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. and I will bless thee, and make thy name | Abram was seventy, and five years old when great; band thou shalt be a blessing:

he departed out of Haran. 3 ° And I will bless them that bless thee, and 5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his curse him that curseth thee: d and in thee shall brother's son, and all their substance that they all families of the earth be blessed.

had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten 4.1 So Abram departed, as the LORD had 'in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came.

& Ch. 21. 35.- Ch.28. 4. Gal. 3. 14.-c Ch 27. 29. Exol. 23. 32. Num. 21. 9.-d Ch.

18. 18. & 22. 18. & 26. 4. Ps. 72. 17. Acts. 3. 25. Gal. 3.8.-e Ch. 14. 14.-- Ch. 11. 31.

more care

Abram; some supposing he had two distinct calls, others understood the passage, translating it, The souls of those that he had but one. Al the conclusion of the preceding whom they proselyted in Haran. chapter, ver. 31. we find Terah and all his family leaving They went forth to go into the land of Canaan] A Ur of the Chaldees, in order to go to Canaan. This was, good land possessed by a bad people, who, for their no doubt, in consequence of some divine admonition. iniquities, were to be expelled, see Lev. xviii. 25. And While resting at Haran, on their road to Cancan, Terah this land was made a type of the kingdom of God. Probadied, ch. xi. 32. and then God repeats his call to Abram, bly the whole of this transaction may have a farther and orders him to proceed to Canaan, ch. xii. 1.

meaning than that which appears in the letter. As Dr. Hales, in his Chronology, contends for two calls : Abram left his own country, father's house and kindred, " the first,” says he, “is omitted in the Old Testament, took, at the command of God, a journey to this promised but is particularly recorded in the New, Acts vii. 2–4. | land, nor ceased till he arrived in it; so should we cast The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham aside every weight, come out from among the workers of while he was (at Ur of the Chaldees) in Mesopotamia, iniquity, set out for the kingdom of God, nor ever rest till BEFORE HE DWELT IN CHARRAN; and said unto him, we reach the heavenly country. How many set out for Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and come the kingdom of heaven, make good progress for a time in into the land (yuv, a land) which I will show thee. Hence, their journey, but halt before the race is finished ! Not so it is evident, that God had called Abraham before he came Abram : he went forth to go into the land of Canaan, to Haran or Charran." The SECOND CALL is recorded and into the land of Canaan he came. -Reader, go thou only in this chapter: "The Lord said, not had said, unto and do likewise. Abram, Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and Verse 6. The Canaanite was then in the land] This is from thy father's house, unto THE LAND, P17 HA-arets, thought to be an interpolation, because it is supposed that Septuagint THNguv, which I will show thee." “The these words must have been written after the Canaanites difference of the two calls,” says Dr. Hales,

were expelled from the land, by the Israelites under fully translated from the originals, is obvious: in the Joshua: but this by no means follows. All that Moses former, the land is indefinite, which was designed only for states is, simply, that at the time in which Abram passed a temporary residence; in the latter, it is definite, intimat- through Sichem, the land was inhabited by the descendants ing his abode. A third condition is also annexed to the of Canaan : which was a perfectly possible case, and inlatter, that Abram shall now separate himself from his volves neither contradiction nor absurdity. There is no father's house, or leave his brother Nahor's family behind rule of criticism by which these words can be produced as at Charran.—This call Abram obeyed, still not knowing an evidence of interpolation, or incorrectness in the statewither he uas going, but trusting implicitly to the divine ment of the sacred historian. See this mentioned again, guidance, " Heb. xi. 8.

ch. xiii. 7. Thy kindred] Nahor, and the different branches of the The plain of Morch) 105 eilon, should be translated family of Terah, Abram and Lot excepted. That Nahor oak, not plain: the Septuagint translate it any seur Tov went with Terah and Abram as far as Padan-Aram, in uyman, the lofty oak; and it is likely the place was Mesopotamia, and settled there, so that it was afterward | remarkable for a grove of those trees, or for one of a stucalled Nahor's cily, is sufficiently evident from the ensuing pendous height and bulk. history, see ch. xxv. 20 xxiv. 10, 15. and that the same Verse 7. The Lord appearedl] In what way this apland was Haran, see ch. xxviii. 2, 10. and there were pearance was made, we know not: it was probably by the Abram's kindred and country here spoken of, ch. xxiv. 4. great Angel of the Covenant, Jeans the Christ. The

Thy father's house) Terah being now dead, it is very appearance, whatsoever it was, perfectly satisfied Abram, probable that the family were determined to go no farther, and proved itself to be supernatural and divine.

It is but to settle at Charran; and as Abram might have felt worthy of remark, that Abram is the first man inclined to stop with them in this place, hence, the ground whom God is said to have shown himself, or appeared: and necessity of the second call recorded here, and which ist. In Ur of the Chaldees, Acts vii. 2.-and 2dly. At the is introduced in a very remarkable manner : 7575 lec leca, ouk of Morch, as in this verse. As 70 Moreh, signifies

If none of the family will accompany a teacher, probably this was called the oak of Morch, or thee, yet go for thyself unto THAT LAND which I will show the teacher, because God manifested himself here, and thee. God does not tell him what land it is, that he may instructed Abram concerning the future possession of that still cause him to walk by faith, and not by sight. This land by his posterity; and the dispensation of the mercy seems to be particularly alluded to by Isaiah, ch. xli. 2. of God to all the families of the earth through the promised Who raised up the rightcous man (Abram) from the cast, Messiah: see on chap. xv. 7. and called him to his foot ; that is, to follow implicitly Verse 8. Beth-el] That is, the place which was afterthe Divine direction. The apostle assures us, that in all ward called Beth-el by Jacob; for its first name was Luz. this Abram had spiritual views: he looked for a better See chap. xxviii. 19.-5x na Beith el, literally signifies country, and considered the land of promise only as the house of God. typical of the heavenly inheritance. See Heb. xi. 8-10. There he pitched his tent-and builded an altar unto

Verse 2. I will make of thee a great nation) i. e. the the Lord] Where Abram has a tent, there God must have Jewish people. I will make thy name great-alluding to an ALTAR, as he well knows there is no safety but under the change of his name from Abram, a high father, to the Divine protection. How few who build houses, ever Abraham, the father of a multitude.

think on the propriety and necessity of building an altar Verse 3. In thee] In thy posterity, in the Messiah, to their Maker? The house in which the worship of God who shall spring from thee, shall all families of the earth is not established, cannot be considered as under the Divine be blessed ; for as he shall take on him human nature, protection. Is it not remarkable, that few dwellings of from the posterity of Abraham, he shall taste death for iruly religious people have ever been burnt down? every man; his Gospel shall be preached throughout the And called upon the name of the'Lord] Dr. Shuckford world, and innumerable blessings be derived on all man- strongly contends, that Svamp kara beshem, does not kind, through his death and intercession.

siguity to call on the name, but to invoke in the name. Verse 4. And Abram was seventy-five years old) As So Abram inroked Jehorah in or by the name of Jehovah, Abram was now seventy-five years old, and his father who had appeared to him. He was taught, even in these Terah had just died at the age of two hundred and five, early times, to approach God through a Mediator; and consequently Terah must have been one hundred and thirty that Mediator, since manifested in the flesh, was known when Abram was born; and the seventieth year of his age, by the name Jehovah. Does not our Lord allude to such mentioned Gen. xi. 26. was the period at which Haran, a discovery as this, when he says, Abraham rejoiced to not Abram was born.-See on the preceding chapter. see my day; and he saw it, and was glad? John viii. 56.

Verse 5. The souls that they had gotten in Haran] Hence it is evident, that he was informed that the Christ This may apply either to the persons who were employed should be born of his seed--that the nations of the world in the service of Abram, or to the persons he had been the should be blessed through him; and is it then to be woninstrument of converting to the knowledge of the true dered at, if he invoked God in the name of this great God; and in this latter sense the Chaldee paraphrasts | Mediator?



AM cir.
BC. cir. 1921.

Iebr. 13. 4.-u Ch. 2). 9. & 26. 10.

6 | And Abram - passed through the land unto Egyptians shall see thee, that they shall say, the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. This is his wife: and they will kill me, but And the Canaanite was then in the land. they will save thee alive.

7 And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and 13 p Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister: that said, e Unto thy seed will I give this land: and it may be well with me for thy sake; and my there builded he an faltar unto the LORD, who soul shall live because of thee. appeared unto him.

14 | And it came to pass that, when Abram 8 And he removed from thence unto a moun was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld tain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, the woman that she was very fair. haring Beth-el on the west, and Hai on the 15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and east: and there he builded an altar unto the commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman LORD, and called upon the name of the Lord. was ' taken into Pharaoh's house.

9 And Abram journeyed, going i on still to • 16 And he sentreated Abram well for her ward the south.

sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, 10 1 And there was ka famine in and men servants, and maid servants, and she

the land; and Abram I went down into asses and camels. Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was 17 And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his mgrievous in the land.

house with great plagues, because of Sarai 11 And it came to pass when he was come Abram's wife. near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that thou art What is this that thou hast done unto me?

18 And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, na fair woman to look upon:

why didst thou not tell me that she was thy 12 Therefore, it shall come to pass, when the wilé ? a Hebr. 11.9.-) Deot. 11, 30 Jodg 7.1.-e Ch. 10. 18, 19. & 13.7.- Ch. 17. 1. 14. Ch. 3. 7.0 Ch. 10, 11, * 2. 1-0 Ch. 4, 5, 13 ST ch. . 1.- Ch. 79, 1.

Ch. 13 15. & 17.& Pa 1029,11 - Ch 1.3. 4.- Ch. 13. 1.-h Heb. in going Matt. 5. 2-r Ch. 2.2 Ch. 2. 14.- Ch. 20. 18. 1 Chron. 16. 21. Ps. 105. 14. and journeyine--i Ch 13. 3.- Ch.1. - P. 105. 13. - Ch. 13. 1.- Ver.

Verse 10. There was a famine in the land] Viz. of of the eastern princes, she underwent, for a considerable Canaan. This is the first famine on record, and it pre- time, certain purifications before she was brought into the vailed in the most fertile land then under the sun; and king's presence. It was in this interim that God plagued why? God made it desolate for the wickedness of those Pharaoh and his house with plagues, so that Sarai was who dwelt in it, Psal. cvii. 34.

restored before she could have been taken to the bed of the Went down into Egypt} He felt himself a stranger Egyptian king. and a pilgrim, and by his unsettled state, was kept in mind Verse 16. He had sheep and oren, &c.] As some of of the city that hath foundations, that is permanent and these terms are liable to be confounded, and as they frestable : whose builder is the living God. See Heb. xi. 8, 9. quently occur, especially in the Pentateuch, it may be

Verše 11. Thou art a fair woman to look on] Widely necessary to consider and fix their meaning in this place. differing in her complexion from the swarthy Egyptians, SHEEP, }A} tson, from tsaan, to be plentiful or abung and consequently more likely to be coveted by them. It dant; a proper term for the eastern sheep, which almost appears that Abram supposed they would not scruple to constantly bring forth tuins, Cant. iv. 2. and sometimes take away the life of the husband, in order to have the three and even four at a birih. Hence their great fruitun disturbed possession of the wise. The age of Sarai at fulness is often alluded to in Scripture. See Psalm lxv. this time is not well agreed on by commentators; some 14. exliv. 13.; but under this same term, which almost making her ninety, while others make her only sixty-fire. invariably means a flock, both sheep and goats are included. From chap. xvii. 17. we learn that Sarah was ten years So likewise, the Romans include sheep, goats, and small younger than Abraham, for she was but ninely when he cattle in general, under the term PECUS pecoris; so they was a hundred. And from ver. 4. of chap. xii. we find do larger cattle under that of pecus pecudis. that Abram was seventy-fire when he was called to leave Oxen; pa buquar, from the root, to examine, look out ; Haran and go to Canaan, at which time Sarai could be because of the full, broad, steady, unmoved look of most only sixty-fire; and if the transactions recorded in the animals of the becre kind; and hence the morning is preceding verses took place in the course of that year, termed boquer, because of the light springing out of the which I think possible; consequently Sarai was but sixty- east, and looking out over the whole of the earth's surfire: and as, in those times, people lived much longer, face: See on chap. i. 31. and disease seems to have had but a very contracted HE-ASSES; Dion chamorim, from non chamar, to be influence, women and men would necessarily arrive more disturbed, muddy, probably from the dull, stupid appearslowly at a state of perfection, and retain their vigour and ance of this animal, as if it were always affected with complexion much longer than in later times. We may melancholy. Scheuchzer thinks the sandy-coloured doadd to these considerations, that strangers and foreigners mestic Asiatic ass, is particularly intended. The word are more coveted by the licentious than those who are is applied to asses in general, ihough most frequently natives. This has been amply illustrated in the West restrained to those of the male kind. Indies and in America, where the jetty, monkey-faced SHE-ASSES; hans atonoth, from inx aten, strength, African women, are preferred to the elegant and beautiful properly the strong animal, as being superior in muscular Europeans! To this subject a learned British traveller force to every other animal of its size. Under this term elegantly applied those words of Virgil, Eclog. II. ver. 18. both the male and the female are sometimes understood. Alha lignera calint, vaccinia nigra leguntur.

Camels; Dyspa gemalim, from spa gamal, to recomWhite lilies lie neglerter on the plain,

pense, return, repay, so called from its resentment of While dusky hyacinths for we remain.

Dryden. injuries, and revengeful temper, for which it is proverbial Verse 13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister] Abram in the countries of which it is a native. On the animals, did not wish his wife to tell a falsehood, but he wished and natural history in general of the Scriptures, I must her to suppress a part of the truth. From chap. xx. 12. refer to the Hierozoicon of Bochant, and the Physica it is evident she was his step-sister, i. e. his sister by his Sacra of SCHEUCHZER. 'The former, the most learned and father, but by a different mother. Some suppose Sarah accurate work, perhaps, ever produced by one man. was the daughter of Haran, and consequently the grand From this enumeration of the riches of Abraham, we daughter of Terah ; this opinion seems to be founded on may conclude that this patriarch led a pastoral and itinerant chap. xi. 29. where Iscah is thought to be the same with life, that his meat must have chiefly consisted in the flesh Sarah, but the supposition has not a sufficiency of proba- of clean animals, with a sufficiency of pulse for bread; bility to support it.

that his chief drink was their milk; his clothing their Verse 15. The woman was taken into Pharaoh's house] skins, and his beasts of burthen asscs and camels, for ag Pharaoh appears to have been the common appellative of yet we read of no horses ; and the ordinary employment the Cuthite shepherd kings of Egypt, who had conquered of his servants, to take care of the flocks, and to serve this land, as is conjectured, about 72 years before this time. their master. Where the patriarchs became resident for The word is supposed to signify king, in the ancient any considerable time, they undvubtedly cultivated the Egyptian langriage. If the meaning be sought in the ground to produce grain. Hebrew, the root ynd pharaâ, signifies to be free or dis Verse 17. The Lord plagued Pharaoh] What these engaged, a name which such freebooters as the Cuthite plagues were we know not. In the parallel case, chap: shepherda, might naturally assume. All the kings of xx. 18. all the females in the family of Abimelec, who had Egypt bare this name till the commencement of the Gre- taken Sarah, in nearly the same way, were made barren; cian monarchy, after which they were called Ptolomies. possibly this might have been the case here; yet much

When a woman was brought into the seraglio, or harem more seems to be signified by the expression great plagues.

there invokes
Abram and Lot, their herdemen disagree, which obliges the patriarch and his

19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister ? so I 4 Unto the place of the altar, which he had might have taken her to me to wife: now there- made there at the first; and there Abram' called fore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way. on the name of the LORD.

20 a And Pharaoh commanded his men con 5 And Lot also, which went with Abram, had cerning him: and they sent him away, and his flocks, and herds, and tents. wife, and all that he had.

6 And & the land was not able to bear them,

that they might dwell together: for their subCHAPTER XIII.

stance was great, so that they could not dwell Abram and his family return out of Egypt to Canaan, 1, 2; He revisito Bethel, and together. Lord, 3, 4. In consequence of the great increa

7 | And there was a strife between the nephew , being permitted to his choice of the land, Chows the plans of Jord m, 10, ",abu pitches his teine nesto Salome, while herdmen of Abram's cattle, and the herdmen of Atram abidem iu Canaan, 12 Bal character of the people of Salom, 13 The Lot's cattle: i and the Canaanite and the PerizLord renew his proinise to Abrun, 14--17. Abrum removes to the plains of Munre, pear Hebron, and builds and altar to the Lord, 18.

zite dwelled then in the land. ND Abram went up out of Egypt, 8 , Let there be no had, and Lot with him, b into the south.

between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we 2° And Abram was very rich in cattle, in bel brethren. silver, and in gold.

9 m Is not the whole land before thee? sepa3 And he went on his journeys a from the rate thyself, I pray thee, from me: "if thou wilt south even unto Beth-el, unto the place where take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or his tent had been at the beginning, between is thou depart to the right hand, then I will go Beth-el and Hai;

to the left.

A. M. cir. 286.
B. C. cir. 1918

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a Prov. 21. 1.- Ch 12.9.-c Ch. 21. 35. Ps 112 3. Prov. 10. 22 - Ch. 128, 9.- Ch. 12 7, 8.--f Ps. 116. 17.-- Ch. 38.7.-h Ch 26.21.-i Ch. 12. 6.-k 1 Cor.

6. 7.-1 Heb. mer brethren. See ch. 11. 21,31. Exod 2. 13. Pa 133. 1. Acts 7. * m Ch. 20. 15. & 34. 10.-n Rom. 12. 18. Hebr. 12. 14. James 3. 17.

Whatever these plagues were, it is evident they were un- they were, they had incurred no danger; for God, who derstood by Pharaoh, as proofs of the disapprobation of had obliged them to go to Egypu had prepared the way God, and consequently, even at this time in Egypt, there before them. Neither Pharaoh nor his courtiers would was some knowledge of the primitive and true religion. have noticed the woman, had she appeared to be the wife

Verse 20. Commanded his men concerning him.) of the stranger that came to sojourn in their land. The Gave particular and strict orders to afford Abraham and issue sufficiently proves this. Every ray of the light of his family every accommodation and help for their jour- truth is an emanation from the holiness of God, and awney; for, having received a great increase of cattle and fully sacred in his eyes. Considering the subject thus, a servants, ver. 16. it was necessary that he should have the pious ancient spoke the following words, which refiners favour of the king, and his permission to remove from in prevarication have deemed by much too strong : “I Egypt with so large a property; hence a particular charge would not,” said he, "tell a lie to save the souls of the is given to the officers of Pharaoh to treat him with whole world.” Reader, be on thy guard : thou mayest respect, and to assist him in his intended departure. fall by comparatively small matters, while resolutely and

The weighty and important contents of this chapter successfully resisting those which require a giant's strength demand our most attentive consideration.

Abram is a

to counteract them. In every concern God is necessary : second time called to leave his country, kindred, and

seek him for the body and for the soul ; and do not think father's house, and go to a place he knew not. Every that any thing is too small or insignificant to interest him, thing was apparently against him but the voice of God. that concerns thy present or eternal peace. This, to Abraham, was sufficient; he could trust his

NOTES ON CHAPTER XIII. Maker, and knew he could not do wrong in following his Verse 1. Abram went up out of Egypt into the south) command. He is therefore proposed to us in the Scrip- Probably the south of Canaan ; as in leaving Egypt he tures as a pattern of faith, patience, and loving obedience. is said to come from the south, ver. 3. for the, southern When he received the call of God he spent no time in part of the promised land lay northeast of Egypt. useless reasonings about the call itself, his family circum Verse 2. Abram was very rich] So we find that the stances, the difficulties in the way, &c. &c. He was called, property of these patriarchal times did not consist in flocks and he departed, and this is all we hear on the subject. only, but also in silter and gold ; and in all these respecte Implicit faith in the promise of God, and prompt obe Abram wa 20 723 kabed meod, exceeding rich. Josephus dience to his commands, become us, not only as his says, that a part of this property was acquired by teaching creatures, but as sinners called to separate from evil the Egyptians arts and sciences. Thus did God fulfil his workers and wicked ways, and travel by that faith which promises to him, by protecting him and giving him a great worketh by love, in the way that leads to the paradise of profusion of temporal blessings, which were to him signs God.

and pledges of spiritual things. How greatly must the faith of this blessed man have Verse 3. Beth-el] See ch. xii. 8. been tried, when, coming to the very land in which he is Verse 6. Their substance was great] As their families promised so much blessedness, he finds, instead of plenty, increased, it was necessary their flocks should increase & grievous famine! Who in his circumstances would not also, as from those flocks they derived their clothing, food, have gone back to his own country and kindred ? Still he and drink : many also were offered in sacrifice to God. is not stumbled; prudence directs him to turn aside and They could not duell together] 1. Because their flocks go to Egypt, till God shall choose to remove this famine. were great ; 2. Because the Canaanites and the Perizzites Is it to be wondered at, that in this tried state he should had already occupied a considerable part of the land; and have serious apprehensions for the safety of his life ? 3. Because there appears to have been envy between the Sarai, his affectionate wife and faithful companion, he herdsmen of Abram and Lot. To prevent disputes among supposes he shall lose; her beauty he suspects will cause them, that might have ultimately disturbed the peace of her to be desired by men of power, whose will he shall the two families, it was necessary that a separation should not be able to resist. If he appeared to be her husband, take place. his death he supposes to be certain : if she pass for his The Canaanite and the Perizzite direlled then in the sister, he may be well used on her account. He will not land] That is, they were there at the time Abram and Lot tell a lie, but he is tempted to preraricate by suppressing came to fix their tents in the land. This is no more an a part of the truth. Here is a weakness which, however interpolation than that chap. xii. 6. we may be inclined to pity and excuse, we should never Verse 8. For we be brethren] We are of the same family, imitate. It is recorded with its own condemnation. He worship the same God-in the same way-have the same should have risked all rather than have prevaricated. But promises—and look for the same end. Why then should how could he think of lightly giving up such a wife? | there be strife? If it appear to be unavoidable from our Surely he who would not risk his life for the protection present situation, let that situation be instantly changed; and safety of a good wife, is not worthy of one. Here for no secular advantages can counterbalance the loss of his faith was deficient. He still credited the general peace. promise, and acted on that faith in reference to it; but he Verse 9. Is not the whole land before thee?] As the did not use his faith in reference to intervening circum- patriarch or head of the family, Abram, by prescriptive stances, to which it was equally applicable. Many trust right, might have chosen his own portion first, and ap-God for their souls and eternity, who do not trust in him pointed Lot his : but intent upon peace, and feeling pure for their bodies and for time. To him who follows God and parental affection for his nephew, he permitted him to fully in simplicity of heart, every thing must ultimately make his choice first. succeed. Had Abram and Sarai simply passed for what Verse 10. Like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto

10 | And Lot listed up his eyes, and beheld | him, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered place where thou art, * northward, and southevery where, before the Lord destroyed Sodom ward, and eastward, and westward: and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the Lord, 15 For all the land which thou seest, 'to thee like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto * Zoar. will I give it, and m to thy seed for ever.

11 Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jor 16 And I will make thy seed as the dust of dan; and Lot journeyed east: and they separated the earth: so that if a man can number the dust themselves the one from the other.

of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. 12 Abram dwelled in the land of Canaan, and 17 Arise, walk through the land in the length Lot dwelled in the cities of the plain, and of it, and in the breadth of it; for I will give it pitched his tent toward Sodom.

unto thee. 13 But the men of Sodom & were wicked and 18 | Then Abram removed his tent, and h sinners before the Lord exceedingly,

came and

• dwelt in the p plain of Mamre, 14 | And the Lord said unto Abram, which is in Hebron, and built there an altar after that Lot i was separated from unto the LORD.

A. M cir. 2087. BC. cir. 1917.

a Ch. 19. 17. Deut. 31. 3. Ps. 107. 31.-b Ch. 19. 24, 25.- Ch. 2. 10. Isai. 51.3.d Ch 14 2,8 & 19.224 Ch. 19. 29.- Ch. 14. 12. & 19. 1. 2 Pet. 2. 7,8-g Ch. 18 20. Ezek. 16 49.2 Pet. 27,8--h Ch. 6. 11.- Ver. 11.-k Ch. B. 14.-1 Ch. 12. 7. & 15, 18. & 17. 8. & 21. 7. & 26. 4. Num. 31. 12. Deut. 34. 4. Acts. 7. 5.

m 2 Chron. 20. 7. Ps 37. 22, 29. & 112 2.-n Ch. 15.5. & 22. 17. & 26. 4. & 2.14 & 32. 12. Exod. 32. 13. Num. 23. 10. Deut. 1.10. 1 Kings 4. 20. 1 Chron. 27. 2. Isai. 18. 19. Jer. 33 22. Rom. 4. 16, 17, 18. Heb. 11. 12.- Ch. 14. 13.-p Heb. plains.--- Ch. 35. 27. & 37. 14.

Zoar.] There is an obscurity in this verse which Houbi- such as is measured by the celestial luminaries : or a gant has removed by the following translation :-Ea hidden, unknown period, such as includes a completion autem, priusquam Sodomam Gomorrhamque Dominus or final termination of a particular cra, dispensation, delerit, erat, quá itur Segor, tota irrigua, quasi hortus &c. therefore, the first is its proper me ning; the latter Domini, et quasi terra Ægypti. “But before the Lord its accommodated meaning: see ihe note on chap. xvii. 7. had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, it was, as thou goest xxi. 33. to Zoar, well watered, like the garden of the Lord, and Verse 18. Abram removed his tent] Continued to travel like the land of Egypt.” As paradise was watered by the and pitch in different places, till at last he fixed his tent in four neighbouring streams; and as Egypt was watered by the plain, or by the oak of Mamre, see ch. xii. 6. which is the annual overflowing of the Nile, so were the plains of in Hebron ; i. e. the district in which Mamre was situated Jordan, and all the land on the way to Zoar, well watered was called Hebron. Mamre was an Amorite then living, and fertilized by the overflowing of Jordan.

with whom Abram made a league, ch. xiv. 13. and the Verse 11. Then lot chose all the plain) A little civility oak probably went by his name, because he was the posor good breeding is of great importance in the concerns sessor of the ground. Hebron is called Kirjath-arba, ch. of life; Lot either had none, or did not profit by it. He xxiii. 2. but it is very likely that Hebron was its primitive certainly should have left the choice to the patriarch, and name, and that it had the above appellation from being have gought to be guided by his counsel; but he took his the residence of four gigantic Anakim, for Kirjath-arba cron way, trusting to his own judgment, and guided only literally signifies, the city of the four ; see the note on by the sight of his eyes-he beheld all the land of Jordan, ch. xxiii. 2. that it was well watered, &c.-So he chose the land, Built there an altar to the Lord], On which he offered without considering the character of the inhabitants, or sacrifice, as the word naip mizbeach, from nai zabach, to what advantages or disadvantages it might afford him in slay, imports. spiritual things. This choice, as we shall see in the The increase of riches in the family of Abram must, in sequel, had nearly proved the ruin of his body, soul, and the opinion of many, be a source of felicity to them. If family.

earthly possessions could produce happiness, it must be Verse 13. The men of Sodom were wicked] own granted that they had now a considerable share of it in râyim, from yn rall, to break in pieces, destroy, and their power. But happiness must have its seat in the afflict : persons who broke the established order of things, mind, and like that, be of a spiritual nature ; consedestroyed and confounded the distinctions between right quently earthly goods cannot give it : so far are they from and wrong, and who afflicted and tormented both them- either producing or procuring it, that they always engender selves and others. And sinners, Onon chatayim, from care and anxiety, and often strifes and contentions. The Non chata, to miss the mark-to step wrong-o mis- peace of this amiable family had nearly been destroyed by carry; the same as tjesprave, in Greek, from *, negative, the largeness of their possessions! To prevent the most and kasts, to hit a mark; so a sinner is one who is serious misunderstandings, Abram and his nephew were ever aiming at happiness, and constantly missing his obliged to separate.-He who has much, in general, mark;

because, being wicked, radically evil within, wishes to have more; for the eye is not satisfied with every affection and passion depraved and out of order, seeing.-Lot, for the better accommodation of his flocks he seeks for happiness where it never can be found, in and family, chooses the most fertile district in that country; worldly honours and possessions, and in sensual gratifi- and even sacrifices reverence and filial affection at the cations, the end of which is, disappointment, affliction, shrine of worldly advantage : but the issue proved, that vexation, and ruin. Such were the companions Lot must a pleasant worldly prospect may not be the most advanhave in the fruitful land he had chosen ! This, however, tageous, even to our secular áffairs. Abram prospered amounts to no more than the common character of sinful greatly in the comparatively barren part of the land, while man; but the people of Sodom were exceedingly sinful | Lot lost all his possessions, and nearly the lives of himself and wicked before, or against the Lord: they were and family, in that land which appeared to him like the sinners of no common character; they excelled in un garden of the Lord, like a second paradise. Rich and righteousness, and soon filled up the measure of their fertile countries have generally luxurious, effeminate, and iniquities; see chap. xix.

profligate inhabitants ; so it was in this case : the inhabiVerse 14. The Lord said unto Abram] It is very tants of Sodom were sinners and exceedingly wicked, and likely that the Angel of the Covenant appeared to Abram their profligacy was of that kind which luxury produces ; in open day, when he could take a distinct view of the they fed themselves without fear, and they acted without length and breadth of this good land. The revelation shame. Lot, however, was, through the mercy of God, made, ch. xv. 5. was evidently made in the night, for preserved from this contagion : he retained his religion, then he was called to number the stars, which could not and this supported his soul and saved his life, when his be seen but in the night season : here he is called on to goods and his wife perished. Let us learn from this to be number the dust of the earth, ver, 16. which could not jealous over our own wills and wishes; to distrust flatterbe seen but in the daylight ; see on ch. xv. 1.

ing prospects, and seek and secure a heavenly inheritance. Verse 15. To thee will I give it, and to thy secd forever.) “Man wants but little ; nor that little long.” A man's This land was given to Abram, that it might lineally and life, the comfort and happiness of it, does not consist in legally descend to his posterity, and though Abram himself the multitude of the things he possesses.

“One house, cannot be said to have possessed it, Acts, vii. 5. yet it was one day's food, and one suit of raiment," says the Arabic the gift of God to him in behalf of his seed; and this was proverb, “are sufficient for thee ; and if thou die before always the design of God, not that Abram himself should noon, thou hast one half too much.” The example of possess is, but that his posterity should, till the manifesta- Abram, in constantly erecting an altar wherever he settled, tion of Christ in the flesh. And this is chiefly what is to is worthy of serious regard : he knew the path of duty be understood by the words for ever, by w âd olam, to was the way of safety; and that, if he acknowledged God the end of the present dispensation, and the commence in all his ways, he might expect him to direct all his steps: ment of the new. Obvy olam, means either ETERNITY, he felt his dependence on God, he invoked him through a which implies the termination of all time or duration, Mediator, and offered sacrifices in faith of the coming

ANRinit came to pass in the dating Averander; idin Shirinli fared Arioch king of Ellasar ; four


7 And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, The war of four confederate kings against the five kinge of Canaan, 1-2. The which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of confeturate kings overrun and pillage the whole country, 4-7; butle between them ani the kings of Canzan, 8, 9; the latter are deteate), and the principal

the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that part of the armies of the kings of Solom and Gomorrah lain, 10 ; on which used dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. two cities are plannered, 11, Lot, his goals, and his famly, are also taken an! carried away, 12 Abram, being informed of the disaster of his nephew, 13, arms 8 And there went out the king of Sodom, and three hundred and eightern of his servants and parries them, 14; overtakes and routes them, and recover lot, an.l his family, and their gol, 11-16; is met on

the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, his return by die king of Sixtom, and by Melchizerick, king of Salem, with retresh and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, offers to Atran all the 21ls he has taken from the enemy, 21; which Alora posi: them in the vale of Siddim ; as priest of the most high lied, the terith of all the spoila, 19, a. The king of Solom (the same is Zoar :) and they joined battle with tively refuses, having vowel to Gul to receive no recompense for a victory of winch he knew Globe the sole author, 22, 23; but desires that a proportion of the Apoilsbe given to Aner, Eschol, und Mamre, who had accompanivá hun on uuis expedition, 24 ) with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king

9 With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and king Shinarking of Ellasar, kings with five: Chedoslaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king 10 And the vale of Siddim was full of p slimeof nations ;

pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah 2 That these made war with Bera king of Hed, and fell there; and they that remained fled. Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, a to the mountain. Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of 11 And they took all the goods of Sodom Zebojim, and the king of Bela, which is a Zoar. and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went

3 All these were joined together in the vale their way. of Siddim, which is the salt sea.

12 | And they took Lot, Abram's brother's 4 Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, son who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. departed.

5 And in the fourteenth year came Chedorla 13 And there came one that had escaped, and omer, and the kings that were with him, and told Abram the Hebrew ; for "he dwelt in the emote & the Rephaims b in Ashteroth Karnaim, plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and i the Zuzims in Ham, k and the Emims in and brother of Aner: "and these were con1 Shaveh Kiriathaim.

federate with Abram. 6 mAnd the Horites in their mount Seir, unto 14 | And when Abram heard that his El-paran, which is by the wilderness.

brother was taken captive, he armed his

a Ch 10. 10. & 11. 2- Ini. Il. 11.- Deut. 29. 3. Ch. 19. 22.-c Dent 3. 17. Nuro. 34. 12. Josh, 3. 16. P 107 31.-- Ch.926.- Ch.15. ). Dent 3.11.-h Josh. 12. 4. & 13. 12. - Deut. 2 20.--k Deut. 2. 10,11.-- Or, the plain of Kiriathaim.

m Deut. 2. 12, 2 -- Or, the plain of Paran. Ch 21. 21. Num. 12. 16. & 133 0 2Chron. 31. 2.--p Ch 11. 3.-4 Ch. 19. 17, 30 --- Ver. 16 21.- Ch. 12.5.- Ch. 13. 12. --- Ch. 13. 18-Ver. 21.-w Ch. 13 8-xOr, led furth

Saviour : he found blessedness in this work; it was not Emims] A people great and many in the days of an empty service-he rejoiced to see the day of Christ, Moses, and tall as the Anakim ; they dwelt among the he saw it, and was glad; see on ch. xii. 8. Reader, has Moabites, by whom they were reputed giants ; Deut. ii. God an altar in thy house? Dost thou sacrifice to him? 10, 11. Dost thou offer up daily by faith, in behalf of thy soul Shareh kiriathaim] Rather as the margin, the plain and the souls of thy family, the Lamb of God who iaketh of Kiriathaim, which was a city afterward belonging to away the sin of the world? No man cometh unto the Sihon, king of Heslibon; Josh. xvi. 19. Father but by me, said Christ: this was true, not only Verse 6. The Florites) a people that dwelt in Mount from the incarnation, but from the foundation of the world. Seir, till Esau and his sons drove them thence; Deut. And to this another truth, not less comfortable, may be ii. 22. added: Whosoever cometh unto me I will in noivise cast El-paran] The plain or oak of Paran, which was a out.

city in the wilderness of Paran; ch. xxi. 21. NOTES ON CHAPTER XIV.

Verse 7. En-mishpat] The well of judgment; probably Verse 1. In the days of Amraphel] Who this king so called from the judgment pronounced by God on Moses was is not known; and yet, from the manner in which he and Aaron for their rebellion at that place; Num. XX. is spoken of in the text, it would seem that he was a 1-10. person well known, even when Moses wrote this account. Amalekites] So called afterward, from Amalek, son of But the Vulgate gives a different turn to the place, by Esau ; ch. xxxvi. 12. rendering the passage thus, Factum est in illo tempore Hazezon-tamar] Called by the Chaldee, En-gaddi; a ut Amraphel, " &c.” “It came to pass in that time, that city in the land of Canaan, which fell to the lot of Judah ; Amraphel," &c. The Chaldee Targum of Onkelos makes Josh. xv. 62. see also 2 Chron. xx. 2. It appears, from Amraphel king of Babylon; others make him king of Cant. i. 13. to have been a very fruitful place. Assyria; some make him the same as Nimrod, and others Verse 8. Bela, the same is Zoar] That is, it was called one of his descendants.

Zoar after the destruction of Sodom, &c. mentioned in Arioch king of Ellasar] Some think Syria is meant; ch. xix. but conjecture is endless where facts cannot be ascertained. Verse 10. Slime-pits] Places where asphaltus or bilu

Chedorlaomer, king of Elam) Dr. Shuckford thinks men sprung out of the ground; this substance abounded that this was the same as Ninyas, the son of Ninus and in that country. Semiramis; and some think him to be the same with Fell there] It either signifies they were defeated on this Keeumras, son of Doolaved, son of Arpha xad, son of spot, and many of them slain; or, that multitudes of them Shein, son of Noah; and that Elam means Persia ; see had perished in the bitumen pits which abounded there : ch. x. 22. The Persian historians unanimously allow that that the place was full of pits, we learn from the Hebrew, Kecumras, whose name bears some affinity to Chedor- which reads here na nina beeroth, beeroth, pits, pits, laomer, was the first king of the Peeshdadian dynasty. i. e, multitudes of pits. A bad place to maintain a fight

Tidal king of nations] On Goyim, different peoples on, or to be obliged to run through, in order to escape. or clans. Probably some adventurous person, whose sub Verse 11. They took all the goods, &c.] This was a jects were composed of refugees from different countries. predatory war, such as the Arabs carry on to the present

Verse 2. These made war with Bera, &c.] It appears, day ; pillage a city, town, or caravan, and then escape from ver. 4. that these five Canaanitish kings had been with the booty to the wilderness, where it would ever be subdued by Chedorlaomer, and were obliged to pay him unsafe, and often impossible to pursue them. tribute; and that, having been enslaved by him twelve Verse 12. They took Lot, &c.] The people being exyears, wishing to recover their liberty, they revolted in ceedingly wicked, had provoked God to afflict them by the thirteenth; in consequence of which, Chedorlaomer, means of those marauding kings ; and Lot also suffered, the following year, summoned to his assistance three of being found in company with the workers of iniquity. his vassals, invaded Canaan, fought with, and discomfited Every child remembers the fable of the geese and cranes; the kings of the Pentapolis, or five cities, Sodom, Go- the former being found feeding where the latter were morrah, Zeboiim, Zoar, and Admah, which were situated destroying the grain, were all taken in the same net. Let in the fruitful plain of Siddim, having previously overrun him that readeth understand. the whole land.

Verse 13. Abram the Hebrer] See on ch. x. 21. It is Verse 5. Rephaims] A people of Canaan, ch. xv. 20. very likely that Abram had this appellation from his com

Ashteroth) A city of Basan, where Og afterward reigning from beyond the river Euphrates to enter Canaan : ed; Josh. xiii. 31.

for ayn haabery, which we render the Hebrer, comes Zuzims) Nowhere else spoken of unless they were the from nay âbar, to pass orer, or come from beyond. It is same with the Zamzumims, Deut. ii. 20. as some imagine. I supposed by many, that he got this name from Eber or

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