous foam, mixing with the water, fell in drops brew text; and there is no difference in the MSS. through the rock. He descended, related the fact to the Verse 5. Saul came to a city of Amalek] I believe the king, and presented him with a cup of cold water out of original should be translated, And Saul came to the city his flagon.

Amalek: their capital being called by the name of their “When the king lifted the cup to his lips, the tears tribe. gushed from his eyes. He then related to the table-decker Verse 6. Said unto the Kenites] The Kenites were an the adventure of the hawk; made many reflections upon ancient people. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was & the destructive consequences of precipitancy and thought- Kenite. Jobab his son, (if the same person be not meant) lessness: and, during the remainder of his life, the arrow was guide to the Hebrews through the wilderness. They of regret was continually rankling in his breast." had a portion of the promised land, near to the city Arad.

Thus ends the fable on the futal effects of precipi. See Judg. i. 16. And for more particulars concerning them lancy: but, were we to go to real life, we might find nu and the Amalekites, see the notes on Numb. xxiv. 20, 21. merous effects of this same vice; and still much more Verse 7. From Harilah-to Shur] From Pelusium in

fatal. He who acts under the immediate impulse of every Egypt, unto the Red sea. Josephus. But Havilah lay passion, without reason or refleclion, must act rashly and eastward from the Red sea : the Amalekites lay between precipitately. Not only the lower orders of animals, but this and the way to Egypt toward Shur. wives, husbands, children, parents, and friends, have fallen Verse 11. It repentelh me that I hare set up Saul) That victims to this vice, which brought Saul almost to the point is, I placed him on the throne; I intended, if he had been of slaying the greatest man in Israel, and imbruing his phedient, to have established his kingdom. He has been hands in his son's blood.

disobedient; I change my purpose, and the kingdom shall The advice of an ancient philosopher to a Roman empe- not be established in his family. This is what is meant ror, is a good one: “Cæsar, whenever thou art angry, by God's repenting : changing a purpose according to take heed that thou neither say nor do any thing till thou I conditions already laid down, or mentally purposed.

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