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Jer. 3. 6. 1 Sam. 129, 11. Paul. 106. 42
name, like unto the name of the great men that
are in the earth. David consulta the prophet Nathan about builling a temple for the Lord, and is en couraged by him to do it, I-3. That night Nathan receives a revelation from God, 10 Moreover, I will appoint a place for my the divine merupay and David mugnilis God for his inercies, and makes plages people Israel, and will plant them, that they and supplication, 11-23
may dwell in a place of their own, and move no An Exod. Isr.
449. Anne ante king sat in his house, and the LORD afflict them any more, as beforetime, 1. Olymp. 56.
had given him rest round about from 11 And as : since the time that I commanded all his enemies;
judges to be over my people Israel, and have 2 That the king said unto Nathan the pro- caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also phet, See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee & but the ark of God dwelleth within 1 curtains. a house.
3 And Nathan said to the king, Go, do all 12 | And when thy days be fulfilled, and that is i in thine heart; for the LORD is with thou «shalt sleep with thy fathers, • I will set thee.
up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out 4 | And it came to pass that night, that the of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. word of the LORD came unto Nathan, saying, 13'' He shall build a house for my name, and
5 Go and tell k my servant David, Thus saith I will 5 establish the throne of his kingdom for the LORD, Shalt thou build me a house for me ever. to dwell in ?
14 " I will be his father, and he shall be my 6 Whereas I have not dwelt in any house son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him m since the time that I brought up the children with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day: but children of men: have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle. 15 But my mercy shall not depart away from
7 In all the places wherein I have walked him, kas I took it from Saul, whom I put away with all the children of Israel, spake I a word before thee. with P any of the tribes of Israel, whom I com 16 And thine house and thy kingdom shall manded to feed my people Israel, saying, Why be established for ever before thee: thy throne build ye not me a house of cedar ?
shall be established for ever. 8 Now therefore so shalt thou say unto my 17 According to all these words, and accordservant David, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, ing to all this vision, so did Nathan speak unto ! I took thee from the sheepcote, from follow- David. ing the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over 18 | Then went King David in, and sat beIsrael:
fore the LORD, and he said, in Who am I, O 9 And + I was with thee whithersoever thou LORD God? and what is my house, that thou wentest,, and have cut off all thine enemies hast brought me hitherto ?
out of thy sight, and have made thee wa great 19 And this was yet a small thing in thy sight, el Chron. 17. 1, &c - Ch. 5. 11.-- See Acts 7. 46--h Exod. 28. 1. & 40. 21. v Hebr. from thy face.--- Gen. 12 2. --* Psal. 44. 2 & 30. 8. i l Kings & 17, 18 I Chron. 22. 7. & 28. 2.-k Heb. to my servant, lo David. Amos 9. 15.-Pe S9. 22. Judg. 2 14, 15, 16. I See I King 5.3.& &. 19. I Chron. 2. 8. & 28. 3. ---m 1 Kinga 8. 16. --- Exod. 40. a Ver. 1.- Exod. 1. 21.
1 Kings 11. 38.-c 1 Kings 2'1.- Dent. 31. 16. 18, 19, 34. Lev. 23. 11, 12 Deut. 23. 11. ---p1 Chron. 17. 6, any of the judges. 1 Kings 1. 21. Acts 13 36-el Kings & 20. Psa. 132. 11.- I Kings 5. 5. & 6. 12 9 Ch. 5.2 Psa. 78, 71, 72 Matt 26. Acus 20. 2.-rl Sam. 16. 11, 12 Psa. 78 & & 19. 1 Chron. 22. 10. & '28. 6.-- Ver. 16. Psa. 39. 4, 29, 36, 37, --h Paa 89. 26, 10.-- Heb from after-t1 Sam. 18. 14. Ch. 5. 10. & 8.6, 14.--I 1 Sam. 31. 6. 27. Heb. 1,5.-- Psa. 3. 30, 31, 32, 33. ---* Sam. 15. 23, 28. & 16. 14. 1 Kings 11. Psa 89. 23
13, 34.- Ver. 13. Psal. 89. 36, 37. John 12. 31-m Gen. 32. 10. doubly pernicious; they hurt those who form them, and hast in thy heart to make me a house ; I have it in my heart those of whom they are formed.
to make thee a house : thy family shall be built up, and NOTES ON CHAPTER VII.
shall prosper in the throne of Israel; and thy spiritual Verse 1. When the king sat in his house) That is, posterity shall remain for ever. God is the author of all our when he became resident in the palace which Hiram, king holy purposes, as well as of our good works. He first ex. of Tyre, had built for him.
cites them; and, if we be workers together with him, he And the LORD had given him rest] This was after he will crown and reward them as though they were our own, had defeated the Philistines, and cast them out of all the though he is their sole author. strong places in Israel which they had possessed after the Verse 13. He shall build] That is, Solomon shall build overthrow of Saul; but before he had carried his arms my temple, not thou; because thou hast shed blood abunbeyond the land of Israel, against the Moabites, Syrians, dantly, and hast made great wars. See 1 Chron. xxii. and Idumeans. See chap. viii.
8.; and see the observations at the end. Verse 2. I dwell in a house of cedar] That is, a house The throne of his kingdom for ever.] This is a referwhose principal beams, ceiling, and wainscot, were cedar. ence to the government of the spiritual kingdom; the
Dwelleth within curtains) Having no other residence kingdom of the Messiah, agreeably to the predictions of but the iabernacle, which was a place covered with the the prophet long after, and by which this passage is illusskins of beasts, Exod. xxvi.
trated;' "of the increase of his government and peace, Verse 3. Nathan said to the king] In this case he gave there shall be no end ; upon the throne of David and upon bis judgment, as a pious and prudent man, not as a pro- his kingdom to order it and establish it with judgment and phet; for the prophets were not always under a divine justice, from henceforth, even FOR EVER.” Isa. ix. 7. afflatus: it was only at select times they were thus hon Verse 14. If he (Solomon) commit iniquity] Depart oured.
from the holy commandmeni delivered to him; I will For the Lord is with thee) Thou hast his blessing in chasten him with the rod of men : he shall have affliction, all that thou dost; and this pious design of thine will most but his government shall not be utterly subverted. But certainly meet with his approbation.
this has a higher meaning. See the observations at the end. Verse 5. Shalt thou build me a house?] That is, Thou Verse 15. But my mercy shall not depart away from shalt not: this is the force of the interrogative in such a him as I took it from Saul] His house shall be a lasting case.
house, and he shall die in the throne of Israel, his children Verse 7. With any of the tribes) " Spake I a word to succeeding him; and the spiritual seed, Christ, possessing any of the JUDGES," is the reading in the parallel place, and ruling in that throne to the end of time. 1 Chron. xvii. 6. ; and this is probably the true reading. The family of Saul became totally extinct ; the family Indeed, there is but one letter of difference between them; of David remained till the incarnation. Joseph and Mary and letters which might easily be mistaken for each other: were both of that family; Jesus was the only heir to the gav shibtey, tribes, is almost the same in appearance kingdom of Israel: he did not choose to sit on the secular with you shophtey, judges; the a beth, and the D phe, throne, he ascended the spiritual throne ; and now he is being the same letter, the apex under the upper stroke of exalted to the right hand of God, a Prince and a Saviour, the phe excepted. If this were but a little effaced in a to give repentance and remission of sins. See the obser: MS. it would be mistaken for the other, and then we vations at the end of the chapter. - should have tribes instead of judges. This reading seems Many have applied these verses and their parallels to confirmed by ver. 11.
support the doctrine of unconditional final perseverance: Verse 10. I will appoint a place] I have appointed a but with it the text has nothing to do; and were we to place; and have planted them. See the observations at press it, because of the antitype, Solomon, the doctrine the end.
would most evidently be ruined ; because there is neither Verse 11. The LORD-will make thee a house.) Thou | proof nor evidence of Solomon's salvation.
O Lord God, but thou hast spoken also of thy 25 And now, O LORD God, the word that thou servant's house for a great while to come. • And hast spoken concerning thy servant, and conis this the p manner of man, O LORD God ? cerning his house, establish it for ever, and do
20 And what can David say more unto thee? as thou hast said. for thou, Lord God, 9 knowest thy servant. 26 And let thy name be magnified for ever,
21 For thy word's sake, and according to thine saying, The Lord of hosts is the God over Israel own heart, hast thou done all these great things, and let the house of thy servant David be estab to make thy servant know them.
lished before thee. 22 Wherefore r thou art great, O Lord God : 27 For thou, O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, for there is none like thee, neither is there any hast revealed to thy servant, saying, I will God besides thee, according to all that we have build thee a house: therefore hath thy servant heard with our ears.
found in his heart to pray this prayer unto 23 And 4 what one nation in the earth is like thee. thy people, even like Ierael, whom God went to 29 And now, O LORD God, thou art that God, redeem for a people to himself, and to make him and » thy words be true, and thou hast promised a name, and to do for you great things and ter- this goodness unto thy servant : rible, for thy land, before n thy people, which 29 Therefore now z let it please thee to thou redeemedst to thee from Egypt, from the bless the house of thy servant, that it may connations and their gods ?
tinue for ever before thee: for thou, O LORD 24 For thou hast confirmed to thyself thy God, hast spoken it: and with thy blessing people Israel to be a people unto thee for ever: let the house of thy servant be blessed for w and thou, LORD, art become their God.
u Ver. 12. 13.- Isai. 55.8.-p Hebr. lat.-9 Gen. 18. 19. Paa. 139. 1.-r 1 Chron. 16 25.2 Chron 2.5. Pra 48'1. & 56. 10. & 46. 4. & 135. 5. & 145. 3. Jer. 10. 6. s Deut. 3. 24. & 4. 35. & 32 39. 1 Sam. 22 Pea 86. 8. & 89. 6,8. Isaí. 15. 5, 18, 22.
! Deut. 4. 7, 32, 34. & 33. 23. Psa. 147. 20.-. Deut. 9. 26. Neh 1. 10.- Deol
Verse 19. And is this the manner of man] Literally; course of these remarks, I propose to consider, and hope to And this, O Lord God, is the law of Adarn. Does he explain, some of the prophecies descriptive of The Messlax, refer to the promise made to Adam, The seed of the woman which were fulfilled in JESUS CHRIST ; among which shall bruise the head of the serpent? From my line shall prophecies, that contained in this chapter is worthy of par. the Messiah spring, and be the spiritual and triumphant ticular attention, I shall introduce it, with a general state king, for ever and ever ? See the additions at the end. of this great argument.
Verse 20. What can David say more?] How can I ex “It having pleased God that, between the time of a press my endless obligations to thee.
Messiah being promised, and the time of his coming, there Verse 21. For thy woord's sake] See the parallel place, should be delivered by the prophets a variety of marks 1 Chron. xvii. 19.
by which the Messiali was to be known, and distinguished Verse 25. And do as hou hast said) David well knew from every other man, it was impossible for any one to that all the promises made to himself and family were prove himself the Messiah, whose character did not anconditional ; and therefore he prays that they may be ful swer to these marks ; and, of course, it was necessary, that filled. His posterity did not walk with God; and, there all these criteria, thus divinely foretold, should be fulfilled fore, they were driven from the throne. It was taken from in the character of Jesus Christ. That these prophetic them by the neighbouring nations; and it is now in the descriptions of the Messiah were numerous, appears from hands of the Mohammedans: all the promises have failed Chrisi and his apostles, (Luke xxiv. 27. 44. ; Acts xvii. 2. to David and his natural posterity; and to Christ and his 3.; xxviii. 23, &c.) who referred the Jews to the Old Tes. spiritual seed alone are they fulfilled. Had David's pos- tament, as containing abundant evidence of his being The terity been faithful, they would, according to these promises | Messiah, because he fulfilled all the prophecies descriptive of God, have been sitting on the Israelitish throne at this of that singular character. The chief of these prophecies day.
related to his being miraculously born of a tirgin; the It is worthy of remark, how seldom God employs a sol- time and place of his birth; the tribe and family from dier in any spiritual work; just for the same reason as that which he was to descend ; the miracles he was to perform; given to David ; and yet there have been several eminently the manner of his preaching ; his humility, and mean appious men in the army, who have laboured for the conver pearance; the perfect innocence of his life; the greatness sion of sinners. I knew a remarkable instance of this : Iof his sufferings; the treachery of his betrayer; the cirwas acquainted with Mr. John Haime, a well-known cumstances of his trial ; the nature of his death and burial; preacher among the people called Methodists. He was and to his miraculous resurrection. Now among all the à soldier in the queen's eighth regiment of dragoons, in circumstances which form this chain of prophecy, the first Flanders, in the years 1739_46. He had his horse shot reference, made in the New Testament, relates to his de. under him at the battle of Fontenoy, May 11, 1745; and scent ; for the New Testament begins with asserting that was in the hottest fire of the enemy for above seven hours: Jesus Christ was the son of David, the son of Abraham. he preached among his fellow-soldiers frequently, and As to the descent of Christ from ABRAHAM ; every one under the immediate patronage of his royal highness the knows that Christ was born a Jew; and, consequently duke of Cumberland, commander-in-chief; and was the descended from Jacob, the grandson of Abraham. And means of reforming and converting many hundreds of the we all know, that the promise given to Abraham concerti soldiers. He was a man of amazing courage and resolucing the Messiah is recorded in the history of Abraham's tion, and of inflexible loyalty. One having expressed a life, in Gen. xxii. 18 : Christ being also io descend from wonder“ how he could reconcile killing men with preach- David, there can be no doubt that this promise, as made ing the Gospel of the grace and peace of Christ ?" "He an to David, was recorded likewise in the history of David. swered—I never killed a man.-" How can you tell that? It is remarkable, that David's life is given more at large Were you not in several battles?”—Yes; but sam confident than that of any other person in the Old Testament ;--and I never killed nor wounded a man.
1.-"How was this? Did can it be supposed that the històrian omitted to record that you not do your duty ?”—Yes, with all my might; but, promise, which was more honourable to David than any when in baitle, either my horse jumped aside, or was other circumstance? The record of this promise, if wrii. wounded, or was killed; or my carbine missed fire, and ten at all, must have been written in this chapter; in the I could never draw the blood of the enemy.-"And would message from God by Nathan to David, which is here you have done it if you could ?" —Yes, I would have slain inserted. Here (I am fully persuaded) the promise was, the whole French army, had it been in my power: I fought and still is, recorded : and the chief reason why our diin a good cause, for a good king, and for my country: and, vines have so frequently missed it, or been so much perthough I struck in order to cut, and hack, and hew, on plexed about it, is owing to our very improper translation every side, I could kill no man.—This is the substance of of the 10th and 14th verses. his answers to the above questions; and we see from it a " This wrong translation, in a part of Scripture so very remarkable interfering, providence : God had appointed interesting, has been artfully laid hold of, and expacated this man to build
a spiritual house in the British army, in upon splendidly, by the Deistical author of The Grounds Flanders; and would not permit him to shed the blood of and Reasons of the Christian Religion; who pretends . his fellow-creatures.
to demonstrate, that the promise of a Messiah could not "This chapter is one of the most important in the Old be here recorded: His reasons (hitherto I believe unanTestament; and yet some of its most interesting verses are swered) are three:-1. Because, in ver. 10. the prophet very improperly rendered in our translation : it therefore speaks of the future prosperity of the Jews, as to be afterdemands our most careful consideration. And as, in the ward fixed, and no more afficted; which circumstances
are totally repugnant to the fate of the Jews, as connected God declares himself the Father of the Son here meant ; with the birth and death of Christ. 2. Because the Son, (See also Heb. i. 5.) and promises that, even amidst the here promised, was (ver. 13.) to build a house; which sufferings of this son, (as they would be for the sins of house, it is pretended, must mean the temple of Solomon ; others, not for his own) his mercy should still attend him; and of course Solomon must be the son here promised: nor should his favour be ever removed from this king, as and, 3. Because, ver. 14. supposes, that this son might it had been from Saul. And thus (as it follows) shine commit iniquity; which could not be supposed of The house (0 David,) and thy kingdom shall (in Messiah) Messiah. The first of these objections is founded on our be established for ever, before me, (hefore God:) thy wrong translation of ver. 10. where the words should be throne shall be established for ever. Thus the angel, deexpressed as relating to the time past or present. For the livering his message to the virgin-mother, Luke i. 32, 33. prophet is there declaring what great things God had al- speaks, as if he was quoting from this very prophecyready done for David and his people ; that he had raised The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his David from the sheepfold to the throne; and that he had father David: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob planted the Israelites in a place of safety, at rest from all FOR EVER: and of his kingdom there shall be no end. those enemies who had 'so often before afflicted them. In ver. 16.7085 lipaneyca, is here rendered as 5 lipeni, That the verbs your vesamti, and unyon unatati may be on the authority of three Hebrew MSS., with the Greek rendered in the time past or present, is allowed by our and Syriac versions; and, indeed, nothing could be esown translators; who here (ver. 11.) render num ve tablished for erer, in the presence of David, but in the hanichti and have caused thee to rest, and also render presence of God only. 7471 vehiggid and tellelh: which construction, made ne "Having thus shown that the words fairly admit here cessary here by the context, might be confirmed by other the promise made to David, that from his seed should proofs almost innumerable. The translation, therefore, arise Messiah, the everlasting king; it may be necessary should run thus: I took thee from the sheepcote; and have to add that, if the Messiah be the person here meant, as made thee a great name; and I HAVE APPOINTED a place suffering innocently for the sins of others, Solomon cannot for my people Israel ; and HAVE PLANTED them, that be; nor can this be a prophecy admitting such double they may dwell in a place of their own, and more no more. sense, or be applied properly to two such opposite characNeither do the children of wickedness afflict them any ters. Of whom speaketh the prophel this? of HIMSELF, more; as beforetime, and as since the time that I com or of SOME OTHER man? This was a question properly manded judges to be over Israel: and I HAVE CAUSED put by the Æthiopian treasurer, (Acts viií. 34.) who never thee to rest from all thine enemies.
dreamt that such a description as he was reading could Objection the second is founded on a mistake in the relate to different persons : and Philip shows him that the sense, David indeed had proposed to build a house to person was Jesus only. So here it may be asked, of God, which God did not admit. Yet, approving the piety whom speaketh the prophet this? of Solomon, or of Christ? of David's intention, God was pleased to reward it by it must be answered, of Christ: one reason is, because promising that he would make a house for DAVID; which the description does not agree to Solomon ; and therefore house, to be thus erected by God, was certainly not mate Solomon, being necessarily excluded in a single sense, Tial, or made of stones; but a spiritual house, or family, must also be excluded in a double. Lastly, if it would be to be raised up for the honour of God, and the salvation universally held absurd to consider the promise of Mesof mankind. And this house, which God would make, siah made to ADRAHAM as relating to any other person was to be built by David's SEED; and this seed was to be besides Messiah ; why is there not an equal absurdity in raised up AFTER David slept with his fathers : which giving a double sense to the promise of Messiah thus words clearly exclude Solomon, who was set up, and made to David ? placed upon the throne, BEFORE David was dead." This "Next to our present very improper translation, the building, promised by God, was to be erected by one of cause of the common confusion here has been-not distinDavid's descendants, who was also to be an everlasting guishing the promise here made, as to Messiah alone, king: and indeed the house, and the kingdom, were both from another made as to Solomon alone : the first brought of them to be established for ever. Now that this house, by Nathan, the second by Gad; the first near the beginor spiritual building, was to be set up, together with a ning of David's reign, the second near the end of it; the kingdom, by the Messiah, is clear from Zechariah; who first, relating to Messiah's spiritual kingdom, everlasting very emphatically says, (ch. vi. 12, 13.) Behold the man without conditions ; the second, relating to the fate of the whose name is the Branch; HE SHALL BUILD THE TEMPLE temporal kingdom of Solomon, and his heirs, depending of the Lord. Even HE SHALL BUILD THE TEMPLE of the entirely on their obedience or rebellion. 1 Chron. xxii. 8 Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule 13. xxvi 7. Let the first message be compared with this upon his THRONE, &c. Observe, also, the language of second, in 1 Chron. xxii. 8—13. which the Syriac version the New Testament. In 1 Corinth. iii. 9—17. St. Paul (at ver. 8.) tells us, was delivered by a prophet, and the says, Ye are God's BUILDING—know ye not that ye are Arabian says, by the prophet Gad. This second message the temple of God ?---the temple of God is holy, which was after David's many wars, when he had shed much temple ye are. And the author of the Epistle to the He- blood ; and it was this second message that, out of all breios seems to have his eye upon this very promise in David's sons, appointed Solomon to be his successor. At Samuel, concerning a Son to David, and of the house the time of the first message Solomon was not born; it which he should build: when he says, (iii. 6.) Christ, being delivered soon after David became king at JerusaAS A SON, OVER HIS OWN HOUSE; WHOSE HOUSE ARE WE. lem: but Solomon was born at the time of this second
"As to the third and greatest difficulty, that also may message. For though our translation very wrongly says, be removed, by a more just translation of ver. 14.; for the (1 Chron. xxii. 9.) a son shall be born to thee--and his Hebrew words do not properly signify what they are now name shall be Solomon ; yet the Hebrew text expressly made to speak. It is certain that the principal word niyna speaks of him as then born-Bchold, a son (1572 natus behaâoto, is not the active infinitive of kal, which would est) is Born to thee : and, therefore, the words following
must be rendered, Solomon is his name, and I will give obs. It is also certain that a verb, which in the active peace in his days: he shall build a house for my name, voice signifies to commit iniquity, may in the passive sig- &c. nify to suffer for iniquity : and hence it is, that nouns “From David's address to God, after receiving the mes. from such verbs sometimes signify iniquity, sometimes sage by Nathan, it is plain that David understood the Son punishment. See Lowth's Isa. page 187. with many promised to be The Messiah; in whom his house was to other authorities, which shall be produced hereafter. The be established for ever. But the words, which seem most way being thus made clear, we are now prepared for expressive of this, are in this verse now rendered very abolishing our translation, if he commit iniquity; and unintelligibly: And is this the manner of man? Whereas also for adopting the true one--even in his suffering for the words In Anal vezeoth toruth ha Adam, literally iniquity. The Messiah, who is thus the person possibly signify, and this is (or must be) the law of the man, or here spoken of, will be made still more manifest from the of the Adam, i. e. this promise must relate to the law, or whole verse thus translated. I will be his father, and he ordinance, made by God to Adam, concerning the Seed shall be my son : EVEN IN HIS SUFFERING FOR INIQUITY, I of the woman; the man, or the second Adam; as the shall chasten him with the rod of men, (with the rod due Messiah is expressly called by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47; to men,) and noith the stripes (due to) the children of This meaning will be yet more evident from the parallel Adam. And this construction is well supported by Isai. place, 1 Chron. xvii. 17. where the words of David are liji. 4,5. He hath carried OUR SORROWS, (i. e. the sor now miserably rendered thus : and thou hast regarded rows due to us, and which we must otherwise have suf me according to the estate of a man of high degree: fered,) he was wounded for our transgressions, he was whereas, the words asyon BPNT TO vynwy ureitani ketor bruised for our iniquitics: the chastisement of our peace ha Adam hamamaâlah, literally signify, and thou hast rewas upon him; and with his stripes we are healsd.' Seegarded me, according to the order of the ADAM THAT IS note page 479. in Hallet, on Heb..xi. 26. Thus, then, ) FUTURE, OR THE MAX THAT 18 FROM ABOVE (for the word VOL. I.-94
An Exod. Isr.
451. Anno ante
chariot-horses, but reserved of them for a hun
dred chariote. David subwines the Philistinca, 1. And the Moabites, 2 Anl the king of Zobah, 3, 4.
And the Syrians in general, 5-5. Toi, king of Hamath, wenis to congratulate him 5 m And when the Syrians of Damascus came on his victories over the king of Zobah, and sends him rich presents, 9, 10, David delicates all the spoils to Go!, 11.-13. He garrisons Edom, 14. And reigns over to succour Hadadezer king of Zobah, David all Israel, 15. An account of his chicf officers, 16 -- 18.
slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand ND a after this it came to pass, that men.
6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of Da1. Olyinp. 21. subdued them; and David took 5 Me mascus: and the Syrians became servants to theg-ammah out of the hand of the Philis- David, and brought gifis. • And the LORD pretines.
served David whithersoever he went. 2 And che smote Moab, and measured them 7 And David took Pthe shields of gold that with a line, casting them down to the ground; were on the servants of Hadadezer, and brought even with two lines measured he to put to death, them to Jerusalem. and with one full line to keep alive. And so 8 And from Betah, and from • Berothai, the Moabites d became David's servants, and cities of Hadadezer, King David took exceeding e brought gifts.
much brass. 3 | David smote also 'Hadadezer, the son of 9 | When + Toi king of Hamath heard that Rehob, king of < Zobah, as he went to recover David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer, b his border at the river Euphrates.
10 Then Toi sent - Joram his son unto King 4 And David took i from him a thousand k cha- David, to 'salute him, and to bless him, because riots, and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty he had fought against Hadadezer, and smitten thousand footmen: and David "houghed all the him: for Hadadezer w had wars with Toi. And
a I Chron. 18. 1, &c.--Or, the bridle of Ainmh.-c Nomb 21. 17.- Ver. 6. & Il. - Pea 72 10. See I Sain 10. 27.- Or, Hadarezer. I Chron. 18.3.- Ch. 10. 6. Psa. 60, uitle-h Gen. 15. 18.-i Or, of his.--k As I Chron. 18. 4.-1 Josh. 11. 6,9.
m I Kings II. 23, 21, 25.-n Ver. 2-0 Ver. 14. Ch 7. 9.- See I King 10. 16.-r Or, Tilbart.- Or, Chun. 1 Chron. 16. &- Tou (bron 18 9. ul Chron. 18. 10. Hladoram.- Heb. ask hinn of peace-ow He was a rea of 200rs with
byon hammaâlah, very remarkably signifies hereafter as after he had conquered Moab, consigned tro-thirds of the to time, and from above as to place :) and thus St. Paul, inhabitants to the sword: but I think the text will bear a including both senses-THE SECOND MAN is THE LORD meaning much more respectable to that king. The first FROM HEAVEN-and Adam is the figure of him that was clause of the verse seems to determine the senee: he to come, or the future, Rom. v. 14. See the preface of measured them with a line, casting them down to the the late learned Mr. Peters, on Job ; referred to, and con ground; to put to death, and with one line to keep alive. firmed as to this interesting point, in a note subjoined to Death seems here to be referred to the cities by way of my sermon on A VIRGIN SHALL CONCEIVE, &c. page 49 metaphor; and, from this view of the subject, we may 52. 8vo. 1765. A part of that note here follows: The conclude, that two-thirds of the cities, that is, the strong speech of David (2 Sam. vii. 18—29.) is such as one places of Moab, were erased; and not having strong might naturally expect from a person overwhelmed with places to trust to, the text adds, so the Moabites became the greatness of the promised blessing : for it is abrupt, Darid's serrants, and brought gisls, i. e. were obliged to full of wonder, and fraught with repetitions. And now, pay tribute. The word linc may mean the same here as what can David say unto thee? What, indeed! For our rod; i. e. the instrument by which land is measured. thou, LORD God, knowest thy servant: thou knowest the There are various opinions on this verse, with which I hearts of all men, and seest how full my own heart is. shall not trouble the reader. Much may be seen in CalFor thy word's sake, for the sake of former prophecies; met and Dodd. and according to thine own heart, from the mere motive Verse 3. David smote-Hadadezer] He is supposed of thy wisdom and goodness; hast thou done all these to have been king of all Syria, except Phænicia; and, great things, lo make thy servant know them. I now per- wishing to extend his dominions to the Euphrates, inceive the reason of those miraculous providences which vaded a part of David's dominions which lay contiguous have attended me from my youth up; taken from follow- to it; but being attacked by David, he was totally routed. ing the sheep, and conducted through all difficulties to be Verse 4. A thousand chariots] It is strange that there ruler of thy people: and shall I distrust the promise now were a thousand chariots, and only ser en hundred horsemade me?" Thy words be true. If the preceding re inen taken, and twenty thousand foot. But as the discommarks on this whole passage be just, and well grounded; fiture appears complete, we may suppose that the charios then may we see clearly the chief foundation of what St. being less manageable, might be more easily taken, while Peter tells us (Acts ii. 30.) concerning David: that, being the horsemen might, in general, make their escape. The a prophet, and KNOWING that God had sworn with an infantry also seem to have been surrounded, when twenty oath to him, that of the fruil of his loins, according to thousand of them were taken prisoners. the flesh, he would raise up Christ, to sit on his throne; Darid houghed all the chariot-horses) If he did so, il he, seeing this before, spoke of the resurrection of Christ, was both unreasonable and inhuman; for, as he had so
complete a victory, there was no danger of these borses NOTES ON CHAPTER VIII.
falling into the enemy's hands: and if he did not choose to Verse 1. David took Mletheg-ammah) This is various- keep them, which, indeed, the law would not permit, he ly translated. The Vulgate has, tulit David frænum should have killed them outright; and then the poor innotribuli : Darid removed the bondage of the tribute which cent creatures would have been put out of pain.' But does the Israelites paid to the Philistines. Some think it means the text speak of houghing horses at all? It does not. Let a fortress, city, or strong town; but no such place as Mc us hear, 2017 SOON 777 pun vayaaker David eth col hatheg-ammah is known. Probably the Vulgate is nearest recab: And David disjointed all the chariots, except a the truth. The versions are all different. See the follow- hundred chariots which he reserved for himself. Now, ing comparison of the principal passages here collated with this destruction of the chariots was a matter of sound polithe parallel place in 1 Chron.
cy, and strict piety. God had censured those wie trusted 2 Sam. chap, riti.
1 Chron, chap. zriil.
in chariots: piety, therefore, forbade David the use of Verse 1. David took Motheg-ammah.
them: and lest they should fall into the enemy's hands, Verse 3. David annto Hadadezer.
Verwe 3. Davil smota Hadarezer. and be again used against him, policy induced him to de Vers 4, And Dasel took from him and 700 borxmen, and 20,000 100 chariots, anal 7000 horsemen, and stroy them. The Septuagint render the words nearly as
I have done, και παρελυσε Δαυιδ παντα τα αρματα. Verse 6. Then David put garrisons in Vers 6. Then David put in Syria
He kept, however, one hundred; probably as a sort of Verse S. And from Tibbath and Chun baggage or forage wagons.
cities of llalarezer Ver 9. When Toi heard, that Dari Verse 9. When Ton bennd, that David
Verse 6. Brought gifts] Paid tribute.
Verse 7, David took the shiclds of gold] We know not Ven 10. Thea Toi et Joram bis son. Vers 12. Syria and Moab.
what these were. Some translate arms, others quirers, Verae 13. Syrians, in the valley of Salt, Vers 12 Edomites, in the valley of others bracelets, others collars, and others shields. They
were probably costly ornaments, by which the Syrian
soldiers were decked and distinguished. Chap 10. v. 16. Shobach the captain. Chap. 19. v. 16. Shophach the captain. Verse 17. David passed over Jarlan, Verve 17. Davil pasiul over Jundan,
Verse 9. Toi king of Hamath] Hamath is supposed to and came norsnio llelam.
and came on upon them. be the famous city of Emessa, situated on the Orontes, in Verse 19. Davil slew of the Syriana, a od 10,000 horrennen; and ma chattots, and 40,w.forestariang Syria. This was contiguous to Hadadezer; and led him killed Shoplach, &c.
to wage war with Toi, that he might get possession of Verse 2. And measured them with a line-even with his territories. For a comparison of the tenth verse, see tio lines] It has been generally conjectured, that David, l 1 Chron. xviii. 9.
Verse 1. David took Gath and ber towns.
Venee. And from Betah and Berothai cities of Hawlezer
had aiten Hadadezer.
had smitten Hadarezer
Verse 10. Ile sent Hadurun his son.
Verse 17. Ahimelech & Seraiah was the scrile.
Verse 16. Ahimelech- & Shavsha was ecrile.
Joram * brought with him vessels of silver, and 3 And the king said, Is there not yet any of vessels of gola, and vessels of brass :
the house of Saul, that I may show the kind11 Which also King David y did dedicate unto ness of God unto him? And Ziba said unto the the LORD, with the silver and gold that he had king, Jonathan hath yet a son, which is r lame dedicated of all nations which he subdued: on his feet.
12 or Syria, and of Moab, and of the children 4 And the king said unto him, Where is he? of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Ama- And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, he is in lek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Re- the house of · Machir, the son of Ammiel, in hob, king of Zobah.
Lo-debar. 13 And David gat him a name when he re 5 Then King David sent, and fetched him turned from smiting of the Syrians in a the val- out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, ley of Salt, being eighteen thousand men. from Lo-debar.
14 | And he put garrisons in Edom, through 6 Now when Mephibosheth, the son of Jonout all Edom put he garrisons, and 'J all they athan, the son of Saul, was come unto David, he of Edom became David's servants. . And the fell on his face, and did reverence. And David LORD preserved David whithersoever he went said, Mephibosheth. And he answered, Behold
15. | And David reigned over all Israel; and thy servant! David executed judgment and justice unto all V 1 And David said unto him, Fear not: " for his people.
I will surely show thee kindness for Jonathan 16 ? And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over thy father's sake, and will restore thee all the the host: and & Jehoshaphat, the son of Ahilud, land of Saul thy father; and thou shalt eat was h recorder;
bread at my table continually. 17 And i Zadok the son of Ahitub, and Ahim 8 And hé bowed himself, and said, What is elech the son of Abiathar, were the priests; and thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon such Seraiah was the k scribe;
a dead dog as I am ? 18 And Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, was 9 | Then the king called to Ziba, Saul's serover both the m Cherethites and the Pelethites; vant, and said unto him, w I have given unto thy and David's sons were " chief rulers.
master's son all that pertained to Saul, and to
all his house. CHAPTER IX.
10 Thou, therefore, and thy sons, and thy Davilioquires after the family of Jonathan, and is informelor Mephitosheth his son, 1-1 Hesene for fain, and gives him all the land of Saul, 5-8. Ami nppoints servants, shall till the land for him, and thou Zita the servant of Saul, and his family, w till the ground for Mephitoshech; 5–13 shalt bring in the fruits, that thy master's son 1. Olymp. 361. that is left of the house of Saul, master's son shall eat bread always at my
. that I may show him kindness for table. Now Ziba had y fifteen sons and twenty Jonathan's sake ?
servants. 2 And there was of the house of Saul a ser 11 Then said Ziba unto the king, According vant whose name was p Ziba. And when they to all that my lord the king hath commanded his had called him unto David, the king said unto servant, so shall thy servant do. As for Mehim, Art thou Ziba? And he said, Thy servant phibosheth, said the king, he shall eat at my is he.
table, as one of the king's sons. * Heb in his hand sere.--y 1 Kings 7.51. 1 Chron. 18. II. & 8. 26. - Hell. k Or, secretary.-! | Chron. 18. 17.-m 1 Sam. 30. 14.--n Or, princes Ch. hie amiting - 2 Kingy 14.7.- See I Chron. 18. 12. Pra, Go, tiue.-c Or, Blaying. 20. 26.-0 1 Sam. 18. 3 & 20. 14, 15, 16, 17, 12 Prov, 27. 10.- Ch.16 1. & 19. 17, d Gen. 29 29, 37, 40. Num. 24. 18.- Ver. 6.- Ch. 19. 13. & 2. 23. 1 Chron. 29.-Q 1 Sam. 20. 14.- Ch. 4.'4.- Ch. 17. 27.- Called, Merib-bral. 1 Chron. 11. 6. & 18. 15.- 1 Kings 4. 3.-h Or, remembrancer, or, writer of chronicles.
An. Exod. Ist. 451.
il Chron. 21. 3
8. 31- Ver. 1. 3. -- I Nam. 24. 14. Ch. 16. 9.---W See Ch. 16. 4. & 19. 29. x Ver. 7, 11, 13. Ch. 19. B.---y Ch. 19. 17.
Verse 13. David gal him a name) Became a very cel- siderations prevented him from doing this sooner. Reasons ebrated and eminent man. The Targum has it, David of state often destroy all the charities of life. collected troops ; namely, to recruit his army, when he re Verse 3. That I may show the kindness of God unto turned from smiting the Syrians. His many battles had, him] That is, the utmost, the highest degrees of kindno doubt, greatly thinned his army:
ness; as the hail of God is very great hail; the mountains The ralley of Salt] Supposed to be a large plain, of God exceeding high mountains: besides, this kindness ahounding in this mineral, about a league from the city of was according to the covenant of God made between him Palmyra, or Tadmor in the wilderness.
and the family of Jonathan. Verse 14. He put garrisons in Edom] He repaired Verse 4. Lo-debar.) Supposed to have been situated the strong cities which he had taken, and put garrisons in beyond Jordan : but there is nothing certain known conthem, to keep the country in awe.
cerning it. Verse 16. Joab-was over the host] General and com Verse 7. Will restore thec all the land] I believe this mander in chief over all the army:
means the mere family estate of the house of Kish, which Ahilud-recorder] 730 mazzkir, remembrancer ; one David, as king, might have retained; but which, most who kept a strict journal of all the proceedings of the king, certainly, belonged, according to the Israelitish law, to the and operations of his army; a chronicler.
descendants of the family. Verse 17. Scraiah-the scribe] Most likely the king's And thou shalt eat bread at my table] This was kindprivate secretary.
ness; the giving up the land was justice; and it was the Verse 19. Benaiah) The chief of the second class of highest honour that any subjeet could enjoy, as we may see David's worthies. We shall meet with hiin again. from the reference made to it by our Lord, Luke xxii. 10.
The Cherethiles, and the Pelethites] The former sup That ye may eat and drink al my table in my kingdom. posed to be those who accompanied David when he fled For such a person David could do no more. His lameness from Saul; the latter those who came to him at Ziklag. rendered him unfit for any public employment. But the Targum translates these two names thus: the Verse 9. I have given unto thy master's son] Unless archers, and the slingers; and this is by far the most like- Ziba had been servant of Jonathan, this seems to refer to ly. It is not at all probable that David was without a Micah, son of Mephibosheth; and so some understand i:: company both of archers and slingers. The bow is cele- but it is more likely that Mephibosheth is meant, who is brated in the funeral lamentation over Saul and Jonathan; called son of Saul, instead of grandson. Yet it is evident and the sling was renowned as the weapon of the Israel- enough that the produce of the land went to the support of ites : and how expert David was in the use of it, we learn Micah, see ver. 10; for the father was provided for at the from the death of Goliath. I take for granted that the table of David: but all the patrimony belonged to MephiChaldee paraphrast is correct. No weapons, then known, bosheth. were cqually powerful with these : the spcars, swords, and Verso 10. Thou therefore, and thy sons--shall till the javelins of other nations were as stubble before them. The land] It seems that Ziba and his family had the care of how was the grand weapon of our English ancestors : and, the whole estate, and cultivated it at their own expense, even after the invention of fire-arms, they were with diffi- yeilding the half of the produce to the family of Mephiboculty persuaded to prefer them.
sheth. Ziba was properly the hind, whose duty and interNOTES ON CHAPTER IX.
est it was to take proper care of the ground; for the better Verse 1. Is there yet any that is lefl) David, recollect it was cultivated, the more it produced ; and his half wound, ing the covenant made with his friend Jonathan, now in consequently, be the greater. quires after his family. It is supposed that polilical con Verse 11." So shall thy servant do.) The promises of