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INTRODUCTION

TO THE

SECOND BOOK

BOOK OF SAMUEL,

OTHERWISE CALLED

THE SECOND BOOK OF THE KINGS.

A S this is a continuation of the preceding history, without any interruption, it can be scarcely called another book. Originally, this and the preceding

made but one book; and they have been separated without reason or necessity. For a general account of both, see the Preface to the First Book of Samuel.

It is generally allowed that this book comprehends a period of forty years, from about A. M. 2949 to 2939. See the prefixed chronological account.

It has been divided into three parts: in the first, we have an account of the happy commencement of David's reign, chap. i-x. In the second, David's unhappy fall, and its miserable consequences, chap. xi-xvui. In the third, his restoration to the divine favour, the re-establishment of his kingdom, and the events whích signalized the latter part of his reign, chap. xix-xxiv.

733

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Year from the Creation, 2949. --- Year before the dycarnation, 1955...Year before the

first Olympiad,

979 - Year before the building of Rome, 302. -Year of the Julian Period of the 19.Moon, .

,

435. Anno ante

CHAPTER I.

I was sure that he could not live after that he An Amalekite comes to David, and informs him that the Philistines hail routed the

was fallen: and I took the crown that was upon Taraclites and that Saul and his sons were snin, And pretends that he him his head, and the bracelet that was on his arm, elf had de patchel Sanl, finsling him rearly to fall alive into the hands of the Philia unes, and hard bronght his crown and bracelets to Davi], 5--10. Davel and his mea and have brought them hither unto my lord. mourn for Santanhis sons, 11, 12. He orders the Amalekite to be slain, who professed that he had killed Saul, 13-16. Daviul's funeral svag for Saul and Jonathan,

11 | Then David took hold on his clothes, and 17--27.

krent them; and likewise all the men that were A. M. 2919.

OW it came to pass, after the with him:
B. C. 105).
An Exo lar.

12 And they mourned, and wept, and fasted returned from the slaughter of the until even for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, 1. Olymp. 279, Amalekites, and David had abode two and for the people of the LORD, and for the house days in Ziklag ;

of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword. 2 It came even to pass on the third day, that, 13 | And David said unto the young man that behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul, told him, Whence art thou? And he answered,

with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head: I am the son of a stranger, an Amalekite. and so it was, when he came to David, that he 14 And David said unto him, "How wast thou fell to the earth, and did obeisance.

not mafraid to "stretch forth thine hand to de3 And David said unto him, From whence stroy the Lord's anointed ? comest thou? And he said unto him, Out of the 15 And · David called one of the young men, camp of Israel am I escaped.

and said, Go near, and fall upon him. And he 4 And David said unto him, 4 How went the smote him that he died. matter? I pray thee, tell me. And he answered, 16 And David said unto him, F Thy blood be That the people are fled from the battle, and upon thy head; for 'thy mouth hath testified many of the people also are fallen and dead ; against thee, saying, I have slain the Lord's and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also. anointed.

5 And David said unto the young man that 17 | And David lamented with this lamentatold him, How knowest thou that Saul and Jona- tion over Saul, and over Jonathan his son: than his son be dead?

18 (* Also he bade them teach the children of 6 And the young man that told him, said, As Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written I happened by chance upon mount Gilboa, be- in the book of Jasher :) hold, Saul leaned upon his spear; and, lo, the 19 The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high chariots and horsemen followed hard after him. places: how are the mighty fallen!

7 And when he looked behind him, he saw me, 20 w Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the and called unto me; and I answered, 6 Here streets of Askelon; lest the daughters of the

Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the un8 And he said unto me, Who art thou? And circumcised triumph. I answered him, I am an Amalekite.

21 Ye ? mountains of Gilboa, let there be no 9 He said unto me again, Stand, I pray thee, dew, neither let there be rain upon you, nor fields upon me, and slay me; for hanguish is come of offerings: for there the shield of the mighty upon me, because my life is yet whole in me. is vilely cast away, the shield of Saul as though

10 So I stood upon him, and íslew him, because he had not been banointed with oil.

um I.

al Sam. 30. 17, 23.-b Ch. 4. 10.-c 1 Sam. 4. 12. Hebwha! res, &c. 1 San. 4. 16.-e 1 Sam. 31. 1.- Seel Sam. 31, 2, 3, 1.- Heb. Behold me.- Or, my coal of mail, or, my embroidered coat hindereth me, that my, $c-i Judg. 9.51 - Ch 3. 31. & 13. 31.-I Namb. 128.-m I Saun. 31. 4-01 Sam. 24. 6. & 26. 9. Psa. 105. 15.

o Ch. 4. 10, 12-p 1Sam 26. 9. 1 Kinga 2 32, 33, 37.-r Ver. 10. Luke 19. 22-31 Sam. 31.3.- Josh. 1033 -11 0r, of the upright - Ver. . Mac. 9. 21.-*1 San 319 Mic. 1. 10. See Judg. 16. 2. - See Exol. 15. 20. Judg. 11.31. 1 Sam. 186-5 | San. 31. 1.-21 Sam. 31. 1.- So Judg. 5. 2. Job 3 3, 1. Jer. 20. 14-51 Sau le 1.

NOTES ON CHAPTER I.

Verse 16. Thy blood be upon thy head] If he killed Verse 2. A man came out of the camp] The whole ac Saul, as he said he did, then he deserved death : at that count which this young man gives is a fabrication : in many time it was not known to the contrary; and this man was of the particulars it is grossly self-contradictory. There executed on his own confession. is no fact in the case but the bringing of the croion or Verse 17. David lamented] See this lamentation, and diadem, and bracelets of Saul; which, as he appears in the notes on it, at the end of this chapter. have been a plunderer of the slain, he found on the field Verse 18. The use of the bow] The use of is not in the of battle: and he brought them to David, and told the lie Hebrew; it is simply the bow, that is, a song thus entitled. of having despatched Saul, merely to ingratiate himself See observations at ihe end. with David.

Verse 21. As though he had not been] Instead of 2 Verse 8. I am an Amalekite.) Dr. Delaney remarks, beli, not, I read 15 keley, INSTRUMENTS. that an Amalekite took that crown from off the head of Anointed with oil.] See the observations at the end. Saul, which he had forfeited by his disobedience in the case Chap. i. ver. 18, &c.--He bade them teach the children of Amalek.

of Judah the use of the bow, nwp kasheth. Verse 10. The crownand the bracelet] The crown was The word kasheth is to be understood of the title of the probably no more than a royal fillet, or diadem, both being song which immediately follows, and not of the use of the the ensígns of royalty. It is sometimes customary, in the bow, as our translation intimates. East, for a sovereign prince to give a crown and bracelets, Many of David's psalms have titles prefixed to them: when investing others with dominion or authority over some are termed Shosannim, some Maschil, Nchiloth, certain provinces. Had Saul these in token of his being Neginoth, &c. and this one here Kasheth, or The Bore, God's vicegerent? and that he held the kingdom from him because it was occasioned by the Philistine archers. 1 Sam. alone ?

xxxi. 1-3. “And the archers hit him."

436. Anno ante

Saul et Jonathan

22 From the blood of the slain, from the fat

CHAPTER II. of the mighty, 'the bow of Jonathan turned not Davil, by the direction of Gud, goes up to Hebron, and is there arrinted king over

the house of Judich, 1-1 lle congratulates the inhabitants of Jalanh-gilead on back, and the sword of Saul returned not empty. their kinders in rescuing the bodies of Saul and his sons froin the Philistines, 5--7. 23 Saul and Jonathan were lovely and a plea Abaer anoines Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, king over Gilead, the Ashurites, Jezreel,

Ephrain, Benjamin, and all Israel; over whom he reigned two years, 8.-10. sant in their lives, and in their death they were Davu reigns over Judah, in Hlebrou, seven years and eix months, 11. Account of

a batile teiwen Abnur, captain of de leraclius, an! Joab, captain of the men of not divided: they were swifter than eagles, they

Juld; in which the former are routed, with the loss of three hundred and sisty

men : but Asibel, the brother of Joab, is killed by Abner, 12-32 me ye ranuchters of Israel, weep over Saul: A David ca inquired of the Lord, say

ND it came to pass after this, that An Exod. Isr. who clothed you in scarlet, with other delights; who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel. ing, Shall I go up into any of the cities 1. Olymp. 279.

25 How are the mighty fallen in the midst of of Judah? and the LORD said unto him, Go up. the battle! O Jonathan, thou wast slain in thine And David said, Whither shall I go up? And he high places.

said, Unto Hebron. 26 I am distressed for thee, my brother Jona 2 So David went up thither, and his two than; very pleasant hast thou been unto me: wives also. Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abi

thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love gail, Nabal's wife, the Carmelite. of women.

3 And his men that were with him did David 27 & How are the mighty fallen, and the wea- bring up, every man with his household: and pons of war perished.

they dweit in the cities of Hebron. el Sam. 19. 4.-- Or, sweet. Judg. 14. 18.-P1 Sam 18.1, 3. & 192 & 20. 17, bi Sam. 30. 31. Verse 11. Ch. 5, 1,3 1 Kings 2 11.-c 1 Sam. 30.5-2 1 Sam. 41, & 23.16. - Ver. 9.- Judg. 1. I. 1 Sam. 23. 2, 4, 9. & 30. 7, 8.

27. 2, 3. & 30. 1. I Chiron. 12 1.

Ne Isetentnr filiæ Philistæorun, But especially respecting the bou of Jonathan, “which

Ne exultent filiæ incircumcisorum. returned not back from the blood of the slain," as the song

Montes Gilbani, super vos itself expresses. And David could not but remember the

Nec ros, nec plusta, neque agri primitiarum;

Jbi enim abjmetus fuit clypeus fortium, bow of Jonathan, out of which "the arrow was shot be

Clypeus Saulis, arma inuncu oleo!

Sine sanguine militum, yond the lad," 1 Sam. xx. 36. It was the time when that

Sine alip: fortium, covenant was made, and that afiection expressed between

Arcus Jonatlianis non retrocesserat;

Gla liusque Salie non redierat incassun. them, " which was greater than the love of women." On these accounts the song was entitled Kasheth ; or,

Amabiles erant et jucundi in vilis suis,

Eto murte ma non separati. The song of the Bow; and David commanded the chief

Pre aquilis veloces ! musicians, Ethan, Heman, and Jeduthun, to teach the

Pre leonibus forten!

Filie Isreclis deflete Sandem; children of Judah how to sing it.

Qui cecino cuin deliciis voe vestirit, " It is written in the book of Jasher,cau BißXLOV TOV

Qui vesisus veetris ornarnenta imposant atirea !

Quumulo ceciderunt fories, in molio belli! Evdovs, Sept. "In the Book of the upright."

Jonathan, super excelea tua miles /

Verror in angustiis, tui causa, NOINT, NDD Siphra dioraitha, “ The book of the

Frater mi, Jonathan! Law." Jonathan.

Mihi fuisli alioun jocundus The Arabic says, “Behold it is written in the Book of

Mibi tuus amor admodum mirabilis,

Mulicrum exuperans amorem! Ashee; this is the Book of Samuel;" the interpretation

Quono lo cecilerunt fortes, of which is, "book of songs, or canticles."

Et perierunt arma belli l-Dissertation i. pag. 122. This lamentation is justly almired as a picture of dis In ver. 21. I have inserted sa keley, for sa beli. Dr. tress, the most tender and the most striking; unequally Delancy rightly observes that the particle sa beli, is not divided by zrief into longer and shorter breaks, as nature used in any part of the Bible in the sense of quasi non, as could pour them forth from a mind interrupted by the al- though not ; in which sense it must be used here, if it be ternate recurrence of the most lively images of lore and retained as a genuine reading; the shield of Saul as greatness.

though it had not been anointed with oil. His reverence for Saul, and his love for Jonathan, have In a MS. written about the year 1200, numbered 30 in their strongest colourings; but their greatness and bravery Kennicott's Bible, sa keley is found; and also in the first come full upon him, and are expressed with peculiar cdilion of the whole Hebrew Bible printed Soncini 1488. energy.

Neither the Syriac nor Arabic versions, nor the Chaldec Being himself a warrior, it is in that character he sees paraphrase, acknowledge the negative particle sa beli, their greatest excellence; and, though his imagination which they would have done had it been in the copies hurries from one point of recollection to another, yet we from which they translated. It was easy to make the hear him at first, at last, every where, lamentingHow mistake, as there is such a similarity between a beth and are the mighty fallen!

> caph; the line, therefore, should be read thus—The It is almost impossible to read the noble original with shield of Saul, weapons anointed with oil. out finding every word swollen with a sigh, or broken In ver. 22. aur nashog, to oblain, attain, seems to have with a sob. A heart pregnant with distress, and striving been written for nog nasog, to recede, return. The former to utter expressions descriptive of its feelings, (which are destroys the sense; the latter, which our translation has repeatedly interrupted by an excess of grief,) is most sen- followed, and which is supported by the authority of 30 sibly painted throughout the whole. Even an English MSS. makes it not only intelligible but beautiful. reader may be convinced of this, from the following spe In verses 19, 22, and 25, Ssnand Dibba chalal and chal. cimen, in European characters:-

lim occur, which we translate the sLAIN, but which Dr. 19. Harbi Yishrael cl bamothecha chalal;

Kennicoti, I think, from good authority, renders soldier, Eirl naprel Giborim! 20. Altas gilu beyoth,

and soldiers; and thus the version is made more consistAl cusru berhut oth Ashkelon;

ent and beautiful. Pentionarhran beneth Pelisheim,

sbo chalal, signifies to bore, or pierce through ; and 2. Hare baghilba al tal,

this epithet might be well given to a soldier-9. d. the Veal matar alıkon ush'de terumoth; Ki sam nigrul mage Gibbyrim.

PIERCER, because his business is to transfix, or pierce his
M120 Shoul kelry Mashiach bash hamen !

enemies with sword, spear, and arrows.
22 Mm Chalalim nichele Gabrim,
Kheth Yannthen 19 max og rekor;

If it be translated soldiers, in the several places of the
Vechereh Shaul lo laskub reykan.

Old Testament, where we translate it SLAIN, or WOUNDED, 2. Sa l'iranathan, Hanneachitanneimim bechaiyihem,

the sense will be much mended: See Judges xx. 31, 39. lenotno niphralu. Minneharin kille, pinarayit geberu!

Psa. Ixxxix. 10. Prov. vii. 26. Jer. li. 4, 47, 49. Ezek. 24. B noth Yixhond ei hal bekenan;

xi. 6, 7. xxi. 14. In several others it retains its radical Hannallisbrein shani inatarin, Hammaleh cuti saktb altrbuhkan.

signification of piercing, wounding, &c. 25. Eich naprlu Gabrim betoch hunmilchamght

AFTER these general observations, I leave the particular Yehongthan al betrolecha chalal! 28. Tarlinlecha achi

beauties of this inimitable song to be sought out by the inYch michoa, nomeali meod,

telligent reader. Much has been written upon this, which Niphleatha arracho di meahabath nasliin! 27. Eich nadhelu Gitorin,

cannot, consistently with the plan of these notes, be adVayoboiu kele Vilchanch!

mitted here. See Delaney, Kennicott, Louth, &c.; and The three last verses in this sublime lamentation have above all, let the reader examine the Hebrew text. sense and sound 80 connected as to strike every reader.

NOTES ON CHAPTER IT. Dr. Kennicott, from whom I have taken several of the Verse 1. David inquired of the Loon) By means of preceding remarks, gives a fine Latin version of this song, Abiathar, the priest; for he did not know whether the difwhich I here subjoin :

ferent tribes were willing to receive him, though he was O decne Israelis, aliper excelsa tha milos!

fully persuaded that God had appointed' him king over Qomto flat fortes !

Israel
Nolite io ficare in plateis Ascalonis :

Unto Hebron] The metropolis of the tribe of Judah,

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Nolite inliginin Gatho.

4 e And the men of Judah came; and there | vants of Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, An Exod. 1st. 138 they anointed David king over the house of Ju- went out from Mahanaim P to Gibeon. 1. Olyrep. 27. dah. And they told David, saying, That 'the 13 And Joab the son of Zeruiah, and the sermen of Jabesh-gilead were they that buried vants of David, went out, and met together by Saul.

s the pool of Gibeon: and they sat down, the one 5 | And David sent messengers unto the men on the one side of the pool, and the other on the of Jabesh-gilead, and said unto them, . Blessed other side of the pool. be ye of the LORD, that ye have showed this 14 And Abner said to Joab, Let the young kindness unto your lord, even unto Saul, and men now arise, and play before us. And Joab have buried him.

said, Let them arise. 6 And now h the LORD show kindness and 15 Then there arose, and went over by numtruth unto you: and I also will requite you this ber, twelve of Benjamin, which pertained to kindness, because ye have done this thing. Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, and twelve of the

7 Therefore now let your hands be strength- servants of David. ened, and i be ye valiant : for your master Saul 16 And they caught every one his fellow by is dead, and also the house of Judah have anoint- the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow's ed me king over them.

side; so they fell down together: wherefore that 8 | But * Abner the son of Ner, captain of place was called · Helkath-hazzurim, which is 1 Saul's host, took m Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, in Gibeon. and brought him over to Mahanaim;

17 And there was very sore battle that day; 9 And made him king over Gilead, and over and Abner was beaten, and the men of Israel, the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over before the servants of David. Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all 18 | And there were "three sons of Zeruiah Israel.

there,"Joab, and Abishai, and Asahel: and Asa10 Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, was forty years hel was ' as light w of foot * as ' a wild roe. old when he began to reign over Israel, and 19 And Asahel pursued after Abner; and in reigned two years. But the house of Judah going he turned not to the right hand nor to the followed David.

left z from following Abner. 11 And the time that David was king in 20 Then Abner looked behind him, and said, Hebron over the house of Judah was seven Art thou Asahel? And he answered, I am. years and six months.

21 And Abner said to him, Turn thee aside to 12 | And Abner the son of Ner, and the ser- thy right hand or to thy left, and lay thee hold

e Verse Il Ch. 5. 5. 1 Mac. 2 57. - San 31. 11, 13.- Roth 2 20. & 3. 10. Psalm 115.15--2 Tim. 1.16, 18.-i flebor ye the sons of valour.-k 1 Sam. 11.50. I Heb the host 2sch was Saul's.-in Or, Echbaal i Chron. 8. 33. & 9. 39.--u Ch. 5. 5. 1 Kinga 2. 11.

o Heb. number of days.-p Josh. 18. 35.-r Heb. them together.-s Jer 41 12 Tha: ia, the field of strong men.--u I Chron. 2 16.- I Chron. 12. - Beam of his feet. - * Heb. as one of the roes that is in the fidd. -- Pse. Iš 3. Cain 17. & 14.- Heb. from after Abrer.

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one of the richest regions in Judea. The mountains of observed, that Ish-bosheth reigned all the time that Darid Hebron were famed for fruits, herbage, and honey; and reigned in Hebron; which was seren years and siz many parts were well adapted for vines, olives, and dif months. Perhaps the meaning of the writer is this : Ishferent kinds of grain, and abounding in eprings of excel-bosheth reigned two years before any but the tribe of Judab lent water, as the most accurate travellers have asserted. had attached themselves to the interest of David. Some

Verse 4. Anointa David king] He was anointed be think, that Abner in effect reigned the five last years of fore by Samuel, by which he acquired jus ad regnum, a Ish-bosheth, who had only the name of king after the two right to the kingdom: by the present anointing he had first years. Or, the text may be understood thus: When jus in regno, authority orer the kingdom. The other Ish-boshcth had reigned tuo years orer Israd, ke rus parts of the kingdom were, as yet, attached to the family forty ycars of age. of Saul.

Houbigant, dissatisfied with all the common modes of Verse 5. David sent messengers unlo-Jabes!-gilead] solution, proposes to read now now sheshilh shanah, six This was a generous and noble act, highly indicative of years; for the won shetim shanim, treo years, of the the grandeur of David's mind. He respected Saul as his text, which, he contends, is a solecism; for, in pure Hebrew, once legitimate sovereign; he loved Jonathan as his most the words would be now inw, as they are every where intimate friend. The former had greatly injured him, and read in the first book : and nav is the reading of eleven sought his destruction; but even this did not cancel his of Kennicott's MSS. and nine of De Rossi's; but the numrespect for him as the anointed of God, and as the king of ber tuo is acknowledged by all the ancient versions, and Israel. This brings to my remembrance that fine speech by all the MSS. yet collated. The critical reader may of M. Saurin, when speaking of the banishment of the examine Houbigant on the place. After all, probably the Protestants from France, by the revocation of the edict of expedition mentioned in the succeerling verses, is that to Nantes. He thus at the Hague apostrophizes Lewis XIV. which the writer refers, and from which he dutes. Ishtheir persecutor: El toi, prince redoutable, que j'honorai bosheth had reigned two years without any rupture with jailis comme mon roi, el que je respecte encore comme le David, or his men, till under the direction of Abner, capflau du Seigneur. '" And thou, o formidable prince, tain of his host, the Israelites passed over Jordan, from whom I once honoured as my, king, and whom I still Mahanaim to Gibeon; and being opposed by Joab, captain reverence as the scourge of the Lord !"

of David's host, that battle took place which is described Verse 7. Now let your hands be strengthened] David in the following verses. i certainly wished to attach the men of Jabesh to his in Verse 14. Let the young men--play before us.) This

terest: he saw that they were generous and valiant; and was diabolical play, where each man thrust his sword into must be of great service to him whose part they espoused; the body of the other, so that the twenty-four (twelve en and he was, no doubt, afraid that they would attach them- each side) fell down dead together! but this was the signal selves to the house of Suul, in considera ion of the emi- for that sanguinary skirmishi which immediately took place. nent services Saul had rendered them, in rescuing them Verse 16. Caught every one his fellone by the head] from Nahaslı, king of the Ammonites.

Probably by the beard, if these persons were not too young Verse 8. Abner the son of Ner] This man had long to have one; or by the hair of the head. Alexander ordered been one of the chicf captains of Saul's army, and com all the Macedonians to shave their beards; and being asked niander-in-chief on several occasions: he was probably by Parmenio, why they should do so? answered, "Dost envious of David's power, by whom he had often been thou not know, that in battle there is no better hold than outgencralled in the field.

the beard ?" Verse 9. Made him king over Gilead] These were Helkath-hazzurim) The portion of the mighty;" or, places beyond Jordan; for, as the Philistines had lately "The inheritance of those who were slain,” according to routed the Israelites, they were, no doubt, in possession of the Targim. some of the principal towns; and were now enjoying the Verse 18. Asahel was as light of fool as a wild roe.) fruits of their victory. Abner was, therefore, afraid to To be surist of foot, was deemed a great accomplishment bring the new king, to any place where he was likely to in the heroes of antiquity: Todas wxvs Axid devs, the swifimeet with much resistance, till he had got his army well footed Achilles, is an epithet which Homer gives to that recruited.

hero no less than thirty times in the course of the Ilias. It Who the Ashuriles were, is not generally agreed; pro was a qualification also among the Roman soldiers : they bahly men of the tribe of Ashur.

were taught both to run swisily and to suim well. Verse 10. Is!-bosheth-reigned two years) It is well Verse 21. Take thee his armour] It seems Asahel

A. M. 2956.
B. C. 1013.

413. Anno ante

on one of the young men, and take thee his a ar 2 T And funto David were sons born 6 in Hemour. But Asahel would not turn aside from bron: and his first-born was Amnon, of Ahifollowing him.

noam the Jezreelitess; 22 And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn 3 And his second, i Chileab, of Abigail the thee aside from following me: wherefore should wise of Nabal the Carmelite; and the third, I smite thee to the ground ? how then should I Absalom, the son of Maacah, the daughter of hold un my face to Joab thy brother?

Talmai king of " Geshur; 23 Howbeit he refused to turn aside: where 4 And the fourth, 1 Adonijah, the son of Hagfore Abner, with the hinder end of his spear, gith; and the fifth, Shephatiah, the son of Abital; smote him under the fifth rib, that the spear 5 And the sixth, Ithream, by Eglah, David's came out behind him; and he fell down there, wife. These were born to David in Hebron. and died in the same place: and it came to pass, 6 T And it came to pass, while there was war that as many as came to the place where Asahel between the house of Saul and the house of Dafell down and died, stood still.

vid, that Abner made himself strong for the 24 Joab also and 'Abishai pursued after Abner: house of Saul. and the sun went down when they were come 7 And Saul had a concubine, whose name was to the hill of Ammah, that lieth before Giah, by * Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and Ish-bosheth the way of the wilderness of Gibeon.

said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou "gone in 25 | And the children of Benjamin gathered unto my father's concubine? themselves together after Abner, and became 8 Then was Abner very wroth for the words one troop, and stood on the top of a hill.

of Ish-bosheth, and said, Am I oa dog's head, 26 Then Abner called to Joab, and said, Shall which against Judah do show kindness this day the sword devour for ever? knowest thou not unto the house of Saul thy father, to his brethat it will be bitterness in the latter end ? how thren, and to his friends, and have not delivered long shall it be then, ere thou bid the people thee into the hand of David, that thou chargest return from following their brethren?

me to-day with a fault concerning this woman? 27 And Joab said, As God liveth, unless thou 9 P So do God to Abner, and more also, exhadst spoken, surely then d in the morning the cept, 9 as the LORD hath sworn to David, even people had gone up every one from following so I do to him; his brother.

10 To translate the kingdom from the house 28 So Joab blew a trumpet, and all the people of Saul, and to set up the ihrone of David over stood still, and pursued after Israel no more, Israel, and over Judah, "from Dan even to Beerneither fought they any more.

sheba. 29 And Abner and his men walked all that 11 And he could not answer Abner a word night through the plain, and passed over Jordan, again, because he feared him. and went through all "Bithron, and they came 12 | And Abner sent messengers to to Mahanaim.

David on his behalf, saying, Whose An Exol. lar. 30 | And Joab returned from following Abuer: | is the land ? saying, also, Make thy and when he had gathered all the people toge- league with me, and, behold, my hand 1. Olymp. 92 ther, there lacked of David's servants nineteen shall be with thee, to bring about all Israel unto men and Asahel.

thee. 31 But the servants of David had smitten of 13 | And he said, Well; I will make a league Benjamin, and of Abner's men, so that three with thee: but one thing I'require of thee, that hundred and threescore men died.

is, · Thou shalt not see my face, except thou 32 | And they took up Asahel, and buried him first bring u Michal, Saul's daughter, when thou in the sepulchre of his father, which was in comest to see my face. Beth-lehem. And Joab and his men went aii 14 And David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth, night, and they came to Hebron at break of day. Saul's son, saying, Deliver me my wife Michal, CHAPTER III.

which I espoused to me 'for a hundred foreskins Account of the chiliren born to David in Hetron, 1–5. Abner being accused hy of the Philistines.

Ish-basheth of laipiliarities with Rizpah, Saul's concubine, he is enragel; offers his services to David; goes to Hebron, and makes a league with him, 6–22.

15 And Ish-bosheth sent, and took her from 10 to her husband, even from w Phaltiel the son of should not be permitted to rulurn, 23-25. He follows Abner, and treacherously sinys him, 25, n. David. hearing of it, is greatly incensed against Joab, and Laish. pronounces a curse upon him, and upon his family, 23, 29. He commands a

16 And her husband went with her * along creation over Abrer, 34, 34. The people wobert Davie to take meat, titt he weeping behind her to Bahurim. Then said Joab and his brothers; the people are pleased with his conduct, 35–39. Abner unto him, Go, return. And he returned.

Now.there was long war between 17 | And Abner had communication with the

the house of Saul and the house elders of Israel, saying, Ye sought for David 2 in 1. Olymp. 217. of David: but David waxed stronger times past to be king over you: and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed 18 Now then do it : for the Lord hath spoken weaker and weaker.

of David, saying, By the hand of my servant Or, poil. Julg. 14. 19.-- Ch. 3. 27. & 4. 6. & 21. 10.-c Ver. 14. Prov. 17. 14, & 16.9.-p Ruth 1 17. 1 Kings 19. 2-918an. 15. 2. & 16.1, 12 & 28. 17. I Chron. alle from the morning - Cr, gone away-- Chron. 3. 14.-1 Chron. 29

12. 2.-Judy. 20. 1. Ch. 17 11. I King 4.25.- Hebraying -- So Gen 13.327.-hi Sun. 25. 13 - Or, Daniel. I Chron 3.1.-k 1 Sam 27. 8. Ch 13 37. ul San. 15. 20.- I Sam. 18. 25, 27.-W1 Sun 25. 44. Pulti.- Hleb going and 1 Kings 1.5.-In Ch 21.8, 10.- Ch. 16. 21.- Deut. 2 18. 1 Sam 21. 15. Ch 9. s. weeping--y Chap. 19. 16.-- Heb. both yesterday and the third day, -- Verse 2 wished to get the armour of Abner as a trophy; this also

NOTES ON CHAPTER III. was greatly coveted by ancient heroes. Abner wished to Verse 1. There was long war] Frequent battles and spare him, for fear of exciting Joab's enmity; but, as Asahel skirinishes took place between the followers of David and was obstinate in the pursuit, and was swifter of foot than the followers of Ish-bosheth, after the two years mentioned Abner, the latter saw that he must either kill or be killed; above, to the end of the fifth year, in which Ish-bosheth and therefore he lurned his spear, and ran it through the was slain by Rechab and Baanah. body of Asahel. This turning about, that he might pierce Verse 6. Abner made himself strong] This strengthhim, is what we translate the hinder end of his spear. ening of himself, and going in to the late king's concuThis slaying of Asahel cost Abner his life; as we shall find bine, were most evident proofs that he wished to seize in the next chapter.

upon the government. See 1 Kings ii. 21, 22. xii. 8. Verse 27. And Joab said) The meaning of this verse xvi. 21. appears to be this: If Abner had not provoked the battle, Verse 8. Am I a dog's head] Dost thou treat a man (see ver. 14.) Joab would not have atiаcked the Israelites with indignity who has been the only prop of thy tottering that day; as his orders were probably to act on the defen- kingdom, and the only person who could make head sive. Therefore the blame fell upon Israel.

against the house of David ? Verse 29. They came to Mahanaim.) So they returned Verse 9. Ercept, as the Lord hath sworn to David) to the place whence they set out. See ver. 12. This was And why did he not do this before, when he knew that

Was he not the commencement of the civil wars between Israel and God has given the kingdom 10 David ? Judah: and properly the commencement of the division now, according to his own concession, fighting against of the two kingdoms; through which both nations were God? deluged with blood.

Verse 11. He could not answer Abner a word] MiserVOL. I.-93

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